National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for materials semiconductor metal

  1. Superatoms and Metal-Semiconductor Motifs for Cluster Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castleman, A. W.

    2013-10-11

    A molecular understanding of catalysis and catalytically active materials is of fundamental importance in designing new substances for applications in energy and fuels. We have performed reactivity studies and ultrafast ionization and coulomb explosion studies on a variety of catalytically-relevant materials, including transition metal oxides of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Nb, and Ta. We demonstrate that differences in charge state, geometry, and elemental composition of clusters of such materials determine chemical reactivity and ionization behavior, crucial steps in improving performance of catalysts.

  2. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajh, Tijana (Naperville, IL); Meshkov, Natalia (Downers Grove, IL); Nedelijkovic, Jovan M. (Belgrade, YU); Skubal, Laura R. (West Brooklyn, IL); Tiede, David M. (Elmhurst, IL); Thurnauer, Marion (Downers Grove, IL)

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  3. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajh, Tijana (Naperville, IL); Meshkov, Natalia (Downers Grove, IL); Nedelijkovic, Jovan M. (Belgrade, YU); Skubal, Laura R. (West Brooklyn, IL); Tiede, David M. (Elmhurst, IL); Thurnauer, Marion (Downers Grove, IL)

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  4. EMei Semiconductor Materials Plant Research Institute | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EMei Semiconductor Materials Plant Research Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: EMei Semiconductor Materials Plant & Research Institute Place: Emei, Sichuan Province, China...

  5. Topsil Semiconductor Materials AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topsil Semiconductor Materials AS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Topsil Semiconductor Materials AS Place: Frederikssund, Denmark Zip: 3600 Product: Danish specialist...

  6. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  7. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  8. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  9. Spectroscopy of semiconductor materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ag 3 VO 4 as a New p-Type Transparent Conducting Material Using systematic design principles, the Center for Inverse Design is exploring a new class of ternary p-type transparent...

  10. Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao; Yue, Qu

    2013-11-07

    We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13?Å and ?7?Å for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

  11. Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International SEMI | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95134 2127 Product: Global trade association, publisher and conference...

  12. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  13. Tianjin HuanOu Semiconductor Material Technology Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HuanOu Semiconductor Material Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin HuanOu Semiconductor Material Technology Co Ltd Place: Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality,...

  14. Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Linzhou, Henan Province, China Product:...

  15. GRINM Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd Gritek | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GRINM Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd Gritek Jump to: navigation, search Name: GRINM Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd (Gritek) Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100088 Product:...

  16. Jiangxi Jingde Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jingde Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jiangxi Jingde Semiconductor Materials Co Ltd Place: Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province, China Product: A Chinese...

  17. Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc SAMCO | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Semiconductor and Materials Company Inc (SAMCO) Place: Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan Zip: 612-8443 Sector: Solar Product: Japanese manufactruer of semiconductor and solar...

  18. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  19. Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes Enhanced by Inversion Channel Charge Collection and Hydrogen Spillover Citation Details In-Document...

  20. Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline metallic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2013-11-05

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or metal alloy substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The methods further include growing a crystalline semiconductor alloy layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The semiconductor layer may be grown without any buffer layer between the alloy and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter (a). The semiconductor alloy may further be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  1. Selective etchant for oxide sacrificial material in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clews, Peggy J.; Mani, Seethambal S.

    2005-05-17

    An etching composition and method is disclosed for removing an oxide sacrificial material during manufacture of semiconductor devices including micromechanical, microelectromechanical or microfluidic devices. The etching composition and method are based on the combination of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4). These acids can be used in the ratio of 1:3 to 3:1 HF:H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to remove all or part of the oxide sacrificial material while providing a high etch selectivity for non-oxide materials including polysilicon, silicon nitride and metals comprising aluminum. Both the HF and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 can be provided as "semiconductor grade" acids in concentrations of generally 40-50% by weight HF, and at least 90% by weight H.sub.2 SO.sub.4.

  2. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  3. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelnutt, John A; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal-composite nanodevices. The proposed nanoscience concentrates on two thematic research areas: (1) the creation of metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials for realizing novel catalytic phenomena and quantum control, (2) understanding photocatalytic metal deposition processes at the nanoscale especially on photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures such as nanotubes, and (3) the development and use of multi-scale, multi-phenomena theory and simulation for ionic self-assembly and catalytic processes.

  4. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations | Argonne National Laboratory Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical reactions in biological molecules, such as DNA, proteins, and antibodies. Allows for targeting, initiation and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical reactions in biological molecules Commercial applications

  5. Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Yong Lee, Jae; Jay Guo, L.

    2014-06-09

    We present transmission visible wavelength filters based on strong interference behaviors in an ultrathin semiconductor material between two metal layers. The proposed devices were fabricated on 2?cm?×?2?cm glass substrate, and the transmission characteristics show good agreement with the design. Due to a significantly reduced light propagation phase change associated with the ultrathin semiconductor layer and the compensation in phase shift of light reflecting from the metal surface, the filters show an angle insensitive performance up to ±70°, thus, addressing one of the key challenges facing the previously reported photonic and plasmonic color filters. This principle, described in this paper, can have potential for diverse applications ranging from color display devices to the image sensors.

  6. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  7. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  8. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Chen, Gang (Carlisle, MA); Poudel, Bed (West Newton, MA); Kumar, Shankar (Newton, MA); Wang, Wenzhong (Beijing, CN); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Arlington, MA)

    2009-09-08

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  9. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  10. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1985-10-11

    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 2/, wherein Eg/sub 2/ > Eg/sub 1/, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg/sub 1/ but less than Eg/sub 2/, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  11. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  12. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  13. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for Medical Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for Medical Innovation Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Titanium dioxide nanocomposites &ldquo;locate and destroy&rdquo; defective cell lines using the white light-induced redox chemistry of TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles and recognition properties of biomolecules. When the nanoparticles are linked to oligonucleotides,

  14. Antiferromagnetic half-metals, gapless half-metals, and spin gapless semiconductors: The D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, G. Y. Yao, Kai-Lun

    2013-12-02

    High-spin-polarization materials are desired for the realization of high-performance spintronic devices. We combine recent experimental and theoretical findings to theoretically design several high-spin-polarization materials in binary D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloys: gapless (zero-gap) half-metallic ferrimagnets of V{sub 3}Si and V{sub 3}Ge, half-metallic antiferromagnets of Mn{sub 3}Al and Mn{sub 3}Ga, half-metallic ferrimagnets of Mn{sub 3}Si and Mn{sub 3}Ge, and a spin gapless semiconductor of Cr{sub 3}Al. The high spin polarization, zero net magnetic moment, zero energy gap, and slight disorder compared to the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys make these binary materials promising candidates for spintronic applications. All results are obtained by the electronic structure calculations from first-principles.

  15. Method of depositing wide bandgap amorphous semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Frank B. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

    1987-09-29

    A method of depositing wide bandgap p type amorphous semiconductor materials on a substrate without photosensitization by the decomposition of one or more higher order gaseous silanes in the presence of a p-type catalytic dopant at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. and a pressure in the range from about 1-50 Torr.

  16. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI)

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  17. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  18. Hydrogen-bond Specific Materials Modification in Group IV Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolk, Norman H.; Feldman, L. C.; Luepke, G.

    2015-09-14

    Executive summary Semiconductor dielectric crystals consist of two fundamental components: lattice atoms and electrons. The former component provides a crystalline structure that can be disrupted by various defects or the presence of an interface, or by transient oscillations known as phonons. The latter component produces an energetic structure that is responsible for the optical and electronic properties of the material, and can be perturbed by lattice defects or by photo-excitation. Over the period of this project, August 15, 1999 to March 31, 2015, a persistent theme has been the elucidation of the fundamental role of defects arising from the presence of radiation damage, impurities (in particular, hydrogen), localized strain or some combination of all three. As our research effort developed and evolved, we have experienced a few title changes, which reflected this evolution. Throughout the project, ultrafast lasers usually in a pump-probe configuration provided the ideal means to perturb and study semiconductor crystals by both forms of excitation, vibrational (phonon) and electronic (photon). Moreover, we have found in the course of this research that there are many interesting and relevant scientific questions that may be explored when phonon and photon excitations are controlled separately. Our early goals were to explore the dynamics of bond-selective vibrational excitation of hydrogen from point defects and impurities in crystalline and amorphous solids, initiating an investigation into the behavior of hydrogen isotopes utilizing a variety of ultrafast characterization techniques, principally transient bleaching spectroscopy to experimentally obtain vibrational lifetimes. The initiative could be divided into three related areas: (a) investigation of the change in electronic structure of solids due to the presence of hydrogen defect centers, (b) dynamical studies of hydrogen in materials and (c) characterization and stability of metastable hydrogen impurity states under transient compression. This research focused on the characterization of photon and ion stimulated hydrogen related defect and impurity reactions and migration in solid state matter, which requires a detailed understanding of the rates and pathways of vibrational energy flow, of the transfer channels and of the coupling mechanisms between local vibrational modes (LVMs) and phonon bath as well as the electronic system of the host material. It should be stressed that researchers at Vanderbilt and William and Mary represented a unique group with a research focus and capabilities for low temperature creation and investigation of such material systems. Later in the program, we carried out a vigorous research effort addressing the roles of defects, interfaces, and dopants on the optical and electronic characteristics of semiconductor crystals, using phonon generation by means of ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy, nonlinear characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG), and ultrafast pump-and-probe reflectivity and absorption measurements. This program featured research efforts from hydrogen defects in silicon alone to other forms of defects such as interfaces and dopant layers, as well as other important semiconducting systems. Even so, the emphasis remains on phenomena and processes far from equilibrium, such as hot electron effects and travelling localized phonon waves. This program relates directly to the mission of the Department of Energy. Knowledge of the rates and pathways of vibrational energy flow in condensed matter is critical for understanding dynamical processes in solids including electronically, optically and thermally stimulated defect and impurity reactions and migration. The ability to directly probe these pathways and rates allows tests of theory and scaling laws at new levels of precision. Hydrogen embedded in model crystalline semiconductors and metal oxides is of particular interest, since the associated local mode can be excited cleanly, and is usually well-separated in energy from the phonon bath. These basic dynamical studies have provided new insights for example into the fundamental mechanisms that control proton diffusion in these oxides. This area of materials science has largely fulfilled its promise to identify degradation mechanisms in electronic and optoelectronic devices, and to advance solid oxide proton conductors for fuel cells, gas sensors and proton-exchange membrane applications. It also provides the basis for innovations in materials synthesis involving atomic-selective diffusion and desorption.

  19. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  20. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  1. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  2. Method of producing metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2004-02-10

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2-7 additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  3. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallic Membrane Materials Development for...

  4. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

  5. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  6. Metal Hydride Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage » Metal Hydride Storage Materials Metal Hydride Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates. Technical Overview Figure shows pressure composition isotherms and van't Hoff traces for metal hydride materials. Metal hydrides (MHx) are the most

  7. Spillover-Assisted Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoelectrodes. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Spillover-Assisted Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spillover-Assisted Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes. Authors: Talin, Albert Alec ; Esposito, Daniel V. ; Levin, Igor ; Moffat, Thomas P. Publication Date: 2012-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1063415 Report Number(s): SAND2012-10868J DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000

  8. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  9. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  10. Methods of use of semiconductor nanocrystal probes for treating a material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Belmont, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2007-04-27

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  11. Determination of uranium and thorium in semiconductor memory materials by high fluence neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Northcutt, K.J.; Scott, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and thorium were measured by absolute neutron activation analysis in high-purity materials used to manufacture semiconductor memories. The main thrust of the study concerned aluminum and aluminum alloys used as sources for thin film preparation, evaporated metal films, and samples from the Czochralski silicon crystal process. Average levels of U and Th were found for the source alloys to be approx. 65 and approx. 45 ppB, respectively. Levels of U and Th in silicon samples fell in the range of a few parts per trillion. Evaporated metal films contained about 1 ppB U and Th, but there is some question about these results due to the possibility of contamination.

  12. 1/f noise in semiconductor and metal nanocrystal solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Heng Lhuillier, Emmanuel Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-04-21

    Electrical 1/f noise is measured in thin films of CdSe, CdSe/CdS, ZnO, HgTe quantum dots and Au nanocrystals. The 1/f noise, normalized per nanoparticle, shows no systematic dependence on the nanoparticle material and the coupling material. However, over 10 orders of magnitude, it correlates well with the nearest neighbor conductance suggesting some universal magnitude of the 1/f noise in these granular conductors. In the hopping regime, the main mechanism of 1/f noise is determined to be mobility fluctuated. In the metallic regime obtained with gold nanoparticle films, the noise drops to a similar level as bulk gold films and with a similar temperature dependence.

  13. Development of epitaxial AlxSc1-xN for artificially structured metal/semiconductor superlattice metamaterials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sands, Timothy D.; Stach, Eric A.; Saha, Bivas; Saber, Sammy; Naik, Gururaj V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kvam, Eric P.

    2015-02-01

    Epitaxial nitride rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices are emerging as a novel class of artificially structured materials that have generated significant interest in recent years for their potential application in plasmonic and thermoelectric devices. Though most nitride metals are rocksalt, nitride semiconductors in general have hexagonal crystal structure. We report rocksalt aluminum scandium nitride (Al,Sc)N alloys as the semiconducting component in epitaxial rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices. The AlxSc1-xN alloys when deposited directly on MgO substrates are stabilized in a homogeneous rocksalt (single) phase when x < 0.51. Employing 20 nm TiN as a seed layer on MgO substrates, the homogeneity range for stabilizingmore » the rocksalt phase has been extended to x < 0.82 for a 120 nm film. The rocksalt AlxSc1-xN alloys show moderate direct bandgap bowing with a bowing parameter, B = 1.41 ± 0.19 eV. The direct bandgap of metastable rocksalt AlN is extrapolated to be 4.70 ± 0.20 eV. The tunable lattice parameter, bandgap, dielectric permittivity, and electronic properties of rocksalt AlxSc1-xN alloys enable high quality epitaxial rocksalt metal/AlxSc1-xN superlattices with a wide range of accessible metamaterials properties.« less

  14. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  15. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2013-12-14

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0 μ{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33 meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  16. Effect of realistic metal electronic structure on the lower limit of contact resistivity of epitaxial metal-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegde, Ganesh Chris Bowen, R.

    2014-08-04

    The effect of realistic metal electronic structure on the lower limit of resistivity in [100] oriented n-Si is investigated using full band Density Functional Theory and Semi-Empirical Tight Binding calculations. It is shown that the “ideal metal” assumption may fail in some situations and, consequently, underestimate the lower limit of contact resistivity in n-Si by at least an order of magnitude at high doping concentrations. The mismatch in transverse momentum space in the metal and the semiconductor, the so-called “valley filtering effect,” is shown to be sensitive to the details of the transverse boundary conditions for the unit cells used. The results emphasize the need for explicit inclusion of the metal atomic and electronic structure in the atomistic modeling of transport across metal-semiconductor contacts.

  17. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  18. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  19. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  20. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-06-30

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  1. Mechanistic Studies of Charge Injection from Metallic Electrodes into Organic Semiconductors Mediated by Ionic Functionalities: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo; Mikhailovsky, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    Metal-organic semiconductor interfaces are important because of their ubiquitous role in determining the performance of modern electronics such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), fuel cells, batteries, field effect transistors (FETs), and organic solar cells. Interfaces between metal electrodes required for external wiring to the device and underlying organic structures directly affect the charge carrier injection/collection efficiency in organic-based electronic devices primarily due to the mismatch between energy levels in the metal and organic semiconductor. Environmentally stable and cost-effective electrode materials, such as aluminum and gold typically exhibit high potential barriers for charge carriers injection into organic devices leading to increased operational voltages in OLEDs and FETs and reduced charge extraction in photovoltaic devices. This leads to increased power consumption by the device, reduced overall efficiency, and decreased operational lifetime. These factors represent a significant obstacle for development of next generation of cheap and energy-efficient components based on organic semiconductors. It has been noticed that introduction of organic materials with conjugated backbone and ionic pendant groups known as conjugated poly- and oligoelectrolytes (CPEs and COEs), enables one to reduce the potential barriers at the metal-organic interface and achieve more efficient operation of a device, however exact mechanisms of the phenomenon have not been understood. The goal of this project was to delineate the function of organic semiconductors with ionic groups as electron injection layers. The research incorporated a multidisciplinary approach that encompassed the creation of new materials, novel processing techniques, examination of fundamental electronic properties and the incorporation of the resulting knowledgebase into development of novel organic electronic devices with increased efficiency, environmental stability, and reduced cost. During the execution of the project, main efforts were focused on the synthesis of new charge-bearing organic materials, such as CPEs and COEs, and block copolymers with neutral and ionic segments, studies of mechanisms responsible for the charge injection modulation in devices with ionic interlayers, and use of naturally occurring charged molecules for creation of enhanced devices. The studies allowed PIs to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach for the improvement of operational parameters in model OLED and FET systems resulting in increased efficiency, decreased contact resistance, and possibility to use stable metals for fabrication of device electrodes. The successful proof-of-the-principle results potentially promise development of light-weight, low fabrication cost devices which can be used in consumer applications such as displays, solar cells, and printed electronic devices. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the phenomena observed have been identified thus advancing the fundamental knowledgebase.

  2. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  3. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel (Westminster, CO); Chen, Yih-Wen (Omaha, NE)

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  4. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  5. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced ...

  6. Compositions of doped, co-doped and tri-doped semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lynn, Kelvin (Pullman, WA); Jones, Kelly (Colfax, WA); Ciampi, Guido (Watertown, MA)

    2011-12-06

    Semiconductor materials suitable for being used in radiation detectors are disclosed. A particular example of the semiconductor materials includes tellurium, cadmium, and zinc. Tellurium is in molar excess of cadmium and zinc. The example also includes aluminum having a concentration of about 10 to about 20,000 atomic parts per billion and erbium having a concentration of at least 10,000 atomic parts per billion.

  7. Dopant type and/or concentration selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition in the presence of a second semiconductor material which is of a composition different from said first material, said second material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux of an energy greater than their respective direct bandgaps and to the same gaseous chemical etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said conditions also being such that the resultant electronic structure of the first semiconductor material under said photon flux is sufficient for the first material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions and being such that the resultant electronic structure of the second semiconductor material under said photon flux is not sufficient for the second material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions. In a preferred mode, the materials are subjected to a bias voltage which suppresses etching in n- or p- type material but not in p- or n-type material, respectively; or suppresses etching in the more heavily doped of two n-type or two p-type materials.

  8. Dopant type and/or concentration selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.R.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1985-10-11

    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition in the presence of a second semiconductor material which is of a composition different from said first material, said second material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux of an energy greater than their respective direct bandgaps and to the same gaseous chemical etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said conditions also being such that the resultant electronic structure of the first semiconductor material under said photon flux is sufficient for the first material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions and being such that the resultant electronic structure of the second semiconductor material under said photon flux is not sufficient for the second material to undergo substantial photochemical etching under said conditions. In a preferred mode, the materials are subjected to a bias voltage which suppresses etching in n- or p-type material but not in p- or n-type material, respectively; or suppresses etching in the more heavily doped of two n-type or two p-type materials.

  9. MBE Growth of Ferromagnetic Metal/Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures for Spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmstrom, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Electrical transport and spin-dependent transport across ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts is crucial in the realization of spintronic devices. Interfacial reactions, the formation of non-magnetic interlayers, and conductivity mismatch have been attributed to low spin injection efficiency. MBE has been used to grow epitaxial ferromagnetic metal/GA(1-x)AL(x)As heterostructures with the aim of controlling the interfacial structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. In situ, STM, XPS, RHEED and LEED, and ex situ XRD, RBS, TEM, magnetotransport, and magnetic characterization have been used to develop ferromagnetic elemental and metallic compound/compound semiconductor tunneling contacts for spin injection. The efficiency of the spin polarized current injected from the ferromagnetic contact has been determined by measuring the electroluminescence polarization of the light emitted from/GA(1-x)AL(x)As light-emitting diodes as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature. Interfacial reactions during MBE growth and post-growth anneal, as well as the semiconductor device band structure, were found to have a dramatic influence on the measured spin injection, including sign reversal. Lateral spin-transport devices with epitaxial ferromagnetic metal source and drain tunnel barrier contacts have been fabricated with the demonstration of electrical detection and the bias dependence of spin-polarized electron injection and accumulation at the contacts. This talk emphasizes the progress and achievements in the epitaxial growth of a number of ferromagnetic compounds/III-V semiconductor heterostructures and the progress towards spintronic devices.

  10. MBE Growth of Ferromagnetic Metal/Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures for Spintronics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Palmstrom, Chris [University of California, Santa Barbara, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    Electrical transport and spin-dependent transport across ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts is crucial in the realization of spintronic devices. Interfacial reactions, the formation of non-magnetic interlayers, and conductivity mismatch have been attributed to low spin injection efficiency. MBE has been used to grow epitaxial ferromagnetic metal/GA(1-x)AL(x)As heterostructures with the aim of controlling the interfacial structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. In situ, STM, XPS, RHEED and LEED, and ex situ XRD, RBS, TEM, magnetotransport, and magnetic characterization have been used to develop ferromagnetic elemental and metallic compound/compound semiconductor tunneling contacts for spin injection. The efficiency of the spin polarized current injected from the ferromagnetic contact has been determined by measuring the electroluminescence polarization of the light emitted from/GA(1-x)AL(x)As light-emitting diodes as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature. Interfacial reactions during MBE growth and post-growth anneal, as well as the semiconductor device band structure, were found to have a dramatic influence on the measured spin injection, including sign reversal. Lateral spin-transport devices with epitaxial ferromagnetic metal source and drain tunnel barrier contacts have been fabricated with the demonstration of electrical detection and the bias dependence of spin-polarized electron injection and accumulation at the contacts. This talk emphasizes the progress and achievements in the epitaxial growth of a number of ferromagnetic compounds/III-V semiconductor heterostructures and the progress towards spintronic devices.

  11. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; Feldman, L. C.; Haglund, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  12. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  13. Purification of metal-organic framework materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-06-30

    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  14. Purification of metal-organic framework materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-12-04

    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  15. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  16. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, B.J.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Prater, J.T.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed. 11 figs.

  17. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (Richland, WA); Antoniak, Zen I. (Richland, WA); Prater, John T. (Chapel Hill, NC); DeSteese, John G. (Kennewick, WA)

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  18. Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

    2009-06-07

    We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  19. P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1988-10-04

    An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  1. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Title: Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Dish-Stirling systems provide ...

  2. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device.

  3. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-12-03

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device. 22 figs.

  4. Development of epitaxial AlxSc1-xN for artificially structured metal/semiconductor superlattice metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, Timothy D.; Stach, Eric A.; Saha, Bivas; Saber, Sammy; Naik, Gururaj V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kvam, Eric P.

    2015-02-01

    Epitaxial nitride rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices are emerging as a novel class of artificially structured materials that have generated significant interest in recent years for their potential application in plasmonic and thermoelectric devices. Though most nitride metals are rocksalt, nitride semiconductors in general have hexagonal crystal structure. We report rocksalt aluminum scandium nitride (Al,Sc)N alloys as the semiconducting component in epitaxial rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices. The AlxSc1-xN alloys when deposited directly on MgO substrates are stabilized in a homogeneous rocksalt (single) phase when x < 0.51. Employing 20 nm TiN as a seed layer on MgO substrates, the homogeneity range for stabilizing the rocksalt phase has been extended to x < 0.82 for a 120 nm film. The rocksalt AlxSc1-xN alloys show moderate direct bandgap bowing with a bowing parameter, B = 1.41 ± 0.19 eV. The direct bandgap of metastable rocksalt AlN is extrapolated to be 4.70 ± 0.20 eV. The tunable lattice parameter, bandgap, dielectric permittivity, and electronic properties of rocksalt AlxSc1-xN alloys enable high quality epitaxial rocksalt metal/AlxSc1-xN superlattices with a wide range of accessible metamaterials properties.

  5. Amorphous silicon enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor contacts for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Cuevas, A.; Yan, D.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-10-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal-semiconductor contacts has become a significant obstacle to the further advancement of high-efficiency diffused-junction silicon solar cells. This paper provides the proof-of-concept of a procedure to reduce contact recombination by means of enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Lightly diffused n{sup +} and p{sup +} surfaces are passivated with SiO{sub 2}/a-Si:H and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-Si:H stacks, respectively, before the MIS contacts are formed by a thermally activated alloying process between the a-Si:H layer and an overlying aluminum film. Transmission/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are used to ascertain the nature of the alloy. Idealized solar cell simulations reveal that MIS(n{sup +}) contacts, with SiO{sub 2} thicknesses of ?1.55?nm, achieve the best carrier-selectivity producing a contact resistivity ?{sub c} of ?3 m? cm{sup 2} and a recombination current density J{sub 0c} of ?40 fA/cm{sup 2}. These characteristics are shown to be stable at temperatures up to 350?°C. The MIS(p{sup +}) contacts fail to achieve equivalent results both in terms of thermal stability and contact characteristics but may still offer advantages over directly metallized contacts in terms of manufacturing simplicity.

  6. Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline structure and a semiconductor device includes a substrate of a semiconductor-based material and a thin film of an anisotropic crystalline material epitaxially arranged upon the surface of the substrate so that the thin film couples to the underlying substrate and so that the geometries of substantially all of the unit cells of the thin film are arranged in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate surface. The predisposition of the geometries of the unit cells of the thin film is responsible for a predisposed orientation of a directional-dependent quality, such as the dipole moment, of the unit cells. The predisposed orientation of the unit cell geometries are influenced by either a stressed or strained condition of the lattice at the interface between the thin film material and the substrate surface.

  7. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chou, Stanley Shihyao; Yi-Kai Huang; Kim, Jaemyung; Kaehr, Bryan James; Foley, Brian M.; Lu, Ping; Conner Dykstra; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Jiaxing Huang; et al

    2015-01-22

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. We report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. Ultimately, this process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solutionmore » processing, enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.« less

  8. Processing of insulators and semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quick, Nathaniel R.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Duty, Chad Edward; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio

    2015-06-16

    A method is disclosed for processing an insulator material or a semiconductor material. The method includes pulsing a plasma lamp onto the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a large area region of the material. The method may further include pulsing a laser onto a selected region of the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a selected region of the material.

  9. Reclaiming metallic material from an article comprising a non-metallic friable substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohland, John Raphael (Oregon, OH); Anisimov, Igor Ivanovich (Whitehouse, OH); Dapkus, Todd James (Toledo, OH); Sasala, Richard Anthony (Toledo, OH); Smigielski, Ken Alan (Toledo, OH); Kamm, Kristin Danielle (Swanton, OH)

    2000-01-01

    A method for reclaiming a metallic material from a article including a non-metallic friable substrate. The method comprising crushing the article into a plurality of pieces. An acidic solution capable of dissolving the metallic material is provided dissolving the metallic material in the acidic material to form an etchant effluent. The etchant effluent is separated from the friable substrate. A precipitation agent, capable of precipitating the metallic material, is added to the etchant effluent to precipitate out the metallic material from the etchant effluent. The metallic material is then recovered.

  10. Electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Dickson, Charles R. (Pennington, NJ); D'Aiello, Robert V. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1989-08-08

    A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

  11. Sharp semiconductor-to-metal transition of VO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian, Jie; Chen, Aiping [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3128 (United States); Zhang, Wenrui [Material Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3128 (United States); Wang, Haiyan, E-mail: wangh@ece.tamu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3128 (United States); Material Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3128 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Outstanding phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films on amorphous glass were achieved and compared with the ones grown on c-cut sapphire and Si (111) substrates, all by pulsed laser deposition. The films on glass substrate exhibit a sharp semiconductor-to-metal transition (?4.3?°C) at a near bulk transition temperature of ?68.4?°C with an electrical resistance change as high as 3.2?×?10{sup 3} times. The excellent phase transition properties of the films on glass substrate are correlated with the large grain size and low defects density achieved. The phase transition properties of VO{sub 2} films on c-cut sapphire and Si (111) substrates were found to be limited by the high defect density.

  12. Strongly modified four-wave mixing in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2014-02-28

    We study the four-wave mixing effect in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-spherical metal nanoparticle structure. Depending on the values of the pump field intensity and frequency, we find that there is a critical distance that changes the form of the spectrum. Above this distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum shows an ordinary three-peaked form and the effect of controlling its magnitude by changing the interparticle distance can be obtained. Below this critical distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum becomes single-peaked; and as the interparticle distance decreases, the spectrum is strongly suppressed. The behavior of the system is explained using the effective Rabi frequency that creates plasmonic metaresonances in the hybrid structure. In addition, the behavior of the effective Rabi frequency is explained via an analytical solution of the density matrix equations.

  13. Transient radiation hardened CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) operational amplifiers. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trombley, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    General strategies are developed for designing radiation hardened bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operational amplifiers. Comparisons are made between each technology concerning photocurrent mechanisms and the inherent advantages of SOI CMOS. Methods are presented for analysing circuit designs and minimizing the net photocurrent responses. Analysis is performed on standard operational amplifier circuits and subcircuits to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods. Radiation hardening topics discussed include superior radiation hardened topologies, photocurrent compensation and its limitations, and methods to ensure a preferred direction of photocurrent response. Several operational amplifier subcircuits are compared for their hardness characteristics. Folded cascode and three-stage operational amplifiers were fabricated on an SOI CMOS test chip supported by Texas Instruments, Incorporated. At the time of publication, the circuit operation was verified but radiation data were not yet available.

  14. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  15. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  16. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 2. Automotive Metals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Wrought | Department of Energy 2. Automotive Metals - Wrought FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 2. Automotive Metals - Wrought The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability. PDF icon 2_automotive_metals-wrought.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 2. Automotive Metals-Wrought Vehicle

  17. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Cast | Department of Energy 3. Automotive Metals - Cast FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals - Cast The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability. PDF icon 3_automotive_metals-cast.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals-Cast Vehicle Technologies

  18. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 4. Automotive Metals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Titanium | Department of Energy 4. Automotive Metals - Titanium FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 4. Automotive Metals - Titanium The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability. PDF icon 4_automotive_metals-titanium.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 4. Automotive Metals-Titanium Low

  19. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Steel | Department of Energy 5. Automotive Metals - Steel FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals - Steel The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability. PDF icon 5_automotive_metals-steel.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals-Steel Auto/Steel

  20. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  1. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials PDF icon high_metal_removal_process_factsheet.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009006: Categorical Exclusion Determination AMO PEER REVIEW, MAY 28-29, 2015 Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2013-011

  2. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  3. Semiconductor Nanotechnology: Novel Materials and Devices for Electronics, Photonics, and Renewable Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodnick, Stephen; Korkin, Anatoli; Krstic, Predrag S; Mascher, Peter; Preston, John; Zaslavsky, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Electronic and photonic information technology and renewable energy alternatives, such as solar energy, fuel cells and batteries, have now reached an advanced stage in their development. Cost-effective improvements to current technological approaches have made great progress, but certain challenges remain. As feature sizes of the latest generations of electronic devices are approaching atomic dimensions, circuit speeds are now being limited by interconnect bottlenecks. This has prompted innovations such as the introduction of new materials into microelectronics manufacturing at an unprecedented rate and alternative technologies to silicon CMOS architectures. Despite the environmental impact of conventional fossil fuel consumption, the low cost of these energy sources has been a long-standing economic barrier to the development of alternative and more efficient renewable energy sources, fuel cells and batteries. In the face of mounting environmental concerns, interest in such alternative energy sources has grown. It is now widely accepted that nanotechnology offers potential solutions for securing future progress in information and energy technologies. The Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC) forum was established 25 years ago in Ottawa as an important symbol of the intrinsic strength of the Canadian semiconductor research and development community, and the Canadian semiconductor industry as a whole. In 2007, the 13th CSTC was held in Montreal, moving for the first time outside the national capital region. The first three meetings in the series of Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics and Photonics NGCM2002 in Moscow, NGCM2004 in Krakow, and NGC2007 in Phoenix were focused on interdisciplinary research from the fundamentals of materials science to the development of new system architectures. In 2009 NGC2009 and the 14th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC2009) were held as a joint event, hosted by McMaster University (10 14 August, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) and the scope was expanded to include renewable energy research and development. This special issue of Nanotechnology is devoted to a better understanding of the function and design of semiconductor devices that are relevant to information technology (both electronics and photonics based) and renewable energy applications. The papers contained in this special issue are selected from the NGC/CSTC2009 symposium. Among them is a report by Ray LaPierre from McMaster University and colleagues at the University of Waterloo in Canada on the ability to manipulate single spins in nanowire quantum bits. The paper also reports the development of a testbed of a few qubits for general quantum information processing tasks [1]. Lower cost and greater energy conversion efficiency compared with thin film devices have led to a high level of activity in nanowire research related to photovoltaic applications. This special issue also contains results from an impedance spectroscopy study of core shell GaAs nanowires to throw light on the transport and recombination mechanisms relevant to solar cell research [2]. Information technology research and renewable energy sources are research areas of enormous public interest. This special issue addresses both theoretical and experimental achievements and provides a stimulating outlook for technological developments in these highly topical fields of research. References [1] Caram J, Sandoval C, Tirado M, Comedi D, Czaban J, Thompson D A and LaPierre R R 2010 Electrical characteristics of core shell p-n GaAs nanowire structures with Te as the n-dopant Nanotechnology 21 134007 [2] Baugh J, Fung J S and LaPierre R R 2010 Building a spin quantum bit register using semiconductor nanowires Nanotechnology 21 134018

  4. A 1 A laser driver in 0.35 {mu}m complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for a pulsed time-of-flight laser rangefinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissinen, Jan; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2009-10-15

    An integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) current pulse generator is presented which achieves an ampere-scale peak current pulse with a rise time and pulse width of less than 1 and 2.5 ns (pulse width at half maximum), respectively. The generator is implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process and consists of four parallel n-type metal oxide semiconductor transistors driven by a scaled buffer chain to achieve fast switching.

  5. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 6. Automotive Metals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Crosscutting | Department of Energy 6. Automotive Metals - Crosscutting FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 6. Automotive Metals - Crosscutting The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability. PDF icon 6_automotive_metals-crosscutting.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 6. Automotive

  6. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation PDF icon es011yakovleva2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy...

  7. Half metallic materials and their properties (Book) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Half metallic materials and their properties Citation Details In-Document Search ... OSTI Identifier: 1130002 Report Number(s): LLNL-BOOK-424888 DOE Contract Number: ...

  8. Apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K.; Johnston, Steven W.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearity for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  9. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-07-07

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  10. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  11. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  12. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Lecce, IT)

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  13. Method for manufacturing electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Dickson, Charles R. (Pennington, NJ); D'Aiello, Robert V. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1988-11-08

    A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

  14. X-ray photoemission electron microscopy for the study of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Stammler, T.; Padmore, H.; Terminello, L.J.; Jankowski, A.F.; Stohr, J.; Diaz, J.; Cossy-Gantner, A.

    1998-03-01

    Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) using X-rays is a novel combination of two established materials analysis techniques--PEEM using UV light, and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This combination allows the study of elemental composition and bonding structure of the sample by NEXAFS spectroscopy with a high spatial resolution given by the microscope. A simple, two lens, 10 kV operation voltage PEEM has been used at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley to study various problems including materials of interest for the semiconductor industry. In the present paper the authors give a short overview over the method and the instrument which was used, and describe in detail a number of applications. These applications include the study of the different phases of titanium disilicide, various phases of boron nitride, and the analysis of small particles. A brief outlook is given on possible new fields of application of the PEEM technique, and the development of new PEEM instruments.

  15. Alloy Engineering of Defect Properties in Semiconductors: Suppression of Deep Levels in 2D Transition-metal Dichalcogenides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Bing; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wei, Su-Huai; Liu, Feng

    2015-09-18

    Developing practical approaches to effectively reduce the deep defect levels in semiconductors is critical for their use in electronic and optoelectronic devices, but this is still a very challenging task. In this Letter, we propose that specific alloying can provide an effective means to suppress the deep defect levels in semiconductors while maintaining their basic electronic properties. Specifically, we demonstrate that for such 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides as MoSe2 and WSe2, in which the most abundant defects that can induce deep levels are anion vacancies, the deep levels can be effectively suppressed in Mo1-xWxSe2 alloys at low W concentrations. This surprisingmore » phenomenon is associated with the fact that the global alloy concentration can substantially tune the band edge energies, whereas the preferred locations of Se vacancies around W atoms control the defect level locally. Our findings illustrate a new concept of alloy engineering and provide a promising approach to control the defect properties of semiconductors.« less

  16. Alloy Engineering of Defect Properties in Semiconductors: Suppression of Deep Levels in 2D Transition-metal Dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Bing; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wei, Su-Huai; Liu, Feng

    2015-09-18

    Developing practical approaches to effectively reduce the deep defect levels in semiconductors is critical for their use in electronic and optoelectronic devices, but this is still a very challenging task. In this Letter, we propose that specific alloying can provide an effective means to suppress the deep defect levels in semiconductors while maintaining their basic electronic properties. Specifically, we demonstrate that for such 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides as MoSe2 and WSe2, in which the most abundant defects that can induce deep levels are anion vacancies, the deep levels can be effectively suppressed in Mo1-xWxSe2 alloys at low W concentrations. This surprising phenomenon is associated with the fact that the global alloy concentration can substantially tune the band edge energies, whereas the preferred locations of Se vacancies around W atoms control the defect level locally. Our findings illustrate a new concept of alloy engineering and provide a promising approach to control the defect properties of semiconductors.

  17. Solid materials for removing metals and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Reynolds, John G.; Coleman, Sabre J.

    2004-10-19

    Solid materials have been developed to remove contaminating metals and organic compounds from aqueous media. The contaminants are removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are sol-gel and or sol-gel and granulated activated carbon (GAC) mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards the contaminant(s). The contaminated solid materials can then be disposed of or the contaminant can be removed and the solids recycled.

  18. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  19. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Halverson, Danny C. (Modesto, CA); Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  20. Metal–semiconductor transition in atomically thin Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Cheng, Rui; Dong, Jianjin; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Hailong; Yu, Woo Jong; Terasaki, Ichiro; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-09-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials have attracted considerable attention since the discovery of graphene. Here we demonstrate that the layered Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSCO) can be mechanically exfoliated into single- or few-layer nanosheets. The BSCO nanosheets with four or more layers display bulk metallic characteristics, while the nanosheets with three or fewer layers have a layer-number-dependent semiconducting characteristics. Charge transport in bilayer or trilayer BSCO nanosheets exhibits Mott 2D variable-range-hopping (VRH) conduction throughout 2 K–300 K, while the charge transport in monolayers follows the Mott-VRH law above a crossover temperature of 75 K, and is governed by Efros and Shklovskii-VRH laws below 75 K. Disorder potentials and Coulomb charging both contribute to the transport gap of these nanodevices. Our study reveals a distinct layer number-dependent metal-to-semiconductor transition in a new class of 2D materials, and is of great significance for both fundamental investigations and practical devices.

  1. Metal-air cell with ion exchange material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-08-25

    Embodiments of the invention are related to anion exchange membranes used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the membranes function as the electrolyte material, or are used in conjunction with electrolytes such as ionic liquid electrolytes.

  2. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 2 of 4.

  3. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 3

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 3 of 4.

  4. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 1

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 1 of 4.

  5. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 4

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 4 of 4.

  6. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Removal ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials A Novel Machining Platform Using Ultrafast Lasers to Produce High- Precision Components. Machining is used in a variety of manufacturing applications in order to remove some material to create a fnished product. Typical examples of machining include turning operations where a workpiece is rotated against a cutting tool, milling operations where the cutting tool rotates against the

  7. Stress/Strain Response of Irradiated Metallic Materials via Spherical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoindentation (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Stress/Strain Response of Irradiated Metallic Materials via Spherical Nanoindentation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress/Strain Response of Irradiated Metallic Materials via Spherical Nanoindentation Authors: Pathak, Siddhartha [1] ; Mara, Nathan Allan [1] ; Kalidindi, Surya [2] ; Wang, Yongqiang [1] ; Doerner, Russ [3] ; Nelson, Andrew Thomas [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Georgia Tech

  8. Study of metal dusting phenomenon and development of materials resistant to metal dusting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    2002-03-13

    The deposition of carbon from carbonaceous gaseous environments is prevalent in many chemical and petrochemical processes such as reforming systems, syngas production systems, iron reduction plants, and others. One of the major consequences of carbon deposition is the degradation of structural materials by a phenomenon known as metal dusting. There are two major issues of importance in metal dusting. First is formation of carbon and subsequent deposition of carbon on metallic materials. Second is the initiation of metal dusting degradation of the alloy. Details are presented on a research program that is underway at Argonne National Laboratory to study the metal dusting phenomenon from a fundamental scientific base involving laboratory research in simulated process conditions and field testing of materials in actual process environments. The project has participation from the US chemical industry, alloy manufacturers, and the Materials Technology Institute, which serves the chemical process industry.

  9. Performance enhancement of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors by insertion of ultrathin interfacial HfO{sub 2} layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manoj E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, Burak; Okyay, Ali Kemal E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-03-15

    The authors demonstrate improved device performance of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) by ultrathin HfO{sub 2} (UT-HfO{sub 2}) layer on GaN. The UT-HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer is grown by atomic layer deposition. The dark current of the PDs with UT-HfO{sub 2} is significantly reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to those without HfO{sub 2} insertion. The photoresponsivity at 360?nm is as high as 1.42 A/W biased at 5 V. An excellent improvement in the performance of the devices is ascribed to allowed electron injection through UT-HfO{sub 2} on GaN interface under UV illumination, resulting in the photocurrent gain with fast response time.

  10. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0

  11. Semiconductor systems utilizing materials that form rectifying junctions in both N and P-type doping regions, whether metallurgically or field induced, and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are semiconductor systems, such as integrated circuits utilizing Schotky barrier and/or diffused junction technology, which semiconductor systems incorporate material(s) that form rectifying junctions in both metallurgically and/or field induced N and P-type doping regions, and methods of their use. Disclosed are Schottky barrier based inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems and which can be operated as modulators, N and P-channel MOSFETS and CMOS formed therefrom, and (MOS) gate voltage controlled rectification direction and gate voltage controlled switching devices, and use of such material(s) to block parasitic current flow pathways. Simple demonstrative five mask fabrication procedures for inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems are also presented.

  12. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  13. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M.

    2014-11-03

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  14. Hydrogen incorporation induced metal-semiconductor transition in ZnO:H thin films sputtered at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

    2013-04-29

    The room temperature deposited ZnO:H thin films having high conductivity of 500 Ohm-Sign {sup -1} cm{sup -1} and carrier concentration reaching 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} were reactively sputter deposited on glass substrates in the presence of O{sub 2} and 5% H{sub 2} in Ar. A metal-semiconductor transition at 165 K is induced by the increasing hydrogen incorporation in the films. Hydrogen forms shallow donor complex with activation energy of {approx}10-20 meV at oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) leading to increase in carrier concentration. Hydrogen also passivates V{sub O} and V{sub Zn} causing {approx}4 times enhancement of mobility to 25.4 cm{sup 2}/V s. These films have potential for use in transparent flexible electronics.

  15. Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Evans, Paul G; Ritz, Clark S

    2013-09-17

    The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

  16. Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G.; Evans, Paul G.; Ritz, Clark S.

    2015-11-17

    The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

  17. Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Ritz, Clark S. (Middleton, WI)

    2011-02-15

    The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic longitudinal modulation, which may be a compositional modulation or a strain-induced modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

  18. Mass and charge overlaps in beamline implantation into compound semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Current, M. I.; Eddy, R.; Hudak, C.; Serfass, J.; Mount, G.

    2012-11-06

    Mass overlaps occurring as a result of extraction of ions from an arc discharge and gas collisions, producing molecular break up and charge exchange in the accelerator beamline, are examined for ion implantation into compound semiconductors. The effects of the choice of plasma gas elements for Be{sup +} implants are examined as an example.

  19. Electrochemical removal of material from metallic work

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Csakvary, Tibor; Fromson, Robert E.

    1980-05-13

    Deburring, polishing, surface forming and the like are carried out by electrochemical machining with conformable electrode means including an electrically conducting and an insulating web. The surface of the work to be processed is covered by a deformable electrically insulating web or cloth which is perforated and conforms with the work. The web is covered by a deformable perforated electrically conducting screen electrode which also conforms with, and is insulated from, the work by the insulating web. An electrolyte is conducted through the electrode and insulating web and along the work through a perforated elastic member which engages the electrode under pressure pressing the electrode and web against the work. High current under low voltage is conducted betwen the electrode and work through the insulator, removing material from the work. Under the pressure of the elastic member, the electrode and insulator continue to conform with the work and the spacing between the electrode and work is maintained constant.

  20. A new universal solution for the electrofinishing of metallic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Hilsenbeck, S.; Sailsbury, H.E.

    1994-10-01

    A new reagent has been applied to the electrofinishing of metallic materials for metallographic preparation and surface cleaning. The development of this reagent was in response to the safety, health and disposal problems associated with the use of perchloric acid based solutions. This procedure has been applied to metallic materials that are very difficult to electrofinish, e.g., rare earths, Ti, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, Pb, and intermetallic alloys. Both the procedure and results of electrofinishing will be discussed.

  1. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate

  2. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Biomimicry in metal-organic materials Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Zhi-Yuan Gu, Mathieu Bosch, Zachary Perry, Hong-Cai Zhou, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2014.05.031 1-s2.0-S0010854514001672-fx1 Abstract: Nature has evolved a great number of biological molecules which serve as excellent constructional or functional units for metal-organic materials (MOMs). Even though the study of biomimetic

  3. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  4. Screenable contact structure and method for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Bernd (2154 Blackmore Ct., San Diego, CA 92109)

    1980-08-26

    An ink composition for deposition upon the surface of a semiconductor device to provide a contact area for connection to external circuitry is disclosed, the composition comprising an ink system containing a metal powder, a binder and vehicle, and a metal frit. The ink is screened onto the semiconductor surface in the desired pattern and is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal frit to become liquid. The metal frit dissolves some of the metal powder and densifies the structure by transporting the dissolved metal powder in a liquid sintering process. The sintering process typically may be carried out in any type of atmosphere. A small amount of dopant or semiconductor material may be added to the ink systems to achieve particular results if desired.

  5. Selective CO{sub 2} reduction conjugated with H{sub 2}O oxidation utilizing semiconductor/metal-complex hybrid photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morikawa, T. Sato, S. Arai, T. Uemura, K. Yamanaka, K. I. Suzuki, T. M. Kajino, T. Motohiro, T.

    2013-12-10

    We developed a new hybrid photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction, which is composed of a semiconductor and a metal complex. In the hybrid photocatalyst, ?G between the position of conduction band minimum (E{sub CBM}) of the semiconductor and the CO{sub 2} reduction potential of the complex is an essential factor for realizing fast electron transfer from the conduction band of semiconductor to metal complex leading to high photocatalytic activity. On the basis of this concept, the hybrid photocatalyst InP/Ru-complex, which functions in aqueous media, was developed. The photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to formate using water as an electron donor and a proton source was successfully achieved as a Z-scheme system by functionally conjugating the InP/Ru-complex photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction with a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for water oxidation. The conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy was ca. 0.04%, which approaches that for photosynthesis in a plant. Because this system can be applied to many other inorganic semiconductors and metal-complex catalysts, the efficiency and reaction selectivity can be enhanced by optimization of the electron transfer process including the energy-band configurations, conjugation conformations, and catalyst structures. This electrical-bias-free reaction is a huge leap forward for future practical applications of artificial photosynthesis under solar irradiation to produce organic species.

  6. Method and apparatus for electron-only radiation detectors from semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lund, James C. (429 Warwick Ave., San Leandro, CA 94577)

    2000-01-01

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors such as CdZnTe and Hgl.sub.2, which exhibit significant hole-trapping. A electrical reference plane is established about the perimeter of a semiconductor crystal and disposed intermediately between two oppositely biased end electrodes. The intermediate reference plane comprises a narrow strip of wire in electrical contact with the surface of the crystal, biased at a potential between the end electrode potentials and serving as an auxiliary electrical reference for a chosen electrode--typically the collector electrode for the more mobile charge carrier. This arrangement eliminates the interfering effects of the less mobile carriers as these are gathered by their electrode collector.

  7. Low dark current and high speed ZnO metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Çal??kan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Çak?r, M. Cihan; Özcan, ?adan; Özbay, Ekmel

    2014-10-20

    ZnO thin films are deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} on Si substrates. Pt/Au contacts are fabricated by standard photolithography and lift-off in order to form a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector. The dark current of the photodetector is measured as 1?pA at 100?V bias, corresponding to 100?pA/cm{sup 2} current density. Spectral photoresponse measurement showed the usual spectral behavior and 0.35?A/W responsivity at a 100?V bias. The rise and fall times for the photocurrent are measured as 22 ps and 8?ns, respectively, which are the lowest values to date. Scanning electron microscope image shows high aspect ratio and dense grains indicating high surface area. Low dark current density and high speed response are attributed to high number of recombination centers due to film morphology, deducing from photoluminescence measurements. These results show that as deposited ZnO thin film MSM photodetectors can be used for the applications needed for low light level detection and fast operation.

  8. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grubelich, Mark C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  9. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  10. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

    2006-04-24

    Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

  11. Radio frequency coupling apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Steven W.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample using radio-frequency coupling. The measuring apparatus includes an antenna that is positioned a coupling distance from a semiconductor sample which is exposed to light pulses from a laser during sampling operations. A signal generator is included to generate high frequency, such as 900 MHz or higher, sinusoidal waveform signals that are split into a reference signal and a sample signal. The sample signal is transmitted into a sample branch circuit where it passes through a tuning capacitor and a coaxial cable prior to reaching the antenna. The antenna is radio-frequency coupled with the adjacent sample and transmits the sample signal, or electromagnetic radiation corresponding to the sample signal, to the sample and receives reflected power or a sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal back. To lower impedance and speed system response, the impedance is controlled by limiting impedance in the coaxial cable and the antenna reactance. In one embodiment, the antenna is a waveguide/aperture hybrid antenna having a central transmission line and an adjacent ground flange. The sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal is then transmitted to a mixer which also receives the reference signal. To enhance the sensitivity of the measuring apparatus, the mixer is operated to phase match the reference signal and the sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal.

  12. 2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER, EVAN

    2012-08-17

    The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

  13. In situ structural characterization of metal catalysts and materials using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XAFS spectroscopy in combination with complementary techniques. | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource In situ structural characterization of metal catalysts and materials using XAFS spectroscopy in combination with complementary techniques. Wednesday, October 17, 2012 - 1:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137, Room 322 The availability of third generation light sources has greatly enhanced the opportunities for invesigating chemical change in real time.1 This presentation describes studies carried out

  14. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es011_yakovleva_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing

  15. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Gourley, Paul L. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration.

  16. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-08-31

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

  17. Materials Physics | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate In materials physics, NREL focuses on realizing materials that transcend the present constraints of photovoltaic (PV) and solid-state lighting technologies. Through materials growth and characterization, coupled with theoretical modeling, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. Capabilities Optimizing New Materials An illustration showing

  18. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  19. Effect of oxygen vacancy on half metallicity in Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Hardev S. Saini, G. S. S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2015-05-15

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} diluted amgentic semiconductor (DMS) including the effect of oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) with doping concentration, x = 0.125 have been calculated using FPLAPW method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) as implemented in WIEN2k. In the present supercell approach, the XC potential was constructed using GGA+U formalism in which Coulomb correction is applied to standard GGA functional within the parameterization of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). We have found that the ground state properties of bulk CeO{sub 2} compound have been modified significantly due to the substitution of Ni-dopant at the cation (Ce) site with/without V{sub O} and realized that the ferromagnetism in CeO{sub 2} remarkably depends on the V{sub o} concentrations. The presence of V{sub o}, in Ni-doped CeO{sub 2}, can leads to strong ferromagnetic coupling between the nearest neighboring Ni-ions and induces a HMF in this compound. Such ferromagnetic exchange coupling is mainly attributed to spin splitting of Ni-d states, via electrons trapped in V{sub o}. The HMF characteristics of Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} including V{sub o} makes it an ideal material for spintronic devices.

  20. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0<.times.<0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu--O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities.

  1. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.

    1990-11-27

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities. 3 figs.

  2. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dunlap, B.D.; Veal, B.W.

    1990-07-17

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) exhibits superconducting properties and is capable of conducting very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. The highly anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of the polycrystalline metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state. 4 figs.

  3. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Dunlap, Bobby D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Veal, Boyd W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  4. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  5. CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated 45.degree. with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

  6. Control method and system for use when growing thin-films on semiconductor-based materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process and system for use during the growth of a thin film upon the surface of a substrate by exposing the substrate surface to vaporized material in a high vacuum (HV) facility involves the directing of an electron beam generally toward the surface of the substrate as the substrate is exposed to vaporized material so that electrons are diffracted from the substrate surface by the beam and the monitoring of the pattern of electrons diffracted from the substrate surface as vaporized material settles upon the substrate surface. When the monitored pattern achieves a condition indicative of the desired condition of the thin film being grown upon the substrate, the exposure of the substrate to the vaporized materials is shut off or otherwise adjusted. To facilitate the adjustment of the crystallographic orientation of the film relative to the electron beam, the system includes a mechanism for altering the orientation of the surface of the substrate relative to the electron beam.

  7. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01material itself or as a support for said unary or binary metal oxides.

  8. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in themore » area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.« less

  9. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in the area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.

  10. Magnetism, half-metallicity and electrical transport properties of V- and Cr-doped semiconductor SnTe: A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Bose, S. K.; Kudrnovský, J.

    2013-12-07

    This work presents results for the electronic structure, magnetic properties, and electrical resistivity of the semiconductor SnTe doped with 3d transition metals V and Cr. From the standpoint of potential application in spintronics, we look for half-metallic states and analyze their properties in both rock salt and zinc blende structures using ab initio electronic structure methods. In both cases, it is the Sn-sublattice that is doped with the transition metals, as has been the case with experiments performed so far. We find four half-metallic compounds at their optimized cell volumes. Results of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature are presented and analyzed for all the relevant cases. Resistivity calculation based on Kubo-Greenwood formalism shows that the resistivities of these alloys due to transition metal doping of the Sn-sublattice may vary, in most cases, from typical liquid metal or metallic glass value to 2–3 times higher. 25% V-doping of the Sn-sublattice in the rock salt structure gives a very high resistivity, which can be traced to high values of the lattice parameter resulting in drastically reduced hopping or diffusivity of the states at the Fermi level.

  11. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  12. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  13. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  14. An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldán, A. Roldán, J. B.; Reig, C.; Cardoso, S.; Cardoso, F.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P. P.

    2014-05-07

    Full instrumentation bridges based on spin valve of giant magnetoresistance and magnetic tunnel junction devices have been microfabricated and experimentally characterized from the DC and noise viewpoint. A more realistic model of these devices was obtained in this work, an electrical and thermal model previously developed have been improved in such a way that noise effects are also included. We have implemented the model in a circuit simulator and reproduced the experimental measurements accurately. This provides a more realistic and complete tool for circuit design where magnetoresistive elements are combined with well-known complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor modules.

  15. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, Matthew J. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  16. Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-02-21

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electron–hole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electron–hole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.

  17. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split–ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gapmore »and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.« less

  18. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split–ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.

  19. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; DeWald, A.P.; Chienping Ju; Rigsbee, J.M.

    1993-01-05

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  20. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    manufacturing environments: Fuel injector nozzle drilling (automotive industry) Ceramic hole drilling (electronics industry) Precious metal drilling ...

  1. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (1324 59th St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Krauss, Alan R. (24461 W. Boulevard DeJohn, Plainfield, IL 60544); DeWald, A. Bruce (3931 Windhurst Dr., Lilburn, GA 30247); Ju, Chien-Ping (11 Pine View, Carbondale, IL 62901); Rigsbee, James M. (1008 Wilshire Ct., Champaign, IL 61821)

    1993-01-01

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  2. Metal-organic framework materials based on icosahedral boranes and carboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkin, Chad A.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Mulfort, Karen L.

    2010-11-02

    Disclosed herein are metal-organic frameworks of metals and boron rich ligands, such as carboranes and icosahedral boranes. Methods of synthesizing and using these materials in gas uptake are disclosed.

  3. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  4. Processing method for forming dislocation-free SOI and other materials for semiconductor use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Orin Wayne; Thomas, Darrell Keith; Zhou, Dashun

    1997-01-01

    A method for preparing a silicon-on-insulator material having a relatively defect-free Si overlayer involves the implanting of oxygen ions within a silicon body and the interruption of the oxygen-implanting step to implant Si ions within the silicon body. The implanting of the oxygen ions develops an oxide layer beneath the surface of the silicon body, and the Si ions introduced by the Si ion-implanting step relieves strain which is developed in the Si overlayer during the implanting step without the need for any intervening annealing step. By relieving the strain in this manner, the likelihood of the formation of strain-induced defects in the Si overlayer is reduced. In addition, the method can be carried out at lower processing temperatures than have heretofore been used with SIMOX processes of the prior art. The principles of the invention can also be used to relieve negative strain which has been induced in a silicon body of relatively ordered lattice structure.

  5. Intrinsic Semiconductor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intrinsic Semiconductor is a privately held emerging growth company focusing on materials and device technologies based on silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN)...

  6. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  7. Carrier Multiplication in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Theoretical Screening of Candidate Materials Based on Band-Structure Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, J. W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Direct carrier multiplication (DCM) occurs when a highly excited electron-hole pair decays by transferring its excess energy to the electrons rather than to the lattice, possibly exciting additional electron-hole pairs. Atomistic electronic structure calculations have shown that DCM can be induced by electron-hole Coulomb interactions, in an impact-ionization-like process whose rate is proportional to the density of biexciton states {rho}{sub XX}. Here we introduce a DCM 'figure of merit' R{sub 2}(E) which is proportional to the ratio between the biexciton density of states {rho}{sub XX} and the single-exciton density of states {rho}{sub x}, restricted to single-exciton and biexciton states that are coupled by Coulomb interactions. Using R{sub 2}(E), we consider GaAs, InAs, InP, GaSb, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si, and PbSe nanocrystals of different sizes. Although DCM can be affected by both quantum-confinement effects (reflecting the underly electronic structure of the confined dot-interior states) and surface effects, here we are interested to isolate the former. To this end the nanocrystal energy levels are obtained from the corresponding bulk band structure via the truncated crystal approximation. We find that PbSe, Si, GaAs, CdSe, and InP nanocrystals have larger DCM figure of merit than the other nanocrystals. Our calculations suggest that high DCM efficiency requires high degeneracy of the corresponding bulk band-edge states. Interestingly, by considering band structure effects we find that as the dot size increases the DCM critical energy E{sub 0} (the energy at which R{sub 2}(E) becomes {ge}1) is reduced, suggesting improved DCM. However, whether the normalized E{sub 0}/{var_epsilon}{sub g} increases or decreases as the dot size increases depends on dot material.

  8. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavides, Pahola T.; Dai, Qiang; Sullivan, John L.; Kelly, Jarod C.; Dunn, Jennifer B.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  9. Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

    2007-04-10

    An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

  10. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  11. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R; Kruichar, Jessica Nicole

    2015-04-07

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  12. Electron-electron scattering-induced channel hot electron injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with high-k/metal gate stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-10-06

    This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.

  13. Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin

    2009-02-06

    The goal of the project was to extend the lifetime of hardware submerged in molten metal by an order of magnitude and to improve energy efficiency of molten metal handling process. Assuming broad implementation of project results, energy savings in 2020 were projected to be 10 trillion BTU/year, with cost savings of approximately $100 million/year. The project team was comprised of materials research groups from West Virginia University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology formerly University of Missouri – Rolla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Secat and Energy Industries of Ohio. Industry partners included six suppliers to the hot dip galvanizing industry, four end-user steel companies with hot-dip Galvanize and/or Galvalume lines, eight refractory suppliers, and seven refractory end-user companies. The results of the project included the development of: (1) New families of materials more resistant to degradation in hot-dip galvanizing bath conditions were developed; (2) Alloy 2020 weld overlay material and process were developed and applied to GI rolls; (3) New Alloys and dross-cleaning procedures were developed for Galvalume processes; (4) Two new refractory compositions, including new anti-wetting agents, were identified for use with liquid aluminum alloys; (5) A new thermal conductivity measurement technique was developed and validated at ORNL; (6) The Galvanizing Energy Profiler Decision Support System (GEPDSS)at WVU; Newly Developed CCW Laser Cladding Shows Better Resistance to Dross Buildup than 316L Stainless Steel; and (7) A novel method of measuring the corrosion behavior of bath hardware materials. Project in-line trials were conducted at Southwire Kentucky Rod and Cable Mill, Nucor-Crawfordsville, Nucor-Arkansas, Nucor-South Carolina, Wheeling Nisshin, California Steel, Energy Industries of Ohio, and Pennex Aluminum. Cost, energy, and environmental benefits resulting from the project are due to: i) a reduced number of process shutdowns to change hardware or lining material, ii) reduced need to produce new hardware or lining material, iii) improved product quality leads to reduced need to remake product or manufacturing of new product, iv) reduction in contamination of melt from degradation of refractory and metallic components, v) elimination of worn hardware will increase efficiency of process, vi) reduced refractory lining deterioration or formation of a less insulating phase, would result in decreased heat loss through the walls. Projected 2015 benefits for the U.S. aluminum industry, assuming 21% market penetration of improved refractory materials, are energy savings of approximately 0.2 trillion BTU/year, cost savings of $2.3 billion/year and carbon reductions of approximately 1.4 billion tons/year. The carbon reduction benefit of the project for the hot-dip galvanize and aluminum industries combined is projected to be approximately 2.2 billion tons/year in 2015. Pathways from research to commercialization were based on structure of the project’s industrial partnerships. These partnerships included suppliers, industrial associations, and end users. All parties were involved in conducting the project including planning and critiquing the trials. Supplier companies such as Pyrotech Metaullics, Stoody, and Duraloy have commercialized products and processes developed on the project.

  14. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX); Gorbaty, Martin L. (Fanwood, NJ); Tsou, Joe M. (Galveston, TX)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  15. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Schutte, Erick J. (Thornton, CO); Rolfe, Sara L. (Loveland, CO)

    2010-11-02

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  16. A biopolymer-like metal enabled hybrid material with exceptional mechanical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    prowess (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES A biopolymer-like metal enabled hybrid material with exceptional mechanical prowess « Prev Next » Title: A biopolymer-like metal enabled hybrid material with exceptional mechanical prowess The design principles for naturally occurring biological materials have inspired us to develop next-generation engineering materials with remarkable performance. Nacre, commonly referred to as nature's armor, is renowned for its unusual combination of strength and

  17. INFOGRAPHIC: Wide Bandgap Semiconductors | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wide Bandgap Semiconductors INFOGRAPHIC: Wide Bandgap Semiconductors January 21, 2014 - 12:44pm Addthis INFOGRAPHIC: Wide Bandgap Semiconductors MORE RESOURCES Watch the video on WBG semiconductors Read the Advanced Manufacturing Office fact sheet on WBG semiconductors Subscribe to Advanced Manufacturing Office news updates Learn about the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative For decades, power electronics - or tiny pieces of equipment such as inverters and rectifiers made of silicon material -

  18. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  19. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  20. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  1. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-04-28

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  2. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  3. Dialing in the Properties of Dual Metallic-Insulating Materials | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Dialing in the Properties of Dual Metallic-Insulating Materials February 11, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Materials that undergo metal-insulator transitions (MITs) are under intense study, because the transition is scientifically fascinating and technologically promising for various applications. Among these materials, VO2 has served as a prototype due to its favorable transition temperature. While the physical underpinnings of the transition have been heavily investigated

  4. Materials Science Research | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Research For photovoltaics and other energy applications, NREL's primary research in materials science includes the following core competencies. A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate Materials Physics Through materials growth and characterization, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. An image of multiple, interconnecting red and blue particles Electronic Structure Theory We

  5. Methods for associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework, systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks, thermal energy transfer assemblies, and methods for transferring thermal energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, B. Peter; Brown, Daryl R.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-08-05

    Methods for releasing associated guest materials from a metal organic framework are provided. Methods for associating guest materials with a metal organic framework are also provided. Methods are provided for selectively associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework. Systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks are provided. Thermal energy transfer assemblies are provided. Methods for transferring thermal energy are also provided.

  6. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, Matthew J. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy.

  7. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Xi Chu; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-03-10

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  8. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Chu, X.; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-07-07

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  9. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Ming-Show (Northbrook, IL); Li, Dong (Evanston, IL); Chung, Yin-Wah (Wilmette, IL); Sproul, William D. (Palantine, IL); Chu, Xi (Evanston, IL); Barnett, Scott A. (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  10. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Ming-Show (Northbrook, IL); Li, Dong (Evanston, IL); Chung, Yip-Wah (Wilmette, IL); Sproul, William D. (Palantine, IL); Chu, Xi (Evanston, IL); Barnett, Scott A. (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  11. Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage | Department of Energy Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_chen2.pdf More Documents & Publications Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change

  12. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E. (Wilmington, NC)

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  13. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; Randhir, Kelvin; Li, Like; AuYeung, Nick; Grunewald, Jeremy; Rhodes, Nathan; Bobek, Michael; Klausner, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal andmore » these demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe 2 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and MnFe 2 O 4 ) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10 wt.% CoFe 2 O 4 in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O 2 and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials.« less

  14. Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

  15. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  16. Stress/Strain Response of Irradiated Metallic Materials via Spherical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: DOE-NE Materials Crosscut Coordination Meeting- 2014 ; 2014-08-21 - 2014-08-21 ; Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States Research Org: Los Alamos ...

  17. Cured composite materials for reactive metal battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2006-03-07

    A solid molecular composite polymer-based electrolyte is made for batteries, wherein silicate compositing produces a electrolytic polymer with a semi-rigid silicate condensate framework, and then mechanical-stabilization by radiation of the outer surface of the composited material is done to form a durable and non-tacky texture on the electrolyte. The preferred ultraviolet radiation produces this desirable outer surface by creating a thin, shallow skin of crosslinked polymer on the composite material. Preferably, a short-duration of low-medium range ultraviolet radiation is used to crosslink the polymers only a short distance into the polymer, so that the properties of the bulk of the polymer and the bulk of the molecular composite material remain unchanged, but the tough and stable skin formed on the outer surface lends durability and processability to the entire composite material product.

  18. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  19. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  20. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  1. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolt, Thomas L. (North Olmsted, OH); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  2. Gate-control efficiency and interface state density evaluated from capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2014-11-14

    We present an analysis method for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping to evaluate the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density, both exhibiting correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance. The effectiveness of the method was exemplified by application to AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices to elucidate the properties of AlN-AlGaN interfaces depending on their formation processes. Using the C-f-T mapping, we extract the gate-bias-dependent activation energy with its derivative giving the gate-control efficiency, from which we evaluate the AlN-AlGaN interface state density through the Lehovec equivalent circuit in the DC limit. It is shown that the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density have correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance, all depending on the interface formation processes. In addition, we give characterization of the AlN-AlGaN interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in relation with the results of the analysis.

  3. High quality HfO{sub 2}/p-GaSb(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with 0.8?nm equivalent oxide thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Michael; Datta, Suman; Bruce Rayner, G.; McDonnell, Stephen; Wallace, Robert M.; Bennett, Brian R.; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2014-12-01

    We investigate in-situ cleaning of GaSb surfaces and its effect on the electrical performance of p-type GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) using a remote hydrogen plasma. Ultrathin HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition were used as a high permittivity gate dielectric. Compared to conventional ex-situ chemical cleaning methods, the in-situ GaSb surface treatment resulted in a drastic improvement in the impedance characteristics of the MOSCAPs, directly evidencing a much lower interface trap density and enhanced Fermi level movement efficiency. We demonstrate that by using a combination of ex-situ and in-situ surface cleaning steps, aggressively scaled HfO{sub 2}/p-GaSb MOSCAP structures with a low equivalent oxide thickness of 0.8?nm and efficient gate modulation of the surface potential are achieved, allowing to push the Fermi level far away from the valence band edge high up into the band gap of GaSb.

  4. Methods of producing free-standing semiconductors using sacrificial buffer layers and recyclable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Lin, Yong; Norman, Andrew; Alberi, Kirstin

    2015-05-26

    A method of producing semiconductor materials and devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials are provided. In particular, a method is provided of producing a semiconductor material, such as a III-V semiconductor, on a spinel substrate using a sacrificial buffer layer, and devices such as photovoltaic cells that incorporate the semiconductor materials. The sacrificial buffer material and semiconductor materials may be deposited using lattice-matching epitaxy or coincident site lattice-matching epitaxy, resulting in a close degree of lattice matching between the substrate material and deposited material for a wide variety of material compositions. The sacrificial buffer layer may be dissolved using an epitaxial liftoff technique in order to separate the semiconductor device from the spinel substrate, and the spinel substrate may be reused in the subsequent fabrication of other semiconductor devices. The low-defect density semiconductor materials produced using this method result in the enhanced performance of the semiconductor devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials.

  5. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Nekoosa, WI); Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  6. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presenter: Andy Phillip President Microlution, Inc. U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Develop ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials  Provide conceptual design of production line systems which will take maximum advantage of unique properties of

  7. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Presenter: John Kirwan Chief Scientist Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting � Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective � � Develop ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials � Provide conceptual design of production line systems which will take maximum advantage of

  8. Internal gettering by metal alloy clusters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buonassisi, Anthony (San Diego, CA); Heuer, Matthias (Berkeley, CA); Istratov, Andrei A. (Albany, CA); Pickett, Matthew D. (Berkeley, CA); Marcus, Mathew A. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Piedmont, CA)

    2010-07-27

    The present invention relates to the internal gettering of impurities in semiconductors by metal alloy clusters. In particular, intermetallic clusters are formed within silicon, such clusters containing two or more transition metal species. Such clusters have melting temperatures below that of the host material and are shown to be particularly effective in gettering impurities within the silicon and collecting them into isolated, less harmful locations. Novel compositions for some of the metal alloy clusters are also described.

  9. Recent progress in III-V based ferromagnetic semiconductors: Band structure, Fermi level, and tunneling transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu Nam Hai, Pham

    2014-03-15

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics is an emerging field, in which we try to utilize spin degrees of freedom as well as charge transport in materials and devices. While metal-based spin-devices, such as magnetic-field sensors and magnetoresistive random access memory using giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, are already put to practical use, semiconductor-based spintronics has greater potential for expansion because of good compatibility with existing semiconductor technology. Many semiconductor-based spintronics devices with useful functionalities have been proposed and explored so far. To realize those devices and functionalities, we definitely need appropriate materials which have both the properties of semiconductors and ferromagnets. Ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs), which are alloy semiconductors containing magnetic atoms such as Mn and Fe, are one of the most promising classes of materials for this purpose and thus have been intensively studied for the past two decades. Here, we review the recent progress in the studies of the most prototypical III-V based FMS, p-type (GaMn)As and its heterostructures with focus on tunneling transport, Fermi level, and bandstructure. Furthermore, we cover the properties of a new n-type FMS, (In,Fe)As, which shows electron-induced ferromagnetism. These FMS materials having zinc-blende crystal structure show excellent compatibility with well-developed III-V heterostructures and devices.

  10. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  11. Performance analysis of boron nitride embedded armchair graphene nanoribbon metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor with Stone Wales defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanana, Anuja; Sengupta, Amretashis; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2014-01-21

    We study the performance of a hybrid Graphene-Boron Nitride armchair nanoribbon (a-GNR-BN) n-MOSFET at its ballistic transport limit. We consider three geometric configurations 3p, 3p + 1, and 3p + 2 of a-GNR-BN with BN atoms embedded on either side (2, 4, and 6 BN) on the GNR. Material properties like band gap, effective mass, and density of states of these H-passivated structures are evaluated using the Density Functional Theory. Using these material parameters, self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger simulations are carried out under the Non Equilibrium Green's Function formalism to calculate the ballistic n-MOSFET device characteristics. For a hybrid nanoribbon of width ?5?nm, the simulated ON current is found to be in the range of 265??A–280??A with an ON/OFF ratio 7.1 × 10{sup 6}–7.4 × 10{sup 6} for a V{sub DD}?=?0.68?V corresponding to 10?nm technology node. We further study the impact of randomly distributed Stone Wales (SW) defects in these hybrid structures and only 2.5% degradation of ON current is observed for SW defect density of 3.18%.

  12. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1996-09-24

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

  13. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  14. Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials Previous Next List Zhang, Muwei; Lu, Weigang; Li, Jian-Rong; Bosch, Mathieu; Chen,Ying-Pin; Liu, Tian-Fu; Liu, Yangyang; Zhou, Hong-Cai. Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials. Inorg. Chem. Front., 1, 159-162 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c3qi00042g design&synthesis Abstract: Two nucleobase-incorporated

  15. Design and synthesis of nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Design and synthesis of nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Weigang Lu, Jian-Rong Li, Mathieu Bosch, Ying-Pin Chen, Tian-Fu Liu, Yangyang Liu and Hong-Cai Zhou, Inorg. Chem. Front., 1, 159-162 (2014) DOI: 10.1039/C3QI00042G GA Abstract: Two nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials were designed, synthesized and structurally characterized. PCN-530 is among the

  16. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.

  17. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise Superior semiconductor materials will enable greater energy efficiency in industrial-scale power electronics and clean energy technologies. Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials allow power electronic components to be smaller, faster, more reliable, and more effcient than their silicon (Si)-based counterparts. These capabilities make it possible to reduce weight, volume, and life-cycle costs in a wide range of power applications. Harnessing

  18. Molecular receptors in metal oxide sol-gel materials prepared via molecular imprinting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Darryl Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Daitch, Charles E. (Charlottesville, VA); Shea, Kenneth J. (Irvine, CA); Rush, Daniel J. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for molecularly imprinting the surface of a sol-gel material, by forming a solution comprised of a sol-gel material, a solvent, an imprinting molecule, and a functionalizing siloxane monomer of the form Si(OR).sub.3-n X.sub.n, wherein n is an integer between zero and three and X is a functional group capable of reacting with the imprinting molecule, evaporating the solvent, and removing the imprinting molecule to form the molecularly imprinted metal oxide sol-gel material. The use of metal oxide sol-gels allows the material porosity, pore size, density, surface area, hardness, electrostatic charge, polarity, optical density, and surface hydrophobicity to be tailored and be employed as sensors and in catalytic and separations operations.

  19. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  20. Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Materials Previous Next List Hiroyasu Furukawa, Felipe Gándara, Yue-Biao Zhang, Juncong Jiang, Wendy L. Queen, Matthew R. Hudson, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136, 4369-4381 (2014) DOI: 10.1021/ja500330a Abstract Image Abstract: Water adsorption in porous materials is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal

  1. Semiconductor Revolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor Revolution - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  2. Electrorefiner system for recovering purified metal from impure nuclear feed material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, John F.; Williamson, Mark A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Willit, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Blaskovitz, Robert J.

    2015-10-06

    An electrorefiner system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a vessel configured to maintain a molten salt electrolyte and configured to receive a plurality of alternately arranged cathode and anode assemblies. The anode assemblies are configured to hold an impure nuclear feed material. Upon application of the power system, the impure nuclear feed material is anodically dissolved and a purified metal is deposited on the cathode rods of the cathode assemblies. A scraper is configured to dislodge the purified metal deposited on the cathode rods. A conveyor system is disposed at a bottom of the vessel and configured to remove the dislodged purified metal from the vessel.

  3. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  4. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  5. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise Wide bandgap semiconductor materials are more efficient than their silicon-based counterparts; making it possible to reduce weight, volume, and life-cycle costs in a wide range of power applications. PDF icon Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Pursuing the Promise More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Drive Inverter R&D Wide Bandgap Semiconductors

  6. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  7. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperly, William R. (Summit, NJ); Deane, Barry C. (East Brunswick, NJ); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  8. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  9. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

    1994-08-23

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

  10. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

  11. Solid-phase materials for chelating metal ions and methods of making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wey, John E.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2003-06-10

    A solid material for recovering metal ions from aqueous streams, and methods of making and using the solid material, are disclosed. The solid material is made by covalently bonding a chelating agent to a silica-based solid, or in-situ condensing ceramic precursors along with the chelating agent to accomplish the covalent bonding. The chelating agent preferably comprises a oxime type chelating head, preferably a salicylaldoxime-type molecule, with an organic tail covalently bonded to the head. The hydrocarbon tail includes a carbon-carbon double bond, which is instrumental in the step of covalently bonding the tail to the silica-based solid or the in-situ condensation. The invented solid material may be contacted directly with aqueous streams containing metal ions, and is selective to ions such as copper (II) even in the presence of such ions as iron (III) and other materials that are present in earthen materials. The solid material with high selectivity to copper may be used to recover copper from mining and plating industry streams, to replace the costly and toxic solvent extraction steps of conventional copper processing.

  12. SEQUESTRATION OF METALS IN ACTIVE CAP MATERIALS: A LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Knox, A.

    2012-02-13

    Active capping involves the use of capping materials that react with sediment contaminants to reduce their toxicity or bioavailability. Although several amendments have been proposed for use in active capping systems, little is known about their long-term ability to sequester metals. Recent research has shown that the active amendment apatite has potential application for metals contaminated sediments. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of apatite in the sequestration of metal contaminants through the use of short-term laboratory column studies in conjunction with predictive, numerical modeling. A breakthrough column study was conducted using North Carolina apatite as the active amendment. Under saturated conditions, a spike solution containing elemental As, Cd, Co, Se, Pb, Zn, and a non-reactive tracer was injected into the column. A sand column was tested under similar conditions as a control. Effluent water samples were periodically collected from each column for chemical analysis. Relative to the non-reactive tracer, the breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite. Furthermore, breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite compared to the sand column. Finally, a simple 1-D, numerical model was created to qualitatively predict the long-term performance of apatite based on the findings from the column study. The results of the modeling showed that apatite could delay the breakthrough of some metals for hundreds of years under typical groundwater flow velocities.

  13. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  14. Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

    2009-07-07

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  15. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-08-06

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identified as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into environmentally friendly fuels, most notably by the production of hydrogen from water.[1-5] Nanometer-scale materials in particular have attracted considerable scientific attention as the building blocks for light-harvesting applications.[6,7] Their desirable attributes include tunability of the optical properties with size, amenability to relatively inexpensive low-temperature processing, and a high degree of synthetic sophistication leading to increasingly complex and multi-functional architectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the high surface-to-volume ratios in nanoscale materials should lead to an increased availability of carriers for redox reactions on the nanoparticle surface. Recombination of photoexcited carriers directly competes with photocatalytic activity.[3] Charge separation is often achieved with multi-component heterostructures. An early example is the case of TiO2 powders functionalized with Pt and RuO2 particles, where photoexcited electrons are transferred to Pt (the reduction site) and holes to RuO2 (the oxidation site).[8] More recently, many colloidally synthesized nanometer-scale metal-semiconductor heterostructures have been reported.[7,9,10] A majority of these structures are made by thermal methods.[7,10] We have chosen to study photochemical formation of metal-semiconductor heterostructures. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in photodeposition of metals on nanometer-scale semiconductors is necessary to enable a high degree of synthetic control. At the same time, because the results of metal deposition can be directly observed by electron microscopy, it can be used to understand how factors such as nanocrystal composition, shape, carrier dynamics, and surface chemistry influence the photochemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. In this communication, we report on the photodeposition of Pt on colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

  16. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels.

  17. Semiconductor Science and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    world ssls.sandia.gov Initiates decades-long investment into compound semiconductor science and technology, eventually establishing its Center for Compound Semiconductor Science...

  18. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Semiconductor and Optical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences > Semiconductor Material & Device Sciences > Advanced Materials Sciences > Lasers, Optics & Remote Sensing Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Jeff Nelson Jerry A. Simmons Sr. Manager Idabelle Idabelle Courtney Admin. Asst. Departments Semiconductor and Optical Sciences The Semiconductor and Optical Sciences Department oversees the operations of the following departments providing new

  19. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  20. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin; Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  1. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  2. A biopolymer-like metal enabled hybrid material with exceptional mechanical prowess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Junsong; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Hao, Shijie; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhenyang; Wang, Yunzhi; Yu, Cun; Huan, Yong; Zhao, Xinqing; Zheng, Yanjun; Xu, Huibin; Ren, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-02-10

    The design principles for naturally occurring biological materials have inspired us to develop next-generation engineering materials with remarkable performance. Nacre, commonly referred to as nature’s armor, is renowned for its unusual combination of strength and toughness. Nature’s wisdom in nacre resides in its elaborate structural design and the judicious placement of a unique organic biopolymer with intelligent deformation features. However, up to now, it is still a challenge to transcribe the biopolymer’s deformation attributes into a stronger substitute in the design of new materials. In this study, we propose a new design strategy that employs shape memory alloy to transcribe the ‘‘J-curve’’ mechanical response and uniform molecular/atomic level deformation of the organic biopolymer in the design of high-performance hybrid materials. This design strategy is verified in a TiNi-Ti₃Sn model material system. The model material demonstrates an exceptional combination of mechanical properties that are superior to other high-performance metal-based lamellar composites known to date. Our design strategy creates new opportunities for the development of high-performance bio-inspired materials.

  3. A biopolymer-like metal enabled hybrid material with exceptional mechanical prowess

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Junsong; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Hao, Shijie; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhenyang; Wang, Yunzhi; Yu, Cun; et al

    2015-02-10

    The design principles for naturally occurring biological materials have inspired us to develop next-generation engineering materials with remarkable performance. Nacre, commonly referred to as nature’s armor, is renowned for its unusual combination of strength and toughness. Nature’s wisdom in nacre resides in its elaborate structural design and the judicious placement of a unique organic biopolymer with intelligent deformation features. However, up to now, it is still a challenge to transcribe the biopolymer’s deformation attributes into a stronger substitute in the design of new materials. In this study, we propose a new design strategy that employs shape memory alloy to transcribemore » the ‘‘J-curve’’ mechanical response and uniform molecular/atomic level deformation of the organic biopolymer in the design of high-performance hybrid materials. This design strategy is verified in a TiNi-Ti₃Sn model material system. The model material demonstrates an exceptional combination of mechanical properties that are superior to other high-performance metal-based lamellar composites known to date. Our design strategy creates new opportunities for the development of high-performance bio-inspired materials.« less

  4. Computational Materials Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding the doping limit rules Overcoming doping limits in wide-gap oxides and nitrides Transition-metal doping in semiconductors and spintronics Defect properties in ...

  5. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  6. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake

    2008-09-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and %22flexible%22 force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing %242.75 M in funding from outside agencies to continue the research. 3

  7. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  8. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  9. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2007-09-01

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  10. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, T.K.; Novak, R.F.

    1991-05-07

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined. 3 figures.

  11. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    1991-01-01

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined.

  12. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szyszka, A. E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-28

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

  13. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  14. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  15. Controlled Metal Photodeposition - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semiconductor-metal hybrid heterostructures High yields of site-selective nanoparticles Simple, scalable method for metal photodeposition Applications and Industries The...

  16. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Research: Compound Semiconductor Science and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Compound Semiconductor Science and Technology Thrust The Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center's vision for Compound Semiconductors is to develop the science of compound semiconductors that will enable us to invent integrated nano-technologies for the microsystems of the future. We will achieve this by advancing the frontiers of semiconductor research in areas such as quantum phenomena, defect physics, materials and device modeling, heteroepitaxy, and by discovering new

  17. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  18. Progress report on inelastic deformation in crystalline non-metallic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlstedt, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    Densification of polycrystalline TiC was studied during hot-pressing and sintering of powders. Starting powders of Ti plus C, TiC, and TiC plus Ti have been reacted at 1700 to 1835/sup 0/C above the melting point of Ti metal (T/sub m/ = 1675/sup 0/C for Ti). The bulk C:Ti ratio was maintained in the range 0.97 to 0.6 in order to allow the possibility of producing a single phase material. All of the resulting microstructures, examined in the scanning electron microscope, contain press both along the grain boundaries and within the grains. However, the samples fabricated from Ti metal plus TiC contain substantially fewer pores than those produced from TiC powder alone. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction analyses demonstrate that in the TiC plus Ti runs, all of the Ti is transformed to substoichiometric TiC after a few minutes at 1800/sup 0/C. While sintering time and temperature have a small influence on the final density, increasing the weight percent of Ti metal added to TiC dramatically increases the final density and the hardness.

  19. Transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.

    1984-11-29

    A transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes a thin layer of metal, such as aluminum or other low work function metal, coated on the amorphous silicon with an antireflective layer coated on the metal. A transparent substrate, such as glass, is positioned on the light reflective layer. The metallic layer is preferably thin enough to transmit at least 50% of light incident thereon, yet thick enough to conduct electricity. The antireflection layer is preferably a transparent material that has a refractive index in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 and is approximately 550A to 600A thick.

  20. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.

  1. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  2. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  3. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1996-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  4. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  5. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1996-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  6. Metal segregation in hierarchically structured cathode materials for high-energy lithium batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Feng; Xin, Huolin L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Li, Yuyi; Quan, Matthew K.; Cheng, Lei; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Liu, Yijin; Doeff, Marca M.

    2016-01-11

    Controlling surface and interfacial properties of battery materials is key to improving performance in rechargeable Li-ion devices. Surface reconstruction from a layered to a rock salt structure in metal oxide cathode materials is commonly observed and results in poor high-voltage cycling performance, impeding attempts to improve energy density. Hierarchically structured LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC-442) spherical powders, made by spray pyrolysis, exhibit local elemental distribution gradients that deviate from the global NMC-442 composition; specifically, they are Ni-rich and Mn-poor at particle surfaces. These materials demonstrate improved Coulombic efficiencies, discharge capacities, and high-voltage capacity retention in lithium half-cell configurations. The subject powders show superiormore » resistance against surface reconstruction due to the tailored surface chemistry, compared to conventional NMC-442 materials. This paves the way towards the development of a new generation of robust and stable high-energy NMC cathodes for Li-ion batteries.« less

  7. Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furukawa, H; Gandara, F; Zhang, YB; Jiang, JC; Queen, WL; Hudson, MR; Yaghi, OM

    2014-03-19

    Water adsorption in porous materials is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal batteries, and delivery of drinking water in remote areas. In this study, we have identified three criteria for achieving high performing porous materials for water adsorption. These criteria deal with condensation pressure of water in the pores, uptake capacity, and recyclability and water stability of the material. In search of an excellently performing porous material, we have studied and compared the water adsorption properties of 23 materials, 20 of which are metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Among the MOFs are 10 zirconium(IV) MOFs with a subset of these, MOF-801-SC (single crystal form), -802, -805, -806, -808, -812, and -841 reported for the first time. MOF-801-P (microcrystalline powder form) was reported earlier and studied here for its water adsorption properties. MOF-812 was only made and structurally characterized but not examined for water adsorption because it is a byproduct of MOF-841 synthesis. All the new zirconium MOFs are made from the Zr6O4(OH)(4)(-CO2)(n) secondary building units (n = 6, 8, 10, or 12) and variously shaped carboxyl organic linkers to make extended porous frameworks. The permanent porosity of all 23 materials was confirmed and their water adsorption measured to reveal that MOF-801-P and MOF-841 are the highest performers based on the three criteria stated above; they are water stable, do not lose capacity after five adsorption/desorption cycles, and are easily regenerated at room temperature. An X-ray single-crystal study and a powder neutron diffraction study reveal the position of the water adsorption sites in MOF-801 and highlight the importance of the intermolecular interaction between adsorbed water molecules within the pores.

  8. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    In an explosive device comprising an explosive material which can be made to explode upon activation by activation means in contact therewith; electrical activation means adaptable for activating said explosive material such that it explodes; and electrical circuitry in operation association with said activation means; there is an improvement wherein said activation means is an electrical material which, at an elevated temperature, has a negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and which has a shape and size and an area of contact with said explosive material sufficient that it has an electrical resistance which will match the resistance requirements of said associated electrical circuitry when said electrical material is operationally associated with said circuitry, and wherein said electrical material is polycrystalline; or said electrical material is crystalline and (a) is mounted on a lattice matched substrate or (b) is partially covered with an intimately contacting metallization area which defines its area of contact with said explosive material.

  9. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  10. Sandia Energy - Semiconductor Revolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revolution Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Semiconductor Revolution Semiconductor RevolutionTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-14T14:32:12+00:00 The...

  11. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  12. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  13. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  14. Deposition of metallic gallium on re-crystallized ceramic material during focused ion beam milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muñoz-Tabares, J.A.; Reyes-Gasga, J.

    2013-12-15

    We report a new kind of artifact observed in the preparation of a TEM sample of zirconia by FIB, which consists in the deposition of metallic gallium nano-dots on the TEM sample surface. High resolution TEM images showed a microstructure of fine equiaxed grains of ? 5 nm, with some of them possessing two particular characteristics: high contrast and well-defined fast Fourier transform. These grains could not be identified as any phase of zirconia but it was possible to identify them as gallium crystals in the zone axis [110]. Based on HRTEM simulations, the possible orientations between zirconia substrate and deposited gallium are discussed in terms of lattice mismatch and oxygen affinity. - Highlights: • We show a new type of artifact induced during preparation of TEM samples by FIB. • Deposition of Ga occurs due to its high affinity for oxygen. • Materials with small grain size (? 5 nm) could promote Ga deposition. • Small grain size permits the elastic accommodation of deposited Ga.

  15. Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-12-22

    The effective separation of small hydrocarbon molecules (C1 – C4) is an important process for petroleum industry, determining the end price of many essential commodities in our daily lives. Current technologies for separation of these molecules rely on energy intensive fractional distillation processes at cryogenic temperature, which is particularly difficult because of their similar volatility. In retrospect, adsorptive separation using solid state adsorbents might be a cost effective alternative. Several types of solid state adsorbents (e.g. zeolite molecular sieves) were tested for separation of small hydrocarbon molecules as a function of pressure, temperature or vacuum. Among different types of plausible adsorbents, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous, crystalline, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, is particularly promising. In this brief comment article, we discuss the separation properties of different types of solid state adsorbents, with a particular emphasis on MOF based adsorbents for separation of C2 hydrocarbon molecules.

  16. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  17. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  18. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  19. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  20. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  1. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  2. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  3. Electronegativity estimation of electronic polarizabilities of semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Keyan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    On the basis of the viewpoint of structure-property relationship in solid state matters, we proposed some useful relations to quantitatively calculate the electronic polarizabilities of binary and ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors, by using electronegativity and principal quantum number. The calculated electronic polarizabilities are in good agreement with reported values in the literature. Both electronegativity and principal quantum number can effectively reflect the detailed chemical bonding behaviors of constituent atoms in these semiconductors, which determines the magnitude of their electronic polarizabilities. The present work provides a useful guide to compositionally design novel semiconductor materials, and further explore advanced electro-optic devices.

  4. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  5. Photovoltaic healing of non-uniformities in semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karpov, Victor G.; Roussillon, Yann; Shvydka, Diana; Compaan, Alvin D.; Giolando, Dean M.

    2006-08-29

    A method of making a photovoltaic device using light energy and a solution to normalize electric potential variations in the device. A semiconductor layer having nonuniformities comprising areas of aberrant electric potential deviating from the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor is deposited onto a substrate layer. A solution containing an electrolyte, at least one bonding material, and positive and negative ions is applied over the top surface of the semiconductor. Light energy is applied to generate photovoltage in the semiconductor, causing a redistribution of the ions and the bonding material to the areas of aberrant electric potential. The bonding material selectively bonds to the nonuniformities in a manner such that the electric potential of the nonuniformities is normalized relative to the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor layer. A conductive electrode layer is then deposited over the top surface of the semiconductor layer.

  6. Defect Chemistry and Plasmon Physics of Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, SD; Runnerstrorm, EL; Llordes, A; Milliron, DJ

    2014-05-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals of highly doped metal oxides have seen rapid development in the past decade and represent a class of materials with unique optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, we discuss doping mechanisms in metal oxides and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering, both of which have implications in determining the properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in these nanocrystals. The balance between activation and compensation of dopants limits the free carrier concentration of the most common metal oxides, placing a ceiling on the LSPR frequency. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating plasma by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. Though these effects are well-understood in bulk metal oxides, further study is needed to understand their manifestation in nanocrystals and corresponding impact on plasmonic properties, and to develop materials that surpass current limitations in free carrier concentration.

  7. Novel Fabrication and Simple Hybridization of Exotic Material MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datskos, P.G.; Rajic, S.

    1999-11-13

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We will describe an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We will also describe in detail the mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique used for these alternate-material MEMS.

  8. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  9. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  10. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  11. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  12. Metal Halide Surface Treatment of Quantum Dots - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Halide Surface Treatment of Quantum Dots National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Quantum dot (QD) solids are a solution-processed, composite thin film semiconductor system that is being developed for optoelectronics (display technology, solid state lighting, next generation photovoltaics, photodetector application, etc.). For photovoltaics, in addition to

  13. Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

  14. L{sub g}?=?100?nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, D., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kwon, H. M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.-W., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, D.-H. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666 (United States); Bielawski, Christopher W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Maszara, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Banerjee, S. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100?mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/?m, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7?nm technology node and/or beyond.

  15. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

  16. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2009-11-24

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  17. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  18. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Daejeon, KR); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2011-07-19

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  19. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  20. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  1. Tuning and synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures by mechanical compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou; Li, Binsong

    2015-11-17

    A mechanical compression method can be used to tune semiconductor nanoparticle lattice structure and synthesize new semiconductor nanostructures including nanorods, nanowires, nanosheets, and other three-dimensional interconnected structures. II-VI or IV-VI compound semiconductor nanoparticle assemblies can be used as starting materials, including CdSe, CdTe, ZnSe, ZnS, PbSe, and PbS.

  2. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  3. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Halpert, Gerald (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Whittier, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  4. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  5. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  6. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  7. FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials- 5. Automotive Metals-Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lightweighting Materials focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to reduce automobile weight without compromising other attributes.

  8. Strength of semiconductors, metals, and ceramics evaluated by a microscopic cleavage model with Morse-type and Lennard-Jones-type interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, Peter

    2014-08-07

    An improved microscopic cleavage model, based on a Morse-type and Lennard-Jones-type interaction instead of the previously employed half-sine function, is used to determine the maximum cleavage strength for the brittle materials diamond, tungsten, molybdenum, silicon, GaAs, silica, and graphite. The results of both interaction potentials are in much better agreement with the theoretical strength values obtained by ab initio calculations for diamond, tungsten, molybdenum, and silicon than the previous model. Reasonable estimates of the intrinsic strength are presented for GaAs, silica, and graphite, where first principles values are not available.

  9. Comparison of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, B.

    2004-01-02

    Recent developmental advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a point that the present Si-based power devices cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. To overcome these limitations, new semiconductor materials for power device applications are needed. For high power requirements, wide-bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond, with their superior electrical properties, are likely candidates to replace Si in the near future. This report compares wide-bandgap semiconductors with respect to their promise and applicability for power applications and predicts the future of power device semiconductor materials.

  10. Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-11

    The most striking features of novel two-dimensional semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multicarrier bound states upon photoexcitation (e.g., excitons, trions, and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to the optical properties of such materials. In our work we have used the path integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multicarrier bound states in two-dimensional semiconductors. Specifically, we have accurately investigated and tabulated the dependence of single-exciton, trion, and biexcitonmore » binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. Our results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.« less

  11. Predictive Modeling of Wide-bandgap Semiconductor Processing | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Predictive Modeling of Wide-bandgap Semiconductor Processing An Argonne team is harnessing the power of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility and Advanced Photon Source to develop the models vital to the adoption of wide-bandgap semiconductor materials. PDF icon Nano Sheet_predictive modeling

  12. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-09-11

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  13. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  14. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H. S. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Yum, J. H. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Johnson, D. W. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Harris, H. R. [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)] [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Oh, J. [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)] [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C. [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Lee, H. D. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  15. Semimetal/Semiconductor Nanocomposites for Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hong; Burke, Peter G.; Gossard, Arthur C.; Zeng, Gehong; Ramu, Ashok T.; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we present research on semimetal-semiconductor nanocomposites grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for thermoelectric applications. We study several different III-V semiconductors embedded with semimetallic rare earth-group V (RE-V) compounds, but focus is given here to ErSb:InxGa1-xSb as a promising p-type thermoelectric material. Nano­structures of RE-V compounds are formed and embedded within the III-V semiconductor matrix. By codoping the nanocomposites with the appropriate dopants, both n-type and p-type materials have been made for thermoelectric applications. The thermoelectric properties have been engineered for enhanced thermoelectric device performance. Segmented thermoelectric power generator modules using 50 ?m thick Er-containing nanocomposites have been fabricated and measured. Research on different rare earth elements for thermoelectrics is discussed.

  16. Controlled deposition of sulphur-containing semiconductor and dielectric nano-structured films on metals in SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Bredin, Jérôme; Aanesland, Ane

    2013-12-07

    In the present paper, the deposition processes and formation of films in SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma, with positive and negative ion flows accelerated to the surface, are investigated. The PEGASES (acronym for Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative GASES) source is used as an ion-ion plasma source capable of generating almost ideal ion-ion plasma with negative ion to electron density ratio more than 2500. It is shown that film deposition in SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma is very sensitive to the polarity of the incoming ions. The effect is observed for Cu, W, and Pt materials. The films formed on Cu electrodes during negative and positive ion assisted deposition were analyzed. Scanning electron microscope analysis has shown that both positive and negative ion fluxes influence the copper surface and leads to film formation, but with different structures of the surface: the low-energy positive ion bombardment causes the formation of a nano-pored film transparent for ions, while the negative ion bombardment leads to a continuous smooth insulating film. The transversal size of the pores in the porous film varies in the range 50–500 nm, and further analysis of the film has shown that the film forms a diode together with the substrate preventing positive charge drain, and positive ions are neutralized by passing through the nano-pores. The film obtained with the negative ion bombardment has an insulating surface, but probably with a multi-layer structure: destroying the top surface layer allows to measure similar “diode” IV-characteristics as for the nano-pored film case. Basing on results, practical conclusions for the probes and electrodes cleaning in ion-ion SF{sub 6} plasmas have been made. Different applications are proposed for the discovered features of the controlled deposition from ion-ion plasmas, from Li-sulphur rechargeable batteries manufacturing and nanofluidics issues to the applications for microelectronics, including low-k materials formation.

  17. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  18. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) an affinity molecule linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal. The semiconductor nanocrystal is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Exposure of the semiconductor nanocrystal to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  19. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  20. Semiconductor diode with external field modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasby, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A non-destructive-readout nonvolatile semiconductor diode switching device that may be used as a memory element is disclosed. The diode switching device is formed with a ferroelectric material disposed above a rectifying junction to control the conduction characteristics therein by means of a remanent polarization. The invention may be used for the formation of integrated circuit memories for the storage of information.

  1. Wide-Bandgap Compound Semiconductors to Enable Novel Semiconductor Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, M.H.; Chow, W.W.; Wright, A.F.; Lee, S.R.; Jones, E.D.; Han, J.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-04-01

    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of GaN-based wide bandgap semiconductor materials (referred to as III-N materials). Our theoretical investigations include the determination of fundamental materials parameters from first-principles calculations, the study of gain properties of III-N heterostructures using a microscopic laser theory and density-functional-theory, charge-state calculations to determine the core structure and energy levels of dislocations in III-N materials. Our experimental investigations include time-resolved photoluminescence and magneto-luminescence studies of GaN epilayers and multiquantum well samples as well as x-ray diffraction studies of AlGaN ternary alloys. In addition, we performed a number of experiments to determine how various materials processing steps affect both the optical and electrical properties of GaN-based materials. These studies include photoluminescence studies of GaN epilayers after post-growth rapid thermal annealing, ion implantation to produce n- and p-type material and electrical and optical studies of plasma-etched structures.

  2. Super-resolution nanofabrication with metal-ion doped hybrid material through an optical dual-beam approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Yaoyu; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min

    2014-12-29

    We apply an optical dual-beam approach to a metal-ion doped hybrid material to achieve nanofeatures beyond the optical diffraction limit. By spatially inhibiting the photoreduction and the photopolymerization, we realize a nano-line, consisting of polymer matrix and in-situ generated gold nanoparticles, with a lateral size of sub 100?nm, corresponding to a factor of 7 improvement compared to the diffraction limit. With the existence of gold nanoparticles, a plasmon enhanced super-resolution fabrication mechanism in the hybrid material is observed, which benefits in a further reduction in size of the fabricated feature. The demonstrated nanofeature in hybrid materials paves the way for realizing functional nanostructures.

  3. Phosphorous doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott

    1999-07-20

    A method (10) of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried (16, 18), with the phosphorus then being diffused (20) into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement.

  4. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  5. Observed damage during Argon gas cluster depth profiles of compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, Anders J. Portoles, Jose F.; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2014-08-07

    Argon Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) sources have become very popular in XPS and SIMS in recent years, due to the minimal chemical damage they introduce in the depth-profiling of polymer and other organic materials. These GCIB sources are therefore particularly useful for depth-profiling polymer and organic materials, but also (though more slowly) the surfaces of inorganic materials such as semiconductors, due to the lower roughness expected in cluster ion sputtering compared to that introduced by monatomic ions. We have examined experimentally a set of five compound semiconductors, cadmium telluride (CdTe), gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), indium arsenide (InAs), and zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a high-? dielectric material, hafnium oxide (HfO), in their response to argon cluster profiling. An experimentally determined HfO etch rate of 0.025?nm/min (3.95?×?10{sup ?2}?amu/atom in ion) for 6?keV Ar gas clusters is used in the depth scale conversion for the profiles of the semiconductor materials. The assumption has been that, since the damage introduced into polymer materials is low, even though sputter yields are high, then there is little likelihood of damaging inorganic materials at all with cluster ions. This seems true in most cases; however, in this work, we report for the first time that this damage can in fact be very significant in the case of InAs, causing the formation of metallic indium that is readily visible even to the naked eye.

  6. New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development Print Wednesday, 21 January 2015 09:37 A new measurement technique developed at the ALS is helping guide the semiconductor industry in next-generation nanopatterning techniques. Directed self assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is an extremely promising strategy for high-volume, cost-effective semiconductor manufacturing at the nanoscale. Materials

  7. Webinar October 21: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the development of next-generation power electronics based on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials such as SiC and GaN. Examples include the development of reliable,...

  8. Support apparatus for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.; Torres, Kenneth J.

    2003-06-10

    A support apparatus for minimizing gravitational stress in semiconductor wafers, and particularly silicon wafers, during thermal processing. The support apparatus comprises two concentric circular support structures disposed on a common support fixture. The two concentric circular support structures, located generally at between 10 and 70% and 70 and 100% and preferably at 35 and 82.3% of the semiconductor wafer radius, can be either solid rings or a plurality of spaced support points spaced apart from each other in a substantially uniform manner. Further, the support structures can have segments removed to facilitate wafer loading and unloading. In order to withstand the elevated temperatures encountered during semiconductor wafer processing, the support apparatus, including the concentric circular support structures and support fixture can be fabricated from refractory materials, such as silicon carbide, quartz and graphite. The claimed wafer support apparatus can be readily adapted for use in either batch or single-wafer processors.

  9. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  10. Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

  11. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  12. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  13. Experimental Evidence Supported by Simulations of a Very High H{sub 2} Diffusion in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salles, F.; Maurin, G.; Jobic, H.; Koza, M. M.; Llewellyn, P. L.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Ferey, G.

    2008-06-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the metal organic frameworks MIL-47(V) and MIL-53(Cr). We find that the diffusivity of hydrogen at low loading is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in zeolites. Such a high mobility has never been experimentally observed before in any nanoporous materials, although it was predicted in carbon nanotubes. Either 1D or 3D diffusion mechanisms are elucidated depending on the chemical features of the MIL framework.

  14. Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, E. J.

    1997-12-05

    Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.

  15. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

    2008-03-18

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  16. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime is significantly much shorter in semiconductor materials with very high impurity concentrations than it is in semiconductor materials with lower impurity concentration levels. This phenomenon of reduced minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor materials having high impurity concentration is utilized to advantage for permitting highly selective semiconductor material etching to be achieved using a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. Various means may be employed for increasing the local impurity concentration level in specific near-surface regions of a semiconductor prior to subjecting the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. The regions having the localized increased impurity concentration form a self-aligned mask inhibiting photochemical etching at such localized regions while the adjacent regions not having increased impurity concentrations are selectively photochemically etched. Liquid- or gas-phase etching may be performed.

  17. Investigation of fracture mechanical behavior of nodular cast iron and welded joints with parent-material-like weld metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, W.; Pusch, G.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the investigations was the determination of fracture mechanical characteristics and crack resistance curves of the J-Integral and CTOD concept by application of the partial unloading compliance technique and D.C. potential drop technique (four point bend) under static load. The results show a close correlation between crack initiation values as well as crack resistance curves and graphite morphology parameters determined by means of quantitative microstructural analysis where the influence of the matrix (distance of graphite particles) dominates the crack resistance and fracture performance of ferritic nodular cast iron under consideration of the notch effect of graphite particles. SEM in-situ tensile tests showed that due to a beneficial shielding effect of the strength overmatching parent-material-like weld metal (mis-match ratio M = 1.21), cracks positioned directly in the plane of the fusion line did not deviate into the weld metal in spite of its lower toughness compared to that of the parent material. They also showed an unsymmetrical formation of damage in front of the crack tip.

  18. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Addthis Duration 1:55 Topic Energy Sector Jobs Manufacturing Transmission Innovation

  19. Final Report Theoretical Studies of Surface Reactions on Metals and Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Whitten

    2012-04-23

    This proposal describes the proposed renewal of a theoretical research program on the structure and reactivity of molecules adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A new direction of the work extends investigations to interfaces between solid surfaces, adsorbates and aqueous solutions and includes fundamental work on photoinduced electron transport into chemisorbed species and into solution. The goal is to discover practical ways to reduce water to hydrogen and oxygen using radiation comparable to that available in the solar spectrum. The work relates to two broad subject areas: photocatalytic processes and production of hydrogen from water. The objective is to obtain high quality solutions of the electronic structure of adsorbate-metal-surface-solution systems so as to allow activation barriers to be calculated and reaction mechanisms to be determined. An ab initio embedding formalism provides a route to the required accuracy. New theoretical methods developed during the previous grant period will be implemented in order to solve the large systems involved in this work. Included is the formulation of a correlation operator that is used to treat localized electron distributions such as ionic or regionally localized distributions. The correlation operator which is expressed as a two-particle projector is used in conjunction with configuration interaction.

  20. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Woodridge, IL); Rittner, Mindy N. (Des Plaines, IL); Youngdahl, Carl J. (Westmont, IL); Weertman, Julia R. (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound.

  1. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, J.A.; Rittner, M.N.; Youngdahl, C.J.; Weertman, J.R.

    1998-03-17

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound. 6 figs.

  2. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL); Nieman, G. William (Evanston, IL); Weertman, Julia R. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  3. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  4. Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dijaili, Sol P. (Moraga, CA); Patterson, Frank G. (Danville, CA); Walker, Jeffrey D. (El Cerrito, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Petersen, Holly (Manteca, CA); Goward, William (Antioch, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

  5. Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Center of Excellence- Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report contains the executive summaries of the final technical reports from the three Hydrogen Storage Centers of Excellence that operated from 2005 through 2010 to develop advanced hydrogen storage materials in the areas of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Hydrogen Sorbents, and Reversible Metal Hydrides.

  6. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-06

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  7. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-20

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  8. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2012-10-16

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  9. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2014-01-28

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  10. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Payne, Stephen A.; Krupke, William F.; Beach, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 .mu.m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 .mu.m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy.sup.3+ -doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 .mu.m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available.

  11. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1997-12-02

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 {micro}m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 {micro}m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy{sup 3+}-doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 {micro}m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available. 9 figs.

  12. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

  13. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  14. Final Technical Report on DE-SC00002460 [Bimetallic or trimetallic materials with structural metal centers based on Mn, Fe or V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, Esther Sans; Takeuchi, Kenneth James; Marschilok, Amy Catherine

    2013-07-26

    Bimetallic or trimetallic materials with structural metal centers based on Mn, Fe or V were investigated under this project. These metal centers are the focus of this research as they have high earth abundance and have each shown success as cathode materials in lithium batteries. Silver ion, Ag{sup +}, was initially selected as the displacement material as reduction of this center should result in increased conductivity as Ag{sup 0} metal particles are formed in-situ upon electrochemical reduction. The in-situ formation of metal nanoparticles upon electrochemical reduction has been previously noted, and more recently, we have investigated the resulting increase in conductivity. Layered materials as well as materials with tunnel or channel type structures were selected. Layered materials are of interest as they can provide 2-dimensional ion mobility. Tunnel or channel structures are also of interest as they provide a rigid framework that should remain stable over many discharge/charge cycles. We describe some examples of materials we have synthesized that demonstrate promising electrochemistry.

  15. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  16. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  17. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2011-10-18

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  18. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  19. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  20. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  1. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1988-06-16

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  2. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vook, Frederick L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide materials for thermochemical CO2 splitting using concentrated solar energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.; Livers, Stephanie

    2010-07-01

    The Sunshine to Petrol effort at Sandia aims to convert carbon dioxide and water to precursors for liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar power. Significant advances have been made in the field of solar thermochemical CO{sub 2}-splitting technologies utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-supported ferrite composites. Conceptually, such materials work via the basic redox reactions: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} {yields} 3FeO + 0.5O{sub 2} (Thermal reduction, >1350 C) and 3FeO + CO{sub 2} {yields} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} + CO (CO{sub 2}-splitting oxidation, <1200 C). There has been limited fundamental characterization of the ferrite-based materials at the high temperatures and conditions present in these cycles. A systematic study of these composites is underway in an effort to begin to elucidate microstructure, structure-property relationships, and the role of the support on redox behavior under high-temperature reducing and oxidizing environments. In this paper the synthesis, structural characterization (including scanning electron microscopy and room temperature and in-situ x-ray diffraction), and thermogravimetric analysis of YSZ-supported ferrites will be reported.

  4. Henan Xindaxin Materials XDXM | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xindaxin Materials (XDXM) Place: Henan Province, China Zip: 475000 Product: Chinese material manufacturer produces micropowder for crystalline silicon and semiconductor wafer...

  5. Self-assembled photosynthesis-inspired light harvesting material and solar cells containing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC); Chinnasamy, Muthiah (Raleigh, NC); Fan, Dazhong (Raleigh, NC)

    2009-12-15

    A solar cell is described that comprises: (a) a semiconductor charge separation material; (b) at least one electrode connected to the charge separation material; and (c) a light-harvesting film on the charge separation material, the light-harvesting film comprising non-covalently coupled, self-assembled units of porphyrinic macrocycles. The porphyrinic macrocycles preferably comprise: (i) an intramolecularly coordinated metal; (ii) a first coordinating substituent; and (iii) a second coordinating substituent opposite the first coordinating substituent. The porphyrinic macrocycles can be assembled by repeating intermolecular coordination complexes of the metal, the first coordinating substituent and the second coordinating substituent.

  6. Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Center of Excellence - Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE Period of Performance: 2005-2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U. S. Department of Energy April 2012 2 3 Primary Authors: Chemical Hydrogen Storage (CHSCoE): Kevin Ott, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Sorption (HSCoE): Lin Simpson, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Metal Hydride

  7. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  8. Origin of spin gapless semiconductor behavior in CoFeCrGa: Theory and Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Mallick, A. I.; Raja, M. Manivel; Coelho, A. A.; Nigam, A. K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-07-08

    Despite a plethora of materials suggested for spintronic applications, a new class of materials has emerged, namely spin gapless semiconductors (SGS), which offers potentially more advantageous properties than existing ones. These magnetic semiconductors exhibit a finite band gap for one spin channel and a closed gap for the other. Supported by electronic-structure calculations, we report evidence of SGS behavior in equiatomic quaternary CoFeCrGa, having a cubic Heusler (prototype LiMgPdSn) structure but exhibiting chemical disorder (DO3 structure). CoFeCrGa is found to transform from SGS to half-metallic phase under pressure, which is attributed to unique electronic-structure features. The saturation magnetization (MS) wasmore » obtained at 8K agrees with the Slater-Pauling rule and the Curie temperature (TC) is found to exceed 400K. Carrier concentration (up to 250K) and electrical conductivity are observed to be nearly temperature independent, prerequisites for SGS. The anomalous Hall coefficient is estimated to be 185S/cm at 5K. Considering the SGS properties and high TC, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.« less

  9. Origin of spin gapless semiconductor behavior in CoFeCrGa: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Mallick, A. I.; Raja, M. Manivel; Coelho, A. A.; Nigam, A. K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-07-08

    Despite a plethora of materials suggested for spintronic applications, a new class of materials has emerged, namely spin gapless semiconductors (SGS), which offers potentially more advantageous properties than existing ones. These magnetic semiconductors exhibit a finite band gap for one spin channel and a closed gap for the other. Supported by electronic-structure calculations, we report evidence of SGS behavior in equiatomic quaternary CoFeCrGa, having a cubic Heusler (prototype LiMgPdSn) structure but exhibiting chemical disorder (DO3 structure). CoFeCrGa is found to transform from SGS to half-metallic phase under pressure, which is attributed to unique electronic-structure features. The saturation magnetization (MS) was obtained at 8K agrees with the Slater-Pauling rule and the Curie temperature (TC) is found to exceed 400K. Carrier concentration (up to 250K) and electrical conductivity are observed to be nearly temperature independent, prerequisites for SGS. The anomalous Hall coefficient is estimated to be 185S/cm at 5K. Considering the SGS properties and high TC, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  10. Metalized T graphene: A reversible hydrogen storage material at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhong, Wei, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn; Du, You-Wei [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-09-21

    Lithium (Li)-decorated graphene is a promising hydrogen storage medium due to its high capacity. However, homogeneous mono-layer coating graphene with lithium atoms is metastable and the lithium atoms would cluster on the surface, resulting in the poor reversibility. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we demonstrated that lithium atoms can be homogeneously dispersed on T graphene due to a nonuniform charge distribution in T graphene and strong hybridizations between the C-2p and Li-2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridizations contribute to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules (storage capacity of 7.7 wt. %) with an optimal adsorption energy of 0.19 eV/H?. The adsorption/desorption of H? at ambient temperature and pressure is also discussed. Our results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on non-hexagonal graphenes.

  11. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2006-09-05

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  12. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in he probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  13. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2004-03-02

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  14. Organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2005-08-09

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance. Subsequent exposure to excitation energy will excite the semiconductor nanocrystal in the probe causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Further described are processes for respectively: making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  15. Molecular Chemistry to the Fore: New Insights into the Fascinating World of Photoactive Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vela-Becerra, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals possess unique properties that are unmatched by other chromophores such as organic dyes or transition-metal complexes. These versatile building blocks have generated much scientific interest and found applications in bioimaging, tracking, lighting, lasing, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, thermoelectrics, and spintronics. Despite these advances, important challenges remain, notably how to produce semiconductor nanostructures with predetermined architecture, how to produce metastable semiconductor nanostructures that are hard to isolate by conventional syntheses, and how to control the degree of surface loading or valence per nanocrystal. Molecular chemists are very familiar with these issues and can use their expertise to help solve these challenges. In this Perspective, we present our group’s recent work on bottom-up molecular control of nanoscale composition and morphology, low-temperature photochemical routes to semiconductor heterostructures and metastable phases, solar-to-chemical energy conversion with semiconductor-based photocatalysts, and controlled surface modification of colloidal semiconductors that bypasses ligand exchange.

  16. Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators in I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, wanxiang; Ding, Jun; Yao, yugui

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of topological insulators with exotic metallic surface states has garnered great interest in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science.1 A number of spectacular quantum phenomena have been predicted when the surface states are under the influence of magnetism and superconductivity,2 5 which could open up new opportunities for technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing. To achieve this goal, material realization of topological insulators with desired physical properties is of crucial importance. Based on first-principles calculations, here we show that a large number of ternary chalcopyrite compounds of composition I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 can realize the topological insulating phase in their native states. The crystal structure of chalcopyrites is derived from the frequently used zinc-blende structure, and many of them possess a close lattice match to important mainstream semiconductors, which is essential for a smooth integration into current semiconductor technology. The diverse optical, electrical and structural properties of chalcopyrite semiconductors,6 and particularly their ability to host room-temperature ferromagnetism,7 9 make them appealing candidates for novel spintronic devices.

  17. Energy resolution in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors using heterojunctions and methods of use and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Nelson, Art J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2012-09-04

    In one embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material and a hole blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. In another embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material, and an electron blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the electron blocking layer resisting passage of electrons therethrough, wherein the electron blocking layer comprises undoped HgCdTe. In another embodiment, a method comprises forming a hole blocking layer adjacent a semiconductor gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  18. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan (53 Timber Line Dr., Nashua, NH 03062); Karam, Nasser H. (577 Lowell St., Lexington, MA 02173)

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  19. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the...

  20. New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development Print A new measurement technique developed at the ALS is helping guide the semiconductor industry in next-generation nanopatterning techniques. Directed self assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is an extremely promising strategy for high-volume, cost-effective semiconductor manufacturing at the nanoscale. Materials that self-assemble spontaneously form nanostructures down to the molecular scale, which would revolutionize

  1. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive ... Strategies for developing spintronic semiconductors have been based on surface doping or ...

  2. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Wednesday, 28 August 2013 00:00 Accentuating the ...

  3. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen ...

  4. Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Using a microfluidic reactor, Los Alamos researchers transformed the SLS...

  5. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  6. Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Lv, Dongping; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhiguo; Kuppan, Saravanan; Yu, Jianguo; Luo, Langli; Edwards, Danny J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie; Pan, Feng; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-07-06

    Capacity and voltage fading of layer structured cathode based on lithium transition metal oxide is closely related to the lattice position and migration behavior of the transition metal ions. However, it is scarcely clear about the behavior of each of these transition metal ions. We report direct atomic resolution visualization of interatomic layer mixing of transition metal (Ni, Co, Mn) and lithium ions in layer structured oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Using chemical imaging with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and DFT calculations, we discovered that in the layered cathodes, Mn and Co tend to reside almost exclusively at the lattice site of transition metal (TM) layer in the structure or little interlayer mixing with Li. In contrast, Ni shows high degree of interlayer mixing with Li. The fraction of Ni ions reside in the Li layer followed a near linear dependence on total Ni concentration before reaching saturation. The observed distinctively different behavior of Ni with respect to Co and Mn provides new insights on both capacity and voltage fade in this class of cathode materials based on lithium and TM oxides, therefore providing scientific basis for selective tailoring of oxide cathode materials for enhanced performance.

  7. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

    2008-02-12

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  8. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  9. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  10. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; Droubay, Timothy; Bowden, Mark; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chambers, Scott A.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO₃ and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We presentmore » structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO₃-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.« less

  11. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; Droubay, Timothy; Bowden, Mark; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chambers, Scott A.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO? and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO?-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.

  12. Holey Germanium - New Routes to Ordered Nanoporous Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holey Germanium - New Routes to Ordered Nanoporous Semiconductors Nanoporous or mesoporous inorganic materials with homogeneous pore sizes have found broad applications in separations, as supports for size selective catalysis, and as low dielectric materials. For all of these applications, it is the pore space that is important, and so the inorganic framework is generally formed from a simple material like silica or another oxide. In an effort to extend the range of potential applications for

  13. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  14. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  15. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tunable Metallic Conductance in Ferroelectric Nanodomains Peter Maksymovych,1 Anna N. Morozovska,2,3 Pu Yu,4 Eugene A. Eliseev,3 Ying-Hao Chu,4,5 Ramamoorthy Ramesh,4 Arthur P. Baddorf,1 and Sergei V. Kalinin1 1 Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 2 Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine,41, pr. Nauki, 03028 Kiev, Ukraine 3 Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Science of

  16. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  17. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  18. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee, E-mail: seokheelee@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 169-148 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  19. Applied Materials Inc AMAT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    manufacturer of equipment used in solar (silicon, thin-film, BIPV), semiconductor, and LCD markets. References: Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)1 This article is a stub. You can...

  20. Combinatorial Discovery and Optimization of the Composition, Doping and Morphology of New Oxide Semiconductors for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, Bruce A.; Jianghua, He

    2015-01-06

    The increasing need for carbon free energy has focused renewed attention on solar energy conversion. Although photovoltaic cells excel at directly converting of solar energy to electricity, they do not directly produce stored energy or fuels that account for more than 75% of current energy use. Direct photoelectrolysis of water has the advantage of converting solar energy directly to hydrogen, an ideal non-carbon and nonpolluting energy carrier, by replacing both a photovoltaic array and an electrolysis unit with one potentially inexpensive device. Unfortunately no materials are currently known to efficiently photoelectrolyze water that are, efficient, inexpensive and stable under illumination in electrolytes for many years. Nanostructured semiconducting metal oxides could potentially fulfill these requirements, making them the most promising materials for solar water photoelectrolysis, however no oxide semiconductor has yet been discovered with all the required properties. We have developed a simple, high-throughput combinatorial approach to prepare and screen many multi component metal oxides for water photoelectrolysis activity. The approach uses ink jet printing of overlapping patterns of soluble metal oxide precursors onto conductive glass substrates. Subsequent pyrolysis produces metal oxide phases that are screened for photoelectrolysis activity by measuring photocurrents produced by scanning a laser over the printed patterns in aqueous electrolytes. Several promising and unexpected compositions have been identified.

  1. Analyzes Data from Semiconductor Wafers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-07-23

    This program analyzes reflectance data from semiconductor wafers taken during the deposition or evolution of a thin film, typically via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is used to determine the growth rate and optical constants of the deposited thin films using a virtual interface concept. Growth rates and optical constants of multiple-layer structures is possible by selecting appropriate sections in the reflectance vs time waveform. No prior information or estimatesmore » of growth rates and materials properties is required if an absolute reflectance waveform is used. If the optical constants of a thin film are known, then the growth rate may be extracted from a relative reflectance data set. The analysis is valid for either s or p polarized light at any incidence angle and wavelength. The analysis package is contained within an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The program is based on the algorighm described in the following two publications: W.G. Breiland and K.P. Killen, J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 6726, and W. G. Breiland, H.Q. Hou, B.E. Hammons, and J.F. Klem, Proc. XXVIII SOTAPOCS Symp. Electrochem. Soc. San Diego, May 3-8, 1998. It relies on the fact that any multiple-layer system has a reflectance spectrum that is mathematically equivalent to a single-layer thin film on a virtual substrate. The program fits the thin film reflectance with five adjustable parameters: 1) growth rate, 2) real part of complex refractive index, 3) imaginary part of refractive index, 4) amplitude of virtual interface reflectance, 5) phase of virtual interface reflectance.« less

  2. Design and Synthesis of Novel Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design and Synthesis of Novel Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) are semiconductors doped with small amounts of magnetic active transition...

  3. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  4. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  5. Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Jr., Marcel (Albany, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  6. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  7. Metal colloids and quantum dots: linear and nonlinear optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Don O.

    1997-05-12

    Nanophase materials have found a wide application in a variety of technological areas which include ultrafast optical switching high density information storage and retrieval, electronics, and catalysts, to mention a few. Nanocrystal science has also drawn considerable interest from the fundamental perspective engaging physicists, chemists, and material scientists into this area of rapidly expanding and challenging research. Basic questions concerning how matter evolves from atomic like behavior to molecular and onto bulk lie at the center nanocrystal research. In addition, because of the high surface to volume ratio of the nanocrystals, the interaction potential between a nanocrystal and its surrounding environment becomes an important issue in determining its properties. While significant progress has been made in nanocrystal research, there are many problems concerned with their fabrication. In particular, the difficulty of incorporating nanocrystals into a matrix that is appropriate for ultimate device development has hindered some aspects of nanocrystal research. Ion implantation is a method that is now established as a technique for fabricating metal and semiconductor nanocrystals. It is highly versatile in that one may select nearly any host material for incorporating the nanocrystals of interest. The flexibility of being able to select the host matrix is also interesting from the point of view that it opens the opportunity to investigate matrix-nanocrystal interactions. We summarize in the following sections results on metal and semiconductor nanocrystals formed by ion implantation into dielectric hosts.

  8. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  9. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  10. Electrical transport properties of (BN)-rich hexagonal (BN)C semiconductor alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uddin, M. R.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Ziemer, K. S.

    2014-08-15

    The layer structured hexagonal boron nitride carbon semiconductor alloys, h-(BN)C, offer the unique abilities of bandgap engineering (from 0 for graphite to ?6.4 eV for h-BN) and electrical conductivity control (from semi-metal for graphite to insulator for undoped h-BN) through alloying and have the potential to complement III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors and carbon based nanostructured materials. Epilayers of (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys were synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire substrates. Hall-effect measurements revealed that homogeneous (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys are naturally n-type. For alloys with x = 0.032, an electron mobility of about 20 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 650?°K was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the chemical composition and analyze chemical bonding states. Both composition and chemical bonding analysis confirm the formation of alloys. XPS results indicate that the carbon concentration in the alloys increases almost linearly with the flow rate of the carbon precursor (propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8})) employed during the epilayer growth. XPS chemical bonding analysis showed that these MOCVD grown alloys possess more C-N bonds than C-B bonds, which possibly renders the undoped h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys n-type and corroborates the Hall-effect measurement results.

  11. Metal Aminoboranes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Aminoboranes Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction

  12. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  13. Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp SMIC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manufacturing International Corp SMIC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp (SMIC) Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip:...

  14. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  15. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  16. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-10-04

    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  17. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  18. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

    2011-02-27

    One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

  19. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Peter T. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  20. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  1. Nano-composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  2. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  3. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  4. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  5. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS User Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon softening and metallization of a narrow-gap semiconductor by thermal disorder O. Delaire,1 K. Marty,1 M. B. Stone,1 P. R. C. Kent,1 M. S. Lucas,2 D. L. Abernathy,1 D. Mandrus,1 B. C. Sales1 1- Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 2-Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 Achievement We have shown how, in some materials, there can be a surprisingly strong coupling between certain features of the electronic structure and the way the atoms in a solid

  6. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  7. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  8. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes' effects on thermal & cycling stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiqian; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-07

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. Furthermore, we also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue. As a result, it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of the cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems.

  9. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes' effects on thermal & cycling stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiqian; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-07

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. Furthermore, we also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue. As a result, it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of themore » cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems.« less

  10. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes' effects on thermal & cycling stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiqian; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-07

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. Furthermore, we also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue. As a result, it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of themore »cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems.« less

  11. 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' May 7, 2015 - 4:11pm Addthis 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' What will you get if you put a 3D-printed inverter package with wide bandgap materials, together with the 3D-printed EV version of the Shelby Cobra "plug and play" laboratory-on-wheels? You'll get innovation - innovation that will define even lighter, more powerful, and more efficient vehicles. Oak Ridge

  12. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  13. Biasing, operation and parasitic current limitation in single device equivalent to CMOS, and other semiconductor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D.

    2003-09-23

    Disclosed are semiconductor devices including at least one junction which is rectifying whether the semiconductor is caused to be N or P-type, by the presence of applied gate voltage field induced carriers in essentially intrinsic, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at substantially equal doping levels, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at different doping levels, and containing a single metallurgical doping type, and functional combinations thereof. In particular, inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to conventional multiple device CMOS systems, which can be operated as modulators, are disclosed as are a non-latching SCR and an approach to blocking parasitic currents utilizing material(s) which form rectifying junctions with both N and P-type semiconductor whether metallurigically or field induced.

  14. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  15. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  16. Etching Of Semiconductor Wafer Edges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kardauskas, Michael J. (Billerica, MA); Piwczyk, Bernhard P. (Dunbarton, NH)

    2003-12-09

    A novel method of etching a plurality of semiconductor wafers is provided which comprises assembling said plurality of wafers in a stack, and subjecting said stack of wafers to dry etching using a relatively high density plasma which is produced at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is focused magnetically and said stack is rotated so as to expose successive edge portions of said wafers to said plasma.

  17. Amorphous metal composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Martin A. (Troy, NY); Lupinski, John H. (Scotia, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  18. Diluted magnetic semiconductors based on Sb2-xVxTe3 | Energy Frontier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Centers Diluted magnetic semiconductors based on Sb2-xVxTe3 Home Author: J. S. Dyck, P. Hajek, P. Lostak, C. Uher Year: 2002 Abstract: We report on a diluted magnetic semiconductor based on the Sb2Te3 tetradymite structure doped with very low concentrations of vanadium (1-3 at. %). The anomalous transport behavior and robust magnetic hysteresis loops observed in magnetotransport and magnetic measurements are experimental manifestations of the ferromagnetic state in these materials.

  19. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  20. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  1. Downloads | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    --Defects in materials --Magnetism --Metal fatigue --Nanoscience --Semiconductors --Materials simulation & theory --Superconductivity --Surface & interface studies --Thin...

  2. Videos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    --Defects in materials --Magnetism --Metal fatigue --Nanoscience --Semiconductors --Materials simulation & theory --Superconductivity --Surface & interface studies --Thin...

  3. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    --Defects in materials --Magnetism --Metal fatigue --Nanoscience --Semiconductors --Materials simulation & theory --Superconductivity --Surface & interface studies --Thin...

  4. In The News | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    --Defects in materials --Magnetism --Metal fatigue --Nanoscience --Semiconductors --Materials simulation & theory --Superconductivity --Surface & interface studies --Thin...

  5. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci; Lu Canzhong

    2008-12-15

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  6. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. These amorphous alloys appear to maintain their corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature. Visionary research is proposed to extend the application of corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous metal coatings, and variants of these coatings, to protection of the Nation's transportation infrastructure. Specific objectives of the proposed work are: (1) fabrication of appropriate test samples for evaluation of concept; (2) collection of production and test data for coated steel reinforcement bars, enabling systematic comparison of various coating options, based upon performance and economic considerations; and (3) construction and testing of concrete structures with coated steel reinforcement bars, thereby demonstrating the value of amorphous-metal coatings. The benefits of ceramic coatings as thermal barriers will also be addressed.

  7. Water-Stable Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework Material with High-Surface Area and Gas-Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutov, OV; Bury, W; Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Krungleviciute, V; Fairen-Jimenez, D; Mondloch, JE; Sarjeant, AA; Al-Juaid, SS; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK

    2014-08-14

    We designed, synthesized, and characterized a new Zr-based metal-organic framework material, NU-1100, with a pore volume of 1.53 ccg(-1) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 4020 m(2)g(-1); to our knowledge, currently the highest published for Zr-based MOFs. CH4/CO2/H-2 adsorption isotherms were obtained over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions. The total hydrogen adsorption at 65 bar and 77 K is 0.092 gg(-1), which corresponds to 43 gL(-1). The volumetric and gravimetric methane-storage capacities at 65 bar and 298 K are approximately 180 v(STP)/v and 0.27 gg(-1), respectively.

  8. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide the insight needed to control the microstructure of metals and lead to advanced manufacturing processes to produce materials with desired properties. Los Alamos...

  9. Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capabilities - Energy Innovation Portal Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing capabilities Award winning solar manufacturing process National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology <p> <em>The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor manufacturers with energy efficient methods to process devices in a high throughput capacity. &nbsp;</em></p> The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor

  10. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection

  11. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2012-08-07

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  12. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2011-10-11

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  13. Characterization and electrical modeling of semiconductors bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marx, K.D.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E.

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor bridges (SCBs) are finding increased use as initiators for explosive and pyrotechnic devices. They offer advantages in reduced voltage and energy requirements, coupled with excellent safety features. The design of explosive systems which implement either SCBs or metal bridgewires can be facilitated through the use of electrical simulation software such as the PSpice{reg_sign} computer code. A key component in the electrical simulation of such systems is an electrical model of the bridge. This report has two objectives: (1) to present and characterize electrical data taken in tests of detonators which employ SCBs with BNCP as the explosive powder; and (2) to derive appropriate electrical models for such detonators. The basis of such models is a description of the resistance as a function of energy deposited in the SCB. However, two important features which must be added to this are (1) the inclusion of energy loss through such mechanisms as ohmic heating of the aluminum lands and heat transfer from the bridge to the surrounding media; and (2) accounting for energy deposited in the SCB through heat transfer to the bridge from the explosive powder after the powder ignites. The modeling procedure is entirely empirical; i.e., models for the SCB resistance and the energy gain and loss have been estimated from experimental data taken over a range of firing conditions. We present results obtained by applying the model to the simulation of SCB operation in representative tests.

  14. Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hite, Larry R.; Houston, Ted; Matloubian, Mishel

    1989-01-01

    The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

  15. Progress report on the results of testing advanced conceptual design metal barrier materials under relevant environmental conditions for a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCright, R.D.; Halsey, W.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses the performance of candidate metallic materials envisioned for fabricating waste package containers for long-term disposal at a possible geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Candidate materials include austenitic iron-base to nickel-base alloy (AISI 304L, AISI 316L, and Alloy 825), high-purity copper (CDA 102), and copper-base alloys (CDA 613 and CDA 715). Possible degradation modes affecting these container materials are identified in the context of anticipated environmental conditions at the repository site. Low-temperature oxidation is the dominant degradation mode over most of the time period of concern (minimum of 300 yr to a maximum of 1000 yr after repository closure), but various forms of aqueous corrosion will occur when water infiltrates into the near-package environment. The results of three years of experimental work in different repository-relevant environments are presented. Much of the work was performed in water taken from Well J-13, located near the repository, and some of the experiments included gamma irradiation of the water or vapor environment. The influence of metallurgical effects on the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the material is reviewed; these effects result from container fabrication, welding, and long-term aging at moderately elevated temperatures in the repository. The report indicates the need for mechanisms to understand the physical/chemical reactions that determine the nature and rate of the different degradation modes, and the subsequent need for models based on these mechanisms for projecting the long-term performance of the container from comparatively short-term laboratory data. 91 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  17. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor...

  18. Earth-abundant semiconductors for photovoltaic applications ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth-abundant semiconductors for photovoltaic applications Thin film photovoltaics (solar cells) has the potential to revolutionize our energy landscape by producing clean,...

  19. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents,...

  20. Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science ...

  1. Stangl Semiconductor Equipment AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    German manufacturer of wet chemistry systems for processing silicon and thin-film solar cells. References: Stangl Semiconductor Equipment AG1 This article is a stub. You...

  2. Solar Semiconductor Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Solar Semiconductor Pvt Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500034 AP Product: Manufacturer of PV modules in Hyderabad, India. Also has an...

  3. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Hambarian, Artak (Yerevan, AM)

    2008-09-02

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  4. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Redondo Beach, CA); Kapur, Vijay K. (Northridge, CA)

    1990-08-21

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  5. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  6. Multi-phonon-assisted absorption and emission in semiconductors and its potential for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2014-06-02

    Laser cooling of semiconductors has been an elusive goal for many years, and while attempts to cool the narrow gap semiconductors such as GaAs are yet to succeed, recently, net cooling has been attained in a wider gap CdS. This raises the question of whether wider gap semiconductors with higher phonon energies and stronger electron-phonon coupling are better suitable for laser cooling. In this work, we develop a straightforward theory of phonon-assisted absorption and photoluminescence of semiconductors that involves more than one phonon and use to examine wide gap materials, such as GaN and CdS and compare them with GaAs. The results indicate that while strong electron-phonon coupling in both GaN and CdS definitely improves the prospects of laser cooling, large phonon energy in GaN may be a limitation, which makes CdS a better prospect for laser cooling.

  7. Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1980-09-19

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

  8. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  9. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Michael D.

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55?m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  10. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  12. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  13. Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc VSEA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc VSEA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc (VSEA) Place: Gloucester, Massachusetts Zip: 1930...

  14. Tianjin Zhonghuan Semiconductor Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300384 Product: China-based manufacturer of discrete semiconductor devices. References: Tianjin Zhonghuan Semiconductor Co Ltd1 This article...

  15. Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formerly Photon Semiconductor Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp (KPE) (formerly Photon Semiconductor & Energy) Place: Changwon, South...

  16. Ados Co Ltd Dong Yang Semiconductor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ados Co Ltd Dong Yang Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ados Co Ltd (Dong Yang Semiconductor) Place: Seoul, Seoul, Korea (Republic) Product: Korean manufacturer of...

  17. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films You are accessing a...

  18. Localized Electron States Near a Metal-SemiconductorNanocontact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demchenko, Denis O.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-04-25

    The electronic structure of nanowires in contact withmetallic electrodes of experimentally relevant sizes is calculated byincorporating the electrostatic polarization potential into the atomisticsingle particle Schrodinger equation. We show that the presence of anelectrode produces localized electron/hole states near the electrode, aphenomenon only exhibited in nanostructures and overlooked in the past.This phenomenon will have profound implications on electron transport insuch nanosystems. We calculate several electrode/nanowire geometries,with varying contact depths and nanowire radii. We demonstrate the changein the band gap of up to 0.5 eV in 3 nm diameter CdSe nanowires andcalculate the magnitude of the applied electric field necessary toovercome the localization.

  19. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for targeting, initiation and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical reactions in biological molecules Commercial applications include synthetic DNARNA endonucleases, gene...

  20. Metal/semiconductor phase transition in chromium nitride(001...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metalsemiconductor phase transition in chromium nitride(001) grown by rf-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metalsemiconductor...