National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for materials atmospheric crude

  1. Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the reactivity of atmospheric SOM particles. atmospheric chemistry chemical aging organic aerosol collectionPhase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity Mikinori Kuwata and Scot T of atmospheric organic particles among solid, semisolid, and liquid phases is of keen current scientific interest

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    geological limits, global production of crude oil next yearGlobal production of crude petroleum. Notes: Bold line: From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil,

  3. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other

  4. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),the Predictive Accuracy of Crude Oil Futures Prices,” EnergyFigure 3. Price of crude oil contract maturing December of

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

  8. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  9. Processing materials inside an atmospheric-pressure radiofrequency nonthermal plasma discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2006-04-11

    Apparatus for the processing of materials involving placing a material either placed between an radio-frequency electrode and a ground electrode, or which is itself one of the electrodes. This is done in atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus effectively etches or cleans substrates, such as silicon wafers, or provides cleaning of spools and drums, and uses a gas containing an inert gas and a chemically reactive gas.

  10. Arabian crude fractions analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.F.; Bukhari, A.M.; Hasan, M.U.; Saleem, M.

    1985-02-01

    A procedure for separating and characterizing highboiling distillates was developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute. However, their studies focused chiefly on U.S. crude oils, and very little has been reported for Middle East crude oils-particularly Saudi Arabian crude oils. The work reported here deals with the separation and characterization of 370-535/sup 0/C and 535-675/sup 0/C distillates from four Saudi Arabian crude oils produced by Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO).

  11. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  12. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2000 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  13. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  14. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  15. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2002 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  16. Deepwater Horizon Study Finds Crude Oil Harmful to Bluefin, Yellowfin Tuna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Deepwater Horizon Study Finds Crude Oil Harmful to Bluefin, Yellowfin Tuna This photo from April 24 sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, found that crude oil from the 2010 for 87 days, during which time it discharged nearly 5 million barrels of crude oil. Since the spill

  17. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 51 Table 29. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  18. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  19. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  20. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  2. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    19.11 18.73 18.63 17.97 18.75 18.10 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  3. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  4. Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47 Industrial1 (Barrels per

  5. Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6 Macroeconomic8 (Barrels

  6. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  7. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 51 Table 29. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  8. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 51 Table 29. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  9. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  10. Pipelining heavy crude oil requires special pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, J.R. [Imo Industries, Singapore (Singapore)

    1995-10-01

    This paper reviews the use of rotary screw pumps installed at Guatemala`s Xan oil field to help pipeline heavy crudes to their processing facilities. It reviews the special design characteristics and specifications for each of the three pumps. It provides information on the capacities and the materials used in making the pumps. It provides information on cooling systems and on the engines used to power the pumps.

  11. A Novel 9.4 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass Range, for Petroleum Heavy Crude Oil Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Range, for Petroleum Heavy Crude Oil Analysis Nathan K. Kaiser, John P. Quinn, Greg T. Blakney organic mixtures. However, analysis of petroleum crude oil as well as upcoming biofuels requires continued-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrum of a Middle Eastern light crude oil, acquired with the new

  12. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude...

  13. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude Oil...

  14. Nigeria: after crude, the gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.

  15. Table 1. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    can be the month of loading, the month of landing, or sometime between those events. Prices for crude oil can be determined at a time other than the acquisition date. See the...

  16. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  17. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  18. Synthetic crude oil from petroleum waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schieffer, A. [VENA OEL AG (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes the VEBA-COMBI-Cracking (VCC) process for the conversion of petroleum derived wastes. It is a hydrogen addition technology which directly combines liquid phase hydrogenation with with an integrated catalytic hydrofinishing step. The main objective of the hydrogenation is to convert wastes such as waste plastics or vacuum residues into valuable hydrocarbons. The hydrocracking process converts petroleum residues at high conversion rates.

  19. Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    #12;2 #12;Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func- tion;5 Summary The crude oil market is actually experiencing dramatic changes on a world wide scale. Most schemes, and/or change quality of the feedstock (crude). Demand for crude oil is growing, especially

  20. Surface Modification of Material by Irradiation of Low Power Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Kazunori [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3 Gakuenhigashimachi, Kobe, Hyogo, 651-2194 (Japan); Azuma, Kingo [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosya, Himeji, Hyogo, 671-2280 (Japan); Onoi, Masahiro [Metal Technology Co., Ltd., 713 Shake Aza Narihira, Ebina, Kanagawa, 243-0424 (Japan)

    2010-10-13

    Application of a low power atmospheric pressure plasma jet for surface modifications of acrylic, aluminum, and highly crystalline graphite has been carried out experimentally. The plasma jet was generated with batteries-driven high voltage modulator. The power consumed for the plasma generation was estimated to be 0.12 W. The plasma had hydroxyl radicals, which is known as a strong oxider from an observation of optical emission spectrum. After the irradiation of the plasma, the surfaces of acrylic and aluminum became to be hydrophilic from the compartment of contact angle of water on these surfaces. The surface of highly crystalline graphite irradiated by the plasma jet had oxygen-rich functional groups such as C-O, C = O, and O = C-O.

  1. Supplementary Material Cover Sheet1 Temporal Variations of Organic Composition in the Tropical and Marine Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary Material Cover Sheet1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Temporal@nus.edu.sg Submitted to: Number of tables: 1 S1 #12;1. Background on forest and peat fires in Indonesia21 22 23 24 conditions of 1997-98 and 2006, thousands of fires raged in the peat swamps of Indonesia. Fires in peat

  2. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  3. World crude capacity, conversion capability inch upward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-12-19

    Reported world crude capacity increased almost 1 million b/d, while conversion processes--fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrocracking, coking--increased more than 1.7 million b/d or 8.3%, according to the Journal's most recent survey of world refining capacity. As a measure of capacity growth in the past year, changes in distillation capacities (atmospheric plus vacuum) were calculated for three major refining regions. The year-to-year comparison indicates: for the US, an increase of 293,000 b/d, or 1.3%; for the European Economic Community (E.E.C.), an increase of 431,000 b/d, or 2.6%; and for Asia/Pacific, excluding China, an increase of 122,000 b/d, or 1.1%. In addition to the compiled data the paper describes the survey layout, regional changes, conversion units, hydroprocessing, company size, oxygenates, and construction.

  4. Study of the Durability of Doped Lanthanum Manganite and Cobaltite Cathode Materials under “Real World” Air Exposure Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Prabhakar; Mahapatra, Manoj; Ramprasad, Rampi; Minh, Nguyen; Misture, Scott

    2014-11-30

    The overall objective of the program is to develop and validate mechanisms responsible for the overall structural and chemical degradation of lanthanum manganite as well as lanthanum ferrite cobaltite based cathode when exposed to “real world” air atmosphere exposure conditions during SOFC systems operation. Of particular interest are the evaluation and analysis of degradation phenomena related to and responsible for (a) products formation and interactions with air contaminants, (b) dopant segregation and oxide exolution at free surfaces, (c) cation interdiffusion and reaction products formation at the buried interfaces, (d) interface morphology changes, lattice transformation and the development of interfacial porosity and (e) micro-cracking and delamination from the stack repeat units. Reaction processes have been studied using electrochemical and high temperature materials compatibility tests followed by structural and chemical characterization. Degradation hypothesis has been proposed and validated through further experimentation and computational simulation.

  5. Development of a computer model for calculation of radioactive materials into the atmosphere after an accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schershakov, V.

    1997-11-01

    Secondary atmospheric contamination with radioactive dust and chemical species deposited on the ground and resuspended by wind occur very widely. This process is particularly pronounced in case of extensive contamination of soil and under extreme weather conditions, for example, during dust storms. The mechanism of wind dust generation consists in the following. At low wind speed U=2-3 m/s, which is most common in midlatitude, small radioactive dust particles (diameter of hundredth of a micron to 10-20 microns) are lifted from soil surface due to turbulent vortexes. Under the gravitational force the particles of 1-2 micron diameter practically do not settle. Larger dust particles cannot remain in the air for a long time: they are lifted by turbulent vortexes and settle, their motion in the wind flow is jump-wise and the interaction of particles with the flow is called saltation /I/. Saltation is the main mechanism of dust generation up to the wind velocity at which wind erosion starts. The size of dust particles can be as large as 100 pm. When dropping they can be ricocheting from ground or pass the impulse to other particles which begin rolling over and jumping up. The process of dust transport by wind can be compared to a chain reaction. At the velocity of 10 m/s large particles of about 500 pm stop skipping and roll over only, while particles of more than 1 mm remain stationary. Thus, the fine fraction is blown out from the polydispersed soil particles. The intensity of wind resuspension of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized either by a resuspension factor or a resuspension rate.

  6. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 53 Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  7. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 53 Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  8. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 53 Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  9. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  10. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

  11. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-08-15

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41[degree] API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing.

  12. The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950; implications for the CO budget Supplementary Material2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950 as a supplement to `The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere23 atmospheric carbon monoxide since 1950 combustion, methane oxidation, NMHC oxidation, biofuel burning, biomass burning, direct57 biogenic

  13. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

  14. Gross Input to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy of MajorNationalDay)

  15. Volatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amlie CHARLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Volatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amélie CHARLES Audencia Nantes, School of Management announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We find that the crude oil on the volatility modelling process improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. Keywords: Crude

  16. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    and ranks 17th in crude oil production globally (EIA 2008).the country’s crude oil production averaged only 157,770s production of nearly 2 million barrels of crude oil per

  17. Secretary Bodman Announces Sale of 11 Million Barrels of Crude...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Secretary Bodman Announces Sale of 11 Million Barrels of Crude Oil from the Nation's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Secretary Bodman Announces Sale of 11 Million Barrels of Crude Oil...

  18. Determinants of official OPEC crude prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verleger, P.K. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that crude oil, like any other unfinished commodity, is valued for the products derived from it; the purpose is to offer an empirical explanation for changes in the crude price charged by the members of OPEC. The model results show that the market-clearing prices reported to prevail for petroleum products on the principal petroleum spot market at Rotterdam are the primary determinants of changes in official crude prices. A systematic relationship between offical and spot prices is argued to have prevailed since 1974. An appendix clarifies five types of data required for the model. 13 references, 4 tables.

  19. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  20. Supercritical Water desulfurization of crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kida, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical Water (SCW) desulfurization was investigated for both model sulfur compounds and Arab Heavy crude. In part 1, the reactions of alkyl sulfides in SCW were studied. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in SCW, ...

  1. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  2. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems Nael N. Zaki, Michael K to the petroleum industry. Nonaqueous foams occur in the production of and refining of crude oil. Crude oil foams can pose major problems for operators of gas/oil separation plants, causing a loss of crude

  3. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    by unwanted foaming. To study this phenomenon, 20 crude oils were subjected to low-pressure foaming volume, not collapse slope, strongly related to crude oil surface tension. For low asphaltenic crudes the production of crude oil and gas is the high pressure separator, often followed by one or more separators

  4. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, David; Luketa, Anay; Wocken, Chad; Schlasner, Steve; Aulich, Ted; Allen, Ray; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  5. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  6. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    that the influence of the urban region on wind patterns and atmospheric stability could be studied. HeightAtmospheric Environment ] (

  7. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudgetMaterialMaterials Materials Access to

  8. Arabian crude-oil residues evaluated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.F.; Bukhari, A.; Hasan, M.; Saleem, M.

    1985-08-12

    This article evaluates detailed physical and chemical characteristics for four important Saudi Arabian resids. Petroleum residues are composed of a mixture of large and complex hydrocarbon molecules along with one or more heteroatoms such as sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, vanadium, and nickel. The amount of residue and its physical and chemical composition depend on the source of the crude oil and methods of processing. Residues from four Saudi Arabian crude oils produced by the Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco) were evaluated. The crude oils are 38.5 degrees API Arabian Extra Light, 33.8 degrees API Arabian Light, 30.4 degrees Api Arabian Medium, and 28.03 degrees API Arabian Heavy. Results are presented and residue preparation, and physical and chemical characteristics are analyzed.

  9. This Week In Petroleum Crude Oil Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,0138.62(96)TheCrude

  10. Making and breaking of water in crude oil emulsions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Shweta D.

    2006-04-12

    appropriate emulsion breakers for different crude oil emulsions. The overall test design for the study includes a test apparatus for spreading and evaporation, three different crude oils, a mixing chamber to form the emulsion, and emulsion breakers...

  11. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from Libya of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Nigeria of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Qatar of...

  12. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Republic of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from El Salvador...

  13. Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, P.

    1979-01-01

    Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture...

  14. Nuclear salt-in-crude monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikh, S.; Richter, A.P.

    1983-05-01

    The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) recently installed a nuclear salt-in-crude monitor (SICM) that continuously measures the salt content of a flowing stream of crude oil. This device was developed by Texaco Inc.'s Bellaire (TX) Research Laboratory. The monitor consists of two parts: a counting chamber and an instrument console. The counting chamber is a length of 24-in.-diameter pipe containing a long-life neutron source and a gamma ray detector, both mounted in cross pipes so that there is no direct contact with the flowing crude. Neutrons from the source are absorbed by chloride ions in the stream, which in turn emit gamma rays. The intensity of the gamma rays is proportional to the amount of chlorine in the crude. The gamma ray detector is electrically connected to the instrument console, which is located in a control room. The console contains the necessary instrumentation to process the data from the detector, to compute the salt concentration, and to provide a continuous printed record of the salt per thousand barrels (PTB).

  15. The toxicity of two crude oils and kerosine to cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, Loyd Douglas

    1972-01-01

    in this study: c (1) a west Texas raw sour crude oil relatively low in gasoline, naphtha, and kerosine and relatively high in gas oil, lubricating distillates, residue, and sulfur; (2) a west Texas raw sweet d crude oil relatively high in gasoline, naphtha... and Kerosine Administered to Cattle* Characteristic Sweet crude Sour crude Kerosine Light gasoline (/) 14. 2 9. 6 Total gasoline plus naphtha (%) 43. 0 31. 6 Kerosine (/) Gas oil Lubricating distillates (%) Residue (%) Distillation loss (%%d) Sulfur...

  16. Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro.interscience.wiley.com). The precipitation of asphaltenes in two Mexican crude oils was measured using a combination of high- and tank-oil type of samples of the same crude oils. For the oils investigated, compositional data

  17. Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C of a nonconvex Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model for the scheduling of crude oil movement of crude oil and products. Furthermore, detailed scheduling models often require a continuous time

  18. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil of operational problems. Nowadays various test-systems are utilized for microbial monitoring in crude oils

  19. DYNAMIC HEDGING STRATEGIES: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRUDE OIL MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DYNAMIC HEDGING STRATEGIES: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRUDE OIL MARKET Delphine LAUTIER 1 , Professor ratios. Different strategies, with maturities up to seven years, are tested on the American crude oil instead of the prices, as is usually done. Our method is tested empirically on the American crude oil

  20. Gravity of world crude barrel to rise by 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports on the loss of crude exports from Iraq and Kuwait in 1990-91 and their gradual reentry into oil markets which will have a profound effect on world crude quality. Accordingly, the proportion of heavy crude in world markets will decline the next 5 years.

  1. Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling...

  2. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudgetMaterial

  3. Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.

    2015-06-02

    A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.

  4. Crude oil as refinery feed stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boduszynski, M.M.; Farrell, T.R. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives a brief overview of the integrated oil refinery. It illustrates that crude oil refining involves {open_quotes}molecular tailoring,{close_quotes} where feed stock molecules are {open_quotes}tailored{close_quotes} through catalytic processing to make products with the most desirable composition. Chemical composition of crude oil as refinery feed stock is discussed. The emphasis is on the understanding of molecular transformations which occur in refinery processes to manufacture light transportation fuels. Diesel fuel manufacturing is used as an example. Recent environmental legislation in the United States has necessitated a significant upgrade in the quality of diesel fuel used for highway transportation. Examples are given to illustrate the impact that petroleum chemistry may have on the industry`s response to government regulations.

  5. White Paper: Airborne Observations in Western North Dakota to Obtain Baseline Measurements for Qualification of Important Atmospheric Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    and aerosols. The production, transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas can result in methane atoms) vapors from crude oil production form aerosols within the atmosphere. The research objective determine the magnitude of emission rates from the region's oil and gas production (Karion et al. 2013

  6. System developed to predict waxy crude`s breakaway yield stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.; Hsu, J.J.C.; Patterson, H.L. [Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-16

    Breakaway yield stress (BAYS) was measured on waxy crude oil from the South China Sea to help develop appropriate design specifications for the HZ field subsea production system there. The measured BAYS at seabed temperature indicated that if production were interrupted and the crude in the pipeline cooled to seabed temperature, restart pressure would exceed the pressure rating of the originally planned pipeline. Texaco Inc. has designed a system to measure the BAYS of stock tank and live crude oils at selected temperatures. The cooling rate of the oil can be controlled and measurement of BAYS at the selected temperatures delayed to best model field conditions. The paper describes the measurement apparatus, pressure equation, results of the measurement of HZ 32 oils, rate of cooling, special field design, and implications.

  7. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15.

  8. Process for demetallizing and desulfurizing heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Hogan, R.J.; Combs, D.M.; Kukes, S.G.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a process for producing a synthetic crude oil of improved properties by desulfurizing, denitrogenating and demetallizing a heavy crude oil feed stock. The feed stock being a crude oil having an average boiling point at least as high as 500{degrees} F., an API gravity at 60{degrees} F. of less than 20, and containing at least about 1 weight percent sulfur.

  9. Australia`s Cossack crude oil is light and sweet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1997-05-05

    In early 1995, the characteristics of Australia`s light, sweet Cossack crude were analyzed. The 47{degree} API, 0.03 wt% crude oil is produced off the coast of Western Australia. Woodside Petroleum Pty. Group started production from the Wanaea/Cossack complex in late 1995. Wanea is produced from five conventional subsea wells and Cossack from one horizontal subsea well. This paper lists physical and chemical properties for the whole crude and fractions.

  10. Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product: Total Crude OilPropane

  11. Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product: Total Crude OilPropane

  12. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  13. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  14. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  15. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Crude Oil plus Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06302009"...

  16. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Crude...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014...

  17. ,"New Mexico Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06302009"...

  18. Relationship Between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the time series econometric relationship between the Henry Hub natural gas price and the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories Releases Literature Survey of Crude...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sandia National Laboratories Releases Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport Sandia National Laboratories Releases Literature...

  20. ,"U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"06302009" ,"Release...

  1. ,"TX, RRC District 10 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  2. ,"LA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  3. ,"CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  4. ,"Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Crude Oil plus Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  5. ,"NM, East Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  6. ,"LA, South Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  7. ,"TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  8. ,"CA, Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  9. ,"Miscellaneous Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  10. ,"NM, West Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  11. ,"North Louisiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  12. ,"TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  13. ,"CA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  14. ,"CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  15. ,"TX, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  16. ,"TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  17. Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1

  18. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal InteractionsSpace Science: Atmospheres Part- 7a Evolution of planets Out-Gassing/ Volcanoes Evolution Initial Species Solar abundance Solar wind composition? Carbonaceous chondrites? Variables Early sun

  19. Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil price? It does not relate to Mick' short stint at the London School of Economics for crude oil, that they attempted to control the price of crude on international markets. Their ability

  20. Crude Oil Sorption by Raw Cotton Vinitkumar Singh,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Crude Oil Sorption by Raw Cotton Vinitkumar Singh, Ronald J. Kendall, Kater Hake, and Seshadri: Since the recent Deepwater Horizon Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the need for environmentally friendly oil sorbents has intensified. This study deals with the sorption of crude oil by raw cotton, a biodegradable

  1. Waxy crude oil handling in Nigeria; Practices, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajienka, J.A.; Ikoku, C.U. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt (NG))

    1990-01-01

    With case studies, the practices, problems, and prospects of handling waxy crude oils in Nigeria are discussed. Using a rotational viscometer, the temperature dependence of rheological properties and thixotropy of these crudes were determined. Suggestions are given on how to improve handling practices. These suggestions include adequate screening and ranking of wax inhibitors, taking into account pour-point depression, viscosity, and yield value.

  2. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  3. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

  4. Steamflooding projects boost California's crude oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1981, the first time in more than a decade, US crude oil production in the lower 48 was higher than production in the preceding year. California is leading this resurgence. The state's oil production in October 1981 averaged 1,076,000 bpd, compared with 991,000 bpd in October 1980. Some of the increase comes from production in several offshore fields whose development had been delayed; some is due to greater output from the US Government's petroleum reserve at Elk Hills. However, a big portion of the state's increased production results from large steamdrive projects in heavy-oil fields of the San Joaquin Valley that were set in motion by decontrol of heavy-oil proces in mid-1979. California holds vast reserves of viscous, low-gravity oil in relatively shallow reservoirs. The methods used to produce heavy oil are discussed.

  5. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

  6. Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1 $70 Gas 2 $60 Gas 3 $50 Oil Purchase Price per barrel Crude 1 $45 Gas 2 $25 Gas 3 $20 Sunco can

  7. DOE to Issue Second Solicitation for Purchase of Crude Oil for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issue Second Solicitation for Purchase of Crude Oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve DOE to Issue Second Solicitation for Purchase of Crude Oil for the Strategic Petroleum...

  8. DOE to Issue Second Solicitation for Purchase of Crude Oil for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    second of several solicitations planned to purchase up to four million barrels of crude oil for the United States' crude oil reserve. The first solicitation, issued March 16,...

  9. Supply and demand planning for crude oil procurement in refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Beatrice N. (Beatrice Nne)

    2006-01-01

    The upstream petroleum supply chain is inefficient and uneconomical because of the independence of the four complex and fragmented functions which comprise it. Crude oil exploration, trading, transportation, and refining ...

  10. Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, James B

    1998-01-01

    parameter on the rate of coalescence. Using previously established procedures, the potential for enhancement of the electrostatic coalescence rate for oil/water emulsions of highly refined oils and different grades of crude oils was explored using a 2-L...

  11. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's...

  12. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  13. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  14. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  15. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  16. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  17. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  18. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  19. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  20. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  1. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  2. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  3. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  4. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  5. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  6. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  7. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  8. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  9. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  10. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  11. Demand key factor in worldwide crude prices and drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1995-01-30

    The global demand surge that rescued world crude oil prices in 1994 will continue through 1995 and at least sustain, if not increase, worldwide drilling activity. Although average world crude oil prices at the end of 1994 were somewhat higher than a year earlier, the average price for all of last year was down from that of 1993. Production capacity remained sufficient to meet the growing need for crude, and the potential for return of Iraqi exports, embargoed by the United Nations since August 1990, lingered over the market. For several years the average world export crude oil price fluctuated seasonally within the range of $16--20/bbl. This band appears to have dropped to $13--17/bbl. The paper discusses economic growth rates; worldwide demand; worldwide supply; worldwide supply outlook; prices; and international drilling activity.

  12. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's...

  13. Alaska Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil Shut-in Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Background and facts on Alaska's crude oil reserves, production, and transportation with the Energy Information Administration's analysis of potential shut-in impacts on U.S. oil markets.

  14. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  15. Fluorescent spectra of chromatographic fractions of crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, William Samuel

    1952-01-01

    of Results, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 XI. Bibliography. ~ . "" o" . . ". .. . . . ~ 26 XII. Appendix PURPOSE This invest1gation ?as undertaken in an effort to develop a means of the chromatographic separation of a crude oil~ and to examine... these fractions by spectro;ra hic means to determines (l) v'hether there are differences in the fluorescent spectra of the various chromatographic fractions oi a given crude oil, and (2) whether there are differ- ences between similar chromatographic fractions...

  16. A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: A thixotropic yield stress fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: A thixotropic yield stress fluid Christopher J features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, which are characterized the model crude oil under conditions of imposed steady shearing. These instabilities are a result

  17. The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance. This potential sale reflects in part Venezuela's urgent need for crude oil in order to satisfy required payments crude, making reliance on Canadian heavy crude oil more significant, and the approval of the Keystone XL

  18. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL); Nieman, G. William (Evanston, IL); Weertman, Julia R. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  19. Leaching of BTEX from Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils: Experimental and Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally assumed that soil properties such as organic matter content, porosity, and mineral surface area have a significant effect on the bioavailability and leachability of aged petroleum hydrocarbons. In order to test this hypothesis, nine model soils or sorbents (i.e., fine and coarse quartz sand, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, peat, 60? and 150? silica gel, a loam soil, and non-porous glass beads) were spiked with a crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and transferred to glass columns for the performance of continuous flow leaching experiments. The column effluents were periodically sampled for 43 days and analyzed for BTEX. A one-dimensional flow model for predicting the dissolution and dispersion of individual hydrocarbons from a multi-component NAPL such as crude oil was used to fit the leaching data (i.e., the BTEX concentration versus time curves) by adjusting the equilibrium oil-leachate partitioning coefficient (Kol) for each respective hydrocarbon. The Peclet number, which is a measure of dispersion and a required modeling parameter, was measured in separate chloride tracer experiments for each soil column. Results demonstrate that soil properties did not significantly affect the leaching kinetics of BTEX from the columns. Instead, BTEX leaching curves could be successfully fitted with the one-dimensional NAPL dissolution flow model for all sorbents with the exception of montmorillonite clay. The fitting parameter Kol for each hydrocarbon was found to be similar to the Kol values that were independently measured for the same crude oil by Rixey et al. (Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 65: 137-156, 1999). In addition, the fitted Kol values were very similar for BTEX leaching from aged compared to freshly spiked loam soil. These findings indicate that leaching of BTEX in the aged soils that are contaminated with crude oil at the high concentrations commonly found in the environment (i.e., >20,000 mg/kg) was not affected by soil properties or aging but rather was governed by the equilibrium dissolution of these hydrocarbons from the crude oil NAPL that is coating the soil particles.

  20. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  1. Restacking the old deck: with heavy crude wild cards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-02

    OPEC and various other crude oil producers are not playing with a full deck - yet. The OPEC production and price system has yet to take into account truly heavy crude, of the types Venezuela and Mexico export and California and Canada produce for domestic consumption. Generally, analysts providing projections to governments and oil companies fail to address heavy crude's increasing influence on world refining demand. There are indications that high-tech refiner's advantageous buying price spread between heavy and light crude will widen further for the next several years - and that heavy crude producers will enter a new competitive phase. This issue includes the following ED Data: (1) US asphalt import tonnage prices (by area), and tonnages (by country), and prices ($1 bbl.) as imported from N. Antilles, Canada, and Venezuela; (2) refining netback data from the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Sept. 27, 1985; (3) the fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, dates ranging from Jan. 1984 through Oct. 1985; and (4) principal industrial fuel prices for some of these countries as of Sept. 1985.

  2. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  3. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-02-04-21.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 17668 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-02-04-21.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Design of Crude Oil...-ordinates of hot stream inlet/desalter inlet temperature. The slope of the line is given by the ratio of the crude oil heat capacity flowrate to the hot stream heat capacity flowrate. The result could be that shown in Figure 7. ~ ?.JIt...

  5. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    U.S. crude oil proved reserves increased in 2014 for the sixth year in a row with a net addition of 3.4 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (a 9% increase), according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2014, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. natural gas proved reserves increased 10% in 2014, raising the U.S. total to a record 388.8 trillion cubic feet.

  6. Aggregation and transport kinetics of crude oil and sediment in estuarine waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, Michael Conroy, Jr.

    2004-09-30

    Modeling the transport and fate of spilled crude oil is important for estimating short and long-term toxicity effects in coastal ecosystems. This research project investigates the partitioning of hydrocarbons from a surface crude oil slick...

  7. Fact #758: December 17, 2012 U.S. Production of Crude Oil by State, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas is by far the State that produces the most crude oil in the U.S., but 30 other States also produced oil in 2011. Alaska, California, North Dakota, and Oklahoma were next in the top five crude...

  8. The rheological complexity of waxy crude oils : yielding, thixotropy and shear heterogeneities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou, Christopher (Christopher J.)

    2013-01-01

    Precipitate-containing crude oils are of increasing economic importance, due to diminishing oil reserves and the increased need to extract hydrate and wax-containing crude oil from ultra deep-water resources. Despite this ...

  9. Fact #863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products Fact 863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the...

  10. Heavier Crude, Changing Demand for Petroleum Fuels, Regional Climate Policy, and the Location of Upgrading Capacity:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John

    The crude slate is likely to become heavier in the future with greater reliance on bitumens, tar sands, heavy oils, and eventually possibly shale oil. Under standard refining processes these crude oil sources produce a ...

  11. Fact #819: April 28, 2014 Imports of Crude Oil Declining

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Imports of crude oil to the U.S. were on an upward trend for about 20 years. During this period, imports increased from 3.2 million barrels per day in 1986 to 10.1 million barrels per day in 2006....

  12. West Virginia Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  13. Legislative history of the crude oil windfall profit tax

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, T.

    1980-08-01

    This paper looks at the history of the crude oil windfall profits tax program from the completion of the administration proposal to the passage of the final conference bill. The administration's proposal, House action, Senate action, and the final bill are described.

  14. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  16. Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua Joseph D. Mc group types and content) and aromaticity of the polar fractions of these particular crude oils a significant effect on the emulsifying potential of the crude oil. In the comparison of the two fractionation

  17. CP Based Tool for Tightening the MILP Relaxation of a Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling MINLP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    CP Based Tool for Tightening the MILP Relaxation of a Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling MINLP Sylvain;Introduction Goals Optimize the schedule of operations for the crude-oil unloading and blending problem using the MILP relaxation of the MINLP 1 / 14 #12;Crude-oil operations scheduling problem Scheduling horizon [0

  18. The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability Andrew P, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Small inorganic particles strongly enhance water-crude oil emulsion accompanies crude oil during its recovery from a reservoir. Additional water might also be added to aid

  19. Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lübbecke, Marco

    Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with Split, Germany March 7, 2012 Abstract The split pickup split delivery crude oil tanker routing and scheduling, because of the large expenses in crude oil shipping it is attractive to make use of optimization

  20. A comparative study of continuous-time modelings for scheduling of crude oil operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    A comparative study of continuous-time modelings for scheduling of crude oil operations Xuan Chena and formulations for the crude oil scheduling problem. We compare the event-based model, the unit slot model on its efficient performance for industrial problems. Keywords: Crude oil scheduling; event-based model

  1. Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux Optimize the schedule of operations for the crude-oil prob- lem using a MINLP scheduling model Tools MINLP Sylvain Mouret, Ignacio E. Grossmann, Pierre Pestiaux Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations #12

  2. Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils Barbara J. Musser and Peter Carolina 27695-7905 Received November 5, 1997 Petroleum waxes from sixteen different crude oils were to aid in the investigation of the effect of wax type and quantity on water-in-crude oil emulsion

  3. A CP Based Branching Tool for Breaking Symmetries in Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    A CP Based Branching Tool for Breaking Symmetries in Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling Sylvain Mouret Goals Optimize the schedule of operations for the crude-oil unloading and blending problem using in the MINLP model Use CP inference techniques to improve performance 1 / 14 #12;Crude-oil operations

  4. Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian approaches and produces better solutions in reasonable times. Keywords: refinery planning, crude-oil

  5. Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Heavy crude oil can that by using carbon nano- catalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively

  6. The Quarterly Publication of NCEER Volume 9, Number 3, July 1995 Crude Oil Transmission Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajaiah, Satish

    The Quarterly Publication of NCEER Volume 9, Number 3, July 1995 Crude Oil Transmission Study. The production and delivery of crude oil is critical to every major in- dustry and business sector in the United States. This nation's most crucial crude oil system traverses the midwest and is subject to seismic

  7. Scheduling of large scale crude oil blending Felipe Diaz-Alvarado1, Francisco Trespalacios2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Scheduling of large scale crude oil blending Felipe D´iaz-Alvarado1, Francisco Trespalacios2, 30 (4): 614-634. D´iaz-Alvarado, Trespalacios, Grossmann Scheduling of large scale crude oil blending, P. A Novel Priority-Slot Based Continuous-Time Formulation for Crude-Oil Scheduling Problems

  8. Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils Christopher J. Dimitriou@mit.edu Abstract Waxes are a commonly encountered precipitate that can result in gelation of crude oils behavior similar to waxy crude oils encountered in production scenarios. To study the consequences

  9. Submitted to Energy Policy, 16 November 2009 Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Submitted to Energy Policy, 16 November 2009 ERG/200911 Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its;Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security Larry Hughes Energy. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting

  10. A Novel Priority-Slot Based Continuous-Time Formulation for Crude-Oil Scheduling Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    A Novel Priority-Slot Based Continuous-Time Formulation for Crude-Oil Scheduling Problems Sylvain, France E-mail: grossmann@cmu.edu October 2008 Abstract The optimal scheduling of crude-oil operations be used to solve the crude-oil operations problem introduced by Lee et al. 1 . It is different from

  11. A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide Nael N State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 CO2 was used to break several water-in-crude oil density and mole fraction. The proposed mechanism by which CO2 destabilizes water-in-crude oil emulsions

  12. A Symmetry-Breaking Tool for the Optimization of Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    A Symmetry-Breaking Tool for the Optimization of Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling Sylvain Mouret the schedule of operations for the crude-oil unloading and blending problem using a continuous and Mann (2003) #12;Crude-oil operations scheduling problem Scheduling horizon [0, H] 4 types of resources

  13. MODELLING WAX DIFFUSION IN CRUDE OILS: THE COLD FINGER , A. Fasano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    MODELLING WAX DIFFUSION IN CRUDE OILS: THE COLD FINGER DEVICE S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio Abstract In this paper we show how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in crude oils from obtained in simulations are in agreement with data of field experiments. 1 Introduction Waxy crude oils

  14. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish John P November 6, 2013) The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil

  15. WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano -Mario Primicerio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano - Mario Primicerio abstract. The complex phenomenon of solid wax deposition in wax sat- urated crude oils subject to thermal gradients has. Introduction Crude oils are complex mixtures containing parans, aromatics, naph- tenics, resins, asphaltenes

  16. How Increased Crude Oil Demand by China and India Affects the International Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 How Increased Crude Oil Demand by China and India Affects the International Market. Abstract The global crude oil market is characterised by complex interactions between demand and supply. The question that we address in this paper is how increased demand for crude oil by China and India affects

  17. Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills in Marine and Freshwater Environments--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills in Marine and Freshwater of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;#12;Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills, 2015, Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater

  18. The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests Amélie CHARLES Audencia the random walk hypothesis for the crude oil markets, using daily data over the period 1982­2008. The weak-form efficient market hy- pothesis for two oil crude markets (UK Brent and US West Texas Intermediate) is tested

  19. RAILROAD STRATEGY FOR CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT: Considering Public Policy and Pipeline Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    RAILROAD STRATEGY FOR CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT: Considering Public Policy and Pipeline Competition S.M. Candidate Transportation and Engineering Systems S. Joel Carlson MOTIVATIONS While crude oil is mainly 9,500 carloads in 2008 to 234,000 in 2012 (AAR 2013) The explosion of a crude oil unit-train in Lac

  20. Time-varying Predictability in Crude Oil Markets: The Case of GCC Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Time-varying Predictability in Crude Oil Markets: The Case of GCC Countries Mohamed El Hedi Arouri the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period 1997-2008. Using data from four countries of the Gulf concerning any disruptions in global oil supply. Understanding crude-oil price dynamics is thus of great

  1. Review Paper/ Crude Oil at the Bemidji Site: 25 Years of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Review Paper/ Crude Oil at the Bemidji Site: 25 Years of Monitoring, Modeling, and Understanding of the plume during natural attenuation. Introduction It has long been recognized that spills of crude oil. Aerial view of the Bemidji, Minnesota, crude-oil spill research site showing the site of the

  2. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR-Award 0654118 Ion Cyclotron Resonance User Program Solid deposits and emulsions from crude oil can-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

  3. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U or other Federal agencies. #12;#12;1 U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves to the prices used in 2008. U.S. crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves rose 9 percent to 22.3 billion

  4. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices Ahmed distributed lags (NARDL) mod- el to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas-through of crude oil prices to the prices of refined petroleum products and other commodities. Most of them make

  5. Interfacial and colloidal behavior of asphaltenes obtained from Brazilian crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Interfacial and colloidal behavior of asphaltenes obtained from Brazilian crude oils Anto and crude oils and discuss the implications of these data on the aggregation, adsorption on solid surfaces Brazilian crude oils. Surface tension measurements in solutions formed by any of these two types

  6. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  7. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  8. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  9. Guatemala switch to crude saves over $1 million a month

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Biasi, V.

    1980-03-01

    In a two-step program designed to reduce fuel costs and improve operating efficiency, Empresa Electrica de Guatemala has modified two General Electric PG 5341 gas turbines at Laguna to run on crude oil and installed heat recovery equipment for repowering two existing steam turbines. The gas turbines, nominally rated at around 19,000 kW for base load operation at 70/sup 0/F average ambient temperature and 4000 feet altitude, were installed in 1977-78 as a base load backup to hydro power during the dry season. Original plan was to put them into immediate service as simple cycle units and then convert to combined cycle operation. Priorities were shifted to switch over from distillate to crude oil firing before going ahead with the combined cycle istallation. Their economic evaluation showed the initial investment would be paid off in a few months by the savings in fuel costs.

  10. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage program experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, J.; Neal, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berndsen, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US Strategic Petroleum Reserve is currently storing nearly 600 million barrels of crude oil in 62 leached and one mined salt cavern in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. In more than 15 years of operation the oil reserve has had unique experiences in liquid hydrocarbon storage in a former salt mine, long term effects of underground storage on crude oil and pipelines, and long term effects of underground salt creep. This paper reviews significant experiences, technological accomplishments, and major problems that have been overcome. Long term geomechanical effects on mines including modeling and experience, unique gas and thermal effects on stored liquid hydrocarbons, corrosion in brine pipelines, and the slow closure of caverns due to salt creep are specifically addressed. Additionally, the unique conditions, and the lessons learned which led to the DOE decision to withdraw from the Weeks Island storage site are discussed.

  11. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  12. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, M.R. [Simmons and Co. International, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  13. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  14. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  15. Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvey, Luke

    2012-05-31

    -Tropsch principles or used in traditional hydrogen applications (e.g. fuel cells, renewable hydrogenation reactions, etc.). In this study, the viability of using steam reforming techniques to convert crude glycerol into a hydrogen rich gas is addressed. To do... Appendix H – Response Factor Calculation 121 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview Rising petroleum prices and increased concerns with global warming have forced the search for alternative, renewable (non-petroleum based) fuels...

  16. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Elliott, Doug

    2014-06-02

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  17. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  18. Crude price free-fall. Yamanis mission: to prevent it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-30

    On January 30, 1985, OPEC announced price cuts effective February 1 for very-light and medium-light grades of crude, except for Nigeria's which, already having cut US $2/bbl on its own, increased its price for 37/sup 0/ API Bonny Light by US $0.65. The traditional OPEC marker crude, 34/sup 0/ API Arabian Light, is cut US $1.00 to $28.00/bbl. Arabian Heavy, about 27/sup 0/ API, stays at US $26.50. Prior to the cuts, the maximum spread between extra-light OPEC crude and Arabian Heavy was US $4.00/bbl. The spread between extra-light and the then-benchmark was US $1.50 at most, and between Arabian Heavy and the then-benchmark, US $2.50. Now, the official spreads are: Bonny Light-Arabian Heavy, US $2.15/bbl; Bonny Light-Arabian Light, US $0.65/bbl; Arabian Light-Arabian Heavy, US $1.50/bbl. These decisions have brought OPEC instant credibility, and could calm skeptics still warning of a free-fall in prices. This issue presents the refining netback data, US Gulf and West Coasts, late January 1985. The issue also contains the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for December 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere. Asphalt export prices to the US for each month of 1984 are also listed.

  19. Canmet hydrocracking handles wide range of heavy crudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, R.J.; Chambers, L.W.; Menzies, M.A.; Patmore, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    The track record of successful or realistic projections within industry over recent years has not exactly been outstanding. It almost seems that as the tools and methods that are available become more sophisticated, the less effective they are because of our inability to predict major events and their adverse impact on otherwise realistic projections. Crude oil sources, gravity and prices coupled with product type, demand and quality have all been affected. One thing that one can say with reasonable certainty is that there is no apparent reason to assume that the scene will stabilize in the near or mid-term future. Thus, the refiner is faced with continuing uncertainty as to crude source and product demand. He, therefore, has need to maintain flexibility in being able to process as wide a range of crudes and to produce as wide a range of products as possible. This paper postulates that the CANMET Hydrocracking Process can assist in achieving a greater degree of flexibility in refinery operation through its ability to handle a wide range of heavy feedstocks. The authors report new yield data for heavy feeds and the status of the previously announced demonstration unit. The unit is being designed on the basis of extensive data developed at the CANMET and Petro Canada laboratories in Ottawa and Calgary, Alberta, respectively. The paper concludes with a suggested modular application of CANMET hydrocracking to Athabasca Tar Sands development.

  20. Nano-composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  1. 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    44 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine used Spraberry oil, synthetic reservoir brine and Spraberry core at reservoir temperature (138o F

  2. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V

    2015-01-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  3. SCADA computer sytem controls major Saudi Aramco crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J.; Al-Habib, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    A replacement Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) computer system which monitors and controls two 1,100 kilometer pipelines and eleven associated pump stations is described. The SCADA system was designed to meet two objectives: (1) decentralize the overall control system and provide a distributed control system capable of regulatory control at each pump and pressure reducing station, and (2) provide system wide monitoring and supervisory control function during normal operations at the crude oil terminal. The SCADA computer system hardware (host computers and consoles), software modules, and applications are overviewed. A data flow diagram and a hardware configuration diagram are provided. 3 figs.

  4. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiya V. Pimenova; Denis S. Goldobin

    2015-10-08

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  5. Louisiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297Feet)Separation,Crude Oil

  6. Louisiana--South Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number(Million(Million Barrels) Crude Oil

  7. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46ProductionCrude Oil + Lease

  8. California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona -ProductionWet AfterWetLeaseCrude Oil +

  9. California Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona -ProductionWet AfterWetLeaseCrude(Million

  10. California State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 ArizonaResidential(Million Barrels) Crude Oil +

  11. Nebraska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (next release 2:00 p.m.,9,7,3, 2011Crude Oil +

  12. Nebraska Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (next release 2:00 p.m.,9,7,3, 2011Crude Oil

  13. New York Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226UndergroundProductionProvedCrude Oil Reserves

  14. Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved Reserves (Billionoff) ShaleCrude Oil + Lease

  15. Texas - RRC District 8 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1PlantSeparation, Proved(Million Barrels) Crude Oil +

  16. Texas - RRC District 9 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1PlantSeparation, Proved(Million(Million Barrels) Crude

  17. Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1PlantSeparation, Proved(Million(MillionReserves (BillionCrude

  18. Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1PlantSeparation,% of TotalOklahoma (MillionBarrels) Crude

  19. Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData20092009ReservesThousand CubicProductionCrude Oil

  20. U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: AprilCubicProduction Capacity ofCrude Oil

  1. U.S. Crude Oil Supply & Disposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15,Gas Reserve ClassResidualCrude

  2. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101CompanyProduct: Crude Oil and Petroleum

  3. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,013 34,467 608,595

  4. Total Crude Oil and Products Exports by Destination

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil

  5. U.S. Crude Oil Supply & Disposition

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil General Industries and

  6. U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil General Industries andArea: U.S.

  7. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's New inconsumptionAverage4.151,090

  8. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's New

  9. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels,

  10. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels,9,470 9,552 9,511 9,768

  11. U.S. Movements of Crude Oil by Rail

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels,9,470 9,552 9,511reports

  12. U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels,9,470Area:Jun-15 Jul-15

  13. U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 Aug-15

  14. U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15 Jun-15Area:U.S.Import Area:

  15. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum

  16. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAboutTotal Energy GlossaryDepth of Crude

  17. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. ,"TX, RRC District 7B Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  19. ,"TX, RRC District 7C Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  20. ,"TX, RRC District 1 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  1. ,"TX, RRC District 9 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  2. ,"TX, RRC District 8 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  3. ,"TX, RRC District 6 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  4. ,"TX, RRC District 5 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  5. ,"TX, RRC District 8A Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  6. ,"Federal Offshore U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  7. Production and pricing patterns in the international crude oil market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study focuses on measuring the patterns of production and pricing of the major oil-exporting countries over the past decade. It conducts a series of empirical investigations, relying largely on quarterly data, into the determinants of the distribution of oil liftings in the OPEC areas, including the significance of relative crude oil price incentives, the stability of oil prices and market shares, the components of the residual demand for OPEC oil with emphasis on fluctuations in speculative demand for oil inventories, the impact of effective capacity utilization and speculative demand on major price escalations, and the sensitivity of Saudi Arabian price preferences to evolving net demand reaction to higher oil prices and to the share it is able to retain of the OPEC market. The background for this analysis is provided by a review of the historical evolution of oil and energy consumption, production and development patterns during the postwar era, and the reversal of theoretical frameworks for analyzing the international oil market are described, and the rationale for the noncompetitive view of oil prices and production in major exporting countries is detailed. Finally, the transformation of the structure of crude oil marketing over the past decade is analyzed, emphasizing growing competitive trends in the industry mixed with residual oligopolistic tendencies.

  8. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June.

  9. Reproducing MEES Is Strictly Prohibited MEES 47:11 15 March 2004 The Value Of Extra-Heavy Crude Oil From The Orinoco Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    , with the exception of a few deposits in the Machete area, the type of crude found in the Orinoco Oil Belt is mobile be recoverable. (This figure, to give us an idea of its magnitude, is equal to the proven crude oil reserves essentially contains extra-heavy crude: crude oil of less than 10º API (in other words crude that is heavier

  10. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga thatmore »compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.« less

  11. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Molnár, István [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Natural Products Center and Bio5 Institute; Lopez, David [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology; Wisecaver, Jennifer H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Devarenne, Timothy P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Weiss, Taylor L. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Pellegrini, Matteo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology; Hackett, Jeremiah D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bio5 Institute and Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.

  12. Feasibility of using nanoporous materials in water harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Brian Justin

    2010-01-01

    Possible Role in Water Harvesting Experiment: AtmosphericNANOPOROUS MATERIALS IN WATER HARVESTING A thesis submittedNANOPOROUS MATERIALS IN WATER HARVESTING by Brian Justin

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  14. Aalborg Universitet Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-Crude Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    Aalborg Universitet Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-Crude Production Grigoras, Ionela.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-crude Production Ionela F. Grigoras) per day, and with an oil production capacity questioned constantly, together with the increasing CO2

  15. CALIBRATION OF STOCHASTIC CONVENIENCE YIELD MODELS FOR CRUDE OIL USING THE KALMAN FILTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    CALIBRATION OF STOCHASTIC CONVENIENCE YIELD MODELS FOR CRUDE OIL USING THE KALMAN FILTER MASTER of including stochastic dynamics for the two state variables in futures contracts on the commodity, light crude oil. First of all we consider throughout the report deterministic interest rates. This makes

  16. On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger Statoil Mongstad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network Tore Lid #3; Statoil Mongstad N-5954 modeling and on-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network at the Statoil Mongstad re#12;nery oil in the heat exchanger network. The steady state mass and energy balance of the 20 heat exchangers

  17. Crude Injustice in the Gulf: Why Categorical Exclusions for Deepwater Drilling in the Gulf of Mexico are Inconsistent with U.S. International Ocean Law and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Eric V.

    2011-01-01

    Percentage of Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200and 2010, monthly crude oil production in the Gulf more thanof Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil, U.S. ENERGY INFO.

  18. Crude Injustice in the Gulf: Why Categorical Exclusions for Deepwater Drilling in the Gulf of Mexico are Inconsistent with U.S. International Ocean Law and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Eric V.

    2011-01-01

    Field Production of Crude Oil, U.S. ENERGY INFO. ADMIN. :nine million barrels of crude oil per day-third worldwideapproximately 30% of all crude oil extracted from U.S.

  19. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry and global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ

    1999-01-01

    and particles. Thus Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Changethe future of atmospheric chemistry. BROWSINGS Tornadothe complexity of atmospheric chemistry well, but trips a

  1. Correlation structure and principal components in global crude oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yue-Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, George J; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation structure of the global crude oil market using the daily returns of 71 oil price time series across the world from 1992 to 2012. We identify from the correlation matrix six clusters of time series exhibiting evident geographical traits, which supports Weiner's (1991) regionalization hypothesis of the global oil market. We find that intra-cluster pairs of time series are highly correlated while inter-cluster pairs have relatively low correlations. Principal component analysis shows that most eigenvalues of the correlation matrix locate outside the prediction of the random matrix theory and these deviating eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors contain rich economic information. Specifically, the largest eigenvalue reflects a collective effect of the global market, other four largest eigenvalues possess a partitioning function to distinguish the six clusters, and the smallest eigenvalues highlight the pairs of time series with the largest correlation coefficie...

  2. PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water NEW is highly effective at absorbing crude oil spills. The study, published in the most recent issue of low-micronaire cotton can absorb more than 30 pounds of dense crude oil. In addition, the natural

  3. The effect of un-saturates on low-temperature oxidation of crude oil Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    The effect of un-saturates on low-temperature oxidation of crude oil Sidqi A. Abu-temperature oxidation (LTO) is a slow, mildly exothermic reaction, which is prompted whenever air contacts crude oil reactivity becomes necessary. LTO reactions of crude oil prevail at temperatures below 300 o C producing

  4. Study: Exposure to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster causes swimming deficiencies in juvenile mahi mahi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Study: Exposure to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster causes swimming deficiencies of large fish Crude oil spreads across a wide swath of the Gulf of Mexico during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon. The four million barrels of crude oil that spewed into the Gulf of Mexico from BP's failed oil drilling

  5. Acute Embryonic or Juvenile Exposure to Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil Impairs the Swimming Performance of Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Acute Embryonic or Juvenile Exposure to Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil Impairs the Swimming and ecologically important fish species to crude oil during the sensitive early life stages. We show that brief approximately 4 million barrels (6 × 108 L) of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM).1-3 The DWH

  6. We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates by negative-ion electrospray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates sample consumption. Angola and offshore Canadian crude oils and Athabasca bitumen were used as supplied differences of acidic species in crude oils and naphthenates and also afford structural characterization

  7. Path Search Algorithm for Connections with Pumps in Crude Oil Pipe Networks Jorge L. Rojas-D'Onofrio*. Jack Mrquez**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Path Search Algorithm for Connections with Pumps in Crude Oil Pipe Networks Jorge L. Rojas of connections in pipe networks for crude oil transportation, using pumps to overcome negative differences Algorithms. 1. INTRODUCTION The studied systems are two pipe networks for crude oil transportation: one

  8. A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils POLARIS Applied Sciences, Inc. (2013) Abstract Diluted bitumen (dilbit) crude oil represents a range of oils produced from bitumen extracted from oil sands

  9. Contact angle measurements and wetting behavior of inner surfaces of pipelines exposed to heavy crude oil and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    crude oil and water RonaldoG.dosSantos a , Rahoma S. Mohamed a,F , Antonio C. Bannwart b , Watson Loh c alternative for the transportation of heavy crude oils. The lubricating effect of the aqueous film leads of such surfaces by crude oils through contact angle measurements in systems containing heavy oil/aqueous phase

  10. Macro-and Microscale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes which form w/o Emulsions upon Mixing with Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    the reservoir brine. These crudes are obtained from a large oil field with stock tank oil viscositiesMacro- and Microscale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes which form w/o Emulsions upon Mixing ABSTRACT: We study the micro- and macroscale waterflooding performances of unusual crudes which naturally

  11. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-11-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  12. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  13. ,"California Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014CrudeCoalbedCrude Oil +Crude Oil +

  14. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  15. Assessing bioremediation of crude oil in soils and sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillen, S.J.; Kerr, J.M. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Gray, N.R. [American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (United States); Requejo, A.G.; McDonald, T.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Geochemical and Environmental Research Group; Douglas, G.S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Standard bulk property analytical methods currently being employed to evaluate crude oil bioremediation efficacy in soils provide no information concerning the mechanisms by which hydrocarbon losses are occurring (e.g., biodegradation versus leaching). Site/sample heterogeneity in field bioremediation projects may make it difficult to accurately quantify hydrocarbon losses due to biodegradation. To better understand the mechanisms by which losses are occurring and to accurately evaluate biodegradation rates, the hydrocarbon analytical methods must provide both quantitative and compositional information. In this study laboratory bioremediation experiments were used to compare the results of bulk property analytical methods with those methods used by petroleum geochemists that provide both quantitative and compositional data. A tecator extraction was used to isolate the total extractable matter (TEM) from the samples. Compositional changes were monitored by (1) column chromatography to determine class distributions, (2) high resolution gas chromatography with a flame-ionization detector (GC/FID) and (3) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Illustrations of the compositional changes detected by each method and their application to validating bioremediation are provided.

  16. Price crash 1986: the waiting gams: implication for heavy crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-05-14

    Across the United States, oil producers are betting on price stabilization - because they can do little else. From Alaska to Louisiana, significant production is already uneconomic, but so far, most producers seem convinced it is safer to risk producing too long than to shut in prematurely - sounds like Norway and OPEC. In this issue, ED examines recent US oil-industry papers on production featuring California independents, and arrives at an overview of possible near-term price trends for light and heavy crude. This issue of ED also contains statistical data on: (1) asphalt export prices to the USA from Canada, N Antilles, and Venezuela; (2) USA imports of asphalt by country of origin; (3) refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore; (4) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres; and (5) ED principal industrial fuel prices as of March 1986, for countries of both the Eastern and Western hemispheres.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  18. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  19. Field Instruments for Real Time In-Situ Crude Oil Concentration Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, C. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Page, C. A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling Jr., M. C.; Ojo, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Texas Water Resources Institute awarded a Mill Scholarship to M.C. Sterling, Jr in 2002. This project describes five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in an aquatic system. These measurements are critical for monitoring...

  20. Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou, Christopher J.

    Waxes are a commonly encountered precipitate that can result in the gelation of crude oils and cessation of flow in pipelines. In this work, we develop a model wax–oil system that exhibits rheological behavior similar to ...

  1. Calibration of Stochastic Convenience Yield Models For Crude Oil Using the Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Calibration of Stochastic Convenience Yield Models For Crude Oil Using the Kalman Filter A physical bales of oil rather than future contracts. Should their be a sudden shock-situation wherein the de

  2. Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullayev, Azer

    2009-06-02

    Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand the effects of additives on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils. The studies have been conducted for the following oil samples...

  3. Multi-Factor Model of Correlated Commodity - Forward Curves for Crude Oil and Shipping Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellefsen, Per Einar

    2009-01-01

    An arbitrage free multi-factor model is developed of the correlated forward curves of the crude oil, gasoline, heating oil and tanker shipping markets. Futures contracts trading on public exchanges are used as the primary ...

  4. Fact #652: December 6, 2010 U.S. Crude Oil Production Rises

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The production of crude oil in the U.S., including lease condensates, rose in 2009 for the first time since 1991. The general trend of declining oil production began in 1986 after a slight peak in...

  5. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01

    in accelerating oil production and to compare the performance of steam-propane injection versus steam injection alone on an intermediate crude oil of 21 ?API gravity. Eight experimental runs were performed: three pure steam injection runs, three steam...

  6. Understanding government and railroad strategy for crude oil transportation in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, S. Joel (Stephen Joel)

    2014-01-01

    On July 6, 2013, an oil-laden unit train derailed and exploded in Lac-Megantic, Quebec, Canada, killing 47 people, shocking and saddening many, and leading to significantly increased public scrutiny of crude oil transported ...

  7. Fact #863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    You are here Home Fact 863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products - Dataset Fact 863 March 9,...

  8. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  9. The relationship between crude oil and natural gas spot prices and its stability over time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramberg, David J. (David John)

    2010-01-01

    The historical basis for a link between crude oil and natural gas prices was examined to determine whether one has existed in the past and exists in the present. Physical bases for a price relationship are examined. An ...

  10. A reexamination of the crude oil price-unemployment relationship in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Economic Research Service, Washington, DC (United States). Natural Resources and Environment Div.; Boyd, R. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1996-04-01

    This study begins by asking whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected employment and the rate of unemployment in the US. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between the rate of unemployment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impact of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in unemployment is exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in unemployment and the volatility of the price of crude oil and the percentage change in gross national product is examined.

  11. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  12. Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences 1959­2009 WayneBurt. #12;Oceanography and Atmospheric in Oceanography (TENOC). Wayne Burt immediately responds with proposal to President Strand of Oregon State College to start a graduate Department of Oceanography. 1959 Oregon State Board of Higher Education approves

  13. A new thermodynamic model to predict wax deposition from crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loganathan, Narayanan

    1993-01-01

    . , 1926; Affens et al. , 1984), crystal morphology (Ferris and Cowles, 1945; Edwards, 1957), and physical properties of petroleum wax (Templin, 1956) have been studied in detail. Bem et ak (1980) studied wax deposition in North Sea submarine crude-oil...A NEW THERMODYNAMIC MODEL TO PREDICT WAX DEPOSITION FROM CRUDE OILS A Thesis by NARAYANAN LOGANATHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fullillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  14. Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

  15. Long range weathering effects on the chemical properties of two Venezuelan crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautz, Anton Frank

    1974-01-01

    LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON Tl'iE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON THE CHEHICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis by ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C t Head of Department Hember...

  16. Investigation and technique in the fluorescent spectra examination of crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Gilbert Vester

    1958-01-01

    INVESTIGATION AND TECHNIQUE IN THE FLUORESCENT SPECTRA EXAMINATION OF CRUDE OIL A THESIS by Gilbert V. Chambers Approved as to style and content by: ha man o zt 1 ead o Department or Stu ent Adv sor January 1958 AGKNOWLEDGEhlENT... 40 IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . 42 X. APPEND IX ~ A. Development of Technique: Run Number 1. Run Number 2. Run Number 5. B. Results: g5 52 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 60 West Texas Sour Crude Oil . . . . . . 69 East Texas Crud. e Oil...

  17. Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkhosh, Hamed

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Approved as to styie and content by Chai, an of Committee Head...

  18. A comparison of the performance of waterfloods using similar refined and crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Daylon Lynn

    1960-01-01

    A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFI, GODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFLOODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman f...

  19. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    exclusionary distribution of oil rents (2001:189). map 3.likewise demonstrates how oil rents appear to materialize “becomes dependent on oil rents, the seemingly inevitable

  20. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  1. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601– 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  2. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  3. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  4. Autumn 2014 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    to perform atmospheric chemistry measurements in this remote region of ubiquitous oil and gas drilling 30 days they raised $12,000, enough to support Maria's travel to Utah and to cover the costs

  5. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  7. 13, 1479714822, 2013 Atmospheric waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    .5194/acpd-13-14797-2013 © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Sciences ss Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Discussions Atmospheric Measurement s Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  8. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  9. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Third international conference on heavy crude and tar sands. Part II. Highlights on cooperations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-28

    Oversupplies of conventional light petroleum worldwide have all but eclipsed the importance of heavy crude and tar sands where near-term market prospects are concerned. However, ongoing investments in productivity of heavy oil projects, from high-tech California to underdeveloped Guatemala, will hopefully continue at a pace that will assure uninterrupted advances. This issue continues ED's coverage of the Third International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands. A graph shows the results of Guatemala's efforts to attract foreign investment in its crude oil production. This issue also contains: (1) the refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coast, Singapore, and Rotterdam as of Aug. 27, 1985; and (2) the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of July 1985 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  13. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  14. Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains B.L. Yeap D.I. Wilson G.T. PoUey Dept. of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. ESDU International Ltd University of Cambridge University of Cambridge Fouling has two significant effects upon pre heat.... Extended fouling can affect the throughput of the train. The impetus behind exchanger cleaning is often the need to maintain throughput rather than save energy. If we are to be able to consider fouling in the design of crude oil pre-heat trains, we...

  15. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  16. The recovery of crude oil spilled on a ground water aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malter, Paul Lawrence

    1983-01-01

    THE RECOVERY OF CRUDE OIL SPILLED ON A GROUND WATER AQUIFER A Thesis by PAUL LAWRENCE MALTER Approved as to style and content by: oy W, ann, J (Ch irman of Committee) / Dona McDona (Head of Department) as (Me ) 0 s Le a . ~e e (Member...) May 1983 ABSTRACT The Recovery of Crude Oil Spilled on a Ground Water Aquifer. (Nay 1983) Paul Lawrence Malter, B. S. , Texas A6K University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Roy W. Bann, Jr. Case histories of previous petroleum spill cleanups...

  17. Table 7. Crude oil proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocksU.S. shale gas plays: natural gasPetroleum NetCrudeCrude

  18. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014Crude OilCrude Oil + Lease

  19. ,"California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014CrudeCoalbedCrude Oil + Lease

  20. U.S. crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later this year

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15Area: U.S.crude oil

  1. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per day in December

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15Area: U.S.crude oilU.S.

  2. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per day in December

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15Area: U.S.crude

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  4. Material Misfits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issues submit Material Misfits How well nanocomposite materials align at their interfaces determines what properties they have, opening broad new avenues of materials-science...

  5. Liver antioxidant and plasmatic immune responses in juvenile1 golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) exposed to dispersed crude oil2 3 Thomas Milinkovitch1* , Awa Ndiaye2 , Wilfried Sanchez2 , Stéphane Le a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas.51 52 Keywords: dispersed crude oil; dispersant; oxidative ; CD : Chemically Dispersed oil ; D : Dispersant solution ; MD : Mechanically Dispersed oil; WSF

  6. Petroporphyrins The most abundant and problematic metal compounds in crude oil exist as organic complexes of vanadium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Petroporphyrins ­The most abundant and problematic metal compounds in crude oil exist as organic of porphyrins is critical for developing petroleum upgrading processes, as well as linking crude oil to source rock conditions. Because petroporphyrins concentrate in heavy oils, direct characterization challenges

  7. Aquatic Toxicology 61 (2002) 127140 www.elsevier.com/locate/aquatox Tolerance to biodegraded crude oil in marine invertebrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    be an important mechanism for extrusion of the by-products of crude oil degradation by microbes oil in marine invertebrate embryos and larvae is associated with expression of a multixenobiotic of water-soluble fractions of biodegraded crude oil (BWSF) to embryos and larvae of two marine

  8. Autumn 2012 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    wind, and accumulated precipitation at a designated city. Forecasts are made over a two-week period Department 1 The UW Atmospheric Sciences spring forecast contest has been an annual tradition there will be a marine push or a convergence zone wrecking their forecast for maximum temperature and precipitation

  9. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2013 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  10. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  11. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2008 University of Colorado at Boulder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory) LASP: A Brief History In 1946-47, a handful of American universities joined Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper

  12. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2010 University of Colorado from the Na- val Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  13. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging components of the atmosphere, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the noble gases. In the late

  14. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  15. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then be filled by expanding production of coal, heavy oil and oil shales, nuclear and hydroelectric power, and renewable energy sources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Declining oil production forecasts are based on current estimated ultimate recoverable conventional crude oil resources of 329 billion barrels for the United States and close to 3 trillion barrels for the world. Peak world crude oil production is forecast to occur in 2020 at 90 million barrels per day. Conventional crude oil production in the United States is forecast to terminate by about 2090, and world production will be close to exhaustion by 2100.

  16. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.

  17. It Pays to Modify Existing Crude Preheat Trains to Conserve More Energy! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feintuch, H. M.; Peer, V.; Wong, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    With the cost of fuel now being so high, maximum recovery of available waste heat to preheat crude oil is an essential step in reducing the fuel consumption in a refinery. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation has developed a special computer program...

  18. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01

    for the intermediate Duri crude oil. The experiments involved injecting steam or a mixture of steam and propane into a cell in which was tamped a mixture of sand, oil and water. The cell was placed inside a vacuum jacket set at a reservoir temperature of 100?F...

  19. Studies of the refining of crude cottonseed oil and its solutions in commercial hexane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeitoun, Mohamed Ali

    1958-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  20. Emerging Heat Exchanger Technologies for the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.; King, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    -heat train exchangers foul is controlled by fluid velocity and by wall temperature. Technologies which promote the heat transfer on the crude oil side of an exchanger are therefore favoured. (Note: promotion of the heat transfer on the hot side of the unit...

  1. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

  5. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  6. Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

  7. EIS-0016: Cumulative Production/Consumption Effects of the Crude Oil Price Incentive Rulemakings, Programmatic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this Final Statement to FEA-FES-77-7 to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of a rulemaking on crude oil pricing incentives as pertains to the full range of oil production technologies (present as well as anticipated.)

  8. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  9. Responses of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, exposed to acute concentrations of crude oil, as assessed by molecular and physiological biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Responses of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, exposed to acute concentrations of crude oil In the present study, juvenile sea bass were exposed for 48 and 96 h to an Arabian light crude oil to assess i) the short term effects of crude oil exposure by the measurement of several molecular biomarkers

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry Theodore S. Dibble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Atmospheric Chemistry FCH 511 Fall 2014 Theodore S. Dibble Professor of Chemistry 421 in Required Text Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution nineteenth year at ESF, and my seventeenth year teaching FCH 511 (Atmospheric Chemistry). I have done a lot

  11. Lifetimes and eigenstates in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    Perturbation dynamics in atmospheric chemistry. J. Geophys.isotopic variations in atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res.M. et al. 2001 Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases (

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    L. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from theI. , et al. (2006), Atmospheric chemistry of a 33 – 34 hourvolcanic eruptions on atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Geol. ,

  13. ,"Calif--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014Crude Oil Reserves inCrudeCrude

  14. Covetic Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Can re-melt, dilute, alloy... Fabrication of Covetic Materials - Nanocarbon Infusion 3 4 Technical Approach Unusual Characteristics of Covetic Materials ("covalent" &...

  15. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric Heat

  16. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric

  17. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL-Atmospheric PSF

  18. Water Transfer from Soil to the Atmosphere as Related to Climate and Soil Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    of the soil surface is the limiting parameter. Effects of Crude Oil on Evaporation - Crude oil applied to the wet soil surfaces of the lysimeters following rains suppressed evaporation immediately following the rains. However, the value of the crude oil...

  19. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  20. a normal commercial rapeseed oil-meal : dry matter : 90 ; total crude protein : 39.0 ; fat : 2.7 ; ashes : 7.5 ; crude fibre : 12.2 ;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - a normal commercial rapeseed oil-meal : dry matter : 90 ; total crude protein : 39.0 ; fat : 2.7 ; ashes : 7.5 ; crude fibre : 12.2 ; I.T.C. (v`) : 2.2 ; T.O.V. (*) : 5.2 ; gross energy kcal/kg D.M. : 4 664 ; - a normal French low glucosinolate rapeseed oil-meal (Normal French Zerothio) : dry matter : 89

  1. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  2. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  3. Critical Materials:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Extraction Separation Processes for Critical Materials in 30- 21 Stage Test Facility (Bruce Moyer) ......

  4. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  5. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  6. Aqueous phase toxicity of West Texas crude oil as influenced by the Rhodococcus H13-A biosurfactant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Beatrice Lorraine

    1995-01-01

    Crude Oil PAHs into the aqueous phase. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric (GC/MS) analysis of the water soluble fraction (WSF) was used to determine the degree of PAH partitioning. The acute toxicity of the petroleum PAHs partitioned...

  7. Atmospheric fogging in underground mine airways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Schimmelpfennig

    1983-04-01

    Loss of visibility due to the occurrence of atmospheric fogging in underground mine airways can lead to longer travel times and loss of production efficiency, an increase in the frequency of vehicular and foot traffic accidents and difficulty in checking rock surfaces for instability and loose material. Where hot and humid surface air meets colder underground air, conditions for fog formation may be present. Further, suspended particulate matter from diesel exhausts or stoping operations together with slow movement of air along passageways may contribute to formation. This study describes an investigation being undertaken with the cooperation of Kennecott's Ozark Lead Co. to identify causes of the problem.

  8. NATIONALOCEAN AND ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events

    a major storm with 30-40 knot winds and waves approaching 20 feet initiated the plume shown in the image region and is transporting vast quantities of resuspended materials offshore. In spite of their large of pollution include the runoff of soils and farm chemicals from agricultural lands, the waste from cities

  9. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  10. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  11. Connectivity to National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC)

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-08-11

    To establish requirements for connectivity with the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for all DOE and NNSA sites and facilities with potential for hazardous materials releases at levels that require emergency response. The requirements of this Notice have been incorporated into DOE O 151.1C, Comprehensive Emergency Management System, dated 11-2-05. No cancellations.

  12. Lesson Summary Students will use models of Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    to Do Scientific Inquiry Physical Science Transfer of Energy Earth and Space Science Structure the greenhouse from the captured solar energy. Certain gases in Earth's atmosphere ­ especially water vapor by storing and releasing energy from the sun. Materials: Large pickle jars, smaller jelly jar, laboratory

  13. Continuous nanoparticle generation and assembly by atmospheric pressure arc discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Heiko O.

    to the manufacture of low cost printable electronics, optoelectronics, and solar cells with higher per- formance than eliminate this requirement providing a larger selection of materials including Si, Ge, GaN, and GaAs, and deposition of thin films and nanomaterials.3 Typically, a dis- tinction is made between low and atmospheric

  14. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate and it emits Note: heat balance Fvis( = Fout = Te 4 z #12;(simple Greenhouse cont.) 0 1 2 3 4 Ground Space Top

  15. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys...

  16. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  17. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric scientists apply physics, mathematics, and chemistry to understandAtmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric the atmosphere and its interactions with land and sea. One of the goals of atmospheric science is to understand

  18. Crude Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101Company Level ImportsContangoImports -

  19. Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101Company Level ImportsContangoImports -0 0

  20. MATERIAL-FLOW DATA STRUCTURES AS A BASIS FOR ENERGY INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    control theory [2] • Between crude oil production or productAs Figure 1 shows, total crude oil available for domesticproduced crude and the crude oil imported from abroad minus

  1. DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY The missions of the Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry (MAC) are to carry out broadly based research on the chemistry of the atmosphere and marine and stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry Research activities in atmospheric chemistry and modeling are diverse

  2. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    a clear light yellow oil (98%). The crude product was used2.57 g of an orange oil (77 %). The crude product was used647 mg of a yellow oil (74 %). The crude product was used

  3. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, A.; Hope, Chris

    Aurélie Méjean and Chris Hope High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic... and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian bitumen deposits. The results show the uncertainties associated with the future costs of synthetic crude oil. Carbon costs have a large impact of the total costs...

  4. Table 6. Crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and p

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocksU.S. shale gas plays: natural gasPetroleum NetCrude oil and

  5. ,"Louisiana--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNGUndergroundDry Natural GasGas, WetLiquids LeaseShaleCrude Oil

  6. ,"Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -Liquids Lease Condensate, ProvedShaleUndergroundCrude Oil + Lease

  7. ,"New Mexico--West Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 ©Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseLiquids Lease Condensate, ProvedCrude Oil Reserves

  8. ,"Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"Coalbed MethaneDryDryDry NaturalCrude Oil + Lease

  9. ,"Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"CoalbedGas, Wet After LeaseCrude Oil + Lease

  10. ,"Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing

  11. ,"California State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNG Storage Net WithdrawalsNonassociated Natural Gas, WetCrude Oil

  12. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNGUndergroundDry Natural GasGas, Wet AfterCrude Oil + Lease

  13. U.S. Total Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData20092009 2010 2011 20126 Table 1 | Table 3Crude

  14. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101CompanyProduct: Crude Oil and

  15. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101CompanyProduct: Crude Oil andData Series:

  16. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil General Industries andArea: U.S.U.S.

  17. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels,9,470Area: U.S.

  18. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels,9,470Area: U.S.19,117

  19. U.S. Refinery Receipts of Crude Oil by Method of Transportation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15 Jun-15 Jul-15Area: U.S. East

  20. U.S. Total Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15 Jun-15Area:U.S.

  1. U.S. Total Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15StockTotal

  2. U.S. crude oil production in July was the highest in more than two decades

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15Area: U.S.crudecrude oil

  3. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSales (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease

  4. Crude Injustice in the Gulf: Why Categorical Exclusions for Deepwater Drilling in the Gulf of Mexico are Inconsistent with U.S. International Ocean Law and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Eric V.

    2011-01-01

    NEPA AND OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION .. A. B. C. D. E.Country Comparison: Oil Production, CENT. INTELLIGENCEPercentage of Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200

  5. Chemistry of atmospheres formed during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, L

    2009-01-01

    We used chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetic calculations to model chemistry of the volatiles released by heating different types of carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondritic material as a function of temperature and pressure. Our results predict the composition of atmospheres formed by outgassing during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Outgassing of CI and CM carbonaceous chondritic material produces H2O-rich (steam) atmospheres in agreement with the results of impact experiments. However, outgassing of other types of chondritic material produces atmospheres dominated by other gases. Outgassing of ordinary (H, L, LL) and high iron enstatite (EH) chondritic material yields H2-rich atmospheres with CO and H2O being the second and third most abundant gases. Outgassing of low iron enstatite (EL) chondritic material gives a CO-rich atmosphere with H2, CO2, and H2O being the next most abundant gases. Outgassing of CV carbonaceous chondritic material gives a CO2-rich atmosphere with ...

  6. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY - RESPONSE TO HUMAN INFLUENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOGAN, J; PRATHER, M; WOFSY, S; MCELROY, M

    1978-01-01

    Trans. II 70, 253. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Clyne, M. A. A. &data for modelling atmospheric chemistry. NBS Technical NoteChem. 80, 2711. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Sanadze, G. A. 1963 On

  7. IMPROVED QUASISTEADYSTATEAPPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI­STEADY­STATE­APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION # L. O. JAY QSSA are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, sti# ordinary di#erential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  8. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  9. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  10. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  11. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  12. Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Prather, Michael J; Penner, Joyce E

    2007-01-01

    trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, in Climate Change2007 Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over2007), Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over

  13. material recovery

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise.

  14. Infrared Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian James Mills

    2012-01-01

    However, atmospheres of cool planets can still be studiedvia outgassing as the planet cools (Rogers & Seager 2010).at low resolution) and the cool, low-mass planet GJ 1214b (

  15. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  16. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  17. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  18. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  19. Proposals sought for supplying crude to SPR (Strategic Petroleum Reserve)/ERA (U. S. Economic Regulatory Administration) spells out options for distribution of SPR crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, H.R.

    1980-08-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has asked major oil companies to submit proposals for filling the SPR salt caverns with oil at 100,000 bbl/day and receiving Elk Hills (Calif.) field oil in exchange. Elk Hills is currently producing at 160,000-170,000 bbl/day and will be producing at 190,000 bbl/day in 1982; provision has been made to continue supplying small refiners who currently depend on Elk Hills production. The Government will impose an as-yet undetermined mandatory plan if no satisfactory alternatives are proposed. The 18 salt dome caverns in Louisiana and Texas have a 248 million bbl capacity but have stored only 91.7 million bbl. The capacity will eventually be expanded to 500 million bbl. In accordance with the Energy Security Act, DOE wants to increase storage by about 36 million bbl during the first year of the exchange program, and probably by larger amounts in subsequent years. The submitted proposals, which will be filed with the Defense Fuel Supply Center, will indicate rate of filling (between 5000 and 100,000 bbl/day), type (preferably sweet), and source. According to H. R. Rollins (Econ. Regulatory Admin.), there will be one price for all refiners, based on the average landed cost to all refiners of imported crude in the month of the sale.

  20. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  1. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  2. Collection of Windfall Profit Tax for crude oil sales at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (Elk Hills, California)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-31

    Our audit disclosed that between October 1, 1983 and March 31, 1984 the government lost about $244,000 in interest income due to delays in collecting the tax on NPRC crude oil sales. We found that purchasers of the crude oil were not paying the windfall profit tax at the same time that they paid the Department for the oil itself, as required by the oil sales contracts and the windfall profits tax regulations. Correction of the deficiencies, through changes in the tax code and improved oversight by Department officials, could lead to estimated annual interest savings to the government of about $500,000.

  3. A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

    1990-01-01

    A THREE-PHASE K-VALUE STUDY FOR PURE HYDROCARBONS/WATER AND CRUDE OIL/WATER SYSTEMS A Thesis by RITCHIE PAUL LANCLOS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... of Committee) P. T. Eubank (Member) R. A. Wattenbar (Member) W. D. Von Gonten (Member) December 1990 ABSTRACT A Three-Phase K-Value Study for Pure Hydrocarbons/Water and Crude Oil/Water Systems Ritchie Paul Lanclos, B. S. , University...

  4. The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

    1957-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

  5. ,"Calif--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014Crude Oil Reserves inCrude Oil

  6. ,"California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014Crude OilCrude OilCoalbed

  7. ,"California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 ©Prices"Annual",2014CrudeCoalbed Methane ProvedCrude

  8. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 8 million barrels per day, highest output since 1988

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15Area: U.S.crude oilU.S.

  9. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  10. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*, Julia Laskin,*, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate of radiation through Earth's atmosphere. The cloud albedo effect, Special Issue: 2015 Chemistry in Climate

  11. Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-04-17

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  12. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  13. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  14. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01

    of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Coal Gasifier Environments," OxidationStructural ~latorials in Coal Gasifier Atmospheres," UCLA,char parti- cles in coal gasifiers consist of materials with

  15. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  16. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  17. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  18. The relationship of serum tocopherol and tocotrienol concentrations to the serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in normocholesterolemic middle-aged men after consuming crude palm oil-rich diets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Jeffery Scott

    1996-01-01

    that half of the fat consumed was crude palm oil. Crude palm oil is a rich source of tocotrienols. Tocotrienols have been reported to decrease serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations in humans and other...

  19. Identification of R&D Needs Relating to the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    of industries. In terms of projected implemented fuel savings achievable by the year 2015, minimisation of fouling in crude oil systems was found to be the second most significant of the technologies considered. It yielded a potential fuel saving of 123 TBtu...

  20. The Effect of Weathering on the Flammability of a Slick of Crude Oil on a Water Bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Neil; Kolb, Gilles; Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study to define a practical methodology that will serve to assess the burning of crude oils on a water sub-layer by means of a bench scale procedure is presented. A modified ASTM-E1321 (LIFT) is combined with flash point...

  1. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  2. A study of the effect of temperature on the rate of settling of crude cotton-seed oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey, Jack Cassels

    1933-01-01

    in Crude Cottonseed Oi1 " Cotton Oil ~'ress? V: &So? 6? ~Q 50? 19M ~ Jamieson, 0 F, andi B~u;~, '. P. 'C~sitioa of Credo CottoneeeC Oi1s; a Smamary. " Journal of Oi1 omK Fat Xnlustry 5: 547-bb? 1985? A14818787798 ...

  3. Effect of dispersed crude oil exposure upon the aerobic metabolic scope in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Effect of dispersed crude oil exposure upon the aerobic metabolic scope in juvenile golden grey; CD: Chemically Dispersed oil using dispersant; D: Dispersant solution; MD: Mechanically Dispersed oil technique to oil spill. Through an experimental approach with juveniles of Liza aurata, the toxicity of five

  4. 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    - 31 - 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS plays an important role in oil recovery from the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Therefore are important. We examined these issues by performing static and dynamic imbibition experiments. Oil recoveries

  5. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  6. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1997-05-20

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

  7. Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric atmospheric entry of NASA's Phoenix Mars probe using Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE) data atmospheric entry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24204, doi:10.1029/2010GL045382. 1. Introduction [2] Phoenix

  8. Supplementary Material The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 2008, Volume 2 i Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    the sun, which is ~240 W/m2 . A blackbody temperature of ~255°K yields a heat flux of 240 W/m2 . Indeed in the calculated 3.5 W/m2 forcing due to surface changes (ice sheet area, vegetation distribution, shoreline with that approach is that, unlike long-lived GHGs, aerosols are distributed heterogeneously, so it is difficult

  9. The use of petroleum for liquid-transportation fuels has strained the environment and caused the global crude oil reserves to diminish. Therefore, there exists a need to replace petroleum as the primary fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the global crude oil reserves to diminish. Therefore, there exists a need to replace petroleum as the primary

  10. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  11. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  12. Research staff at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center began studying the effects of crude oil and petroleum products on birds in the late 1970's under a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are directly applicable to anticipating effects of the current release of crude oil from the off shore drilling rig that was destroyed in the Gulf of Mexico. Q: What happens to crude oil after it is accidentally released from an offshore well? A: All crude oils are not the same. Some are heavy and move below

  13. Analysis and Identification of Biomarkers and Origin of Color in a Bright Blue Crude Oil Juyal, P.; McKenna, A. M.; Yen, A.; Rodgers, R. P.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Andrews, A. B.;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis and Identification of Biomarkers and Origin of Color in a Bright Blue Crude Oil Juyal, P School, Woods Hole A key step in crude oil production is injection of monoethyene glycol (MEG) to prevent. Strikingly blue crude oil from a Gulf of Mexico drillingg y , p of Mexico platform, the recovery of MEG from

  14. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  15. Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation OLE PETERS1,2,3 * AND J. DAVID NEELIN3 1 convection and precipitation (the order parameter)--with correlated regions on scales of tens to hundreds the climatological mean by an order of magnitude or more. Moist convection and the accompanying precipitation have

  16. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  17. Materials compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-04-01

    Objectives are to enable development and implementation of codes and standards for H{sub 2} containment components: (1) Evaluate data on mechanical properties of materials in H{sub 2} gas - Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials; (2) Generate new benchmark data on high-priority materials - Pressure vessel steels, stainless steels; and (3) Establish procedures for reliable materials testing - Sustained-load cracking, fatigue crack propagation. Summary of this presentation are: (1) Completed measurement of cracking thresholds (K{sub TH}) for Ni-Cr-Mo pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - K{sub TH} measurements required in ASME Article KD-10 (2) Crack arrest test methods appear to yield non-conservative results compared to crack initiation test methods - (a) Proposal to insert crack initiation test methods in Article KD-10 will be presented to ASME Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks, and (b) Crack initiation methods require test apparatus designed for dynamic loading of specimens in H{sub 2} gas; and (3) Demonstrated ability to measure fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - (a) Fatigue crack growth data in H{sub 2} required in ASME Article KD-10, and (b) Test apparatus is one of few in U.S. or abroad for measuring fatigue crack growth in >100 MPa H{sub 2} gas.

  18. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  19. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  20. Tri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity and wide bandwidth for 25 to 50 nm extreme ultraviolet light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aquila, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    and testing ofEUV multilayer coatings for the AtmosphericTri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity andthe bandwidth of multilayer coatings. The simplest method to

  1. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  2. Equilibration of an atmosphere by geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, Malte F. (Malte Friedrich)

    2013-01-01

    A major question for climate studies is to quantify the role of turbulent eddy fluxes in maintaining the observed atmospheric mean state. It has been argued that eddy fluxes keep the mid-latitude atmosphere in a state that ...

  3. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 20142015 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate Program in Land and Atmospheric Science at the University of Minnesota. It is a sciencebased interdisciplinary program focused on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore »and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  5. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  6. A Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    D/Masters Applied Marine Physics Marine & Atmospheric Chemistry Marine Affairs & Policy (Masters Only) MarineA Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric Studies Our graduate program has over 250 students University of MiaMi rosenstiel school of Marine & atMospheric science #12;Miami Ranks #5: fDi Magazine's Top

  7. Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory Department by Hunten et al. (1983), of Magellan results by Bougher et al. (1997), and atmospheric chemistry on Venus and Ancient Environments Edited by Vivien Gornitz January 2004 #12;2 ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION ON VENUS Overview

  8. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  9. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  10. Spreading of crude petroleum in brash ice; Effects of oil`s physical properties and water current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, M.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Experiments were conducted in a refrigerated, circulating current flume to examine crude oil spreading in brash ice. Amauligak, Hibernia and Norman Wells crudes were tested. Measurements of the physical properties of the oils were also conducted, including: surface and interfacial tensions as well as viscosities. Spreading coefficients were calculated from measured surface and interfacial tensions. Results were obtained for original and weathered oils. For the spreading tests, spill volumes up to 3 liters and water currents up to 0.55 m/s were used. Tests were done using both fresh water ice and saline ice. Slick dimensions were measured, and modes of oil spreading were observed. Slick dimensions depended on oil type, but were not influenced by water current. Oils of high spreading coefficient and low viscosity spread over larger areas than those with low spreading coefficient and high viscosity.

  11. Forecasting Model for Crude Oil Price Using Artificial Neural Networks and Commodity Futures Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Siddhivinayak

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model based on multilayer feedforward neural network to forecast crude oil spot price direction in the short-term, up to three days ahead. A great deal of attention was paid on finding the optimal ANN model structure. In addition, several methods of data pre-processing were tested. Our approach is to create a benchmark based on lagged value of pre-processed spot price, then add pre-processed futures prices for 1, 2, 3,and four months to maturity, one by one and also altogether. The results on the benchmark suggest that a dynamic model of 13 lags is the optimal to forecast spot price direction for the short-term. Further, the forecast accuracy of the direction of the market was 78%, 66%, and 53% for one, two, and three days in future conclusively. For all the experiments, that include futures data as an input, the results show that on the short-term, futures prices do hold new information on the spot price direction. The results obtained will generate comprehensive understanding of the cr...

  12. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in urban air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2881–deep convective system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,processes in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical Society Review

  13. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  14. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  15. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  16. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The spontaneous ignition potential of a super-light crude oil S.A. Abu-Khamsin*, A. Iddris1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    pressure were varied to determine the set of conditions that would cause the sand±oil mixture to ignite successful [1,2]. The feasibility of this method depends on low-temperature oxidation (LTO) of the oilU N C O R R EC TED PR O O F The spontaneous ignition potential of a super-light crude oil S.A. Abu

  18. Casting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  19. Construction material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  20. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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