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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Materials Failure Trends in LWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hardware failures in U.S. nuclear plants cause forced outages, resulting in capacity factor losses of 10-20% and costing utilities hundreds of millions of dollars each year. This analysis of plant operating experience data identifies emerging materials-related failure trends and associated R&D needs.

1987-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

2

Modeling the deformation and failure behavior of FCC and HCP nanocrystalline materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As foreseen by Richard Feynman in his famous talk titled There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom in 1959, scientists nowadays are miniaturizing structures in materials to achieve better performance as concerned in technical ...

Wei, Yujie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Medical Device Failure Analysisâ??Specific Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...ASM International, 2012, p 343â??359ASM Handbook, Volume 23, Materials for Medical Devices,B.A. James, Medical Device Failure

4

Loads, capacity, and failure rate modeling  

SciTech Connect

Both failure rate and load capacity (stress-strength) interferenece methodologies are employed in the reliability analysis at nuclear facilities. Both of the above have been utilized in a heuristic failure rate model in terms of load capacity inference. Analytical solutions are used to demonstrate that infant mortality and random aging failures may be expressed implicity in terms of capacity variability, load variability, and capacity deterioration, and that mode interactions play a role in the formation of the bathtub curve for failure rates.

Lewis, E.E.; Chen, Hsin-Chieh

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evaluation of failure probability via surrogate models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluation of failure probability of a given system requires sampling of the system response and can be computationally expensive. Therefore it is desirable to construct an accurate surrogate model for the system response and subsequently to sample the ... Keywords: Failure probability, Polynomial chaos, Sampling, Stochastic computation

Jing Li; Dongbin Xiu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

An Integrated Approach to Modeling and Mitigating SOFC Failure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop first-order failure criteria to be used for the initial design, material selection and optimization against thermomechanical failure of the PEN structure in high temperature SOFCs.

Fedorov, A.; Haynes, C.; Qu, J.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

7

Advanced material appearance modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many years, appearance models in computer graphics focused on general models for reflectance functions coupled with texture maps. Recently, it has been recognized that even very common materials such as hair, skin, fabric, and rusting metal require ...

Julie Dorsey; Holly Rushmeier

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A simple approach to modeling ductile failure.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has the need to predict the behavior of structures after the occurrence of an initial failure. In some cases determining the extent of failure, beyond initiation, is required, while in a few cases the initial failure is a design feature used to tailor the subsequent load paths. In either case, the ability to numerically simulate the initiation and propagation of failures is a highly desired capability. This document describes one approach to the simulation of failure initiation and propagation.

Wellman, Gerald William

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Structural Materials Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Sponsored by: TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, TMS ... Fei Gao2; Kiran Solanki3; Xin Sun2; 1Mississippi State University; 2PNNL; ... A Multiscale Metal/Hydride Mechanical Model for Used-Fuel Zircaloy ...

10

On Crevecoeur's bathtub-shaped failure rate model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crevecoeur (1993) developed a three-parameter bathtub-shaped failure rate model that enjoys nice mathematical properties and justification from engineering perspectives. In this paper, we derive the explicit formulas for the maximum likelihood estimation ... Keywords: Bathtub curve, Censoring, Failure rate, Lifetime failure data, Maximum likelihood estimation, Poisson process, Reliability, Repairable system

Junfeng Liu; Yi Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Failure of railhead material of insulated rail joints.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"Aim of this research is to examine the impact fatigue failure of the railhead of the IRJ [insulated rail joints] and determine actions that can… (more)

Mandal, Nirmal Kumar.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 25, 2003 ... Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost Case. Lawrence V. Snyder (larry.snyder ***at*** lehigh.edu) Mark S. Daskin ...

13

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Modeling Thermally Induced Failure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Sponsored by OSTI -- Modeling Thermally Induced Failure of Brittle Geomaterials Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ |...

14

Large-Scale Atomistic Simulations of Material Failure  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

These simulations examine the supersonic propagation of cracks and the formation of complex junction structures in metals. Eight simulations concerning brittle fracture, ductile failure, and shockless compression are available.

Abraham, Farid [IBM Almaden Research; Duchaineau, Mark [LLNL; Diaz De La Rubia, Tomas (LLNL); Wirth, Brian [LLNL; Heidelberg,; Seager, Mark [LLNL

15

Failure by fracture and fatigue in "NANO" and "BIO" materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND FATIGUE IN “NANO” AND “BIO” MATERIALS R. O. Ritchie, 1,3and Fatigue in “Nano” and “Bio” Materials R. O. Ritchie 1 ,structures and biologi- cal/bio-implantable materials, so-

Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Failure Analysis of Commercial Silicon Materials for Lithium-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium ... Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) reveal the possible reasons of unsatisfactory ... High Efficiency Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

17

Multiscale Modeling of Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Parametric materials design integrating materials science, applied mechanics and quantum physics within a systems engineering framework ...

18

Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components  

SciTech Connect

This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

Duffy, Stephen

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

19

Introduction to Materials Modelling - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 23, 2006... simply described by modeling, even if it involves fundamental ideas ... least Handbook of Materials Modelling (2005) by Sidney Yip (editor).

20

Analysis of the causes of failure in high chrome oxide refractory materials from slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

High Cr2O3 refractory materials are used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers. Gasifiers are reaction chambers that convert water, oxygen, and a carbon feedstock into CO, H2, and methane at temperatures as high as 1575oC and pressures up to 1000 psi. Ash in the carbon feedstock liquefies, erodes and corrodes the gasifier’s refractory liner, contributing to liner failure within a few months to two years. The failure of a refractory liner decreases a gasifier’s on-line availability and causes costly system downtime and repairs. Many factors contribute to refractory lining failure, including slag penetration and corrosion, thermal cycling, gasifier environment, and mechanical loads. The results of refractory post-mortem failure analysis and how observations relate to gasifier service life will be discussed.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.; Thomas, H.; Krabbe, R.A.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

An analysis of the causes of failure in high chrome oxide refractory materials from slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

High Cr2O3 refractory materials are used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers. Gasifiers are reaction chambers that convert water, oxygen, and a carbon feedstock into CO, H2, and methane at temperatures as high as 1575DGC and pressures up to 1000 psi. Ash in the carbon feedstock liquefies, erodes and corrodes the gasifier's refractory liner, contributing to liner failure within a few months to two years. The failure of a refractory liner decreases a gasifier's on-line availability and causes costly system downtime and repairs. Many factors contribute to refractory lining failure, including slag penetration and corrosion, thermal cycling, gasifier environment, and mechanical loads. The results of refractory post-mortem failure analysis and how observations relate to gasifier service life will be discussed.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solar Energy, Modeling, and Advanced Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 21, 2010 ... Clean Energy: Fuel Cells, Batteries, Renewables - Materials, Processing, and Manufacturing: Solar Energy, Modeling, and Advanced Materials

23

Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Parkinson, R.D. [Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States). Center for Technology

1993-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

24

In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use  

SciTech Connect

The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

L. C. Cadwallader

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Multiscale Modeling of Microstructure Deformation in Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a multi scale modelling approach combined with conventional material models ... Optimization of Thermal Cycle for Rails with Respect to the Wear Resistance.

26

Materials Reliability Program: Pressurized Water Reactor Issue Management Table, PWR-IMT Consequence of Failure (MRP-156)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Industry Initiative on the Management of Materials Issues provides a proactive, safety-focused approach to the management of materials degradation. In support of this initiative, EPRI formed the Materials Degradation Assessment/Issue Management Table Ad-Hoc Committee and developed an Issue Management Table (IMT) for reactor coolant system components. This report provides initial input to the IMT to address the consequences of failure for the identified components in the reactor coolant system for ope...

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

Multiscale Materials Modeling of Condensed Matter - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 29, 2007 ... The following presentations from MMM 2007, the International Max-Planck Workshop on Multiscale Materials Modeling of Condensed Matter, ...

28

A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

29

Digital Modeling of Material Appearance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer graphics systems are capable of generating stunningly realistic images of objects that have never physically existed. In order for computers to create these accurately detailed images, digital models of appearance must include robust data to ... Keywords: Computer Graphics

Julie Dorsey; Holly Rushmeier; Franois Sillion

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Thermal conductivity modeling of building façade materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental research has been conducted to assess the thermo-physical properties of three building materials in both dry and moist state: beech wood, autoclaved aerated concrete and brick. The objectives of the paper envisage the measurement of the ... Keywords: building materials, contact temperature, determining method, finite element, numerical modeling, thermal conductivity

Monica Chereches; Nelu-Cristian Chereches; Catalin Popovici

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Thinking in layers: modeling with layered materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course serves as a guide to the considerable potential of layered surface models that are available in many commercial products. The key advantage of using such layered materials over traditional shading language constructs is that the end result ...

Andrea Weidlich; Alexander Wilkie

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Acquisition and modeling of material appearance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In computer graphics, the realistic rendering of synthetic scenes requires a precise description of surface geometry, lighting, and material appearance. While 3D geometry scanning and modeling have advanced significantly ...

Ngan, Wai Kit Addy, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Strength analysis of 3D landing gear model with failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic analyses of the landing gear are conducted to provide capabilities to forecast their behavior under hazardous conditions. This kind of investigation with numerical methods implementation is much easier and less expensive than stand tests. The ... Keywords: FE modelling, drop test simulation, landing gear, possible flaw

Wieslaw Krason; Jerzy Malachowski

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Advanced Materials for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Computational Modeling and Simulation of Advanced Materials for Energy Applications. Sponsorship, TMS/ASM: Computational Materials Science ...

36

Scientists use world's fastest computer to model materials under...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials under extreme conditions Scientists use world's fastest computer to model materials under extreme conditions Materials scientists are for the first time attempting to...

37

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CATHODE CONTACT MATERIAL DENSIFICATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical modeling was used to simulate the constrained sintering process of the cathode contact layer during assembly of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A finite element model based on the continuum theory for sintering of porous bodies was developed and used to investigate candidate low-temperature cathode contact materials. Constitutive parameters for various contact materials under investigation were estimated from dilatometry screening tests, and the influence of processing time, processing temperature, initial grain size, and applied compressive stress on the free sintering response was predicted for selected candidate materials. The densification behavior and generated stresses within a 5-cell planar SOFC stack during sintering, high temperature operation, and room temperature shutdown were predicted. Insufficient constrained densification was observed in the stack at the proposed heat treatment, but beneficial effects of reduced grain size, compressive stack preload, and reduced thermal expansion coefficient on the contact layer densification and stresses were observed.

Koeppel, Brian J.; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Field-scale and wellbore modeling of compaction-induced casing failures  

SciTech Connect

Presented in this paper are the results and verification of field- and wellbore-scale large deformation, elasto-plastic, geomechanical finite element models of reservoir compaction and associated casing damage. The models were developed as part of a multidisciplinary team project to reduce the number of costly well failures in the diatomite reservoir of the South Belridge Field near Bakersfield, California. Reservoir compaction of high porosity diatomite rock induces localized shearing deformations on horizontal weak-rock layers and geologic unconformities. The localized shearing deformations result in casing damage or failure. Two-dimensional, field-scale finite element models were used to develop relationships between field operations, surface subsidence, and shear-induced casing damage. Pore pressures were computed for eighteen years of simulated production and water injection, using a three-dimensional reservoir simulator. The pore pressures were input to the two-dimensional geomechanical field-scale model. Frictional contact surfaces were used to model localized shear deformations. To capture the complex casing-cement-rock interaction that governs casing damage and failure, three-dimensional models of a wellbore were constructed, including a frictional sliding surface to model localized shear deformation. Calculations were compared to field data for verification of the models.

Hilbert, L.B. Jr.; Gwinn, R.L.; Moroney, T.A.; Deitrick, G.L.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Defects in Photovoltaic Materials and the Origins of Failure to Dope Them: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

I will review the basic physical principles underlying the formation energy of various intrinsic defects in common photovoltaic materials. I then use the above principles to explain why doping of semiconductors is, in general, limited and which design principles can be used to circumvent such limits. This work can help design strategies of doping absorber materials as well as explain how TCOs work. Recent results on the surprising stability of polar (112)+ surfaces of CIS will also be described in this context.

Zunger, A.; Kilic, C.; Wang, L.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Materials Theory, Modeling and Simulation | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functional Materials for Energy Chemistry and Physics at Interfaces Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems Materials Characterization Materials Theory and Simulation Quantum...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cap plasticity models and compactive and dilatant pre-failure deformation  

SciTech Connect

At low mean stresses, porous geomaterials fail by shear localization, and at higher mean stresses, they undergo strain-hardening behavior. Cap plasticity models attempt to model this behavior using a pressure-dependent shear yield and/or shear limit-state envelope with a hardening or hardening/softening elliptical end cap to define pore collapse. While these traditional models describe compactive yield and ultimate shear failure, difficulties arise when the behavior involves a transition from compactive to dilatant deformation that occurs before the shear failure or limit-state shear stress is reached. In this work, a continuous surface cap plasticity model is used to predict compactive and dilatant pre-failure deformation. During loading the stress point can pass freely through the critical state point separating compactive from dilatant deformation. The predicted volumetric strain goes from compactive to dilatant without the use of a non-associated flow rule. The new model is stable in that Drucker's stability postulates are satisfied. The study has applications to several geosystems of current engineering interest (oil and gas reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, buried targets, and depleted reservoirs for possible use for subsurface sequestration of greenhouse gases).

FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

42

Modeling of Physical Properties of Composite Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent progress in three different areas involving the modeling of the physical properties of composites is reviewed. These include: (i) theoretical approaches to microstructure/property relations; (ii) X-ray microtomography, an imaging technique that enables one to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional microstructural phase information of a composite sample in a non-intrusive manner; and (ii) topology optimization, a promising numerical technique that enables one to design composites with tailored material properties. Current limitations and future research needs are described.

S. Torquato

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Atomic Scale Modeling of Point Defects in Materials: Coupling Ab ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Atomic Scale Modeling of Point Defects in Materials: Coupling Ab Initio and Elasticity ... Electrochemical Shock of Lithium Battery Materials.

44

Key computational modeling issues in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing materials for targeted performance requirements as required in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) demands a combined strategy of bottom-up and top-down modeling and simulation which treats various levels of hierarchical material ... Keywords: Databases, ICME, Materials design, Multiscale modeling, Uncertainty

Jitesh H. Panchal; Surya R. Kalidindi; David L. Mcdowell

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Model Acceptability Measure for the Identification of Failures in Qualitative Fault Monitoring Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with two of the main tasks of Fault Monitoring Systems (FMS): fault detection and fault identification. During fault detection, the FMS should recognize that the plant behavior is abnormal, and therefore, that the plant is not working properly. During fault identification, the FMS should conclude which type of failure has occurred. The first goal of this work is to consolidate a new fault detection technique, called enveloping, that was developed in the context of the Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning Fault Monitoring System (FIRFMS). The second and primary goal of this paper is to introduce the model acceptability measure as a tool to enhance and make more robust the fault identification process in the context of FIRFMS. The enveloping technique and the model acceptability measure are applied to an electric circuit model previously used for such purpose in the literature. It is shown that the new methods outperform the ones previously advocated in FIRFMS for that purpose 1 ...

Antoni Escobet Angela; Angela Nebot; Francois E. Cellier

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Aerosol Can Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aerosol Can Failure ... Abstract Scope, A three-piece, welded seam aerosol can of liquid undercoating material failed catastrophically, ...

47

Smart Materials in Energy Modeling for Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and ... materials at the initial stages of a project, 'lower running cost' in the long run ...

48

Patient-specific modeling of cardiac electromechanics in dyssynchronous heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.3 Congestive Heart1.1: Longitudinal cross-section of the heart . . . . . . .Classification of heart failure . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shin, Jun Seob

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Theory and models of material erosion and lifetime during plasma instabilities in a tokamak environment.  

SciTech Connect

Surface and structural damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) due to the frequent loss of plasma confinement remains a serious problem for the tokamak reactor concept. The deposited plasma energy causes significant surface erosion, possible structural failure, and frequent plasma contamination. Surface damage consists of vaporization, spallation, and liquid splatter of metallic materials. Structural damage includes large temperature increases in structural materials and at the interfaces between surface coatings and structural members. To evaluate the lifetimes of plasma-facing materials and nearby components and to predict the various forms of damage that they experience, comprehensive models (contained in the HEIGHTS computer simulation package) are developed, integrated self-consistently, and enhanced. Splashing mechanisms such as bubble boiling and various liquid magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and brittle destruction mechanisms of nonmelting materials are being examined. The design requirements and implications of plasma-facing and nearby components are discussed, along with recommendations to mitigate and reduce the effects of plasma instabilities on reactor components.

Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

Fusion materials modeling: Challenges and opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The plasma facing components, first wall, and blanket systems of future tokamak-based fusion power plants arguably represent the single greatest materials engineering challenge of all time. Indeed, the United States National ...

Wirth, B. D.

51

Multiscale Modeling and Homogenization of Composite Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

where for ? = 52 we have carbon-fiber material properties.52, which gives us a carbon fiber. Figure 7.18: Fibers with52, which gives us a carbon fiber. To conduct the multiscale

Mseis, George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Stochastic Modelling of Material-and Energy Properties in Recycling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we explore a stochastic model to track material and energy in ... of Modified Semi-Coke on the Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater's Oil.

53

New Computer Model Pinpoints Prime Materials for Carbon Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

release and compression, and then developed a computer model to calculate this energy consumption for any material. Smit then obtained a database of 4 million zeolite...

54

3.320 Atomistic Computer Modeling of Materials, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theory and application of atomistic computer simulations to model, understand, and predict the properties of real materials. Energy models, from classical potentials to first-principles approaches. Density-functional theory ...

Marzari, Nicola

55

Materials Modeling Fundamentals and Applications to Phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 18, 2011 ... Diffusivity and Mobility Data: Building Blocks for ICME: Carelyn ... scales is proposed to develop a new generation of process models for phase ...

56

Introduction of Materials Modelling into Processing Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PI-10: Coupled Composition-Microstructure Modeling of a U-Pu-Zr Fuel · PI-11: Creating an Integrated, Community-Sourced, First-Principles Data Repository.

57

Computer Model Addresses Softening Steel Problem - Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 22, 2013 ... Computer modeling, coupled with experiments, at Sandia National Laboratories has enabled the rapid design of an annealing process to ...

58

CFD Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... A Coupled CFD-Thermodynamic-Kinetic Model to Simulate a Gas Stirred ... on Thermal and Thermosolutal Natural Convection in Liquid Alloys.

59

Computational Modelling for the Materials Professional  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After completing his PhD in 1988 he joined Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, and worked closely with the Steel industry, applying computational modelling ...

60

Development of a Physics of Failure Model and Quantitative Assessment of the Fire Fatality Risk of Compressed Natural Gas Bus Cylinders.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Title of Dissertation: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICS OF FAILURE MODEL AND QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FIRE FATALITY RISKS OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BUS CYLINDERS The… (more)

Chamberlain, Samuel Seamore

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Computational Modeling of Materials, Minerals, and Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2002 ... 249-250]A Model of the Cathode Dynamics in Electric Field-Enhanced Smelting and Refining of Steel[pp. ... TMS Student Member price: 721.00.

62

Modeling, Simulation, and Theory of Nanomechanical Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizer(s), Thomas Buchheit, Sandia National Laboratories ... Analysis of Genealized Stacking Fault Energy for Fcc Fe-Mn Alloys Using Molecular ... Modeling the Statistics of Yield Behavior in Nanopillar Compression and Nanoindentation.

63

The Failure of Brass Gas Line Fittings - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, The Failure of Brass Gas ...

64

Unusual Failures of Aero-Derivative Combustion Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Unusual Failures of ...

65

Failure Analysis of Ruptured CNG Cylinder - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Failure Analysis of ...

66

Modeling the dynamic crush of impact mitigating materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Crushable materials are commonly utilized in the design of structural components to absorb energy and mitigate shock during the dynamic impact of a complex structure, such as an automobile chassis or drum-type shipping container. The development and application of several finite-element material models which have been developed at various times at LLNL for DYNA3D will be discussed. Between the models, they are able to account for several of the predominant mechanisms which typically influence the dynamic mechanical behavior of crushable materials. One issue we addressed was that no single existing model would account for the entire gambit of constitutive features which are important for crushable materials. Thus, we describe the implementation and use of an additional material model which attempts to provide a more comprehensive model of the mechanics of crushable material behavior. This model combines features of the pre-existing DYNA models and incorporates some new features as well in an invariant large-strain formulation. In addition to examining the behavior of a unit cell in uniaxial compression, two cases were chosen to evaluate the capabilities and accuracy of the various material models in DYNA. In the first case, a model for foam filled box beams was developed and compared to test data from a 4-point bend test. The model was subsequently used to study its effectiveness in energy absorption in an aluminum extrusion, spaceframe, vehicle chassis. The second case examined the response of the AT-400A shipping container and the performance of the overpack material during accident environments selected from 10CFR71 and IAEA regulations.

Logan, R.W.; McMichael, L.D.

1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

On a numerical model for gasification of biomass materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a thermochemical equilibrium model is used to predict the performance of a downdraft gasifier. Numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with those of the experiments. Different biomass materials are tested using the model and ... Keywords: biomass, gasification, mathematical modeling, renewable energy, thermochemical equilibrium

Mahdi Vaezi; Mohammad Passandideh-Fard; Mohammad Moghiman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Contributions from Service Experience with Failure Investigations ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure Prevention: Supporting Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials through Science, Engineering and Surveillance · Fish Mouth Failure of tThe ...

69

Crystal Plasticity Modeling on Single Crystal and Polycrystal of a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiscale Modeling of Fracture Resistance in TRIP-Assisted Multiphase Steels ... Statistical Failure Analysis of Crystallographically Isotropic Porous Materials.

70

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Speaker(s): Roger Sathre Date: December 5, 2011 - 3:30pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Anita Estner Barbara Adams In this presentation we describe the prospective life-cycle modeling of metal-organic frameworks (MOF), a novel type of material with the potential for efficiently capturing CO2. Life-cycle modeling of emerging technologies, conducted early in the innovation process, can generate knowledge that can feed back to inform scientific discovery and development. We discuss the challenges of credibly modeling a system that does not yet exist, and describe methodological approaches including parametric system modeling (quantifying relations between system elements), scenario projections (defining plausible pathways for system scale-up),

71

An Assessment Model on Green Degree of Biodegradable Packaging Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment model of green degree of biodegradable packaging materials is built. The first-order assessment indexes are composed of environmental properties, energy properties, resource properties and economy and the second order assessment index are ... Keywords: packaging materials, analytic hierarchy process, life cycle assessment

Xiaoming Zuo; Zhaomei Xu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Speaker(s): Roger Sathre Date: December 5, 2011 - 3:30pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Anita...

73

Integrated Computational Modeling of Materials for Nuclear Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel and primary cooling system structural components are exposed to elevated ... models for safety and performance evaluation of nuclear reactors but also for the ... Continuum Theory of Defects and Materials Response to Irradiation

74

A multifluid mix model with material strength effects  

SciTech Connect

We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.

Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

75

Digital control systems in nuclear power plants: Failure information, modeling concepts, and applications. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly describes some current applications of advanced computerized digital display and control systems at US commercial nuclear power plants and presents the results of a literature search that was made to gather information on the reliability of these systems. Both hardware and software reliability were addressed in this review. Only limited failure rate information was found, with the chemical process industry being the primary source of information on hardware failure rates and expert opinion the primary source for software failure rates. Safety-grade digital control systems are typically installed on a functional like-for-like basis, replacing older analog systems without substantially changing interactions with other plant systems. Future work includes performing a limited probabilistic risk assessment of a representative DCS to assess its risk significance.

Galyean, W.J.

1993-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

76

Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Talmage, Mellisa J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

APPLICATION OF ENERGY METHODS TO MODELING FAILURES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scheme, known as the building block approach in MIL HDBK 17 [8], while figure 4 is a specific set, wind turbine blades, etc. Current Scale Up Approach For Composites Figure 3. MIL HDBK 17 Building Block

78

Research on Online Failure Prediction Model and Status Pretreatment Method for Exascale System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reliability issue of Exascale system is extremely serious. Traditional passive fault-tolerant methods, such as rollback-recovery, can not fully guarantee system reliability any more because of their large executing overhead and long recovering duration. ... Keywords: failure prediction, log process, active fault tolerance, Exascale system, data mining

Hao Zhou; Yanhuang Jiang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Page 1 Session 7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Other  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Other 7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Other Thermodynamically Consistent Method for Calculation of Free Energy and Equilibrium Curves of First-Order Phase Transitions in Classical Molecular Dynamics *A.V. Karavaev andV.V. Dremov Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - Zababakhin Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Russia State-of-the-art parallel computers allow performing MD simulations not only with substantial number of particles, but also using of complicated computationally intense many-body potentials of the interatomic interactions. One of the most important tasks for the computer-aided material science is accurate and extensive characterization of thermodynamic properties of the materials. An essential part of this characterization is the prediction of phase

80

Modeling the Reactions of Energetic Materials in the Condensed Phase  

SciTech Connect

High explosive (HE) materials are unique for having a strong exothermic reactivity, which has made them desirable for both military and commercial applications. Although the history of HE materials is long, condensed-phase properties are poorly understood. Understanding the condensed-phase properties of HE materials is important for determining stability and performance. Information regarding HE material properties (for example, the physical, chemical, and mechanical behaviors of the constituents in plastic-bonded explosive, or PBX, formulations) is necessary in efficiently building the next generation of explosives as the quest for more powerful energetic materials (in terms of energy per volume) moves forward. In addition, understanding the reaction mechanisms has important ramifications in disposing of such materials safely and cheaply, as there exist vast stockpiles of HE materials with corresponding contamination of earth and groundwater at these sites, as well as a military testing sites The ability to model chemical reaction processes in condensed phase energetic materials is rapidly progressing. Chemical equilibrium modeling is a mature technique with some limitations. Progress in this area continues, but is hampered by a lack of knowledge of condensed phase reaction mechanisms and rates. Atomistic modeling is much more computationally intensive, and is currently limited to very short time scales. Nonetheless, this methodology promises to yield the first reliable insights into the condensed phase processes responsible for high explosive detonation. Further work is necessary to extend the timescales involved in atomistic simulations. Recent work in implementing thermostat methods appropriate to shocks may promise to overcome some of these difficulties. Most current work on energetic material reactivity assumes that electronically adiabatic processes dominate. The role of excited states is becoming clearer, however. These states are not accessible in perfect crystals under realistic pressures and temperatures, but may still be accessed through defects or other energy localization mechanisms.

Fried, L E; Manaa, M R; Lewis, J P

2003-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Modeling plasma/material interactions during a tokamak disruption  

SciTech Connect

Disruptions in tokamak reactors are still of serious concern and present a potential obstacle for successful operation and reliable design. Erosion of plasma-facing materials due to thermal energy dump during a disruption can severely limit the lifetime of these components, therefore diminishing the economic feasibility of the reactor. A comprehensive disruption erosion model which takes into account the interplay of major physical processes during plasma-material interaction has been developed. The initial burst of energy delivered to facing-material surfaces from direct impact of plasma particles causes sudden ablation of these materials. As a result, a vapor cloud is formed in front of the incident plasma particles. Shortly thereafter, the plasma particles are stopped in the vapor cloud, heating and ionizing it. The energy transmitted to the material surfaces is then dominated by photon radiation. It is the dynamics and the evolution of this vapor cloud that finally determines the net erosion rate and, consequently, the component lifetime. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way, material thermal evolution response, plasma-vapor interaction physics, vapor hydrodynamics, and radiation transport in order to realistically simulate the effects of a plasma disruption on plasma-facing components. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon have been analyzed. The dependence of the net erosion rate on disruption physics and various parameters was analyzed and is discussed.

Hassanein, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Konkashbaev, I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation, Russia (Russian Federation)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Introduction Meaningful simulations of radiation transport applications require realistic definitions of material composition and densities. When seeking that information for applications in fields such as homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety, researchers usually encounter a variety of materials for which elemental compositions are not readily available or densities are not defined. Publication of the Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling, Revision 0, in 2006 was the first step toward mitigating this problem. Revision 0 of this document listed 121 materials, selected mostly from the combined personal libraries of staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and thus had a scope that was recognized at the time to be limited. Nevertheless, its creation did provide a well-referenced source of some unique or hard-to-define material data in a format that could be used directly in radiation transport calculations being performed at PNNL. Moreover, having a single common set of material definitions also helped to standardize at least one aspect of the various modeling efforts across the laboratory by providing separate researchers the ability to compare different model results using a common basis of materials. The authors of the 2006 compendium understood that, depending on its use and feedback, the compendium would need to be revised to correct errors or inconsistencies in the data for the original 121 materials, as well as to increase (per users suggestions) the number of materials listed. This 2010 revision of the compendium has accomplished both of those objectives. The most obvious change is the increased number of materials from 121 to 372. The not-so-obvious change is the mechanism used to produce the data listed here. The data listed in the 2006 document were compiled, evaluated, entered, and error-checked by a group of individuals essentially by hand, providing no library file or mechanism for revising the data in a consistent and traceable manner. The authors of this revision have addressed that problem by first compiling all of the information (i.e., numbers and references) for all the materials into a single database, maintained at PNNL, that was then used as the basis for this document.

McConn, Ronald J.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Rucker, Robert A.; Williams III, Robert

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

83

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1 or water with high SO3 content. External sulfate 2007 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), May 7-10, 2007, Covington, the effect of curing (especially in the case of blended cements) and the effect of the pH change during

Mobasher, Barzin

84

Pipeline Rupture: Review of Common Metallurgical Failure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Pipeline Rupture: Review ...

85

Evaluating Design Elements in Corrosion Failure Investigations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accident Investigation and Materials Failure Analysis at the Transportation Safety ... Experimental Technique to Conduct Thermal Shock Test on Refractories ...

86

Materials Modeling and Simulation for Nuclear Fuels (MMSNF) Workshops  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerial photo of Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory University of Chicago Chicago Photography courtesy Thomas F Ewing Privacy and Security Notice The MMSNF Workshops The goal of the Materials Modeling and Simulation for Nuclear Fuels (MMSNF) workshops is to stimulate research and discussions on modeling and simulations of nuclear fuels, to assist the design of improved fuels and the evaluation of fuel performance. In addition to research focused on existing or improved types of LWR reactors, recent modeling programs, networks, and links have been created to develop innovative nuclear fuels and materials for future generations of nuclear reactors. Examples can be found in Europe (e.g. F-BRIDGE project and ACTINET network and SAMANTHA cooperative network), in the USA (e.g. CASL, NEAMS, CESAR and CMSN network

87

A 4D geometrical modeling of a material aging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4-dim intrinsic (material) Riemannian metric $G$ of the material 4-D space-time continuum $P$ is utilized as the characteristic of the aging processes developing in the material. Manifested through variation of basic material characteristics such as density, moduli of elasticity, yield stress, strength, and toughness., the aging process is modeled as the evolution of the metric $G$ (most importantly of its time component $G_{00}$) of the material space-time $P$ embedded into 4-D Newtonian space-time with Euclidean metric.\\par The evolutional equation for metric $G$ is derived by the classical variational approach. Construction of a Lagrangian for an aging elastic media and the derivation of a system of coupled elastostatic and aging equations constitute the central part of the work. The external and internal balance laws associated with symmetries of material and physical space-time geometries are briefly reviewed from a new viewpoint presented in the paper. Examples of the stress relaxation and creep of a homogeneous rod, cold drawing, and chemical degradation in a tubing are discussed.

A. Chudnovsky; S. Preston

2006-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

88

Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

Held, Christian [Hochschul Institute Neckarsulm, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse 40, 74172 Neckarsulm (Germany); Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf [Institute for Metal Forming Technology, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Sindel, Manfred [AUDI AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

Hancock, David, W.

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

VALIDATION OF COMPUTER MODELS FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer models are abstractions of physical reality and are routinely used for solving practical engineering problems. These models are prepared using large complex computer codes that are widely used in the industry. Patran/Thermal is such a finite element computer code that is used for solving complex heat transfer problems in the industry. Finite element models of complex problems involve making assumptions and simplifications that depend upon the complexity of the problem and upon the judgment of the analysts. The assumptions involve mesh size, solution methods, convergence criteria, material properties, boundary conditions, etc. that could vary from analyst to analyst. All of these assumptions are, in fact, candidates for a purposeful and intended effort to systematically vary each in connection with the others to determine there relative importance or expected overall effect on the modeled outcome. These kinds of models derive from the methods of statistical science and are based on the principles of experimental designs. These, as all computer models, must be validated to make sure that the output from such an abstraction represents reality [1,2]. A new nuclear material packaging design, called 9977, which is undergoing a certification design review, is used to assess the capability of the Patran/Thermal computer model to simulate 9977 thermal response. The computer model for the 9977 package is validated by comparing its output with the test data collected from an actual thermal test performed on a full size 9977 package. Inferences are drawn by performing statistical analyses on the residuals (test data--model predictions).

Gupta, N; Gene Shine, G; Cary Tuckfield, C

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

Modeling of InGaSb thermophotovoltaic cells and materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A closed form computer program has been developed for the simulation and optimization of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb thermophotovoltaic cells operating at room temperature. The program includes material parameter models of the energy bandgap, optical absorption constant, electron and hole mobility, intrinsic carrier concentration and index of refraction for any composition of GaInSb alloys.

Zierak, M.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Modeling of high energy laser ignition of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for simulating high energy laser heating and ignition of confined energetic materials. The model considers the effect of irradiating a steel plate with long laser pulses and continuous lasers of several kilowatts and the thermal response of well-characterized high explosives for ignition. Since there is enough time for the thermal wave to propagate into the target and to create a region of hot spot in the high explosives, electron thermal diffusion of ultrashort (femto- and picosecond) lasing is ignored; instead, heat diffusion of absorbed laser energy in the solid target is modeled with thermal decomposition kinetic models of high explosives. Numerically simulated pulsed-laser heating of solid target and thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, triaminotrinitrobenzene, and octahydrotetranitrotetrazine are compared to experimental results. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement.

Lee, Kyung-cheol; Kim, Ki-hong; Yoh, Jack J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Multiscale Modeling of Irradiation effects in Fusion Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aim of this collaborative research work was to apply predictive, physically based multiscale modeling to improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material changes in the fusion environment, with the ultimate objective to aid development of advanced materials. The multiscale modeling methodology involved a hierarchical approach, integrating ab initio electronic structure calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC), and three dimensional dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, over the relevant length and time scales to model the fates of defects and solutes (including hydrogen and helium) and thus, predict microstructural evolution in ferritic/martensitic and vanadium based alloys. The main task at WSU was to investigate changes in mechanical properties as a result of the production of a varied population of nanostructural features and to be obtained from three dimensional dislocation dynamics simulation (DD). The initial dislocation structure and microstructure could be obtained from electron microscopy characterization and the appropriate nanostructural features produced during irradiation are introduced from predictions of the multiscale modeling. The dislocation structure was then allowed to evolve under an applied load, taking into account all possible forces and reactions between the dislocations with the radiation induced nanostructure as well as network dislocations. In this manner, quantitative predictions of irradiation hardening would result without the use of empirical constants within the framework of dispersed barrier hardening models.

Hussein Zbib

2004-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

94

TAMCN: a tool for aggregate modeling of civil nuclear materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been some concern in recent years about the buildup of separated civil plutonium in the world. In order to address issues related to these concerns, it is useful to have models that provide quantitative predictions of this buildup, under various scenarios. Our goal was to develop a publicly available model that would allow users to specify scenarios of their own, not simply the scenarios we envisioned. We believe this approach will provide a more complete understanding of the processes involved in the creation, storage, and utilization of potentially destructive nuclear material. Western Europe and Japan, namely France, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, and Japan, were chosen as a starting point because the issues present in these countries, we believe, represent the pressing issues in all nuclear countries and may fully address the current problems in the buildup of reactor grade plutonium in the world today. In addition, these countries have contributed a substantial quantity of material to the amount of civil separated plutonium present today, so we thought it wise to begin here. We have developed a model of the nuclear fuel cycle in Western Europe and Japan using STELLA®. Our model uses the simple "stock and flow" structure of STELLA® to describe the discharge, storage, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors, and the creation, storage, and utilization of reactor-grade civil separated plutonium in these regions. This provides an interface that is user-friendly and can be run on any computing platform that can operate the STELLA® software. In addition, detailed changes can be easily made to the model, if the user desires. We will describe features of the model from the perspective of a user, give the results of a few scenarios, and delineate plausibility tests of the model.

Watson, Aaron Michael

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A method for estimating common cause failure probability and model parameters : the inverse stress-strength interference (ISSI) technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, an alternative for the analysis of common cause failures (CCFs) is investigated. The method studied consists of using the Licensee Event Report (LER) data to get single component failure probability and using ...

Guey, Ching Ning

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

Materials science and engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

Lesuer, D.R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing fractures, whether natural or man-made, is possibly the single most important factor, after temperature, which determines the feasibility of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Rock deformation and in-situ stress changes induced by injected fluids can lead to shear failure on preexisting fractures which can generate microseismic events, and also enhance the permeability and accessible surface area of the geothermal formation. Hence, the ability to accurately model the coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) processes in fractured geological formations is critical in effective EGS reservoir development and management strategies. The locations of the microseismic events can serve as indicators of the zones of enhanced permeability, thus providing vital information for verification of the coupled THM models. We will describe a general purpose computational code, FEHM, developed for this purpose, that models coupled THM processes during multiphase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code incorporates several models of fracture aperture and stress behavior combined with permeability relationships. We provide field scale examples of applications to geothermal systems to demonstrate the utility of the method.

Kelkar, Sharad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Seismic Performance, Modeling, and Failure Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 117, No. 5, pp. 1514-J. P. , (2007). Update to ASCE/SEI 41 Concrete Provisions.Model for Confined Concrete", ASCE Journal of Structural

Tuna, Zeynep

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Modeling of thermal transport properties of multiphase porous materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents a numerical framework for modeling thermal transport properties of multiphase porous materials with complex internal microstructures. The framework includes two steps. First, a random generation-growth algorithm is highlighted for reproducing multiphase microstructures, statistically equivalent to the actual systems, based on the geometrical and morphological information obtained from measurements and experimental estimations. Then a high-efficiency lattice Boltzmann solver for the corresponding governing equations is described, which, while assuring energy conservation and appropriate continuities at the interfaces in a complex system, has demonstrated its numerical power in yielding accurate solutions. Various applications are provided to validate the feasibility, effectiveness and robustness of this new framework by comparing the predictions with existing experimental data for different transport processes, accounting for the effects due to internal morphology, microstructural anisotropy, and multi phase interactions. The examples given also suggest potential applicability of this methodology to other problems as long as they are governed by similar partial differential equation(s). Thus, for given composition and structure, this numerical methodology is in essence a model built on sound physics principles with prior validity, without resorting to any ad hoc empirical treatment. Therefore, it is useful for design and optimization of new materials, beyond just predicting and analyzing the existing ones.

Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ning, Pan [UC DAVIS

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

RELIABILITY MODELS OF AGING PASSIVE COMPONENTS INFORMED BY MATERIALS DEGRADATION METRICS TO SUPPORT LONG-TERM REACTOR OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paper describes a methodology for the synthesis of nuclear power plant service data with expert-elicited materials degradation information to estimate the future failure rates of passive components. This method should be an important resource to long-term plant operations and reactor life extension. Conventional probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are not well suited to addressing long-term reactor operations. Since passive structures and components are among those for which replacement can be least practical, they might be expected to contribute increasingly to risk in an aging plant; yet, passives receive limited treatment in PRAs. Furthermore, PRAs produce only snapshots of risk based on the assumption of time-independent component failure rates. This assumption is unlikely to be valid in aging systems. The treatment of aging passive components in PRA presents challenges. Service data to quantify component reliability models are sparse, and this is exacerbated by the greater data demands of age-dependent reliability models. Another factor is that there can be numerous potential degradation mechanisms associated with the materials and operating environment of a given component. This deepens the data problem since risk-informed management of component aging will demand an understanding of the long-term risk significance of individual degradation mechanisms. In this paper we describe a Bayesian methodology that integrates metrics of materials degradation susceptibility with available plant service data to estimate age-dependent passive component reliabilities. Integration of these models into conventional PRA will provide a basis for materials degradation management informed by predicted long-term operational risk.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Material Reliability Program: Development of Material Constitutive Model for Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steels (MRP-135-Rev. 1)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report describes a material behavior model for irradiated stainless steel types 316 and 304 for use in performing functionality evaluations of bolted and welded connections in pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals components subjected to plant operating conditions. The model is to be used in a finite-element-based analysis methodology. The model considers the effects of temperature, cold work, and irradiation on material behavior characteristics, which include the elastic-plastic stress-strain cu...

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above.

Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Modeling the thermoelectric properties of bulk and nanocomposite thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are materials which are capable of converting heat directly into electricity. They have long been used in specialized fields where high reliability is needed, such as space power generation. Recently, ...

Minnich, Austin (Austin Jerome)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Modeling effects of microstructure for electrically active materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A theoretical framework is proposed for the description of multifunctional material properties. The focus of this theory is on deriving equilibrium and kinetic equations for electrically active materials, particularly for ...

García Muñoz, Ramiro Edwin, 1972-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Multiscale Modeling of Defect Mechanics in Nuclear Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The key to developing advanced materials for nuclear applications is ... Physics-Based Homogenization of Random Continuum Microstructures.

107

applications of sensors and modeling to materials processing: iii - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... based sensor is being developed for remote metrology of plasma facing material surfaces in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER ).

108

Modeling of plasma spraying process to manufacture hybrid materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A component, which has an optimized combination of different materials in its different portions for a specific application, is considered as the component made of a multiphase perfect material. To fabricate such components, a hybrid layered manufacturing ... Keywords: Behavior simulation, Hybrid layered manufacturing, Multiphase perfect material, Plasma spraying, Virtual manufacturing, Virtual prototyping

Feng Wang; Ke-Zhang Chen; Xin-An Feng

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Failure Analysis of a Reformer Inlet Pigtail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accident Investigation and Materials Failure Analysis at the Transportation ... 2 HPT Disk/Shaft Initiated by Special Cause Event - Electrical Arcing Damage.

110

Materials Analysis - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 17, 2004 ... 2004 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Materials Analysis: Understanding ... with the leading failure scenario based on visual observations.

111

Modeling and rendering of heterogeneous translucent materials using the diffusion equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, we propose techniques for modeling and rendering of heterogeneous translucent materials that enable acquisition from measured samples, interactive editing of material attributes, and real-time rendering. The materials are assumed to ... Keywords: Appearance modeling and rendering, diffusion approximation, subsurface scattering

Jiaping Wang; Shuang Zhao; Xin Tong; Stephen Lin; Zhouchen Lin; Yue Dong; Baining Guo; Heung-Yeung Shum

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

applications of sensors and modeling to materials processing: vi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sponsored by: Jt. EPD/MDMD Synthesis, Control, and Analysis in Materials ... The control system was interfaced with customized processing hardware via a ...

113

applications of sensors and modeling to materials processing - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Program Organizers: S. Viswanathan, Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6083; R.G. Reddy, Department of Metallurgical and Materials ...

114

Modeling and Simulation of Materials Behavior III - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Ab Initio Local Energy and Local Stress Calculations: Applications to Materials .... We find that although compressed gas tanks outperforms the ...

115

Application for managing model-based material properties for simulation-based engineering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application for generating a property set associated with a constitutive model of a material includes a first program module adapted to receive test data associated with the material and to extract loading conditions from the test data. A material model driver is adapted to receive the loading conditions and a property set and operable in response to the loading conditions and the property set to generate a model response for the material. A numerical optimization module is adapted to receive the test data and the model response and operable in response to the test data and the model response to generate the property set.

Hoffman, Edward L. (Alameda, CA)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

116

Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter  

SciTech Connect

One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

117

Fractography of Powder Metal Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure Prevention: Supporting Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials through Science, Engineering and Surveillance · Fish Mouth Failure of tThe ...

118

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Investigating Failure in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Failure in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Investigating Failure in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Project Summary Full Title: Investigating Failure in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Project ID: 175 Principal Investigator: John Newman Brief Description: The goal of this project is to understand and mitigate fuel cell failure mechanisms. Keywords: Fuel cell, modeling Purpose This project is conducting fundamental studies of fuel cell failure mechanisms. This includes experiments aimed at meeting the DOE operation and survivability targets at low and subzero temperatures, as well as development of mathematical models and fundamental experiments to improve performance and design against failure phenomena. Performer Principal Investigator: John Newman Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

119

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

120

Fitting and Testing of Interatomic Potentials for Modeling Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomistic Modeling of Radiation Damage in bcc Uranium · Atomistic Modeling of Thermodynamic Properties of Pu-Ga Alloys Based on the Invar Mechanism.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Why Conduct Disaster and Failure Studies. Buildings, bridges ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in materials, and manmade disasters, including terrorist ... The study of disaster and failure events is ... evacuation and emergency response procedures ...

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

An Examination of Failure Modes and Investigation Techniques in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accident Investigation and Materials Failure Analysis at the Transportation Safety ... Experimental Technique to Conduct Thermal Shock Test on Refractories ...

123

Review of Fuel Oil System Failures in Ontario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Review of Fuel Oil System ...

124

Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

First Principles Modeling for Research and Design of New Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First principles computation can be used to investigate an design materials in ways that can not be achieved with experimental means. We show how computations can be used to rapidly capture the essential physics that ...

Ceder, Gerbrand

126

Multiscale modeling and analysis of nanofibers and nonwoven materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanostructured fibrous materials have been made more readily available in large part owing to recent advances in electrospinning, which is a technique for the production of nanofibers with diameters down to the range of a ...

Buell, Sezen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Safe, stable and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries...

129

A Phase Field Crystal Model of Irradiation Damage in Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Modeling of Peirce-Smith Converter Slag at the Chagres Smelter, Chile · Thermodynamic Properties of Cementite Including Magnetic, Vibronic, ...

130

Computational Modeling of Materials, Minerals and Metals Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R.S. Bellur-Ramaswamy, R. Haber, N.A. Sobh and D.A. Tortorelli. Computational Modelling of Thermomechanical Phenomena....................................................85.

131

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

against * steady state and transient operational cell data. Complete fuel cell water transport model improvements * and code package development to include two phase flow....

132

Multi-scale Modeling of Microstructure Deformation in Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling Metal Powder Compaction Using Combined Finite and Discrete .... Optimization of Thermal Cycle for Rails with Respect to the Wear Resistance: ...

133

CFD Modeling and Analysis of Casting of Energetic Materials in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase Flow in a Steelmaking Converter Using an Unconventional Lance · Multiphysics CFD Modeling of a Free Falling Jet during Melt-Blowing Slag ...

134

CFD Modeling of Splash in Molten Materials Processing Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Coupled CFD-Thermodynamic-Kinetic Model to Simulate a Gas Stirred Ladle ... Exercise on Thermal and Thermosolutal Natural Convection in Liquid Alloys.

135

Modeling of Multi-Scale Phenomena in Materials Processing - III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mei Li, Ford Motor Company. Scope, The purpose of the symposium is to present the development of computational techniques for the modeling of multi-scale ...

136

Data-driven modeling and simulation framework for material handling systems in coal mines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In coal mining industry, discrete-event simulation has been widely used to support decisions in material handling system (MHS) to achieve premiums on revenues. However, the conventional simulation modeling approach requires extensive expertise of simulation ... Keywords: Coal mining, Data-driven modeling, Decision making, Material handling system

Chao Meng; Sai Srinivas Nageshwaraniyer; Amir Maghsoudi; Young-Jun Son; Sean Dessureault

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Surrogate modeling in the evolutionary optimization of catalytic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The search for best performing catalysts leads to high-dimensional optimization tasks. They are by far most frequently tackled using evolutionary algorithms, usually implemented in systems developed specifically for the area of catalysis. Their fitness ... Keywords: applications in chemistry, evolutionary optimization, mixed optimization, model suitability, surrogate modelling

Martin Holena; David Linke; Lukas Bajer

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Modeling Sea Ice as a Granular Material, Including the Dilatancy Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic sea ice model based on granular material rheology is presented. The sea ice model is coupled to both a mixed layer ocean model and a one-layer thermodynamic atmospheric model, which allows for an ice albedo feedback. Land is represented ...

L-B. Tremblay; L. A. Mysak

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Crack Growth in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials: From Discrete to Continuum Damage Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the cracking problem of glass and ceramic materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Analyses of an internal crack and of an interface crack between dissimilar materials were conducted using a modified boundary layer modeling approach. In this approach, fracture is allowed to occur in a small process window situated at an initial crack tip. Elastic displacement crack-tip fields are prescribed as remote boundary conditions. Crack propagation was first modeled discretely. Next, a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for brittle materials was developed to capture damage and crack growth in the process window. In particular, the damage model was applied to a glass-ceramic material that had been developed in-house for sealing purposes. Discrete and continuum damage solutions were then compared. Finally, the CDM model was used to determine the crack propagation direction as a function of a mode mixity measure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Singh, Prabhakar

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Kinetic modelling of molecular hydrogen transport in microporous carbon materials.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposal of kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes is explored by employing statistical rate theory methods to describe the kinetics of molecular hydrogen transport in model microporous carbon structures. A Lennard-Jones atom-atom interaction potential is utilized for the description of the interactions between H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} and the carbon framework, while the requisite partition functions describing the thermal flux of molecules through the transition state are calculated quantum mechanically in view of the low temperatures involved in the proposed kinetic molecular sieving application. Predicted kinetic isotope effects for initial passage from the gas phase into the first pore mouth are consistent with expectations from previous modeling studies, namely, that at sufficiently low temperatures and for sufficiently narrow pore mouths D{sub 2} transport is dramatically favored over H{sub 2}. However, in contrast to expectations from previous modeling, the absence of any potential barrier along the minimum energy pathway from the gas phase into the first pore mouth yields a negative temperature dependence in the predicted absolute rate coefficients - implying a negative activation energy. In pursuit of the effective activation barrier, we find that the minimum potential in the cavity is significantly higher than in the pore mouth for nanotube-shaped models, throwing into question the common assumption that passage through the pore mouths should be the rate-determining step. Our results suggest a new mechanism that, depending on the size and shape of the cavity, the thermal activation barrier may lie in the cavity rather than at the pore mouth. As a consequence, design strategies for achieving quantum-mediated kinetic molecular sieving of H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} in a microporous membrane will need, at the very least, to take careful account of cavity shape and size in addition to pore-mouth size in order to ensure that the selective step, namely passage through the pore mouth, is also the rate determining step.

Hankel, M.; Zhang, H.; Nguyen, T. X.; Bhatia, S. K.; Gray, S. K.; Smith, S. C. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (The Univ. of Queensland)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Mathematical modeling of irreversible dynamic deformation, micro- and macrofracture of materials and structures  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Others 7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Others Mathematical Modeling of Irreversible Dynamic Deformation, Micro- and Macrofracture of Materials and Structures P. P. Zakharov and A. B. Kiselev All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow 125412, Russia Thermomechanical processes, which proceed in deformable solids under intensive dynamic loading, consist of mechanical, thermal and structural ones, which correlate themselves. The structural processes involve the formation, motion and interaction of defects in metallic crystals, phase transitions, the breaking of bonds between molecules in polymers, the accumulation of microstructural damages (pores, cracks), etc. Irreversible deformations, zones of adiabatic shear and microfractures are caused by these

142

Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Failure of a Fan Hub Blade Made of an A713 Al-Zn Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Failure of a Fan Hub Blade ...

144

Failure Analysis at the NTSB and TSB Canada - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure Analysis and Prevention: Failure Analysis at the NTSB and TSB Canada Program Organizers: Dustin Turnquist, ESI; Larry Hanke, Materials Evaluation ...

145

Modeling the compressive deformation of metal micro-textured thermal interface materials using SEM geometry reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Idealized and simplified geometries are commonly used in finite element models to ease model creation and meshing. However, at smaller length-scales, the influence of geometrical imperfections and defects can significantly affect the accuracy of the ... Keywords: Buckling, Finite element modeling, Metal micro-textured thermal interface materials, Plastic deformation, SEM stereomicroscopy, Surface reconstruction

R. Kempers; P. Ahern; A. J. Robinson; A. M. Lyons

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Computational modeling and design of actively-cooled microvascular materials Soheil Soghrati a,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were used for the calibration and validation of the 2D IGFEM model. Water was used as the coolantComputational modeling and design of actively-cooled microvascular materials Soheil Soghrati a a c t The computational modeling and design of an actively-cooled microvascular fin specimen

Braun, Paul

147

Extended Foerster-Dexter model for correlated donor-acceptor placement in solid state materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current theory of donor-acceptor interactions in solid-state materials is based on a random distribution of donors and acceptors through the crystal. In this paper, we present a model to calculate the observable transfer rates for the correlated positioning of donors and acceptors in laser materials. Chemical effects leading to such correlations are discussed.

Rotman, S.R.; Hartmann, F.X.

1987-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

148

Operational simulation model of the raw material handling in an integrated steel making plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is focused on the design and implementation of an operational simulation model (OSM) of the handling of raw material in an integrated steel making plant, considering operations of receiving, unloading, stocking, handling and supplying the ...

Robson Jacinto Coelho; Paula Fernandes Lana; Adriano César Silva; Takeo Fugiwara Santos; ArcelorMittal Tubarão; Marcelo Moretti Fioroni; Luiz Augusto G. Franzese; Daniel de Oliveira Mota; Paragon Tecnologia; Luiz Bueno da Silva

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Material characterization of high-voltage lithium-ion battery models for crashworthiness analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A three-phased study of the material properties and post-impact behavior of prismatic pouch lithium-ion battery cells was conducted to refine computational finite element models and explore the mechanisms of thermal runaway ...

Meier, Joseph D. (Joseph David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Computational Models for Materials with Shape Memory: Towards a Systematic Description of Coupled Phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a systematic methodology for improving computational efficiency of models describing the dynamics of materials with memory as part of multilayered structures, in particular in thermoelectric shape memory alloys actuators. The ...

Roderick V. N. Melnik; Anthony J. Roberts

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Light water reactor lower head failure analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Lumped and Distributed Parameter SPICE Models of TE Devices Considering Temperature Dependent Material Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on simplified one-dimensional steady-state analysis of thermoelectric phenomena and on analogies between thermal and electrical domains, we propose both lumped and distributed parameter electrical models for thermoelectric devices. For lumped parameter models, constant values for material properties are extracted from polynomial fit curves evaluated at different module temperatures (hot side, cold side, average, and mean module temperature). For the case of distributed parameter models, material properties are calculated according to the mean temperature at each segment of a sectioned device. A couple of important advantages of the presented models are that temperature dependence of material properties is considered and that they can be easily simulated using an electronic simulation tool such as SPICE. Comparisons are made between SPICE simulations for a single-pellet module using the proposed models and with numerical simulations carried out with Mathematica software. Results illustrate accuracy of th...

Mitrani, D; Turo, A; García, M J; Chávez, J A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil  

SciTech Connect

A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Lumped and Distributed Parameter SPICE Models of TE Devices Considering Temperature Dependent Material Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on simplified one-dimensional steady-state analysis of thermoelectric phenomena and on analogies between thermal and electrical domains, we propose both lumped and distributed parameter electrical models for thermoelectric devices. For lumped parameter models, constant values for material properties are extracted from polynomial fit curves evaluated at different module temperatures (hot side, cold side, average, and mean module temperature). For the case of distributed parameter models, material properties are calculated according to the mean temperature at each segment of a sectioned device. A couple of important advantages of the presented models are that temperature dependence of material properties is considered and that they can be easily simulated using an electronic simulation tool such as SPICE. Comparisons are made between SPICE simulations for a single-pellet module using the proposed models and with numerical simulations carried out with Mathematica software. Results illustrate accuracy of the distributed parameter models and show how inappropriate is to assume, in some cases, constant material parameters for an entire thermoelectric element.

D. Mitrani; J. Salazar; A. Turo; M. J. García; J. A. Chávez

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

155

Transient Heat and Material Flow Modeling of Friction Stir Processing of Magnesium Alloy using Threaded Tool  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to investigate the material flow and heat transfer during friction stir processing (FSP) in an AZ31B magnesium alloy. The material was assumed to be a non-Newtonian viscoplastic fluid, and the Zener-Hollomon parameter was used to describe the dependence of material viscosity on temperature and strain rate. The material constants used in the constitutive equation were determined experimentally from compression tests of the AZ31B Mg alloy under a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. A dynamic mesh method, combining both Lagrangian and Eulerian formulations, was used to capture the material flow induced by the movement of the threaded tool pin. Massless inert particles were embedded in the simulation domain to track the detailed history of material flow. The actual FSP was also carried out on a wrought Mg plate where temperature profiles were recorded by embedding thermocouples. The predicted transient temperature history was found to be consistent with that measured during FSP. Finally, the influence of the thread on the simulated results of thermal history and material flow was studied by comparing two models: one with threaded pin and the other with smooth pin surface.

Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Choo, Hahn [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Ionic modeling of lithium manganese spinel materials for use in rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand and evaluate materials for use in Li ion rechargeable battery electrodes, we have modeled the crystal structures of various Mn oxide and Li Mn oxide compounds. We have modeled the MnO{sub 2} polymorphs and several spinels with intermediate compositions based on the amount of Li inserted into the tetrahedral site. 3-D representations of the structures provide a basis for identifying site occupancies, coordinations, Mn valence, order-disorder, and potentially new dopants for enhanced cathode behavior. XRD simulations of the crystal structures provide good agreement with observed patterns for synthesized samples. Ionic modeling of these materials consists of an energy minimization approach using Coulombic, repulsive, and van der Waals interactions. Modeling using electronic polarizabilities (shell model) allows a systematic analysis of changes in lattice energy, cell volume, and the relative stability of doped structures using ions such as Al, Ti, Ni, and Co.

Cygan, R.T.; Westrich, H.R.; Doughty, D.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Integrated models for plasma/material interaction during loss of plasma confinement.  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive computer package, High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS), has been developed to evaluate the damage incurred on plasma-facing materials during loss of plasma confinement. The HEIGHTS package consists of several integrated computer models that follow the start of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the energy deposited. The package includes new models to study turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL and predicts the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. A brief description of the HEIGHTS package and its capabilities are given in this work with emphasis on turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL during disruptions.

Hassanein, A.

1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Summary of "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary of "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels" Summary of "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels" (MMSNF 2013) workshop Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels" (MMSNF 2013) workshop Workshop Summary Presentation during MMSNF Workshop in Chicago

159

Asynchronous Failure Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Failure detectors -- oracles that provide information about process crashes -- are an important abstraction for crash tolerance in distributed systems. The generality of failure-detector theory, while providing great ...

Cornejo, Alejandro

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with Failure Investigations and Age Related Degradation Mechanisms in the Materials and Manufacturing Selection for the New AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thermo-mechanical failure criteria for x-ray windows and filters and comparison with experiments  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream of the window to filter out the soft x-rays to protect the window from overheating and failing. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. Because the window is a vacuum separator, understanding its potential structural failure under thermal load is very important. Current structural failure models for the brazed windows and filters under thermal stresses are not very accurate. Existing models have been carefully examined and found to be inconsistent with the actual failure modes of windows tested. Due to the thinness of the filter/window, the most likely failure mode is thermal buckling. In fact, recent synchrotron tests conducted in Japan on window failures bear out this position. In this paper, failure criteria for filters/windows are proposed, and analyses are performed and compared with the experimental results from various sources. A consistent result is found between the analysis and reported experiments. A series of additional analyses based on the proposed failure criteria is also carried out for filter and window designs for the third generation synchrotron beamline front ends. Comparative results are presented here.

Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Failure Analysis and Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Embrittlement of Forging Brass Components Due to Microstructural Defects · Environmental Stress Cracking Failures in Plastics: Case Studies and Fractography.

163

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mechanics of complex bodies: commentary on the unified modelling of material substructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic issues of the general model-building framework of the mechanics of complex bodies are discussed. Attention is focused on the representation of the material elements, the conditions for the existence of ground states in conservative setting and the interpretation of the nature of the various balance laws occurring.

Paolo Maria Mariano

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

165

Essential elements of modeling gas generation from well defined plutonium materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Processing of excess plutonium oxide (and related) materials intended for long-term storage is addressed in DOE standard 3013-2000. The essential elements addressed by this standard are eliminating or reducing to an acceptable level the entities that lead to gas evolution and consequent pressurization of the intended storage container system. Based upon the need to adequately understand and quantify these relevant parameters we briefly describe the current scientific knowledge of gas evolution from such systems. These associated research efforts have included fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies of water interactions at actinide oxide surfaces, radiolytic reactions of adsorbed water, interfacial reactions of hydrogen and oxygen, and radiolytic helium production. Utilizing, where possible, experimental parameters for many of the aforementioned processes we have developed a mathematical model with a minimum number of essential components that successfully models gas generation from well-defined PuO{sub 2} materials with known amounts of deliberately added water. In this work we verify this model against real pressure versus time data (described at greater length in another manuscript in these conference proceedings) and subsequently assure the safety envelope of design criteria for both short- and long-term storage and transportation of these material classes. These modeling results predict pressures and gas phase mole fractions over well-defined DOE 3013 container test cases well in advance of actual long-term surveillance information and provide confidence in safe storage of plutonium oxide material classes.

Paffett, M. T. (Mark T.); Kelly, D. (Daniel)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the fall in potential energy surface during heating. Keywords: hydrogen storage, reactive force fieldModeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH Ojwang' J.G.O.*, Rutger van governing hydrogen desorption in NaH. During the abstraction process of surface molecular hydrogen charge

Goddard III, William A.

167

NETL: Advanced Research - Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Materials > Chrome Oxide Refractory High Performance Materials > Chrome Oxide Refractory Advanced Research High Performance Materials Chrome Oxide Refractory One notable NETL success is the development of a chrome oxide refractory material capable of working in slagging gasifier conditions. In this project, researchers first determined that one of the major failure mechanisms for chrome oxide refractories exposed to the intense heat and corrosive environment was spalling, or the chipping or flaking of refractory material from an exposed face. They used this information to formulate a high-chrome oxide refractory composition that resists spalling, resulting in a refractory with a longer service life in the gasifier. Inside an ultrasupercritical (USC) pulverized coal power plant, materials are exposed to temperatures up to 760°C and pressures up to 5,000 psi. Operating a USC system can improve power plant efficiency up to 47% and reduce emissions. However, finding boiler and turbine materials that can hold up under extreme conditions requires new high-temperature metal alloys and ceramic coatings, as well as computational modeling research to optimize the processing of these materials. Advanced Research Materials Development program successes in this area include the following:

168

Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities.  

SciTech Connect

Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCS) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor-cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed.

Hassanein, A.

1998-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

169

Powder Metallurgy Bearing Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bearings were oil impregnated, porous, powder metallurgy bushings. Even after the fire, lubricant ... Failure Analysis of Four Graphite Pump Seal Faces.

170

Failure Analysis and Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following topics are of special interest: fatigue & fracture, tools & techniques for failure analysis, aerospace, aging Infrastructure/bridges, oil and gas, surface ...

171

Failure Analysis and Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a Failure Mechanism in the Absence of Physical Evidence · “High-Temperature Stress Relaxation Cracking and Stress Rupture Observed in a Coke Gasifier” ...

172

A second gradient theoretical framework for hierarchical multiscale modeling of materials  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical framework for the hierarchical multiscale modeling of inelastic response of heterogeneous materials has been presented. Within this multiscale framework, the second gradient is used as a non local kinematic link between the response of a material point at the coarse scale and the response of a neighborhood of material points at the fine scale. Kinematic consistency between these scales results in specific requirements for constraints on the fluctuation field. The wryness tensor serves as a second-order measure of strain. The nature of the second-order strain induces anti-symmetry in the first order stress at the coarse scale. The multiscale ISV constitutive theory is couched in the coarse scale intermediate configuration, from which an important new concept in scale transitions emerges, namely scale invariance of dissipation. Finally, a strategy for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs and the proper free energy functions and evolution kinetics is presented.

Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Dowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Computational Models for Crystal Growth of Radiation Detector Materials: Growth of CZT by the EDG Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystals are the central materials element of most gamma radiation detection systems, yet there remains surprisingly little fundamental understanding about how these crystals grow, how growth conditions affect crystal properties, and, ultimately, how detector performance is affected. Without this understanding, the prospect for significant materials improvement, i.e., growing larger crystals with superior quality and at a lower cost, remains a difficult and expensive exercise involving exhaustive trial-and-error experimentation in the laboratory. Thus, the overall goal of this research is to develop and apply computational modeling to better understand the processes used to grow bulk crystals employed in radiation detectors. Specifically, the work discussed here aims at understanding the growth of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), a material of long interest to the detector community. We consider the growth of CZT via gradient freeze processes in electrodynamic multi-zone furnaces and show how crucible mounting and design are predicted to affect conditions for crystal growth. (authors)

Derby, Jeffrey J.; Gasperino, David [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0132 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials  

SciTech Connect

The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

SYNTHETIC SLING FAILURE - EVALUATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

MACKEY TC; HENDERSON CS

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

176

Materials Reliability Program: Finite-Element Model Validation for Dissimilar Metal Butt-Welds (MRP-316)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual stresses imparted by the welding process are a principal factor in the process of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 82/182 nickel-alloy dissimilar metal (DM) piping butt welds in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Analytical models are frequently used to simulate the welding process in order to predict the residual stress distribution in the weld and base material as an input to crack growth calculations. The crack growth calculations, in turn, have demonstrated a high sen...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

177

Materials Science Evaluation Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Materials Science Evaluation Portal. Materials Science Evaluation Portal. Subject Areas. Modeling; Nondestructive; ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

A Free Energy Model for Piezoceramic Materials Ralph C. Smith , Stefan Seelecke y and Zoubeida Ounaies z  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Free Energy Model for Piezoceramic Materials Ralph C. Smith #3; , Stefan Seelecke y and Zoubeida the development of a free energy model for quantifying the hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities inherent to piezoceramic materials. In the #12;rst step of the development, free energy relations for a single crystal

179

Materials Reliability Program: PWR Internals Age-Related Material Properties, Degradation Mechanisms, Models, and Basis Data - State of Knowledge (MRP-211)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the current state-of-knowledge of neutron irradiation-induced property changes in austenitic stainless steels, principally solution-annealed Type 304 and 304L materials, cold-worked and solution-annealed Type 316 and 316L materials, and Type 308 weld metal. The age-related degradation models were evaluated by an expert panel assembled by EPRI and the Reactor Internals Focus Group (RI-FG). This panel endorsed models to be used in functionality evaluations and sug...

2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

180

Verification and Validation of EnergyPlus Phase Change Material Model for Opaque Wall Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase change materials (PCMs) represent a technology that may reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. A few building energy simulation programs have the capability to simulate PCMs, but their accuracy has not been completely tested. This study shows the procedure used to verify and validate the PCM model in EnergyPlus using a similar approach as dictated by ASHRAE Standard 140, which consists of analytical verification, comparative testing, and empirical validation. This process was valuable, as two bugs were identified and fixed in the PCM model, and version 7.1 of EnergyPlus will have a validated PCM model. Preliminary results using whole-building energy analysis show that careful analysis should be done when designing PCMs in homes, as their thermal performance depends on several variables such as PCM properties and location in the building envelope.

Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

182

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in PEM Fuel Cells: in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Background Water Management Issues Arise From: ƒ Generation of water by cathodic reaction ƒ Membrane humidification requirements ƒ Capillary pressure driven transport through porous MEA and GDL materials ƒ Scaling bipolar plate channel dimensions J.H. Nam and M. Kaviany, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 4595-4611 (2003) Relevant Barriers and Targets ƒ Improved Gas Diffusion Layer, Flow Fields, Membrane Electrode Assemblies Needed to Improve Water Management: * Flooding blocks reactant transport

183

Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Gear Tooth Failure Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Basic failure modes of gear teeth...Rolling Bruising Peening Brinelling Rippling (fish scaling) Ridging Bending (yielding) Tip-to-root interference Bending fatigue Low-cycle

185

Application of a Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Model to Nuclear Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments.

186

Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure ... performed to investigate the failure of a type 304 stainless steel tube from a boiler stack economizer.

187

Two-dimensional modeling of high plasma density inductively coupled sources for materials processing  

SciTech Connect

Inductively coupled plasma sources are being developed to address the need for high plasma density (10[sup 11]--10[sup 12] cm[sup [minus]3]), low pressure (a few to 10--20 mTorr) etching of semiconductor materials. One such device uses a flat spiral coil of rectangular cross section to generate radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in a cylindrical plasma chamber, and capacitive rf biasing on the substrate to independently control ion energies incident on the wafer. To investigate these devices we have developed a two-dimensional hybrid model consisting of electromagnetic, electron Monte Carlo, and hydrodynamic modules; and an off line plasma chemistry Monte Carlo simulation. The results from the model for plasma densities, plasma potentials, and ion fluxes for Ar, O[sub 2], Ar/CF[sub 4]/O[sub 2] gas mixtures will be presented.

Ventzek, P.L.G.; Hoekstra, R.J.; Kushner, M.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Theory and Modeling of Weakly Bound/Physisorbed Materials for Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Modeling of and Modeling of Weakly Bound/Physisorbed Materials for Hydrogen Storage Andrew Williamson Quantum Simulations Group Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Tadashi Ogitsu Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Yong-Hyun Kim, Mike Heben, and Shengbai Zhang National Renewable Energy Laboratory UCRL-209054 This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Outline * Storage by physisorption: - CNT, fullerenes, carbon aerogels - Doping, Decorating, Charging * Accuracy of Methods: DFT, QMC and Quantum Chemistry - Van der Waals interactions - * Use of DFT to screen for new compounds - 2 binding to doped fullerenes * LDA, GGA and ad-hoc corrections to pseudopotentials

189

Conditional solvation of isoleucine in model extended and helical peptides: context dependence of hydrophobic hydration and the failure of the group-transfer model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hydration thermodynamics of the GXG tripeptide relative to the reference GGG defines the \\textit{conditional} hydration contribution of X. This quantity or the hydration thermodynamics of a small molecule analog of the side-chain or some combination of such estimates, have anchored the interpretation of many of the seminal experiments on protein stability and folding and in the genesis of the current views on dominant interactions stabilizing proteins. We show that such procedures to model protein hydration have significant limitations. We study the conditional hydration thermodynamics of the isoleucine side-chain in an extended pentapeptide and in helical deca-peptides, using as appropriate an extended penta-glycine or appropriate helical deca-peptides as reference. Hydration of butane in the gauche conformation provides a small molecule reference for the side-chain. We use the quasichemical theory to parse the hydration thermodynamics into chemical, packing, and long-range interaction contributions. The...

Tomar, Dheeraj; Pettitt, B M; Asthagiri, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Smart Engineering Apprentice (SEA) Project is an advanced artificial intelligence model that aims to predict the future failure of rod pump units. Innovative and modern, this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increase the amount of usable oil retrieved from each well by the installed rod pump unit therefore that aims to predict the future failure of rod pump units. Innovative and modern, this novel technology provides a new approach to the maintenance of rod pumps through a system that increases efficiency while

Shahabi, Cyrus

191

The Smart Engineering Apprentice (SEA) Project is an advanced artificial intelligence model that aims to predict the future failure of rod pump units. Innovative and modern, this novel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increase the amount of usable oil retrieved from each well by the installed rod pump unit therefore that aims to predict the future failure of rod pump units. Innovative and modern, this novel technology provides a new approach to the maintenance of rod pumps through a system that increases efficiency while

Wang, Hai

192

Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD) closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT) approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

Harrison, Alan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Thomas R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [SNLA

2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

193

A model of shape memory materials with hierarchical twinning: Statics and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

We consider a model of shape memory material in which hierarchical twinning near the habit plane (austenite-martensite interface) is a new and crucial ingredient. The model includes (1) a triple-well potential ({phi} model) in local shear strain, (2) strain gradient terms up to second order in strain and fourth order in gradient, and (3) all symmetry allowed compositional fluctuation induced strain gradient terms. The last term favors hierarchy which enables communication between macroscopic (cm) and microscopic ({Angstrom}) regions essential for shape memory. Hierarchy also stabilizes between formation (critical pattern of twins). External stress or pressure (pattern) modulates the spacing of domain walls. Therefore the ``pattern`` is encoded in the modulated hierarchical variation of the depth and width of the twins. This hierarchy of length scales provides a hierarchy of time scales and thus the possibility of non-exponential decay. The four processes of the complete shape memory cycle -- write, record, erase and recall -- are explained within this model. Preliminary results based on 2D Langevin dynamics are shown for tweed and hierarchy formation.

Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shenoy, S.R. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Wu, Y.; Lookman, T. [Western Ontario Univ., London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Anisotropic Material Transport by Eddies and Eddy-Driven Currents in a Model of the North Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes anisotropic properties of the material transport by eddies and eddy-driven zonal jets in a general circulation model of the North Atlantic through the analysis of Lagrangian particle trajectories. Spreading rates—defined here ...

Igor Kamenkovich; Pavel Berloff; Joseph Pedlosky

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Velocity models, material balance and solution convergence in streamline-based simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses two important issues related to streamline-based flow simulation. The first issue deals with velocity models, specifically, how to determine the velocity models in various geometries in 2D and 3D space, and how to draw streamlines and calculate time of flight in various gridblock systems. The present research builds on the previous work of Cordes and Kinzelbach, 1992. Transformations from the real space of {x,y,z} to the unit cube space of {?, ?, ?} have been extensively utilized to draw the streamlines in 2D and 3D corner point cell geometry and also to calculate the time of flight. The use of cell-averaged jacobian of the transformation, as is typically done in streamline simulators to determine the time of flight is investigated for its accuracy. The impact of cell skewness in time of flight calculations is also investigated. Our results indicate that the cell-averaged jacobian leads to incorrect time of flight. The second issue that is addressed is related to material balance error during streamline simulation. The material balance error is generated during the discretization of gridblock into streamtubes ([]-discretizations) and also during the saturation assignment to a streamline from the gridblock and vice versa ([]-discretizations). The behavior of the material balance error associated with []-discretizations is studied with respect to parameters like the selection of the gridblock and the number of streamlines in the gridblock. Furthermore, we also examine the behavior of the error associated with []-discretizations with respect to the size of the discretizations along a streamline. Our results show that the material balance error associated with []-discretizations converges slowly (with a slope of -1.0) in a gridblock, if it has a stagnation point. However, if the gridblock does not have any stagnation point in it, then the error converges faster (with a slope of -2.0). For the []-discretizations along a streamline, the L? and L[] Norm errors are shown to be inversely proportional to the number of []-discretizations. The L? Norm error is shown to be inversely proportional to the square root of the number of []-discretizations.

Sabir, Kamran

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Modeling and Design of Material Separation Systems with Applications to Recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Material separation technology is critical to the success of the material recycling industry. End-of-life products, post-consumer waste, industrial excess, or otherwise collected materials for reuse are typically mixed ...

Wolf, Malima Isabelle, 1981-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A REVIEW OF SOFTWARE-INDUCED FAILURE EXPERIENCE.  

SciTech Connect

We present a review of software-induced failures in commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) and in several non-nuclear industries. We discuss the approach used for connecting operational events related to these failures and the insights gained from this review. In particular, we elaborate on insights that can be used to model this kind of failure in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model. We present the conclusions reached in these areas.

CHU, T.L.; MARTINEZ-GURIDI, G.; YUE, M.; LEHNER, J.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Weld failure detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

Pennell, William E. (Unity Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Sutton, Jr., Harry G. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Photoelectrochemical Materials: Theory and Modeling - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Muhammad N. Huda (Primary Contact), Yanfa Yan*, Todd Deutsch*, Mowafak M. Al-Jassim* and A. John A. Turner* Department of Physics University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, TX 76019 Phone: (817) 272-1097 Email: huda@uta.edu *National Renewable Energy Laboratory DOE Manager HQ: Eric L. Miller Phone: (202) 287-5892 Email: Eric.Miller@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX Project Start Date: September 2009 Project End Date: August 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives For FY 2012, the main goal of this project was to improve materials efficiency by understanding and hence tuning the following by theoretical/computational modeling

200

A simulation model for the fabrication of components made from multiphase perfect materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A component, which has an optimized combination of different materials (including homogeneous materials and different types of heterogeneous materials) in its different portions for a specific application, is considered as the component made of a multiphase ... Keywords: Layered manufacturing, Multiphase perfect materials, Simulation, Virtual component, Virtual manufacturing

Feng Wang; Ke-Zhang Chen; Xin-An Feng

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

deformation and failure of metals subjected to laser shock loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spall stress in laser pulse loading is much higher than in gas-gun loading because of the much ... Dynamic Contact Failure of Two Brittle Particles under Compression ... Natural Fiber Composite in a Novel Multi-Material Ballistic Armor.

202

Causes of Pipeline Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Types of defects that can cause pipeline failures...pipe body Mechanical damage Environmental causes Corrosion (external or internal) Hydrogen-stress cracking External stress corrosion cracking Internal sulfide-stress cracking Hydrogen blistering Fatigue Miscellaneous causes Secondary loads Weldments to pipe surface Wrinkle bends Internal combustion...

203

Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code  

SciTech Connect

A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Materials Studio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 14, 2008 ... G. Fitzgerald; G. Goldbeck-Wood; P. Kung; M. Petersen; L. Subramanian; J. Wescott, " Materials Modeling from Quantum Mechanics to The ...

205

BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

Hale, Steve

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

207

Ice Ball Impact Testing of Roofing Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Ice Ball Impact Testing of ...

208

Material matting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the widespread use of measured real-world materials, intuitive tools for editing measured reflectance datasets are still lacking. We present a solution inspired by natural image matting and texture synthesis to the material matting problem, ... Keywords: appearance models, material separation, matting, spatially-varying BRDFs, texture synthesis

Daniel Lepage; Jason Lawrence

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Numerical Characteriztion of the Fracture Behavior of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials by Means of Modified Boundary Layer Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified boundary layer modeling approach is used to predict the fracture toughness and crack resistance behaviors of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials. In this approach, a pre-existing crack inside a layer or at an interface between two different layers is assumed under plane strain conditions. Fracture is allowed to occur in a small process window situated at the crack tip. The process window is contained in a circular region, which can involve two different materials and their interface. Elastic asymptotic crack-tip fields are prescribed as remote boundary conditions. Special attention focuses on the cracking of the interface between the glass seal and the electrolyte material.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Singh, Prabhakar; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ahzi, Said

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Tools & Techniques for Failure Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 31, 2013 ... Failure Analysis and Prevention: Tools & Techniques for Failure ... As lithium-ion battery technology continues to advance and is adopted in diverse markets, ... fracture origin and an understanding of the fracture event energy.

211

Fatigue Failure in Tungsten Carbide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury porosimetry can be applied to determine the percent interconnected porosity. ... Failure Analysis of Duplex Stainless Steel Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization ... The Role of Corrosion and Oxidation in High Temperature Failures: Valuable ...

212

Use of Modeling for Prevention of Solids Formation During Canyon Processing of Legacy Nuclear Materials at the Savannah River Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Management (EM) nuclear material stabilization program includes the dissolution and processing of legacy materials from various DOE sites. The SRS canyon facilities were designed to dissolve and process spent nuclear fuel and targets. As the processing of typical materials is completed, unusual and exotic nuclear materials are being targeted for stabilization. These unusual materials are often difficult to dissolve using historical flowsheet conditions and require more aggressive dissolver solutions. Solids must be prevented in the dissolver to avoid expensive delays associated with the build-up of insoluble material in downstream process equipment. Moreover, it is vital to prevent precipitation of all solids, especially plutonium-bearing solids, since their presence in dissolver solutions raises criticality safety issues. To prevent precipitation of undesirable solids in aqueous process solutions, the accuracy of computer models to predict precipitate formation requires incorporation of plant specific fundamental data. These data are incorporated into a previously developed thermodynamic computer program that applies the Pitzer correlation to derive activity coefficient parameters. This improved predictive model will reduce unwanted precipitation in process solutions at DOE sites working with EM nuclear materials in aqueous solutions.

Rhodes, W. D.; Crooks III, W. J.; Christian, J. D.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

Failure of a Centrifugal Caster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

214

The influence of material models on chemical or nuclear-explosion source functions  

SciTech Connect

Physical models of explosion sources are needed to explain the variations in the performance of existing discriminants in different regions, and to help develop more robust methods for identifying underground explosions. In this paper, we assess the sensitivity of explosion source functions to material properties by means of numerical simulations. Specifically, we have calculated the effect of varying the yield strength, overburden pressure, and gas porosity on the spectra of the reduced velocity potential for both nuclear and chemical explosions, and compared these with experimental results derived from free-field particle acceleration and regional seismic (LNN) data. The chemical-explosion calculations were intended to simulate the kiloton experiment recently conducted in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that has been dubbed the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). We found that the asymptotic (long period) value of the reduced displacement potential, {phi}{infinity}, for explosions with the ANFO blasting agent used in the NPE, was larger than that derived for a tamped nuclear explosion of the same yield by a factor of 1.9, in good agreement with the experimental results derived from free-field particle velocity measurements, and also with m{sub b}(P{sub n}) data from the Livermore Nevada Network (LNN).

Glenn, L.A.; Goldstein, P.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars Two measures of car model malfunction probability, fraction of cars over 1% CO (y-axis) and average CO concentration of all cars (x-axis), demonstrate that five 1987-89 car models (14 year-model combinations) have a malfunction probability several times that of all other models. When an automobile's emissions control system fails, it may be because that model is more prone to failure than others, according to a study conducted by the Center's Energy Analysis Program and Marc Ross of the University of Michigan. This finding goes against the conventional wisdom that improper maintenance or deliberate disabling of the emissions systems by car owners is the cause of "high-emitting" vehicles. The results may provide clean-air

216

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE) A failure or shutdown of the ventilation system will be signaled by cessation of the audible background "rumbling" sound of the building's HVAC system. As building durations. NOTE: Due to unpredictable pressure differentials in and around the labs during an HVAC failure

Strynadka, Natalie

217

Forward model calculations for determining isotopic compositions of materials used in a radiological dispersal device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the event that a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is detonated in the U.S. or near U.S. interests overseas, it will be crucial that the actors involved in the event can be identified quickly. If irradiated nuclear fuel is used as the dispersion material for the RDD, it will be beneficial for law enforcement officials to quickly identify where the irradiated nuclear fuel originated. One signature which may lead to the identification of the spent fuel origin is the isotopic composition of the RDD debris. The objective of this research was to benchmark a forward model methodology for predicting isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel used in an RDD while at the same time optimizing the fidelity of the model to reduce computational time. The code used in this study was Monteburns-2.0. Monteburns is a Monte Carlo based neutronic code utilizing both MCNP and ORIGEN. The size of the burnup step used in Monteburns was tested and found to converge at a value of 3,000 MWd/MTU per step. To ensure a conservative answer, 2,500 MWd/MTU per step was used for the benchmarking process. The model fidelity ranged from the following: 2-dimensional pin cell, multiple radial-region pin cell, modified pin cell, 2D assembly, and 3D assembly. The results showed that while the multi-region pin cell gave the highest level of accuracy, the difference in uncertainty between it and the 2D pin cell (0.07% for 235U) did not warrant the additional computational time required. The computational time for the multiple radial-region pin cell was 7 times that of the 2D pin cell. For this reason, the 2D pin cell was used to benchmark the isotopics with data from other reactors. The reactors from which the methodology was benchmarked were Calvert Cliffs Unit #1, Takahama Unit #3, and Trino Vercelles. Calvert Cliffs is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) using Combustion Engineering 14??14 assemblies. Takahama is a PWR using Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 17??17 assemblies. Trino Vercelles is a PWR using non-standard lattice assemblies. The measured isotopic concentrations from all three of the reactors showed good agreement with the calculated values.

Burk, David Edward

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to further analyze his heart failure. Com- plete bloodA: Inflammatory markers in stable heart failure and theirof improvement and readmission in heart failure. Eur J Heart

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

“Playboy Bunny” Sign of Congestive Heart Failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bunny’’ Sign of Congestive Heart Failure Akira Hokama, MD*to evaluate congestive heart failure. We highlight ‘‘Playboycaused by congestive heart failure. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;

Hokama, Akira; Arakaki, Shingo; Shibata, Daisuke; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Iion ...  

Creates a gradient of different materials for increased safety and stability; ... Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; Portable electronic devices;

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Steam generator tube failures  

SciTech Connect

A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Failure Analysis and Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

..., ASM International, 2012, p 281â??289ASM Handbook. Vol 23, Materials for Medical DevicesJ. Hoffman, T. Xu, and S. Donthu,

223

Verification and Validation of EnergyPlus Conduction Finite Difference and Phase Change Material Models for Opaque Wall Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Phase change materials (PCMs) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have the capability to simulate PCM but their accuracy has not been completely tested. This report summarizes NREL efforts to develop diagnostic tests cases to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings.

Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.; Booten, C.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 244 (1997) 85-100 RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 244 (1997) 85-100 RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part I: Theory, in the current engineering design phase of the International Ther- monuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER

Raffray, A. René

225

IDS: Thermodynamic-kinetic-empirical tool for modelling of solidification, microstructure and material properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IDS (InterDendritic Solidification) is a thermodynamic-kinetic-empirical tool for simulation of solidification phenomena of steels including phase transformations from melt down to room temperature. In addition, important thermophysical material properties ... Keywords: Continuous casting, Inclusions, Material properties, Microstructure, Solidification

J. Miettinen; S. Louhenkilpi; H. Kytönen; J. Laine

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Evaluation and Modeling of Edge-Seal Materials for Photovoltaic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Because of the sensitivity of some photovoltaic devices to moisture-induced corrosion, they are packaged using impermeable front- and back-sheets along with an edge seal to prevent moisture ingress. Evaluation of edge seal materials can be difficult because of the low permeation rates involved and/or non-Fickian behavior. Here, using a Ca film deposited on a glass substrate, we demonstrate the evaluation of edge seal materials in a manner that effectively duplicates their use in a photovoltaic application and compare the results with standard methods for measuring water vapor transport. We demonstrate how moisture permeation data from polymer films can be used to estimate moisture ingress rates and compare the results of these two methods. Encapsulant materials were also evaluated for comparison and to highlight the need for edge seals. Of the materials studied, desiccant filled polyisobutylene materials demonstrate by far the best potential to keep moisture out for a 20 to 30 year lifetime.

Kempe, M. D.; Dameron, A. A.; Moricone, T. J.; Reese, M. O.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Study of the unusual failure of milliwatt generator strength members  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to qualify Milliwatt Generator heat sources for an extended design life, multi-axial mechanical tests were performed on the strength member components. The results of these tests indicated that failure occurred predominantly in the middle of the weld ramp-down (down-slope) zone. Examination of the failure zone by standard metallographic techniques failed to indicate the cause of failure. A modified technique utilizing chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was employed and dramatically indicated the true cause of failure, viz., inclusions in the parent material which were precipitated along the welds. As a result of the initial investigation, weld parameters for the heat sources were altered and preliminary tests on sample welds suggested that pulse-arc welding eliminate this type of failure.

Zielinski, R.E.; Stacy, E.; Burgan, C.E.

1977-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

Application of Fractal Geometry to Failure Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial Intelligence Tools for Failure Event Database Management and Probability Risk Analysis for Failure Prevention · Aviation Accident Investigation ...

229

Modelling and simulations of the chemo-mechanical behaviour of leached cement-based materials: Interactions between damage and leaching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assessment of the durability of cement-based materials, which could be employed in underground structures for nuclear waste disposal, requires accounting for deterioration factors, such as chemical attacks and damage, and for the interactions between these phenomena. The objective of the present paper consists in investigating the long-term behaviour of cementitious materials by simulating their response to chemical and mechanical solicitations. In a companion paper (Stora et al., submitted to Cem. Concr. Res. 2008), the implementation of a multi-scale homogenization model into an integration platform has allowed for evaluating the evolution of the mineral composition, diffusive and elastic properties inside a concrete material subjected to leaching. To complete this previous work, an orthotropic micromechanical damage model is presently developed and incorporated in this numerical platform to estimate the mechanical and diffusive properties of damaged cement-based materials. Simulations of the chemo-mechanical behaviour of leached cementitious materials are performed with the tool thus obtained and compared with available experiments. The numerical results are insightful about the interactions between damage and chemical deteriorations.

Stora, E., E-mail: stora@univ-mlv.f [Atomic Energy Commission, CEA Saclay DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME/Laboratoire d'Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multiechelle, FRE3160 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France); Bary, B. [Atomic Energy Commission, CEA Saclay DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME/Laboratoire d'Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); He, Q.-C. [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multiechelle, FRE3160 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France); Deville, E.; Montarnal, P. [CEA Saclay DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME/MTMS, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Physical understanding and modeling of chemical mechanical planarization in dielectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has become the enabling planarization technique of choice for current and emerging silicon integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes. This work studies CMP in dielectric materials ...

Xie, Xiaolin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Dynamic simulation of heart mitral valve with transversely isotropic material model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops two methods for simulating, in the finite element setting, the material behavior of heart mitral valve leaflet tissue. First, a mixed pressure-displacement formulation is used to implement the constitutive ...

Weinberg, Eli, 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability: Real-Time Modeling of Airborne Hazardous Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a centralized federal project for assessing atmospheric releases of hazardous materials in real time. Since ARAC began making assessments in 1974, the ...

Thomas J. Sullivan; James S. Ellis; Connee S. Foster; Kevin T. Foster; Ronald L. Baskett; John S. Nasstrom; Walter W. Schalk III

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Nanostructured Model Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Finely structured, supported thin films offer a host of opportunities for fundamental and applied research. Nanostructured materials often exhibit physical properties which differ from their bulk counterparts due to the increased importance of the surface in determining the thermodynamics and behavior of the system. Thus, control of the characteristic size, porosity, morphology, and surface area presents opportunities to tailor new materials which are useful platforms for elucidating the fundamental processes related to energy conversion and storage. The ability to produce high purity materials with direct control of relevant film parameters such as porosity, film thickness, and film morphology is of immediate interest in the fields of electrochemistry, photocatalysis, and thermal catalysis. Studies of various photoactive materials have introduced questions concerning the effects of film architecture and surface structure on the performance of the materials, while recent work has demonstrated that nanostructured, mesoporous, or disordered materials often deform plastically, making them robust in applications where volumetric expansion and phase transformations occur, such as in materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, renewed emphasis has been placed on the formation of semi-conductive electrodes with controlled pore-size and large surface areas for the study and application of pseudo-capacitance and cation insertion processes for electrical energy storage. Understanding how the performance of such materials depends on morphology, porosity, and surface structure and area requires a synthesis technique which provides for incremental variations in structure and facilitates assessment of the performance with the appropriate analytical tools, preferably those that provide both structural information and kinetic insight into photoelectrochemical processes.

Flaherty, David W.; Hahn, Nathan T.; May, Robert A.; Berglund, Sean P.; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Mullins, C. Buddie

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

234

Understanding Cascading Failures in Power Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past, we have observed several large blackouts, i.e. loss of power to large areas. It has been noted by several researchers that these large blackouts are a result of a cascade of failures of various components. As a power grid is made up of several thousands or even millions of components (relays, breakers, transformers, etc.), it is quite plausible that a few of these components do not perform their function as desired. Their failure/misbehavior puts additional burden on the working components causing them to misbehave, and thus leading to a cascade of failures. The complexity of the entire power grid makes it difficult to model each and every individual component and study the stability of the entire system. For this reason, it is often the case that abstract models of the working of the power grid are constructed and then analyzed. These models need to be computationally tractable while serving as a reasonable model for the entire system. In this work, we construct one such model for the power grid...

Kadloor, Sachin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Infrastructure Failure - Types and Frequency  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Infrastructure Failure - Types and Frequency. Small events that have no impact on supplies Events that require supply/demand responses Events that result in a ...

236

Time-Dependent Failure Mechanisms in Silicon Carbide Composites for Fusion Energy Applications  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide has many properties that are attractive for applications in fusion energy systems. The reliability of monolithic silicon carbide is insufficient for its use in large components, due to its brittle failure behavior and flaw sensitivity. Ceramic matrix composites, on the other hand, offer greater flaw tolerance and reliability, but their failure mechanisms are less well understood. This work has focussed on studying potential failure mechanisms in silicon carbide fiber-reinforced, silicon carbide matrix (SiCf/SiCm) composites. In the event of cracks caused by accidental overloads, excessive creep, thermal shock from plasma disruptions, handling during installation, or resulting from processing, subcritical crack growth will occur due to creep of fibers that bridge the crack faces. It is presumed that irradiation will enhance the creep rate of the fibers and, subsequently, the subcritical crack growth rate. At certain temperatures the presence of even small amounts of oxygen leads to oxidation of the interphase material to gaseous products. In this case, subcritical crack growth occurs by a separate mechanism. In addition, fiber shrinkage or weakening due to exposure to radiation can promote additional failure mechanisms, including embrittlement. These mechanisms, the conditions, under which they occur, and the current state of models of the crack growth mechanisms will be discussed.

Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Youngblood, Gerald E.; Henager, Charles H.; Simonen, Edward P.; Jones, Russell H.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Randomization can be a healer: consensus with dynamic omission failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless ad-hoc networks are being increasingly used in diverse contexts, ranging from casual meetings to disaster recovery operations. A promising approach is to model these networks as distributed systems prone to dynamic communication failures. This ...

Henrique Moniz; Nuno Ferreira Neves; Miguel Correia; Paulo Veríssimo

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Rheology of Discrete Failure Regimes of Anisotropic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rheological model of sea ice is presented that incorporates the orientational distribution of ice thickness in leads embedded in isotropic floe ice. Sea ice internal stress is determined by coulombic, ridging and tensile failure at orientations ...

Alexander V. Wilchinsky; Daniel L. Feltham

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Heart Failure:Heart Failure: The Patient's ExperienceThe Patient's Experience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Heart Failure:Heart Failure: The Patient's ExperienceThe Patient's Experience Jason Ryan, MD, MPHJason Ryan, MD, MPH CoCo--director, UCONN Heart Failure Centerdirector, UCONN Heart Failure Center,084,000 $34.8 billion Background on Heart FailureBackground on Heart Failure 1 Heart failure (HF) is a major

Oliver, Douglas L.

242

Materials Reliability Program: Validation of Welding Residual Stress Models for PWR Piping Dissimilar Metal Welds (MRP-271)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The residual stresses imparted by the welding process are a principal factor in primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Dissimilar Metal (DM) piping butt welds in PWRs. Analytical models are frequently used to simulate the welding process in order to predict the residual stress distribution in the weld and base material as an input to crack growth calculations. The crack growth calculations have demonstrated a high sensitivity to the welding residual stress distribution inputs. As part of the ...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

243

BWRVIP-228: BWR Vessel and Internals Project, A Computational Modeling Tool for Welding Repair of Irradiated Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repair welding on highly irradiated stainless steel BWR internals can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld region. EPRI and participating Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP) members have sponsored development of a computational modeling tool to assist in determining appropriate welding process conditions (heat input and process selection) to produce crack-free welds on irradiated materials. This tool integrates a finite-element-based welding temperature and...

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

244

Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Failure-driven software safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software safety and software risk management are two of the most important facets of modern software engineering. To understand safety requires that we understand first what is not safe. This paper examines the concept of failure in software engineering ... Keywords: derived requirements, failure, requirements, risk, stakeholder, testing

Richard Riehle

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Rate-Independent Energy Dissipation Mechanisms in Fiber-Matrix Material Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Rate-independent energy dissipation associated with high-strain high-stress behavior of the material is considered. This rate-independent energy dissipation is associated with damage and relative motion inside the fiber-matrix material system. Simple mechanical models for energy dissipation were presented to facilitate the understanding of the phenomena. Three mechanisms for internal energy dissipation in fibermatrix material systems are considered: fiber fracture and failure; frictional sliding at the fibermatrix interface during fiber pull-out: and matrix deformation. Comparison of dissipation energy capabilities through fiber fracture and failure was examined separately for brittle fibers and for ductile wires. Various commercially available brittle fibers were compared in tables and graphs. For brittle fibers, energy dissipation density values as high as 107 J/cm 3 and 45 J/g were found during fiber failure. The ductile wires studied in this paper included stainless steel, alu...

Victor Giurgiutiu; Kenneth L. Reifsnider; Craig A. Rogers

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Adaptation Space: Surviving Non-Maskable Failures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some failures cannot be masked by redundancies, because an unanticipated situation occurred, because fault-tolerance measures were not adequate, or because there was a security breach (which is not amenable to replication). Applications that wish to continue to offer some service despite nonmaskable failure must adapt to the loss of resources. When numerous combinations of non-maskable failure modes are considered, the set of possible adaptations becomes complex. This paper presents adaptation spaces, a formalism for navigating among combinations of adaptations. An adaptation space describes a collection of possible adaptations of a software component or system, and provides a uniform way of viewing a group of alternative software adaptations. Adaptation spaces describe the different means for monitoring the conditions that different adaptations depend on, and the particular configurations through which an adaptive application navigate. Our goal is to use adaptation spaces to provide survivable services to applications despite non-maskable failures such as malicious attacks. We present the basic concepts concerning adaptation spaces, with examples. We then present a formal model for reasoning about and selecting alternative adaptations, allowing developers of survivable application to automate their system’s adaptive behavior. 1

Crispin Cowan; Lois Delcambre; Anne-francoise Le Meur; Ling Liu; David Maier; Dylan Mcnamee; Michael Miller; Calton Pu; Perry Wagle; Jonathan Walpole

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A meso-scale unit-cell based material model for the single-ply flexible-fabric armor M. Grujicic a,*, W.C. Bell a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A meso-scale unit-cell based material model for the single-ply flexible-fabric armor M. Grujicic a April 2008 Accepted 12 February 2009 Available online 20 February 2009 Keywords: Flexible armor Meso-scale unit-cell based material model for a prototypical plain-woven single-ply flexible armor is developed

Grujicic, Mica

249

Network protection design models, a heuristic, and a study for concurrent single-link per layer failures in three-layer networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayer network design has received significant attention in current literature. However, the explicit modeling of IP/MPLS over OTN over DWDM in which the OTN layer's technological constraints are specifically considered has not been investigated ... Keywords: Multilayer network, Network optimization, Survivable design

Iyad Katib; Deep Medhi

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Failure mode and effects analysis using a group-based evidential reasoning approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a methodology to evaluate a system, design, process or service for possible ways in which failures (problems, errors, risks and concerns) can occur. It is a group decision function and cannot be done on an ... Keywords: Evidential reasoning approach, Failure mode and effects analysis, Minimax regret ranking, Uncertainty modeling

Kwai-Sang Chin; Ying-Ming Wang; Gary Ka Kwai Poon; Jian-Bo Yang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Geothermal systems materials: a workshop/symposium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sixteen papers are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each. Summaries of workshops on the following topics are also included in the report: non-metallic materials, corrosion, materials selection, fluid chemistry, and failure analysis. (MHR)

Not Available

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Unsteady-state material balance model for a continuous rotary dissolver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The unsteady-state continuous rotary dissolver material balance code (USSCRD) is a useful tool with which to study the performance of the rotary dissolver under a wide variety of operating conditions. The code does stepwise continuous material balance calculations around each dissolver stage and the digester tanks. Output from the code consists of plots and tabular information on the stagewise concentration profiles of UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, fission products, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, fission product nitrates, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, stainless steel, total particulate, and total fuel in pins. Other information about material transfers, stagewise liquid volume, material inventory, and dissolution performance is also provided. This report describes the development of the code, its limitations, key operating parameters, usage procedures, and the results of the analysis of several sets of operating conditions. Of primary importance in this work was the estimation of the steady-state heavy metal inventory in a 0.5-t/d dissolver drum. Values ranging from {similar_to}12 to >150 kg of U + Pu were obtained for a variety of operating conditions. Realistically, inventories are expected to be near the lower end of this range. Study of the variation of operating parameters showed significant effects on dissolver product composition from intermittent solids feed. Other observations indicated that the cycle times for the digesters and shear feed should be closely coupled in order to avoid potential problems with off-specification product. 19 references, 14 tables.

Lewis, B.E.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Failure Atlas for Rolling Bearings in Wind Turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Atlas is structured as a supplement to the book: T.E. Tallian: Failure Atlas for Hertz Contact Machine Elements, 2nd edition, ASME Press New York, (1999). The content of the atlas comprises plate pages from the book that contain bearing failure images, application data, and descriptions of failure mode, image, and suspected failure causes. Rolling bearings are a critical component of the mainshaft system, gearbox and generator in the rapidly developing technology of power generating wind turbines. The demands for long service life are stringent; the design load, speed and temperature regimes are demanding and the environmental conditions including weather, contamination, impediments to monitoring and maintenance are often unfavorable. As a result, experience has shown that the rolling bearings are prone to a variety of failure modes that may prevent achievement of design lives. Morphological failure diagnosis is extensively used in the failure analysis and improvement of bearing operation. Accumulated experience shows that the failure appearance and mode of failure causation in wind turbine bearings has many distinguishing features. The present Atlas is a first effort to collect an interpreted database of specifically wind turbine related rolling bearing failures and make it widely available. This Atlas is structured as a supplement to the book: T. E. Tallian: Failure Atlas for Hertz Contact Machine Elements, 2d edition, ASME Press New York, (1999). The main body of that book is a comprehensive collection of self-contained pages called Plates, containing failure images, bearing and application data, and three descriptions: failure mode, image and suspected failure causes. The Plates are sorted by main failure mode into chapters. Each chapter is preceded by a general technical discussion of the failure mode, its appearance and causes. The Plates part is supplemented by an introductory part, describing the appearance classification and failure classification systems used, and by several indexes. The present Atlas is intended as a supplement to the book. It has the same structure but contains only Plate pages, arranged in chapters, each with a chapter heading page giving a short definition of the failure mode illustrated. Each Plate page is self contained, with images, bearing and application data, and descriptions of the failure mode, the images and the suspected causes. Images are provided in two resolutions: The text page includes 6 by 9 cm images. In addition, high resolution image files are attached, to be retrieved by clicking on their 'push pin' icon. While the material in the present Atlas is self-contained, it is nonetheless a supplement to the book and the complete interpretation of the terse image descriptions and of the system underlying the failure code presupposes familiarity with the book. Since this Atlas is a supplement to the book, its chapter numbering follows that of the book. Not all failure modes covered in the book have been found among the observed wind turbines. For that reason, and because of the omission of introductory matter, the chapter numbers in this Atlas are not a continuous sequence.

Tallian, T. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Dynamic deformation of advanced materials  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to provide high-quality experimental measurements on composite materials and to develop computational models describing the deformation response of these materials. Specifically, the authors studied the influence of strain rate and shock loading on the deformation and fracture response of a 6061-T6 Al-50 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} continuous fiber-reinforced composite as a function of composite orientation. The stress-strain response was found to vary substantially as a function of loading orientation with the quasi-static yield changing from nominally 300 MPa transverse to the fibers to {approximately}1,000 MPa parallel to the fibers. Transverse VISAR wave profile and spall measurements revealed a small, well-defined elastic precursor followed by a reasonably sharp shock rise. The failure response of the composite transverse to the fibers, under both uniaxial stress (quasi-static and dynamic) and uniaxial strain loading, displays a protracted but substantial load drop after yield followed by continued degradation in load carrying capacity. Lack of ideal parallel fiber construction leads to systematic bending failure of the alumina fibers through the sample under uniaxial stress and slow spallation kinetics as various fibers fail and pull out of the matrix across the spall plane.

Gray, G.T. III; Johnson, J.N.; Hixson, R.S.; Albert, D.E.; Song, S.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Radiochemical evaluation for debris-induced failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiochemical trends and anomalies experienced during cycle 15 of the Haddam Neck nuclear power plant, as a result of > 450 debris-induced fuel rod failures, presented a situation previously unreported in the nuclear industry. These data, along with shutdown and depressurization spiking data, needed to be evaluated against ultrasonic fuel assembly examination results to derive a predictive model, called the xenon pin equivalent (XPE), to be used for cycle 16. During the development of the model, a fission product release mechanism for this particular type of failure needed to be postulated based on cycle 15 data. The predictive model was tested during cycle 16, which presented similar but more subtle radiochemical trends than cycle 15. Several operational events affected the XPE model, including use of degasification and down-power maneuvers. After the cycle 16 shutdown, the XPE model results were reviewed and evaluated against ultrasonic testing results. Although expected to be conservative, this evaluation proved encouraging in that the model performed more accurately than expected. Additionally, these data helped confirm the postulated release mechanism and its contribution to the XPE model.

Goncarovs, G. (Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Co., Haddam Neck, CT (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Extracting failure knowledge with associative search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We applied associative OR search on a Failure Knowledge Database with 1,242 failure accidents and 41 failure scenarios in the book "100 Scenarios of Failure" to find cases most analogous to risks that engineers were concerned with. Ninety engineers provided ... Keywords: associative search, failure knowledge, risk management

Masayuki Nakao; Kensuke Tsuchiya; Yoshiaki Harita; Kenji Iino; Hiroshi Kinukawa; Satoshi Kawagoe; Yuji Koike; Akihiko Takano

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Lattice Boltzmann modeling of the effective thermal conductivity for fibrous materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. , M. Wang, and Z. Li, A lattice Boltzmann algorithm forA novel thermal model for the lattice Boltzmann method inS. and Doolen G.D. , Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid

Wang, Moran; He, Jihuan; Yu, Jianyong; Pan, Ning

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

TMS Materials Cyberinfrastructure Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Materials Cyber- infrastructure Portal serves as an online access point to critical tools and resources—including computational models and materials ...

259

Modeled Salt Density for Nuclear Material Estimation in the Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Spent metallic nuclear fuel is being treated in a pyrometallurgical process that includes electrorefining the uranium metal in molten eutectic LiCl-KCl as the supporting electrolyte. We report a model for determining the density of the molten salt. Inventory operations account for the net mass of salt and for the mass of actinides present. It was necessary to know the molten salt density but difficult to measure, and it was decided to model the salt density for the initial treatment operations. The model assumes that volumes are additive for the ideal molten salt solution as a starting point; subsequently a correction factor for the lanthanides and actinides was developed. After applying the correction factor, the percent difference between the net salt mass in the electrorefiner and the resulting modeled salt mass decreased from more than 4.0% to approximately 0.1%. As a result, there is no need to measure the salt density at 500 C for inventory operations; the model for the salt density is found to be accurate.

DeeEarl Vaden; Robert. D. Mariani

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

A one-dimensional material transfer model for HECTR version 1. 5  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HECTR (Hydrogen Event Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-parameter computer code developed for calculating the pressure-temperature response to combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building. The code uses a control-volume approach and subscale models to simulate the mass, momentum, and energy transfer occurring in the containment during a loss-of-collant-accident (LOCA). This document describes one-dimensional subscale models for mass and momentum transfer, and the modifications to the code required to implement them. Two problems were analyzed: the first corresponding to a standard problem studied with previous HECTR versions, the second to experiments. The performance of the revised code relative to previous HECTR version is discussed as is the ability of the code to model the experiments. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Geller, A.S.; Wong, C.C.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Autonomous thruster failure recovery for underactuated spacecraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thruster failures historically account for a large percentage of failures that have occurred on orbit. Therefore, autonomous thruster failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is an essential component to any robust ...

Pong, Christopher Masaru

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Experience with CPV Module Failures at NREL (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The failures and performance issues associated with three years of on-sun testing of CPV modules are discussed. Pictures of various failure mechanisms and performance issues are presented. A wide array of CPV module failures and performance issues have been experienced at NREL. Many of the modules are prototypes and have not been through qualification testing. It is assumed that the qualification test would have captured many of the problems. Internal lens soiling due to condensation is not currently captured by the qualification test. Lens temperature dependence can be built into modeling if CPV is to operate in cold locations.

Muller, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.  

SciTech Connect

Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Rossel, Scott M. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Hybrid approach to failure prediction for advanced computing systems |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid approach to failure prediction for advanced computing systems Hybrid approach to failure prediction for advanced computing systems January 8, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint "Fault tolerance is no longer an option but a necessity," states Franck Cappello, project manager of research on resilience at the extreme scale at Argonne National Laboratory. "And the ability to reliably predict failures can significantly reduce the overhead of fault-tolerance strategies and the recovery cost." In a special issue article in the International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Cappello and his colleagues at Argonne and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) discuss issues in failure prediction and present a new hybrid approach to overcome the limitations of current models. One popular way of building prediction models is to analyze log files,

265

Field Guide: Boiler Tube Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conventional and combined-cycle plants, boiler tube failures (BTFs) have been the main availability problem for as long as reliable statistics have been kept for each generating source. The three volumes of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report Boiler and Heat Recovery Steam Generator Tube Failures: Theory and Practice (1012757) present an in-depth discussion of the various BTF and degradation mechanisms, providing plant owners and operators with the technical basis to address tube failu...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pfitzner, Rene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Assessing High Temperature Failures in Components under ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These type of failures have occurred in the refinery, petrochemical and power ... Stainless Steels - Some Failure Case Histories from the Norwegian Oil and Gas ...

268

Using Finite Element Analysis in Failure Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Charles R. Morin Memorial Symposium on Failure Analysis and ... Tools for Failure Event Database Management and Probability Risk Analysis for ...

269

Condenser Tube Failures: Theory and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes information on all aspects of condenser tube failure (CTF) including failure mechanisms, possible root causes, and corrective actions.

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

270

Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia Borane (AB) was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to {approx}16% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with 8 thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

271

Materials - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Coatings & Lubricants * Coatings & Lubricants * Nanofluids * Deformation Joining * Recycling * Catalysts * Assessment * Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Materials ring on liner reciprocating tester Tribology Lab: Ring-on-liner reciprocating tester. Argonne National Laboratory plays an important role in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to develop advanced materials for transportation. The materials are developed with DOE support from the EERE Office of Vehicle Technology and Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies in collaboration with worldwide industrial partners. Examples

272

RELAP5 Model of a Two-phase ThermoSyphon Experimental Facility for Fuels and Materials Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) does not have a separate materials-irradiation flow loop and requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed inside a containment. This is necessary to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. As part of the safety basis justification, HFIR also requires that all experiments be able to withstand various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. As with any parallel flow system, HFIR is vulnerable to flow excursion events when vapor is generated in one of those flow paths. The effects of these requirements are to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant and to reduce experiment heat loads to ensure boiling doesn t occur. A new experimental facility for materials irradiation and testing in the HFIR is currently being developed to overcome these limitations. The new facility is unique in that it will have its own internal cooling flow totally independent of the reactor primary coolant and boiling is permitted. The reactor primary coolant will cool the outside of this facility without contacting the materials inside. The ThermoSyphon Test Loop (TSTL), a full scale prototype of the proposed irradiation facility to be tested outside the reactor, is being designed and fabricated (Ref. 1). The TSTL is a closed system working as a two-phase thermosyphon. A schematic is shown in Fig. 1. The bottom central part is the boiler/evaporator and contains three electric heaters. The vapor generated by the heaters will rise and be condensed in the upper condenser, the condensate will drain down the side walls and be circulated via a downcomer back into the bottom of the boiler. An external flow system provides coolant that simulates the HFIR primary coolant. The two-phase flow code RELAP5-3D (Ref. 2) is the main tool employed in this design. The model has multiple challenges: boiling, condensation and natural convection flows need to be modeled accurately.

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Modeling of material and energy flow in an EBCHR casting system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical and experimental analysis is made of fluid flow and heat transfer in a continuous casting system with an electron-beam energy source. For a cylindrical ingot confined in a water-cooled crucible, a two-dimensional, steady-state model is developed which includes the effects of free convection in the pool and conduction in the two-phase and solid regions. A modified Galerkin finite element method is used to solve for the flow and temperature fields simultaneously with the upper and lower boundaries of the pool. The calculation grid deforms along vertical spines as these phase boundaries move. Heat flows are measured in a steady-state experiment involving a short ingot and no pouring. Heat transfer coefficients representing contact resistance are determined, and measured heat flows are compared with model values. Flow and temperature fields along with solidification-zone boundaries are calculated for the experimental case and a case in which the ingot cooling is improved.

Westerberg, K.W. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

A Monte Carlo Model for Interrogation of Thick Cargos for Clandestine Fissionable Materials; Tests with 14-MeV Neutrons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo model has been developed for interrogation of fissionable material embedded in thick cargos when high-energy {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays are detected following neutron-induced fission. The model includes the principal structural components of the laboratory, the neutron source and collimator assembly in which it resides, the assembly that represents cargo of given characteristics, a target of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) and large external plastic scintillators for photon detection. The ability of this model to reproduce experimental measurements was tested by comparing simulations with measurements of the number of induced fissions and the number of detected photons when the HUE target was irradiated with 14.25-MeV neutrons in the absence of any cargo and while embedded in assemblies of plywood and iron pipes. The simulations agreed with experimental measurements within a factor of about 2 for irradiation of the bare target and when the areal density of intervening cargo was 33 g cm{sup -2} (wood) and 61 g cm{sup -2} (steel pipes). This suggests that the model can permit exploration of a large range in parameter space with reasonable fidelity.

Prussin, S; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Pruet, J; Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Alford, O; Asztalos, S; Bernstein, A; Church, J; Gosnell, T; Loshak, A; Madden, N; Manatt, D; Mauger, G; Meyer, A; Moore, T; Norman, E; Pohl, B; Petersen, D; Rusnak, B; Sundsmo, T; Tembrook, W; Walling, R

2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

275

A Latent Source Model to Detect Multiple Spatial Clusters with Application in a Mobile Sensor Network for Surveillance of Nuclear Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to have sophisticated nuclear surveillance and detection systems deployed in major cities in the U and models to provide consistent and pervasive surveillance of nuclear materials in major cities. The network Network for Surveillance of Nuclear Materials Jerry Cheng, Minge Xie, Rong Chen and Fred Roberts 1

Xie, Minge

276

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 and WO3SiO2 thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821­829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 the optical response of the films in the near-UV and visible region: two interband transitions for energies E

Thirumalai, Devarajan

277

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Materials Selection Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A considerable number of failures have occurred over the past decade in heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs). Many of these failures are attributed to poor design, improper operation, poor fabrication, or poor installation practices, but a number of them are attributed directly to improper material selection. In March 2004, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published the first heat recovery steam generator materials selection and repair guidelines (HRSG Material Selection and Repair Guidelin...

2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

278

Orlando Materials Innovation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ford Motor Company. Buddy Damm. Manager, Metallurgical Applications and Modeling Dept. The Timken Company. Frank Preli. Chief Engineer,. Materials and ...

279

Materials Technology @ TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 13, 2012 ... ESTABLISHED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES ... These projects include the development and validation of modeling tools to deliver higher ...

280

Heart Failure Jason Ryan, MD, MPH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Heart Failure Jason Ryan, MD, MPH Director, UCONN Heart Failure Center University of Connecticut,084,000 $34.8 billion Background on Heart Failure Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality 1American Heart Association.2008 Heart and Stroke

Oliver, Douglas L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

THERMAL PERFORMANCE SENSITIVITY STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF MATERIAL MODELING FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Documentation of the Industrial Minor Fuels and Raw Materials model (MFUEL)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the industrial demand for energy is projected by components of the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS), mainly the PURchased Heat and Power System (PURHAPS) and the oil refineries model (REFPRIDE). Other components of IFFS project a few fuel uses that are sometimes considered industrial. MFUEL projects those portions of industrial demand not covered by other components of IFFS: industrial use of motor gasoline, industrial consumption of lubricants and waxes, petrochemical feedstocks, metallurgical coal, special naphthas, natural gas used as a chemical feedstock, asphalt and road oil, petroleum coke, industrial kerosene, industrial hydropower, net imports of coal coke, other petroleum, and LPG used as a feedstock or by gas utilities. Each fuel is projected by a single equation at the national level, based on historical relationships, and then shared out to Federal Regions. MFUEL accounts for 5.01 quadrillion Btu out of the industrial energy total of 19.66 quadrillion in 1983, including 3.52 quadrillion Btu out of the 7.83 quadrillion of industrial petroleum use.

Werbos, P.J.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Lithiation Induced Stress and Failure of Anode Materials in Lithium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interface-Dominated Mechanical Properties of Layered/Fibrous Composites · Interface Bond Strength of HIP-Clad Depleted Uranium and 6061-Aluminum.

284

Accident Investigation and Materials Failure Analysis at the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both are independent federal agencies charged with investigating transportation accidents in all modes, including aviation, railroad, highway, marine, pipeline, ...

285

Real-time quantitative imaging of failure events in materials ...  

reflector aimed at the centre of the cell (Fig.1b), giving a spherical hot zone of diameter ?5mm. Temperatures of test samples in the

286

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: Digital Resource ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 15, 2007 ... For other multi-scale computational research project descriptions including: " Computational Modeling of Fatigue, Fracture, and Ductile Failure ...

287

Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues  

SciTech Connect

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm{sup 2} with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

Ocana, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A. [Centro Laser UPM. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM. Edificio La Arboleda. Ctra. de Valencia, km. 7.3. 28031 Madrid (Spain)

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Understanding Degradation and Failure in HTS Conductors Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Materials Forensics, Three-dimensional Modeling and Fractal Characterization · Vortex Physics in Oxide and Pnictide High Temperature Superconductors.

291

SuperComputing | Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theory Institute Polymer-based Multicomponent Materials Molecular Dynamics Molecular Mechanics Course Grained Models Mathematics National Security Systems Modeling Engineering...

292

HRSG Material Selection and Repair Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The number of failures in heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) components has been quite high during the past decade. Many of these failures are attributed to poor design, improper operation, poor fabrication, or poor installation practices. This report provides repair practices and procedures currently being used to correct a number of these problems. It also identifies domestic and international materials commonly employed.

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Materials Modelling I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 2, 2010 ... Numerical Simulation of Deformation during Hot Procedure for Large Hydraulic Turbine Runner Blade: Pei Wang1; Namin Xiao1; Dianzhong ...

294

Structural Materials Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013... Xiang Yang3; 1University of Pennsylvania; 2Institute of High Performance Computing; 3Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

295

A stochastic flow rule for granular materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There have been many attempts to derive continuum models for dense granular flow, but a general theory is still lacking. Here, we start with Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for quasi-2D granular materials to calculate (average) stresses and slip planes, but we propose a "stochastic flow rule" (SFR) to replace the principle of coaxiality in classical plasticity. The SFR takes into account two crucial features of granular materials - discreteness and randomness - via diffusing "spots" of local fluidization, which act as carriers of plasticity. We postulate that spots perform random walks biased along slip-lines with a drift direction determined by the stress imbalance upon a local switch from static to dynamic friction. In the continuum limit (based on a Fokker-Planck equation for the spot concentration), this simple model is able to predict a variety of granular flow profiles in flat-bottom silos, annular Couette cells, flowing heaps, and plate-dragging experiments -- with essentially no fitting parameters -- although it is only expected to function where material is at incipient failure and slip-lines are inadmissible. For special cases of admissible slip-lines, such as plate dragging under a heavy load or flow down an inclined plane, we postulate a transition to rate-dependent Bagnold rheology, where flow occurs by sliding shear planes. With different yield criteria, the SFR provides a general framework for multiscale modeling of plasticity in amorphous materials, cycling between continuum limit-state stress calculations, meso-scale spot random walks, and microscopic particle relaxation.

Ken Kamrin; Martin Z. Bazant

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

296

DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.

Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Reliability analysis of component-based systems with multiple failure modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel approach to the reliability modeling and analysis of a component-based system that allows dealing with multiple failure modes and studying the error propagation among components. The proposed model permits to specify the components ...

Antonio Filieri; Carlo Ghezzi; Vincenzo Grassi; Raffaela Mirandola

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Failure Analysis of Titanium Dental Implants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

299

Materials Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Science. Summary: ... Description: Group focus in materials science (inkjet metrology, micro-macro, advanced characterizations). ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

300

Probabilistic Failure Propagation and Transformation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key concern in safety engineering is understanding the overall emergent failure behaviour of a system, i.e., behaviour exhibited by the system that is outside its specification of acceptable behaviour. A system can exhibit failure behaviour in many ... Keywords: component-based system, failure, probabilistic analysis, safety analysis

Xiaocheng Ge; Richard F. Paige; John A. Mcdermid

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Failure Analysis in Oil & Gas Industry - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure Analysis and Prevention: Failure Analysis in Oil & Gas Industry ... Failure Analysis Case Studies from Refinery and Petrochemical Pilot Plants: Benjamin ...

302

GROUND PLANE INSULATION FAILURE IN THE FIRST TPC SUPERCONDUCTING COIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is WIUUTEO GROUND PLANE INSULATION FAILURE IN THE FIRST TPCOn August 27, 1980, an insulation failure occurred dt-ringby a failure uf ground plane insulation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Investigation and modeling of processing-microstructure-property relations in ultra-fine grained hexagonal close packed materials under strain path changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultra-fine grained (UFG) materials have attracted considerable interest due to the possibility of achieving simultaneous increase in strength and ductility. Effective use of these materials in engineering applications requires investigating the processing-microstructure-property inter-relations leading to a comprehensive understanding of the material behavior. Research efforts on producing UFG hexagonal close packed (hcp) materials have been limited in spite of their envisaged utilization in various technologies. The present study explores multiple UFG hcp materials to identify the general trends in their deformation behaviors, microstructural features, crystallographic texture evolutions and mechanical responses under strain path changes. UFG hcp materials, including commercial purity Ti, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and high purity Zr, were fabricated using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) as a severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique following various processing schedules. Several characterization methods and a polycrystal plasticity model were utilized in synergy to impart the relationships between the UFG microstructure, the texture and the post-ECAE flow behavior. Pure UFG hcp materials exhibited enhanced strength properties, making them potential substitutes for coarse-grained high strength expensive alloys. Incorporation of post-ECAE thermo-mechanical treatments was effective in further improvement of the strength and ductility levels. Strong anisotropy of the post-ECAE flow response was evident in all the materials studied. The underlying mechanisms for anisotropy were identified as texture and processing-induced microstructure. Depending on the ECAE route, the applied strain level and the specific material, the relative importance of these two mechanisms on plastic flow anisotropy varied. A viscoplastic self-consistent approach is presented as a reliable model for predicting the texture evolutions and flow behaviors of UFG hcp materials in cases where texture governs the plastic anisotropy. Regardless of the material, the initial billet texture and the extrusion conditions, ECAE of all hcp materials revealed similar texture evolutions. Accurate texture and flow behavior predictions showed that basal slip is the responsible mechanism for such texture evolution in all hcp materials independent of their axial ratio. High strength of the UFG microstructure was presented as a triggering mechanism for the activation of unexpected deformation systems, such as high temperature deformation twinning in Ti-6Al-4V and room temperature basal slip in pure Zr.

Yapici, Guney Guven

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Component Failure and Repair Data for Coal-Fired Power Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A complete and consistent set of failure rate and time-to-restore data for components of a coal-fired generating unit was developed for use in the validation of a reliability and availability assessment model. This report presents the data and describes the principal methodology used--a failure modes analysis. It also includes process flow diagrams.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Optimal replacement period of a two-unit system with failure rate interaction and external shocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, a periodical replacement model for a two-unit system which is both subjected to failure rate interaction and external shocks will be presented. Without external shocks, each unit 1, whenever it fails, will act as an interior shock to ... Keywords: External shocks, Failure rate interaction, Periodical replacement policy, Two-unit system

Min-Tsai Lai; Ying-Chang Chen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Remote performance check and automated failure identification for grid-connected PV systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy yield against an expected, simulated value. A PV simulation model, which employs inexpensiveRemote performance check and automated failure identification for grid-connected PV systems reliable operation of small systems up to 5 kWp. The detection and identification of a failure is strongly

Heinemann, Detlev

308

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long term goal is to capture this information in efficient computational models and ... Generic Materials Property Data Storage and Retrieval for Alloy Material ...

309

Geothermal steam muffler diffusers: the Geysers, California. Failure analysis report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary failure mechanism for the T304 diffusers was chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (sec.) Once SCC had progressed to a certain point, high cycle corrosion/fatigue proceeded to the final fracture. Alteration of the environment to prevent SCC is not feasible. The existing environment will also cause sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in susceptible materials; therefore, alternate materials must resist SSC as well as SCC. The very large amplitude operational stresses make heat treatment to relieve residual fabrication stress questionable for the prevention of SCC. (MHR)

McAlpin, R.; Ellis, P.F. II

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Failure analysis of ETAC (Enrichment Technology Applications Center) pressure vessel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an investigation into the failure of a graphite-epoxy composite cylinder. It investigates the quality of the as-fabricated cylinder and provides a verification of compressive material property input used in its design. The design is reevaluated in terms of the adjusted composition and material property input for its suitability for 18,000-psi pressure applications. A comparison between the composition and layup of a cylinder manufactured by Hitco is also provided, as well as the results of a pressurization test of an identical ETAC cylinder tested by the Naval Ocean Systems Center.

Frame, B.J.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A Latent Model to Detect Multiple Spatial Clusters with Application in a Mobile Sensor Network for Surveillance of Nuclear Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surveillance of nuclear materials in major cities. The network consists of a large number of vehicles on which for Surveillance of Nuclear Materials Jerry Cheng, Minge Xie, Rong Chen and Fred Roberts1 Abstract Nuclear attacks to infrastructure. To deter such threats, it becomes increasingly vital to have sophisticated nuclear surveillance

312

Investigating the Ability of a Land Surface Model to Simulate Streamflow with the Accuracy of Hydrological Models: A Case Study Using MOPEX Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) project, after calibration of model parameters, complex rainfall–runoff hydrological models (HMs) simulated streamflow better than land surface models (LSMs), including the Soil–Water–...

Olga N. Nasonova; Yeugeniy M. Gusev; Yeugeniy E. Kovalev

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Numerical Simulation of Dispersal of Inert Seeding Material in Israel Using a Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mesoscale model RAMS (the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) was used to investigate the effectiveness of the broadcast static seeding method for dispersing particles into clouds, as it is used in Israel. The model was run using three nested ...

Zev Levin; Shimon O. Krichak; Tamir Reisin

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

materials data related to hydrogen embrittlement - Modeled after existing metals handbooks - Data culled from open literature * Peer-reviewed scientific articles * Public...

315

Orlando Materials Innovation - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We will create a materials innovation infrastructure with common resources for data and knowledge sharing that can be openly utilized for model development ...

316

Old Electrochromic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochromic Materials Electrochromic Materials DOE also supports the development of electrochromic coatings through several mechanisms. Three companies are engaged in development of commercial prototypes through the Electrochromics Initiative and an SBIR small business grant. LBNL and another DOE laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) perform a variety of measurements to evaluate the energy performance and durability of these prototypes . Other research activities are intended to assist the efforts of the industry in general. At LBNL, research focuses on rapid development and analysis of electrode materials. Among recent accomplishments was the production of a stoichiometric form of Li0.5Ni0.5O by laser deposition and sputtering with excellent electrochromic properties. Dr. Stuart Cogan of EIC Laboratories tested the films and declared them to have "the highest coloration efficiency of any known anodic electrochromic material." EIC will test the films in their own devices in the near future. We also work on several binary electrodes produced by cosputtering from two targets simultaneously. For example, enhanced forms of tungsten oxide produced in this way have wide application because of the prevalence of tungsten oxide in today's devices. In addition to testing durability, NREL also investigates the degradation mechanisms which lead to failure in the hope of being able to correlate accelerated testing to real time failure as well as to diagnose and correct device problems.

317

Failure Analysis of 6.8 Evaporator Thermowell  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center Materials technology Section was requested to determine the cause of failure for a resistance temperature device and thermowell assembly that was used in the 6.8 Low Activity Waste evaporator. A methodical and well planned approach was used for the failure analysis task with special precautions because of the high radiation and contamination levels. Two sections of the failed assembly were selected for thorough analysis, the bottom of the inner tube with the end-cap and a piece of inner tube at the vapor/waste interface. The failure analysis consisted of macroscopic examination and metallographic analysis. Intergranular attack (IGA) was found to be the primary corrosion mechanism that led to eventual failure. IGA of the end cap occurred because of a presumed preferential microstructure and accelerated the corrosion rate over that of inner-tube side wall. Once the end cap was breached, the waste quickly attacked the RTD components, leading to the low resistance to ground readings that indicated the initial RTD malfunction. A metallographic analysis of an unexposed end cap is recommended to confirm the suspect microstructure.

MICKALONIS, JOHNI.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

New Website Offers Easy Access to NIST Disaster and Failure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... failures caused by natural disasters, fires and ... and outcomes of their disaster and failure ... events; associated emergency response and evacuation ...

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

319

Investigation of Catastrophic Failures in High-Power MOSFET ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tube Failure in Coal and Gas Fired Power Plant · Understanding Failure of Titanium Alloys Using Fractography and Other Characterization Methods.

320

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Availability Technology Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The computational materials science of concrete:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), advanced by the ... models need to advance to the ... reposito- ry, the computational materials science of ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

323

Modeling of complex oxide materials from the first principles: systematic applications to vanadates RVO3 with distorted perovskite structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Realistic modeling" is a new direction of electronic structure calculations, where the main emphasis is made on the construction of some effective low-energy model entirely within a first-principle framework. Ideally, it is a model in form, but with ... Keywords: Effective models, First-principle calculations, Perovskite vanadates, Spin-orbital order

Igor Solovyev

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Fossil Power Plant Components Failure Analysis Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of engineering design is to obviate failures. However, this goal is only partially achievable because of the balance between cost and risk, potential deterioration during service, and the departure of actual operation from design assumptions. Thus, utility engineers are periodically faced with failures that span the gamut of power plant equipment and economic and safety consequences. Reaching a proper conclusion about the failure mechanism and the associated root cause is central to the post-fai...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Materials Characterization | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization Nuclear Forensics Scanning Probes Related Research Materials Theory and Simulation Energy Frontier Research Centers Advanced Materials Home | Science &...

328

Methodology for developing Version 2.0 of the MECcheck{trademark} materials for the 1992, 1993, and 1995 Model Energy Codes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To help builders comply with the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) Model Energy Code (MEC), and to help code officials enforce the MEC requirements, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop the MECcheck{trademark} compliance materials. The materials include a compliance and enforcement manual for all the MEC requirements, prescriptive packages, software, and a trade-off worksheet (included in the compliance manual) to help comply with the thermal envelope requirements. The materials can be used for single-family and low- rise multifamily dwellings. The materials allow building energy efficiency measures (such as insulation levels) to be ``traded off`` against each other, allowing a wide variety of building designs to comply with the MEC. The materials were developed to provide compliance methods that are easy to use and understand. MECcheck compliance materials have been developed for three different editions of the MEC: the 1992, 1993, and 1995 editions. Although some requirements contained in the 1992, 1993, and 1995 MEC changed, the methodology used to develop the MECcheck materials for these three editions is essentially identical. This document explains the methodology used to produce the three MECcheck compliance approaches for meeting the MEC`s thermal envelope requirements--the prescriptive package approach, the software approach, and the trade-off approach. The MECcheck material are largely oriented to assisting the builder in meeting the most complicated part of the MEC--the building envelope U{sub o}-, U-, and R-value requirements in Section 502 of the MEC. This document details the calculations and assumptions underlying the treatment of the MEC requirements in MECcheck, with a major emphasis on the building envelope requirements.

Connell, L.M.; Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Failure Analysis in the Aerospace Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013 ... Investigation of Fatigue Failures of Titanium Alloy Blades Used in Compressor Modules of Aeroderivative Industrial Gas Turbines: Michal ...

330

Failure Investigations Report Highlights Efforts for Safer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the failure of the two World Trade Center (WTC) towers following the ... These proposals address areas such as structural collapse, wind tunnel testing ...

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

331

Failure Analysis of a Reciprocating Compressor Head  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A major oil company operation experienced a reciprocating compressor failure on one of its offshore platforms. The compressor head on the 1st ...

332

Failure Analysis of a Pressure Transmitter Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Splitting Tension Test on High-Strength Concretes Studied by Artificial Intelligence and Response Surface Analysis · Spring Failures -The Role of Corrosion in ...

333

DELAYED FAILURE HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF ZIRCONIUM. Summary Report, September 15, 1961 to September 14, 1962  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The extent to which zirconium and zirconium alloys exhibit delayed failure (static fatigue) as caused by a combination of absorbed hydrogen and applied stress was investigated. Susceptibility to time-dependent fracture was evaluated for unalloyed zirconium and Zircaloy-2 with 200 and 500 ppm hydrogen as well as for an experimental Zr Al-Sn-Mo alloy and the Canadian Zr-2.5Nb cladding material. For unalloyed zirconium and Zircaloy-2 containing up to 500 ppm hydrogen, no room-temperature, timedependent fracture occurred which could be definitely attributed to the delayed failure phenomenon; an increased grain size, 20% cold deformation by rolling, or corrosion in 750 deg F steam did not significantly affect this behavior. The curve of applied stress versus time to failure at room temperature for the high-strength Zr-Al-Sn--Mo alloy containing 500 ppm hydrcgen established a strong susceptibility to delayed failure due to hydrogen absorption; studies on vacuum-annealed material showed no failures. Further, reduced temperature indicated that the occurrence of static fatigue is temperature dependent. Data for heattreated Zr 2.5Nb containing 500 ppm hydrogen indicated that this material is moderately sensitive to delayed failure at room temperature; higher hydrogen contents caused a greatly increased susceptibility to time-dependent fracture. (auth)

Weinstein, D.; Holtz, F.C.

1962-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

Case study of slope failures at Spilmans Island  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study for a dredge disposal site called Spilmans Island, located along the Houston-Galveston Ship Channel, east of Houston. Initially classified as a sand bar in the San Jacinto River, Spilmans Island evolved in recent years with the construction of perimeter levees to contain the flow of materials produced from dredging operations. These levees were often constructed on soft dredged sediments, and as the levees were raised, occasionally slope failures occurred. The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the importance of reconstructing the history of a site as a basis for geotechnical analyses, and to demonstrate the significance of keeping accurate records of past investigations, construction activities, slope failures and subsequent remedial measures. The results of the geotechnical investigation described in this paper offer a clear example of how such data can be used to provide reliable predictions on the stability conditions of raised levees.

Kayyal, M.K. [Damascus Univ. (Syrian Arab Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Hasen, M. [HVJ Association, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

A study of the failure mechanism of chlorine anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin coating RuO{sub 2}{minus}TiO{sub 2} electrodes, which mimic the DSA anodes, have been prepared and tested for their activity toward the chlorine evolution reaction and subjected to life time testing. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used concurrently with electrochemical measurements to analyze changes in the ruthenium content of the coating. The decrease in electrode activity is found to be closely related to a decrease in Ru content, and the measured profiles indicate that the loss takes place across the thin coating. Failure is observed for electrodes with a Ru content below a critical concentration, but there is no evidence for the build up of a pure TiO{sub 2} layer. AFM imaging of an anode after failure sustained the hypothesis of loss of material.

Vallet, C.E.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Summary of failure analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory has for many years conducted examinations related to the failures of nuclear materials and components. These examinations included the confirmation of root cause analyses, the determination of the causes of failure, identification of the species that accelerate corrosion, and comparison of the results of nondestructive examinations with those obtained by destructive examination. The results of those examinations, which had previously appeared in various formats (formal and informal reports, journal articles, etc.), have been collected together and summarized in the present report. The report is divided into sections according to the general subject matter (for example, corrosion, fatigue, etc.). Each section presents summaries of the information contained in specific reports and publications, all of which are fully identified as to title, authors, report number or journal reference, date of publication, and FIN number under which the work was performed.

Cowgill, M.G.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Franz, E.M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

A soft computing method for detecting lifetime building thermal insulation failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The detection of thermal insulation failures in buildings in operation responds to the challenge of improving building energy efficiency. This multidisciplinary study presents a novel four-step soft computing knowledge identification model called IKBIS ...

Javier Sedano; Leticia Curiel; Emilio Corchado; Enrique de la Cal; José R. Villar

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

339

About Disaster and Failure Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... EF) Tornado Intensity Scale adopted by NOAA's National Weather Service. ... use of data, models, analytical and computational tools, laboratory and ...

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

340

Materials of Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

None

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

INTERDICTION MODELING FOR SMUGGLED NUCLEAR MATERIAL Nedialko B. Dimitrov, Marc A. Gonzalez, Dennis P. Michalopoulos, David P. Morton,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1990s, Russia inherited roughly 600- 850 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium [9% of these involved nuclear material and 18 involved weapons-grade uranium or plutonium. Sometimes a smuggler's intent (SNM), i.e., weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu), reactor-grade plutonium, natural uranium, low

Morton, David

342

Reactor Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The reactor materials crosscut effort will enable the development of innovative and revolutionary materials and provide broad-based, modern materials science that will benefit all four DOE-NE...

343

A survey of online failure prediction methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the ever-growing complexity and dynamicity of computer systems, proactive fault management is an effective approach to enhancing availability. Online failure prediction is the key to such techniques. In contrast to classical reliability methods, ... Keywords: Error, failure prediction, fault, prediction metrics, runtime monitoring

Felix Salfner; Maren Lenk; Miroslaw Malek

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Evaluation of arresters' failure probability using ANN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning is a major cause of faults on overhead transmission high voltage lines. In order to improve the lightning performance of the lines and to reduce the failure rate, surge arresters are installed between each phase and earth. The failure probability ... Keywords: Simulink®7.1 package, artificial neural networks, surge arresters, transmission lines

C. A. Christodoulou; I. A. Stathopulos

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Materials - Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Assessment The staff of the Energy Systems Division has a long history of technical and economic analysis of the production and recycling of materials for transportation...

347

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos...

348

Investigation of Inter-System Common-Cause Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A principal characteristic of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) approach compared to a deterministic safety approach is to systematically account for common-cause failures (CCFs) in the study of severe accident scenarios. There has been extensive analysis of intra-system CCFs (within a given system) in the existing fleet of PSA models, but the information and studies that incorporate the potential for inter-system CCFs among systems are limited.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

Industry-Wide Substation Equipment Performance and Failure Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRIs) Transformer Industrywide Database (IDB) is a collaborative effort to pool appropriate transformer operating and failure data in order to assemble a statistically valid population of many types of power transformers. Analysis of these data will provide information about transformer historical performance and models for projecting future performance useful for aiding both asset management and maintenance managers. This report presents the current status of the...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

Evaluations of Structural Failure Probabilities and Candidate Inservice Inspection Programs  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report applies probabilistic structural mechanics models to predict the reliability of nuclear pressure boundary components. These same models are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative programs for inservice inspection to reduce these failure probabilities. Results of the calculations support the development and implementation of risk-informed inservice inspection of piping and vessels. Studies have specifically addressed the potential benefits of ultrasonic inspections to reduce failure probabilities associated with fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking. Parametric calculations were performed with the computer code pc-PRAISE to generate an extensive set of plots to cover a wide range of pipe wall thicknesses, cyclic operating stresses, and inspection strategies. The studies have also addressed critical inputs to fracture mechanics calculations such as the parameters that characterize the number and sizes of fabrication flaws in piping welds. Other calculations quantify uncertainties associated with the inputs calculations, the uncertainties in the fracture mechanics models, and the uncertainties in the resulting calculated failure probabilities. A final set of calculations address the effects of flaw sizing errors on the effectiveness of inservice inspection programs.

Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Simonen, Fredric A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Cascading Failure Risk Variation with Generator Dispatch and System Load Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industry reliability rules increasingly require utilities to study and mitigate cascading failure risk in their system. Motivated by this, this paper describes how cascading failure risk, in terms of expected blackout size, varies with power system load level and pre-contingency dispatch. We used Monte Carlo sampling of random branch outages to model contingencies, and a model of cascading failure to estimate blackout sizes. The risk associated with different blackout sizes is separately estimated in order to separate small, medium, and large blackout risk. Results from N-1 secure models of the IEEE RTS case and a 2383 bus case indicate that blackout risk does not always increase with load level, particularly for large blackout risk. The results also show that risk is highly dependent on the method used for generator dispatch. Minimum cost methods of dispatch can result in larger long distance power transfers, which can increase cascading failure risk.

Rezaei, Pooya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Materials Reliability Program: Welding Residual Stress Dissimilar Metal Butt-Weld Finite Element Modeling Handbook (MRP-317)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The residual stresses imparted by the welding process are a principal factor in the process of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 82/182 nickel-alloy (i.e., dissimilar metal) piping butt welds in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Numerical methods by finite element analyses are frequently used to simulate the welding process in order to predict the residual stress distribution in the weld and base material as an input to crack growth calculations. The crack growth calculations, in ...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

353

Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials can generate electricity or provide cooling by converting thermal gradients to electricity or electricity to thermal gradients. More efficient thermoelectric materials would make feasible the widespread use of thermoelectric converters in mundane applications. This report summarizes the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials including currently available materials and applications, new developments, and future prospects.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

355

Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2  

SciTech Connect

Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at grain boundaries for given grain boundary properties. More validation of the model capability in polycrystalline is underway.

Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Inbestigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by dislocation loop formation and growth, microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, radiation-induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, and in some cases, void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiationinduced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses beyond 200 dpa). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. Predictive modeling relies on an understanding of the physical processes and also on the development of microstructure and microchemical models to describe their evolution under irradiation. This project will focus on modeling microstructural and microchemical evolution of irradiated alloys by performing detailed modeling of such microstructure evolution processes coupled with well-designed in situ experiments that can provide validation and benchmarking to the computer codes. The broad scientific and technical objectives of this proposal are to evaluate the microstructure and microchemical evolution in advanced ferritic/martensitic and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for cladding and duct reactor materials under long-term and elevated temperature irradiation, leading to improved ability to model structural materials performance and lifetime. Specifically, we propose four research thrusts, namely Thrust 1: Identify the formation mechanism and evolution for dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a and determine whether the defect microstructure (predominately dislocation loop/dislocation density) saturates at high dose. Thrust 2: Identify whether a threshold irradiation temperature or dose exists for the nucleation of growing voids that mark the beginning of irradiation-induced swelling, and begin to probe the limits of thermal stability of the tempered Martensitic structure under irradiation. Thrust 3: Evaluate the stability of nanometer sized Y- Ti-O based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) particles at high fluence/temperature. Thrust 4: Evaluate the extent to which precipitates form and/or dissolve as a function of irradiation temperature and dose, and how these changes are driven by radiation induced segregation and microchemical evolutions and determined by the initial microstructure.

Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Inbestigation  

SciTech Connect

The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by dislocation loop formation and growth, microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, radiation-induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, and in some cases, void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiationinduced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses beyond 200 dpa). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. Predictive modeling relies on an understanding of the physical processes and also on the development of microstructure and microchemical models to describe their evolution under irradiation. This project will focus on modeling microstructural and microchemical evolution of irradiated alloys by performing detailed modeling of such microstructure evolution processes coupled with well-designed in situ experiments that can provide validation and benchmarking to the computer codes. The broad scientific and technical objectives of this proposal are to evaluate the microstructure and microchemical evolution in advanced ferritic/martensitic and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for cladding and duct reactor materials under long-term and elevated temperature irradiation, leading to improved ability to model structural materials performance and lifetime. Specifically, we propose four research thrusts, namely Thrust 1: Identify the formation mechanism and evolution for dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a<100> and determine whether the defect microstructure (predominately dislocation loop/dislocation density) saturates at high dose. Thrust 2: Identify whether a threshold irradiation temperature or dose exists for the nucleation of growing voids that mark the beginning of irradiation-induced swelling, and begin to probe the limits of thermal stability of the tempered Martensitic structure under irradiation. Thrust 3: Evaluate the stability of nanometer sized Y- Ti-O based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) particles at high fluence/temperature. Thrust 4: Evaluate the extent to which precipitates form and/or dissolve as a function of irradiation temperature and dose, and how these changes are driven by radiation induced segregation and microchemical evolutions and determined by the initial microstructure.

Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Analyzing space-time sensor network data under suppression and failure in transmission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a fully model-based analysis of the effects of suppression and failure in data transmission with sensor networks. Sensor networks are becoming an increasingly common data collection mechanism in a variety of fields. Sensors can ... Keywords: Hierarchical models, Information loss, Linear constraints, Spatio temporal models, Wireless sensor networks

Gavino Puggioni; Alan E. Gelfand

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

Hacke, P.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Local Failure in Resected N1 Lung Cancer: Implications for Adjuvant Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate actuarial rates of local failure in patients with pathologic N1 non-small-cell lung cancer and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with an increased risk of local failure after resection. Methods and Materials: All patients who underwent surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer with pathologically confirmed N1 disease at Duke University Medical Center from 1995-2008 were identified. Patients receiving any preoperative therapy or postoperative radiotherapy or with positive surgical margins were excluded. Local failure was defined as disease recurrence within the ipsilateral hilum, mediastinum, or bronchial stump/staple line. Actuarial rates of local failure were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with a higher risk of local recurrence. Results: Among 1,559 patients who underwent surgery during the time interval, 198 met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 50 (25%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Actuarial (5-year) rates of local failure, distant failure, and overall survival were 40%, 55%, and 33%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of local failure included a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5; p = 0.01), visceral pleural invasion (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04), and increasing number of positive N1 lymph nodes (HR, 1.3 per involved lymph node; p = 0.02). Chemotherapy was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of local failure that was not statistically significant (HR, 0.61; p = 0.2). Conclusions: Actuarial rates of local failure in pN1 disease are high. Further investigation of conformal postoperative radiotherapy may be warranted.

Higgins, Kristin A., E-mail: kristin.higgins@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Berry, Mark [Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ready, Neal [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Boyd, Jessamy [US Oncology, Dallas, TX (United States); Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify August 27, 2012 - 1:07pm Addthis The Office of Enforcement recently settled enforcement actions against ten companies for failure to submit the required certification that products comply with the federal energy conservation standards. Several companies were subject to higher penalties due to a history of noncompliance with the certification regulations. Danby Products, Inc., failed to certify at least three basic models of residential refrigerators and freezers, as required by DOE regulations. On July 9, 2012, DOE issued an order assessing a $9,900 civil penalty for these violations. ASKO Appliances, Inc., failed to certify at least five basic models of

362

Substation distribution transformers failures and spares  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities should have a sufficient number of spare transformers to backup substation distribution transformers to replace transformers that fail and require factory rebuild or replacement. To identify such a number, the statistical methodology was developed to analyze available failure data for different groups of transformer. That methodology enables the estimation of future numbers of failures with associated probabilities, recommends the proper number of spares, identifies the necessity and shows the means to shorten the transformer`s replacement time.

Kogan, V.I. Roeger, C.J.; Tipton, D.E. [American Electric Power Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

364

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Magnetocaloric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications IV: Magnetocaloric Materials ... due to cost-effectiveness as well as superior magneto-thermal characteristics. ... metals and p-block elements can be explored in a time- and energy-saving manner.

366

Development of Model to Predict Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue of Low Pressure Turbine Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most outage hours for steam turbines are the result of corrosion of low pressure (LP) blades and disks in the phase transition zone (PTZ). Developing an effective localized corrosion damage prediction model is essential to successfully avoid unscheduled outages of steam turbines. This report provides the latest analytical model for predicting failure and includes the electrochemical data for a blade material (17-4PH) that will be used in the model.

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

367

DETERMINATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE, AND THERMO-MECHANICALCHEMICAL STABILITY OF SOFCS FROM DEFECT MODELING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to: provide fundamental relationships between SOFC performance and operating conditions and transient (time dependent) transport properties; extend models to thermo-mechanical stability, thermo-chemical stability, and multilayer structures; incorporate microstructural effects such as grain boundaries and grain-size distribution; experimentally verify models and devise strategies to obtain relevant material constants; and assemble software package for integration into SECA failure analysis models.

Wachsman, E.D.; Duncan, K.L.; Ebrahimi, F.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

Multi-Hazard Failure Analysis Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Failure of Cooling Tower West Virginia 1978 (08/11/2011). Failure of ... FAQs - NIST WTC Towers Investigation (09/20/2011). Final Reports from the ...

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Adhesive Anchor Failure in Boston's Big Dig Tunnel System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure Analysis Case Studies from Refinery and Petrochemical Pilot Plants ... Failure of Electrical Submersible Pump of Oil Reservoir · Fan Blade Fracture in a  ...

370

Failure Analysis of a Rupture Disk Assembly by Electron Microscopy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Charles R. Morin Memorial Symposium on Failure Analysis and ... Tools for Failure Event Database Management and Probability Risk Analysis for ...

371

An Interactive Case Study in Composite Failure Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the case study, the audience will be presented with the failure scenario and key ... Advanced Digital Microscopy is Revolutionizing Failure Analysis.

372

Failure Analysis and Manufacturing Process Review of an NAS626 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure · Case Studies in Environmentally Assisted Failures: Solving Their Problem When You Don't Know the Cause.

373

Materials Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Science. Summary: Key metrologies/systems: In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, linear and non-linear spectroscopies ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

374

Training Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Training Materials. NIST Handbook 44 Self-Study Course. ... Chapter 3 – Organization and Format of NIST Handbook 44 DOC. ...

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

375

Materializing energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of ... Keywords: design, design theory, energy, materiality, sustainability

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Detailed characterization and preliminary adsorption model for materials for an intermediate-scale reactive-transport experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment involving migration of fluid and tracers (Li, Br, Ni) through a 6-m-high x 3-m-dia caisson Wedron 510 sand, is being carried out for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Sand`s surface chemistry of the sand was studied and a preliminary surface-complexation model of Ni adsorption formulated for transport calculations. XPS and leaching suggest that surface of the quartz sand is partially covered by thin layers of Fe-oxyhydroxide and Ca-Mg carbonate and by flakes of kaolinite. Ni adsorption by the sand is strongly pH-dependent, showing no adsorption at pH 5 and near-total adsorption at pH 7. Location of adsorption edge is independent of ionic strength and dissolved Ni concentration; it is shifted to slightly lower pH with higher pCO2 and to slightly higher pH by competition with Li. Diminished adsorption at alkiline pH with higher pCO2 implies formation of dissolved Ni-carbonato complexes. Ni adsorption edges for goethite and quartz, two components of the sand were also measured. Ni adsorption on pure quartz is only moderately pH-dependent and differs in shape and location from that of the sand, whereas Ni adsorption by goethite is strongly pH-dependent. A triple-layer surface-complexation model developed for goethite provides a good fit to the Ni-adsorption curve of the sand. Based on this model, the apparent surface area of the Fe-oxyhydroxide coating is estimated to be 560 m{sup 2}/g, compatible with its occurrence as amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxide. Potentiometric titrations on sand also differ from pure quartz and suggest that effective surface area of sand may be much greater than that measured by N{sub 2}-BET gas adsorption. Attempts to model the adsorption of bulk sand in terms of properties of pure end member components suggest that much of the sand surface is inert. Although the exact Ni adsorption mechanisms remain ambiguous, this preliminary adsorption model provides an initial set of parameters that can be used in transport calculations.

Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ductile failure X-prize.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracture or tearing of ductile metals is a pervasive engineering concern, yet accurate prediction of the critical conditions of fracture remains elusive. Sandia National Laboratories has been developing and implementing several new modeling methodologies to address problems in fracture, including both new physical models and new numerical schemes. The present study provides a double-blind quantitative assessment of several computational capabilities including tearing parameters embedded in a conventional finite element code, localization elements, extended finite elements (XFEM), and peridynamics. For this assessment, each of four teams reported blind predictions for three challenge problems spanning crack initiation and crack propagation. After predictions had been reported, the predictions were compared to experimentally observed behavior. The metal alloys for these three problems were aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and precipitation hardened stainless steel PH13-8Mo H950. The predictive accuracies of the various methods are demonstrated, and the potential sources of error are discussed.

Cox, James V.; Wellman, Gerald William; Emery, John M.; Ostien, Jakob T.; Foster, John T.; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Mota, Alejandro; Bishop, Joseph E.; Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Foulk, James W., III; Dowding, Kevin J.; Dion, Kristin; Boyce, Brad Lee; Robbins, Joshua H.; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Materials Education Community  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Resource Center Home. Materials Education. Materials Education. Established Materials Technologies. Magnesium · Superalloys. Emerging Materials ...

379

Emerging Materials Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Resource Center Home. Materials Education. Materials Education. Established Materials Technologies. Magnesium · Superalloys. Emerging Materials ...

380

Established Materials Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Resource Center Home. Materials Education. Materials Education. Established Materials Technologies. Magnesium · Superalloys. Emerging Materials ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... TMS/ASM: Nuclear Materials Committee ... Both experimental and theoretical studies are solicited with a particular emphasis on linking state-of-the-art modeling with ... Radiation damage in fusion & fission reactor materials

382

Nano-chemo-mechanics of advanced materials for hydrogen storage and lithium battery applications .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chemo-mechanics studies the material behavior and phenomena at the interface of mechanics and chemistry. Material failures due to coupled chemo-mechanical effects are serious roadblocks in… (more)

Huang, Shan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Impact of Protection System Failures on Power System Reliability Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reliability of protection systems has emerged as an important topic because protection failures have critical influence on the reliability of power systems. The goal of this research is to develop novel approaches for modeling and analysis of the impact of protection system failures on power system reliability. It is shown that repairable and non-repairable assumptions make a remarkable difference in reliability modeling. A typical all-digital protection system architecture is modeled and numerically analyzed. If an all-digital protection system is indeed repairable but is modeled in a non-repairable manner for analysis, the calculated values of reliability indices could be grossly pessimistic. The smart grid is emerging with the penetration of information-age technologies and the development of the Special Protection System (SPS) will be greatly influenced. A conceptual all-digital SPS architecture is proposed for the future smart grid. Calculation of important reliability indices by the network reduction method and the Markov modeling method is illustrated in detail. Two different Markov models are proposed for reliability evaluation of the 2-out-of-3 voting gates structure in a generation rejection scheme. If the model with consideration of both detectable and undetectable logic gate failures is used as a benchmark, the simple model which only considers detectable failures will significantly overestimate the reliability of the 2-out-of-3 voting gates structure. The two types of protection failures, undesired-tripping mode and fail-to-operate mode are discussed. A complete Markov model for current-carrying components is established and its simplified form is then derived. The simplified model can appropriately describe the overall reliability situation of individual components under the circumstances of complex interactions between components due to protection failures. New concepts of the self-down state and the induced-down state are introduced and utilized to build up the composite unit model. Finally, a two-layer Markov model for power systems with protection failures is proposed. It can quantify the impact of protection failures on power system reliability. Using the developed methodology, we can see that the assumption of perfectly reliable protection can introduce errors in reliability evaluation of power systems.

Jiang, Kai

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

2008 Midwest Levee Failure: Erosion Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United States contains an estimated 100,000 miles (160000 km) of levees in which erosion related issues are the top priorities. Proper documentation of overtopping induced erosion is a complicated issue involving the collection and analysis of timesensitive field data and personal observations. This thesis is a study of the performance of the Midwest Levee system during the 2008 flooding events. The goal of the Midwest Levee investigation was to gather and analyze perishable data in an effort to provide a comprehensive overview at each breach location. To predict how a site will perform during a particular flood event, there are three main inputs: the flood conditions, the site conditions, and the soil properties. Site geometry and imperfections can greatly affect the performance of a levee system. Any low spots or potential seepage paths can concentrate the flow and be detrimental to the levee. The vegetative cover is the single most important condition at a site. As seen in the Brevator case, vegetative armor can prevent failure of a levee comprised of less resistant soils subjected to long periods of overtopping. Recommended grasses include: Switchgrass, Smooth Brome, Reed Canarygrass, and Tall Fescue. It is also recommended that grasses are kept at least 0.5 m tall during the flood season and to limit the presence of trees to 10 m beyond the levee toe. The erosion resistance of the materials comprising the levee is also important. From the correlations in this study, it was determined that erodibility is influenced by grain size, relative compaction, clay content, and activity. Devices like the Torvane and Pocket Erodometer can also be used to get a quick field estimate of erosion. While these correlations and field devices give insight into an erodibility value, they are no substitute for site specific analysis with laboratory equipment such as the Erosion Function Apparatus. Soil behavior is highly nonlinear and the entire erosion function is needed to get an accurate measure of the erodibility of a soil. By combining these properties in an erosion matrix, a prediction of whether a site will withstand a given flood event can be made.

Bernhardt, Michelle Lee

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough blood to the body to meet the organs demands. Heart muscle dilatation, muscle fibers hypertrophy, and increased heart rate are the clinical markers of disease progression as the heart attempts to compensate

386

Minor Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Materials used in glass manufacture...Table 1 Materials used in glass manufacture Material Purpose Antimony oxide (Sb 2 O 3 ) Decolorizing and fining agent Aplite (K, Na, Ca, Mg, alumina silicate) Source of alumina Aragonite (CaCO 3 ) Source of calcium oxide Arsenic oxide (As 2 O 3 ) Fining and decolorizing agent Barite/barytes (BaSO 4 )...

387

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

390

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Documentation of Steam Turbine-Generator Failures—2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update report presents a review of turbine-generator failures that occurred during 2010.

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

A study of end-to-end web access failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a study of end-to-end web access failures in the Internet. Part of our characterization of failures is based on directly observable end-to-end information. We also present novel analyses that reveal aspects of end-to-end failures that would ... Keywords: BGP, DNS, HTTP, TCP, web access, web failure

Venkata N. Padmanabhan; Sriram Ramabhadran; Sharad Agarwal; Jitendra Padhye

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Subsurface Characterization at Ground Failure Sites in Adapazari, Turkey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ground failure. Lastly, ?ve CPTs and three borings were com- pleted at the Adapazari Electrical Substation,

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And Membrane Express Licensing Analysis Of Macromolecule, Liggands And Macromolecule-Lingand Complexes Express Licensing Carbon Microtubes Express Licensing Chemical Synthesis Of Chiral Conducting Polymers Express Licensing Forming Adherent Coatings Using Plasma Processing Express Licensing Hydrogen Scavengers Express Licensing Laser Welding Of Fused Quartz Express Licensing Multiple Feed Powder Splitter Negotiable Licensing Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Negotiable Licensing Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Negotiable Licensing Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Express Licensing Method of Synthesis of Proton Conducting Materials

395

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Materials Negotiable Licensing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Negotiable Licensing A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current...

396

Magnetic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Extreme magnetic fields (>2 tesla), especially when combined with temperature, are being shown to revolutionize materials processing and ...

397

materials processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the Stainless Steel Elaborated by the Duplex Procedure (Electric Furnace- VOD Installation) [pp. ... Materials Processing on a Solar Furnace Satellite [pp.

398

Nuclear Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors III ... response of oxide ceramics for nuclear applications through experiment, theory, and ...

399

Complex Failure Forewarning System - DHS Conference Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

As the critical infrastructures of the United States have become more and more dependent on public and private networks, the potential for widespread national impact resulting from disruption or failure of these networks has also increased. Securing the nation s critical infrastructures requires protecting not only their physical systems but, just as important, the cyber portions of the systems on which they rely. A failure is inclusive of random events, design flaws, and instabilities caused by cyber (and/or physical) attack. One such domain, aging bridges, is used to explain the Complex Structure Failure Forewarning System. We discuss the workings of such a system in the context of the necessary sensors, command and control and data collection as well as the cyber security efforts that would support this system. Their application and the implications of this computing architecture are also discussed, with respect to our nation s aging infrastructure.

Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Materials Week '97: ASM's Materials Solutions Conference Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monday AM--Modeling; Monday PM--Ferrous Trends; Tuesday AM--Power Transmission Components; Tuesday PM--Issues in Materials Selection I; Wednesday ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Three-dimensional geomechanical simulation of reservoir compaction and implications for well failures in the Belridge diatomite  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an integrated geomechanics analysis of well casing damage induced by compaction of the diatomite reservoir at the Belridge Field, California. Historical data from the five field operators were compiled and analyzed to determine correlations between production, injection, subsidence, and well failures. The results of this analysis were used to develop a three-dimensional geomechanical model of South Belridge, Section 33 to examine the diatomite reservoir and overburden response to production and injection at the interwell scale and to evaluate potential well failure mechanisms. The time-dependent reservoir pressure field was derived from a three-dimensional finite difference reservoir simulation and used as input to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir simulation included -200 wells and covered 18 years of production and injection. The geomechanical simulation contained 437,100 nodes and 374,130 elements with the overburden and reservoir discretized into 13 layers with independent material properties. The results reveal the evolution of the subsurface stress and displacement fields with production and injection and suggest strategies for reducing the occurrence of well casing damage.

Fredrich, J.T. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); Argueello, J.G.; Thorne, B.J.; Wawersik, W.R. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Browns Ferry Corrosion Failure Data Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of the poolside inspection results from an inspection performed in 2011 of GE6 8x8 fuel that operated in Browns Ferry-3 and failed as a result of a corrosion-related mechanism in cycle 8 in 1998. It also provides an assessment of these results relative to prior crud-induced localized corrosion– (CILC-) type failures in the early 1980s and subsequent corrosion-related failures from 2002 to 2004 in the same unit and its sister unit Browns Ferry-2. In particular, ...

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

403

SC e-journals, Materials Science  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Materials Science Materials Science Acta Materialia Advanced Composite Materials Advanced Energy Materials Advanced Engineering Materials Advanced Functional Materials Advanced Materials Advanced Powder Technology Advances in Materials Science and Engineering - OAJ Annual Review of Materials Research Applied Composite Materials Applied Mathematical Modelling Applied Mathematics & Computation Applied Physics A Applied Physics B Applied Surface Science Archives of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering - OAJ Archives of Materials Science and Engineering - OAJ Carbohydrate Polymers Carbon Catalysis Science & Technology Cellulose Cement and Concrete Research Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings Ceramics International Chalcogenide Letters - OAJ Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

404

Fuel Reliability Program: Browns Ferry Fuel Corrosion Failures Root Cause Investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sixty-three GE13 fuel bundles failed in Browns Ferry Unit 2 (BF2) during Cycle 12; three GE13 assemblies failed in BF Unit 3 (BF3) during Cycle 11. The affected fuel in BF2 was in its second cycle of operation and the fuel in BF3 in its third at the time of failure. Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF), General Electric-Hitachi (GEH), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) investigated the cause of the failures. The investigation included evaluations of materials and manu...

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Nanopower: Avoiding Electrolyte Failure in Nanoscale Lithium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... most of which is the battery itself—which ... wide—solid-state lithium ion batteries to see just ... cathode material, electrolyte, and anode materials with ...

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

406

Materials Science Advanced Materials News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Contributes to Discovery of Novel Quantum Spin-Liquid Release Date ... Novel Filter Material Could Cut Natural Gas Refining Costs Release Date: 03 ...

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

407

Materials Science Advanced Materials Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to Discovery of Novel Quantum Spin-Liquid. illustration of metal organic framework Novel Filter Material Could Cut Natural Gas Refining Costs. ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

The impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the past four years, the ORNL BWRSAT Program has developed a series of increasingly sophisticated BWR secondary containment models. These models have been applied in a variety of studies to evaluate the severe accident mitigation capability of BWR secondary containments. This paper describes the results of a recent ORNL study of the impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity. A 26-cell MELCOR Browns Ferry secondary containment model is described and the predicted thermodynamic response of the secondary containment to a variety of postulated primary containment failure modes is presented. The effects of primary containment failure location, timing, and ultimate hole size on secondary containment response is investigated, and the potential impact of hydrogen deflagrations on secondary containment integrity is explored.

Greene, S.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Computational Discovery of Novel Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... play an increasing role in materials discovery, development and optimization. ... and applications of novel empirical energy models from atomistic potentials to  ...

410

Material-based design computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The institutionalized separation between form, structure and material, deeply embedded in modernist design theory, paralleled by a methodological partitioning between modeling, analysis and fabrication, resulted in ...

Oxman, Neri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Effects of pacing site on global and regional left ventricular function in the setting of dyssynchronous heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling of dyssynchronous heart failure: A case study.in the dyssynchronous canine heart. Annual Meeting of therelaxation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286: H640-647,

Howard, Elliot Jacob

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mobile service innovation: A European failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continuing absence of innovation in Europe's mobile services industry is identified and characterised here, with such examples as mobile Internet and mobile music. Innovation failure is a critical factor leading to a lack of high-income jobs, network ... Keywords: Competition, Convergence, Europe, Innovation, Internet, Japan, Mobile telecommunications, Network effects, Service quality, Spectrum regulation, Standardisation

Arnd Weber; Michael Haas; Daniel Scuka

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Exploratory case study research: Outsourced project failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Context: IT plays an increasingly strategic role in the business performance of organizations, however, the development of strategic IT systems involves a high degree of risk and outsourcing the development of such systems increases the risk. Objective: ... Keywords: Case study methodology, Outsourced software development, Project failure, Risk framework, Software development risk factors

J. M. Verner; L. M. Abdullah

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

High-Strain-Rate & Shock Response of Lightweight Materials: How ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Measurements and Modeling of Advanced Automotive and Structural Materials ...

415

Microstructure Stability of Multi-Materials Systems with Adaptive ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Genomics Past & Future: From CALPHAD to Flight · Microstructure Stability of Multi-Materials Systems with Adaptive Microstructures · Modeling of ...

416

An Investigation of Digital Instrumentation and Control System Failure Modes  

SciTech Connect

A study sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission study was conducted to investigate digital instrumentation and control (DI&C) systems and module-level failure modes using a number of databases both in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries. The objectives of the study were to obtain relevant operational experience data to identify generic DI&C system failure modes and failure mechanisms, and to obtain generic insights, with the intent of using results to establish a unified framework for categorizing failure modes and mechanisms. Of the seven databases studied, the Equipment Performance Information Exchange database was found to contain the most useful data relevant to the study. Even so, the general lack of quality relative to the objectives of the study did not allow the development of a unified framework for failure modes and mechanisms of nuclear I&C systems. However, an attempt was made to characterize all the failure modes observed (i.e., without regard to the type of I&C equipment under consideration) into common categories. It was found that all the failure modes identified could be characterized as (a) detectable/preventable before failures, (b) age-related failures, (c) random failures, (d) random/sudden failures, or (e) intermittent failures. The percentage of failure modes characterized as (a) was significant, implying that a significant reduction in system failures could be achieved through improved online monitoring, exhaustive testing prior to installation, adequate configuration control or verification and validation, etc.

Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been proven that the maximum cooling temperature of a thermoelectric material can be increased by using either pulsed operation or graded Seebeck profiles. In this paper, we show that the maximum cooling temperature can be further increased by the pulsed operation of optimal inhomogeneous thermoelectric materials. A random sampling method is used to obtain the optimal electrical conductivity profile of inhomogeneous materials, which can achieve a much higher cooling temperature than the best uniform materials under the steady-state condition. Numerical simulations of pulsed operation are then carried out in the time domain. In the limit of low thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT, the finite-difference time-domain simulations are verified by an analytical solution for homogeneous material. This numerical method is applied to high ZT BiTe materials and simulations show that the effective figure-of-merit can be improved by 153 % when both optimal graded electrical conductivity profiles and pulsed operation are used. 1.

Q Zhou; Z Bian; A Shakouri

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Formation of deformation textures in face-centered-cubic materials studied by in-situ high-energy x-ray diffraction and self-consistent model.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of deformation textures in copper and a brass that are representative of fcc metals with different stacking fault energies (SFEs) during cold rolling is predicted using a self-consistent (SC) model. The material parameters used for describing the micromechanical behavior of each metal are determined from the high-energy X-ray (HEXRD) diffraction data. At small reductions, a reliable prediction of the evolution of the grain orientation distribution that is represented as the continuous increase of the copper and brass components is achieved for both metals when compared with the experimental textures. With increasing deformation, the model could characterize the textures of copper, i.e., the strengthening of the copper component, when dislocation slip is still the dominant mechanism. For a brass at moderate and large reductions, a reliable prediction of its unique feature of texture evolution, i.e., the weakening of the copper component and the strengthening of the brass component, could only be achieved when proper boundary conditions together with some specified slip/twin systems are considered in the continuum micromechanics mainly containing twinning and shear banding. The present investigation suggests that for fcc metals with a low SFE, the mechanism of shear banding is the dominant contribution to the texture development at large deformations.

Jia, N.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Peng, R. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Zhao, X.; X-Ray Science Division; Northeastern Univ.; Linkoping Univ.; Beijing Inst. of Tech.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Celiac Node Failure Patterns After Definitive Chemoradiation for Esophageal Cancer in the Modern Era  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The celiac lymph node axis acts as a gateway for metastatic systemic spread. The need for prophylactic celiac nodal coverage in chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer is controversial. Given the improved ability to evaluate lymph node status before treatment via positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasound, we hypothesized that prophylactic celiac node irradiation may not be needed for patients with localized esophageal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the radiation treatment volumes for 131 patients who underwent definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Patients with celiac lymph node involvement at baseline were excluded. Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy. The location of all celiac node failures was compared with the radiation treatment plan to determine whether the failures occurred within or outside the radiation treatment field. Results: At a median follow-up time of 52.6 months (95% CI 46.1-56.7 months), 6 of 60 patients (10%) without celiac node coverage had celiac nodal failure; in 5 of these patients, the failures represented the first site of recurrence. Of the 71 patients who had celiac coverage, only 5 patients (7%) had celiac region relapse. In multivariate analyses, having a pretreatment-to-post-treatment change in standardized uptake value on PET >52% (odds ratio [OR] 0.198, p = 0.0327) and having failure in the clinical target volume (OR 10.72, p = 0.001) were associated with risk of celiac region relapse. Of those without celiac coverage, the 6 patients that later developed celiac failure had a worse median overall survival time compared with the other 54 patients who did not fail (median overall survival time: 16.5 months vs. 31.5 months, p = 0.041). Acute and late toxicities were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Although celiac lymph node failures occur in approximately 1 of 10 patients, the lack of effective salvage treatments and subsequent low morbidity may justify prophylactic treatment in distal esophageal cancer patients.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); UC Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Xiao Lianchun [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Yuki [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Bhutani, Manoop S.; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fuel Reliability Monitoring and Failure Evaluation Handbook (2010)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities seek to operate with a defect-free core; but in a typical nuclear plant with its 40,000 to 75,000 fuel rods fuel failures resulting from various mechanisms do occur. The industry has devoted considerable effort to prevent fuel failures and, in the event of a fuel failure, to monitor ongoing failures and assess and minimize the impact on plant operation. The industry has also instituted aggressive measures to evaluate the failure root cause and prevent recurrence of the same failure mechanisms. ...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Gas Turbine Superalloy Material Property Handbook for Blades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Published material property data on superalloy bucket (blade) materials used in land-based combustion turbines is meager and widely scattered in literature. This handbook provides a comprehensive resource of material property data for superalloys used in combustion turbine buckets. Such data are critical for use in remaining life assessment calculations, failure analysis, comparison of various alloys, and alloy selection. The material data presented in this handbook were developed from experimental alloy...

2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

422

MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

A. BISHOP

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Hardfacing material  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

424

DELAYED FAILURE HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF ZIRCONIUM. Quarterly Report No. 3, March 15, 1962-June 14, 1962  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation was made to determine the extent to which zirconium and zirconium alloys exhibit delayed failure (static fatigue) as caused by a combination of absorbed hydrogen and applied stress. Evaluation of susceptibility to time-dependent fracture was performed on an experimental Zr-- Al-- Sn-- Mo alloy containing 500 ppm hydrogen and the Canadian Zr-2.5Nb cladding material, as well as unalloyed zirconium and Zircaloy-2. For unalloyed zirconium and Zircaloy-2 containing up to 500 ppm hydrogen, no time-dependent fracture was observed which could be attributed to the delayed failure phenomenon; an increased grain size or 20% prior reduction by cold rolling did not significantly affect this behavior. The curve of applied stress versus time to failure for the high-strength Zr--Al-Sn-- Mo alloy containing 500 ppm hydrogen indicated susceptibility to time-dependent fracture due to hydrogen absorption. Short-time data for Zr-<2.5Nb>2 in the heat-treated condition and containing 500 ppm hydrogen indicated that this material is insensitive to delayed failure. (auth)

Weinstein, D.; Holtz, F.C.

1962-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Cryogenic Material Properties Database Cryogenic Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... properties. These include the Handbook on Materials for Superconducting Machinery and the LNG Materials & Fluids. Neither ...

2000-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

426

Investigation of Fatigue Failures of Titanium Alloy Blades Used in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present two failure case-studies of titanium alloy used for aeroderivative gas turbine compressor blades. Both are related to a failure of 1st stage ...

427

Standard guide for corrosion-related failure analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This guide covers key issues to be considered when examining metallic failures when corrosion is suspected as either a major or minor causative factor. 1.2 Corrosion-related failures could include one or more of the following: change in surface appearance (for example, tarnish, rust, color change), pin hole leak, catastrophic structural failure (for example, collapse, explosive rupture, implosive rupture, cracking), weld failure, loss of electrical continuity, and loss of functionality (for example, seizure, galling, spalling, swelling). 1.3 Issues covered include overall failure site conditions, operating conditions at the time of failure, history of equipment and its operation, corrosion product sampling, environmental sampling, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, morphology (mode) or failure, and by considering the preceding, deducing the cause(s) of corrosion failure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibili...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Green Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Incorporation of Granite Waste Diamond Wire in Cementitious Matrices: ... determination method simplex from a stroke cement using standard CP-V, ... its property in building materials manufacture, alumina recovery, etc. ... as well as their changes during heat treatment were studied by XRD, FTIR and XPS.

429

Accelerating Insertion of Materials at GE Aviation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advancing ICME Capability through Industry/University Relationships ... First Principles Modeling of Shape Memory Alloy Magnetic Refrigeration Materials.

430

Materials Genome®: CALPHAD, ESPEI, and Beyond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials Genomics Past & Future: From CALPHAD to Flight · Modelling the Properties of Multi-Component Commercial Alloys · Molecular Dynamics ...

431

Dynamic Behavior of Materials Symposium: Session III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 29, 2010 ... Numerical prediction of military ship structure response to underwater explosion needs advanced modelling of the constitutive material ...

432

Accelerated Materials Evaluation for Nuclear Application Utilizing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013... of accelerated nuclear materials testing for fission and fusion reactors. Presentations combining experiment with theory, modeling and ...

433

Failure Analysis of Four Graphite Pump Seal Faces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

434

Understanding Failure of Titanium Alloys Using Fractography and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

435

High Temperature Failure of Expansion Joints Due to Stress ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

436

Case Studies in Failure Analysis: From Civilian Structures to Dies ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

437

Failure Analysis and Remaining Life Assessment of Methanol ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

438

Charles R. Morin Memorial Symposium on Failure Analysis and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intergranular Cracking of Brass Sprinkler Heads · Investigation of Bottle Related Incidents · Investigation of Catastrophic Failures in High-Power MOSFET ...

439

Failure of Dissimilar Metal Welds at Elevated Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigation of the failures included evaluation of nondestructive testing ... Experimental Technique to Conduct Thermal Shock Test on Refractories Using ...

440

PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process improvements for the actual can welding process, however, did not result in an improved weld geometry. Several possibilities for the lack of positive response exist, some of which are that (1) an insufficient number of test articles were welded under prototypic conditions, (2) the process was not optimized so that significant improvements were observable over the 'noise', and (3) the in-situ arc anneal closed the gap down too much so the can was unable to exhaust pressure ahead of the weld. Several operational and mechanical improvements were identified. The weld clamps were changed to a design consistent with those used in the legacy operations. A helium puff operation was eliminated; it is believed that this operation was the cause of the original weld defect. Also, timing of plug mast movement was found to correspond with weld irregularities. The timing of the movement was changed to occur during weld head travel between tacks. In the end a three sequential tack weld process followed by a pulse weld at the same current and travel speed as was used for the legacy processes was suggested for use during the IC qualification effort. Relative to legacy welds, the PDC IC weld demonstrates greater fluctuation in the region of the weld located between tack welds. However, canister weld response (canister to canister) is consistent and with the aid of the optical mapping system (for targeting the cut position) is considered adequate. DR measurements and METs show the PDC IC welds to have sufficient ligament length to ensure adequate canister pressure/impact capacity and to ensure adequate stub function. The PDC welding process has not been optimized as a result of this effort. Differences remain between the legacy BTC welds and the PDC IC weld, but these differences are not sufficient to prevent resumption of the current PDC IC qualification effort. During the PDC IC qualification effort, a total of 17 cans will be welded and a variety of tests/inspections will be performed. The extensive data collected during that qualification effort should be of a sufficient population to determ

Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "material failure model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Conference on Advances in Materials Science - Presentations ...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Presentations-Session 1 Modeling of Plutonium Ageing The Spectroscopic Signature of Aging in -Pu Modeling the Aging and Reliability of Solder Joints Polymer Material Thermal...

442

Failure probabilities of steam generator tubes. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

BNL's efforts focused on the following specific items; the probabilities of failure for perfect steam generator tubes, the probabilities of failure for steam generator tubes containing long axisymmetrically thinned sections, and the probabilities of failure for steam generator tubes containing finite length (relatively short) axisymmetric wastages. (auth)

Reich, M.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Production-run software failure diagnosis via hardware performance counters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sequential and concurrency bugs are widespread in deployed software. They cause severe failures and huge financial loss during production runs. Tools that diagnose production-run failures with low overhead are needed. The state-of-the-art diagnosis techniques ... Keywords: concurrency bugs, failure diagnosis, performance counters, production run

Joy Arulraj; Po-Chun Chang; Guoliang Jin; Shan Lu

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

PREFAIL: a programmable tool for multiple-failure injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As hardware failures are no longer rare in the era of cloud computing, cloud software systems must "prevail" against multiple, diverse failures that are likely to occur. Testing software against multiple failures poses the problem of combinatorial explosion ... Keywords: distributed systems, fault injection, testing

Pallavi Joshi; Haryadi S. Gunawi; Koushik Sen

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Framework Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... C o u nts 300 ... When you know the wrong answer • When you want to quickly test a model against 1000s of data sets • When ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

446

Condition-based maintenance of dynamic systems using online failure prognosis and belief rule base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condition-based maintenance has attracted an increasing attention both academically and practically. If the required physical models to describe the dynamic systems are unknown and the monitored information only reflects part of the state of the dynamic ... Keywords: Belief rule base, Failure prognosis, Maintenance, Preventive replacement

Zhi-Jie Zhou; Chang-Hua Hu; Wen-Bin Wang; Bang-Cheng Zhang; Dong-Ling Xu; Jian-Fei Zheng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Accelerated Simulation of the Probability of Failure of a Main Oil Pipeline Planned Target  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A serial model of a main oil pipeline system is investigated. Lifetime and repair-time distribution functions of the components are assumed to be of a general form. A new accelerated simulation method is proposed enabling one to construct high-accuracy ... Keywords: accelerated simulation, failure probability, main oil pipeline

N. Yu. Kuznetsov

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Historical review of plutonium storage container failures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the DOE Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment, an investigation was made to characterize the can failures at LLNL. Since the LLNL Plutonium Facility was opened for plutonium operations in 1961, there have only been three can failures that could be remembered by plutonium handlers, vault workers, chemical analysts, and material managers. Only one of these can failures was discovered during the processing of more than 606 packages containing plutonium as part of the LLNL Plutonium Inventory Reduction Program. A very low failure rate, especially since some of the 606 cans had been in storage for two to three decades. Two of the three containers that failed were made of aluminum and were packaged with 1.25 inch diameter plutonium metal spheres. The cans were split down their entire length and the plutonium metal was heavily oxidized. The secondary gallon container of the third package failure was found to be imploded in the storage vault. Upon closer examination, the plastic bags around the inner pint can were badly melted and the lid on the can was loose. Like the other two failures, the metal was heavily oxidized. In all three of the can failures, it is theorized that air entered the inner can through incomplete sealing and the oxygen in the air then reacted with the plutonium metal to produce plutonium oxide. Air was supplied to the inner can by permeation through the surrounding plastic bag. The air could have either diffused through the bag or could have been pumped through the twisted and taped ends of the inner most bag. The inner bags and cans were packaged into second bags and cans in an air atmosphere; therefore, trapping air inside the packaging configuration that could have passed through the bags. A failure of the inner can integrity would be necessary for the air to pass into it. In all three LLNL can failure cases, it is believed that the seal of the inner can was not sufficient to prevent a breach of the can environment.

Dodson, K.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Probability of Failure for Low Alloy Cr-Mo Seam Welded Piping in Fossil Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Managing longitudinal seam welded piping in fossil fueled power plants is an expensive challenge necessitated by the failures of a few hot reheat and main steam lines. The traditional approach involves inspections during outages that require scaffold erection, insulation removal, surface preparation, and nondestructive evaluation NDE inspection. This report strives to provide utilities with another tool to manage high energy piping systems. It investigates normal distribution of material properties, alon...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

450

Great Tool or Gold Standard? B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Congestive Heart Failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

department have congestive heart failure? JAMA McKee PA,natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framinghamin diagnosing congestive heart failure in the dyspneic

Montez, Jeremy; Henderson, Sean O

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Probabilistic Failure Analysis for Wound Composite Ceramic Cladding Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Advanced ceramic matrix composites based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being considered as candidate material systems for nuclear fuel cladding in light water reactors. The SiC composite structure is considered due to its assumed exceptional performance under accident scenarios, where its excellent high-temperature strength and slow reaction kinetics with steam and associated mitigated hydrogen production are desirable. The specific structures of interest consist of a monolithic SiC cylinder surrounded by interphase-coated SiC woven fibers in a tubular form and infiltrated with SiC. Additional SiC coatings on the outermost surface of the assembly are also being considered to prevent hydrothermal corrosion of the fibrous structure. The inner monolithic cylinder is expected to provide a hermetic seal to contain fission products under normal conditions. While this approach offers the promise of higher burn-up rates and safer behavior in the case of LOCA events, the reliability of such structures must be demonstrated in advance. Therefore, a probability failure analysis study was performed of such monolithic-composite hybrid structures to determine the feasibility of these design concepts. This analysis will be used to predict the future performance of candidate systems in an effort to determine the feasibility of these design concepts and to make future recommendations regarding materials selection.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL] [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Methods for dependency estimation and system unavailability evaluation based on failure data statistics. Volume 1, Summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report introduces a new perspective on the basic concept of dependent failures where the definition of dependency is based on clustering in failure times of similar components. This perspective has two significant implications: first, it relaxes the conventional assumption that dependent failures must be simultaneous and result from a severe shock; second, it allows the analyst to use all the failures in a time continuum to estimate the potential for multiple failures in a window of time (e.g., a test interval), therefore arriving at a more accurate value for system unavailability. In addition, the models developed here provide a method for plant-specific analysis of dependency, reflecting the plant-specific maintenance practices that reduce or increase the contribution of dependent failures to system unavailability. The proposed methodology can be used for screening analysis of failure data to estimate the fraction of dependent failures among the failures. In addition, the proposed method can evaluate the impact of the observed dependency on system unavailability and plant risk. The formulations derived in this report have undergone various levels of validations through computer simulation studies and pilot applications. The pilot applications of these methodologies showed that the contribution of dependent failures of diesel generators in one plant was negligible, while in another plant was quite significant. It also showed that in the plant with significant contribution of dependency to Emergency Power System (EPS) unavailability, the contribution changed with time. Similar findings were reported for the Containment Fan Cooler breakers. Drawing such conclusions about system performance would not have been possible with any other reported dependency methodologies.

Azarm, M.A.; Hsu, F.; Martinez-Guridi, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (US)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

Heubeck, Norman B. (Schenectady, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain-related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3,000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion and mechanical characteristics.

Heubeck, Norman B.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

Heubeck, N.B.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

456

MSD Molecular Materials - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Molecular Materials Molecular Materials Group carries out synthesis and characterization of novel materials whose unique properties originate at the molecular level. Our...

457

Prospective Assessment of Patterns of Failure After High-Precision Definitive (Chemo)Radiation in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To prospectively analyze patterns of failure in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive high-precision radiotherapy with a focus on location of failure relative to target volume coverage. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy were included. Locoregional failure volume was defined on the planning data set at relapse, and dose received was analyzed by use of dose-volume histograms. Results: Thirteen patients were deemed to have had locoregional failures, of which two did not have any viable tumor on salvage neck dissection, leaving eleven patients with proven persistent or recurrent locoregional disease. Of these, 9 patients had in-field failure, 1 marginal failure, and 1 both in-field and marginal failures. Overall, only 2 of 11 patients (18%) with relapse had any marginal failure. Of the 20 sites of locoregional failure, 15 (75%) were in-field and 5 (25%) marginal. Distant metastases were detected in 3 patients, whereas a second new primary developed in 3 others. With a median follow-up of 26 months (interquartile range, 18-31 months) for surviving patients, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 75.3%, 74%, 67.2%, and 60.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Locoregional relapse remains the predominant pattern of failure in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with high-precision definitive radiotherapy with the majority of failures occurring 'in-field' within the high-dose volume. Marginal failures can occur, particularly in the vicinity of the spared parotid gland. The therapeutic index of high-precision conformal radiotherapy is largely dependent on adequate selection and delineation of target volumes and organs at risk.

Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer/Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Jain, Sandeep; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Phurailatpam, Reena; Pai-Shetty, Rajershi; Dinshaw, Ketayun A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer/Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 22, 2003 ... of the continental United States plus Washington, DC. Demands are proportional to the 1990 state populations. The optimal UFLP solution for ...

459

An Integrated Approach to Modeling and Mitigating SOFC Failure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this project were: (1) To develop and demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated predictive computer-based tool for fuel cell design and reliability/durability analysis, (2) To generate new scientific and engineering knowledge to better enable SECA Industry Teams to develop reliable, low-cost solid-oxide fuel cell power generation systems, (3) To create technology breakthroughs to address technical risks and barriers that currently limit achievement of the SECA performance and cost goals for solidoxide fuel cell systems, and (4) To transfer new science and technology developed in the project to the SECA Industry Teams. Through this three-year project, the Georgia Tech's team has demonstrated the feasibility of the solution proposed and the merits of the scientific path of inquiry, and has developed the technology to a sufficient level such that it can be utilized by the SECA Industry Teams. This report summarizes the project's results and achievements.

Jianmin Qu; Andrei Fedorov; Comas Haynes

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

LLNL-TR-632239 Modeling Thermally Induced Failure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IM Release Number: LLNL-TR-632239 1 1 Introduction Wells for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) occur in conditions that present significant challenges for...

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461

CONTAINER MATERIALS, FABRICATION AND ROBUSTNESS  

SciTech Connect

The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

462

A new exponential-type distribution with constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub and bathtub-shaped failure rate function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new three-parameter exponential-type family of distributions which can be used in modeling survival data, reliability problems and fatigue life studies is introduced. Its failure rate function can be constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub ... Keywords: Exponential distribution, Failure rate function, Generalized exponential distribution, Lifetime data

Artur J. Lemonte

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Cascade Failures from Distributed Generation in Power Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power grids are nowadays experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of Distributed Generation based on Renewable Sources. At difference with classical Distributed Generation, where local power sources mitigate anomalous user consumption peaks, Renewable Sources introduce in the grid intrinsically erratic power inputs. By introducing a simple schematic (but realistic) model for power grids with stochastic distributed generation, we study the effects of erratic sources on the robustness of several IEEE power grid test networks with up to 2000 buses. We find that increasing the penetration of erratic sources causes the grid to fail with a sharp transition. We compare such results with the case of failures caused by the natural increasing power demand.

Scala, Antonio; Scoglio, Caterina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Fuel Modeling II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Integrated Computational Modeling of Materials for Nuclear Energy: ... Continuum Theory of Defects and Materials Response to Irradiation: ...

466

Alloy materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Predicting the Failure of Line Post Insulator Mounting Studs Due to Aeolian Vibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides experimental and numerical investigations of the line post insulator stud failures experienced by APS (Arizona Public Service) on its 69kV and 22 kV overhead power lines. The project developed a numerical model conforming to the dynamics of a line post insulator and the coupling between neighboring spans. This model can be used in estimating the dynamic loads induced on a line post insulator from Aeolian (wind-induced) vibration.

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

468

Photovoltaic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Description and evaluation of a mechanistically based conceptual model for spall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanistically based model for a possible spall event at the WIPP site is developed and evaluated in this report. Release of waste material to the surface during an inadvertent borehole intrusion is possible if future states of the repository include high gas pressure and waste material consisting of fine particulates having low mechanical strength. The conceptual model incorporates the physics of wellbore hydraulics coupled to transient gas flow to the intrusion borehole, and mechanical response of the waste. Degraded waste properties using of the model. The evaluations include both numerical and analytical implementations of the conceptual model. A tensile failure criterion is assumed appropriate for calculation of volumes of waste experiencing fragmentation. Calculations show that for repository gas pressures less than 12 MPa, no tensile failure occurs. Minimal volumes of material experience failure below gas pressure of 14 MPa. Repository conditions dictate that the probability of gas pressures exceeding 14 MPa is approximately 1%. For these conditions, a maximum failed volume of 0.25 m{sup 3} is calculated.

Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Thompson, T.W. [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Functional Materials for Energy | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Fuel Cells Thermoelectrics Separations Materials Catalysis Sensor Materials Polymers and Composites Carbon Fiber Related Research Chemistry and Physics at Interfaces Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems Materials Characterization Materials Theory and Simulation Energy Frontier Research Centers Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Research Areas | Functional Materials for Energy SHARE Functional Materials for Energy The concept of functional materials for energy occupies a very prominent position in ORNL's research and more broadly the scientific research sponsored by DOE's Basic Energy Sciences. These materials facilitate the capture and transformation of energy, the storage of energy or the efficient release and utilization of stored energy. A different kind of

471

Delamination in Thermohyperelastic Plastic IC Packaging Material Due to Thermal Load and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lamination failure as “popcorn” form of plastic electronic packages under thermal stress induced by heat mismatch and vapor pressure induced by the moisture during the solder-reflow process is studied. When plastic electronic packages are ... Keywords: popcorn failure, thermohyperelastic material, vapor pressure

Zhigang Li; Xuexia Yang; Xuefeng Shu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

TOWARD THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CONSENSUS MATERIALS DATABASE FOR PRESSURE TECHNOLGY APPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ASME construction code books specify materials and fabrication procedures that are acceptable for pressure technology applications. However, with few exceptions, the materials properties provided in the ASME code books provide no statistics or other information pertaining to material variability. Such information is central to the prediction and prevention of failure events. Many sources of materials data exist that provide variability information but such sources do not necessarily represent a consensus of experts with respect to the reported trends that are represented. Such a need has been identified by the ASME Standards Technology, LLC and initial steps have been taken to address these needs: however, these steps are limited to project-specific applications only, such as the joint DOE-ASME project on materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors. In contrast to light-water reactor technology, the experience base for the Generation IV nuclear reactors is somewhat lacking and heavy reliance must be placed on model development and predictive capability. The database for model development is being assembled and includes existing code alloys such as alloy 800H and 9Cr-1Mo-V steel. Ownership and use rights are potential barriers that must be addressed.

Swindeman, Robert W [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Materials Technology @ TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESTABLISHED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES ... Specifically, digital resources are available relating to materials for nuclear power, materials sustainability, and  ...

474

Prediction of failures in C.T.R. systems  

SciTech Connect

The problem of predicting failure rates is becoming more important in C.T.R. engineering because of the large syatems under consideration. A large theta-pinch system will contain thousands of identical components, many of which are barely beyond the development stage and whose failure rates may be fairly high. A typical ''mean time between failure'' calculation assumes all the components in the system are on the flat part of their failure rate curve. This means the early failure components have been eliminated before that particular group of components is installed in the system. Unfortunately, some of the critical components in a large theta-pinch system may not be tested sufficiently to reach the flat part of the failure rate curve because of the time and expense involved. When this occurs, a standard MTBF calculation will have little or no meaning. Since usually only a few types of components determine the failure rate in CTR systems it is possible to compute an analogous quantity, the''expected time to next failure,'' provided the failure distributions of the critical component types are known. A Monte Carlo method for the computation when failures are independent is described and examples are given. (auth)

Boicourt, G.P.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Information about Materials Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Examples of materials information required during detail design...identification Material class (metal, plastic, ceramic composite) Material subclass Material industry designation Material product form Material condition designation (temper, heat treatment, etc.) Material specification Material alternative names Material component designations (composite/assembly)...

476

Long-term stability of earthen materials in contact with acidic tailings solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the studies documented in this report were to use experimental and geochemical computer modeling tools to assess the long-term environmental impact of leachate movement from acidic uranium mill tailings. Liner failure (i.e., an increase in the permeability of the liner material) was not found to be a problem when various acidic tailings solutions leached through liner materials for periods up to 3 years. On the contrary, materials that contained over 30% clay showed a decrease in permeability with time in the laboratory columns. The high clay materials tested appear suitable for lining tailings impoundment ponds. The decreases in permeability are attributed to pore plugging resulting from the precipitation of minerals and solids. This precipitation takes place due to the increase in pH of the tailings solution brought about by the buffering capacity of the soil. Geochemical modeling predicts, and x-ray characterization confirms, that precipitation of solids from solution is occurring in the acidic tailings solution/liner interactions studied. In conclusion the same mineralogical changes and contaminant reactions predicted by geochemical modeling and observed in laboratory studies were found at a drained evaporation pond (Lucky Mc in Wyoming) with a 4 year history of acid attack.

Peterson, S.R.; Erikson, R.L.; Gee, G.W.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Interfacial phenomena on selected cathode materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have carried out a series of surface studies of selected cathode materials. Instrumental techniques such as Raman microscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the cathode surfaces. The goal of this study was to identify detrimental processes which occur at the electrode/electrolyte interface and can lead to electrode degradation and failure during cycling and/or storage at elevated temperatures.

Kostecki, Robert; Matsuo, Yoshiaki; McLarnon, Frank

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

478

Optimized nanoporous materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

STUDIES ON SILICON NMR CHARACTERIZATION AND KINETIC MODELING OF THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF SILOXANE-BASED MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN DRUG DELIVERY AND ADSORPTION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents studies of the synthetic processes and applications of siloxane-based materials. Kinetic investigations of bridged organoalkoxysilanes that are precursors to organic-inorganic hybrid polysilsesquioxanes… (more)

Ambati, Jyotrhirmai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Invariant mechanical properties of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-H-S) in cement-based materials : instrumented nanoindentation and microporomechanical modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Random porous solids such as bone and geomaterials exhibit a multiphase composite nature, characterized by water-filled pores of nm- to m-scale diameter. The natural synthesis and operating environments of such materials ...

Constantinides, Georgios, 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z