Sample records for mass electron based

  1. Electron Effective Mass in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

    2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

  2. Renormalized Electron Mass in Nonrelativistic Jurg Frohlich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the energy function, EP , of a dressed electron is twice differentiable in the momentum P in a neighborhood of the proof In this paper, we study problems connected with the renormalized electron mass in a model-mechanical charged matter and the quantized radiation field at low energies (i.e., energies smaller than the rest

  3. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejections based on ISEE-3 observations of bidirectional electron fluxes at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar wind electron heat flux is carried primarily by superthermal halo'' electrons with energies at 1 AU of {approximately}80 eV and greater. These halo electrons typically are beamed antisunward along the IMF, indicating effective magnetic connection to the Sun only in one direction. However, ISEE-3 electron observations at 1 AU show that counterstreaming halo beams, suggesting closed magnetic structures, prevail within CMEs. These structures might be magnetic tongues,'' tied to the Sun at both ends, magnetically detached plasmoids, or perhaps complex flux rope structures. We present the results of analysis of ISEE-3 electron observations within 39 CMEs. Parameters analyzed include: the asymmetry between the counterstreaming beams, control by the IMF orientation, and the variation of the electron distributions as a particular CME convects past the spacecraft. We find that some CMEs contain nearly symmetric electron beams, while others are strongly asymmetric, and that beam propagating most nearly antisunward is generally dominant. The more nearly radial the IMF the greater is the symmetry between outward and inward beams. Trends observed as CMEs propagate past the spacecraft probably result primarily from the compression of the leading edge. We present examples of a previously unreported strahl-on-strahl'' distribution, suggesting continued magnetic connection to the corona, in which a narrow antisunward beam is superimposed on a broader beam. Preliminary results show that such spectra are present in a substantial fraction of the observed CMEs. Taken as a whole, our results appear to favor a tongue or flux rope scenario rather than a detached plasmoid.

  4. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W. K.; Robinson, Eric

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the design, construction, and testing of a digital versatile disc (DVD) based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either real or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use in a variety of sitiuations. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument.

  5. Dynamical Electron Mass in a Strong Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. -Y. Wang

    2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by recent interest in understanding properties of strongly magnetized matter, we study the dynamical electron mass generated through approximate chiral symmetry breaking in QED in a strong magnetic field. We reliably calculate the dynamical electron mass by numerically solving the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations in a consistent truncation within the lowest Landau level approximation. It is shown that the generation of dynamical electron mass in a strong magnetic field is significantly enhanced by the perturbative electron mass that explicitly breaks chiral symmetry in the absence of a magnetic field.

  6. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  7. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  8. Decay Oscillations in Electron Capture and the Neutrino Mass Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray Peshkin

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum mechanical theory disallows the model that has been used to infer the neutrino mass difference from the reported "GSI oscillations" in the rates of decay of hydrogen-like ions by electron capture. It has not been proved that the existence of mass-difference-dependent oscillations conflicts with quantum mechanics but no consistent quantum mechanical model has been shown to predict them.

  9. Energy Band Model Based on Effective Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Ariel

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we demonstrate an alternative method of deriving an isotropic energy band model using a one-dimensional definition of the effective mass and experimentally observed dependence of mass on energy. We extend the effective mass definition to anti-particles and particles with zero rest mass. We assume an often observed linear dependence of mass on energy and derive a generalized non-parabolic energy-momentum relation. The resulting non-parabolicity leads to velocity saturation at high particle energies. We apply the energy band model to free relativistic particles and carriers in solid state materials and obtain commonly used dispersion relations and experimentally confirmed effective masses. We apply the model to zero rest mass particles in graphene and propose using the effective mass for photons. Therefore, it appears that the new energy band model based on the effective mass can be applied to relativistic particles and carriers in solid state materials.

  10. Characteristics of Graphitic Films for Carbon Based Magnetism and Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Jeongmin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for theBased Magnetism and Electronics A Dissertation submitted inBased Magnetism and Electronics by Jeongmin Hong Doctor of

  11. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  12. Cooling an electron gas using quantum dot based electronic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prance, Jonathan Robert

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling an electron gas using quantum dot based electronic refrigeration Jonathan Robert Prance August 28, 2009 Downing College, University of Cambridge A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Preface The work presented... dots. Conventionally, low temperature measurements of 2DEGs are made by cooling the sample to 1.5 K with liquid Helium-4, to 300 mK with liquid Helium-3, or even down to a few mK using a dilution refrigerator. However, at lower temperatures the electron...

  13. Phosphine Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking Materials for Blue Electrophosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Phosphine Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking...

  14. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. An FPGA based digitizer collects the WPM data and transmits it to the VME controller. The VME front-end processes the raw data to calculate positions and perform FFT. It is also provides the raw data to LabView running on a PC upon request. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is connected with realization of average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is connected with development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. We will discuss how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design.

  15. Proteotronics: Electronic devices based on proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Alfinito; L. Reggiani; J. Pousset

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The convergent interests of different scientific disciplines, from biochemistry to electronics, toward the investigation of protein electrical properties, has promoted the development of a novel bailiwick, the so called proteotronics. The main aim of proteotronics is to propose and achieve innovative electronic devices, based on the selective action of specific proteins. This paper gives a sketch of the fields of applications of proteotronics, by using as significant example the detection of a specific odorant molecule carried out by an olfactory receptor. The experiment is briefly reviewed and its theoretical interpretation given. Further experiments are envisioned and expected results discussed in the perspective of an experimental validation.

  16. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Allen-Flowers, Jordan [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  17. Electron Self-energy in Pseudo-Hermitian Quantum Electrodynamics with a Maximal Mass M

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. P. Neznamov

    2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron self-energy (self-mass) is calculated on the basis of the model of quantum field theory with maximal mass M, developed by V.G.Kadyshevsky et al. within the pseudo-Hermitian quantum electrodynamics in the second order of the perturbation theory. In theory, there is the natural cut-off of large transmitted momentum in intermediate states because of presence of the universal mass M. As a result, the electron self-mass is finite and depends on the transmitted maximum momentum. Two interpretations of the obtained results are possible at defined M and A. The first interpretation allows confirming quantitatively the old concept of elementary particle mass sources defined by interaction of particles with self-gauge fields. The second interpretation results in the possibility not to renormalize the mass (at least in the second order of perturbation theory) owing to the zero mass operator.

  18. Electronics for Fast Vertex Position Measurement (Topic 48c) Blue Sky Electronics, LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    applications in time-of-flight mass spectrometry and scintillator based neutron detection. #12;Electronics

  19. Nuclear structure aspects of neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay: limits on the electron neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Civitarese, O. [Department of Physics. University of La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Suhonen, J. [Department of Physics. University of Jyvaeskyla, (Finland)

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss some features of the nuclear structure elements participant in the calculation of the mass sector of the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay, and the consequences upon the adopted limits of the electron-neutrino mass.

  20. Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: okamoto@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Nagatani, Yukinori [National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical importance. Quantum approaches may represent the only way to improve the resolution in this context, but all proposed schemes to date demand delicate control of the electron beam in highly unconventional electron optics. Here we propose a scheme that involves a flux qubit based on a radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device, inserted in a transmission electron microscope. The scheme significantly improves the prospect of realizing a quantum-enhanced electron microscope for radiation-sensitive specimens.

  1. Mass Spectrometry-based Methods for Phosphorylation Site Mapping of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shou, Wenying

    Mass Spectrometry-based Methods for Phosphorylation Site Mapping of Hyperphosphorylated Proteins spectrometry-based approach. No one approach was able to identify all phosphopeptides in the tryptic digests and detected by scintillation counting or autoradiography. The HPLC fraction or excised TLC spot is subjected

  2. MACHO Mass Determination Based on Space Telescope Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mareki Honma

    1999-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the possibility of lens mass determination for a caustic crossing microlensing event based on a space telescope observation. We demonstrate that the parallax due to the orbital motion of a space telescope causes a periodic fluctuation of the light curve, from which the lens distance can be derived. Since the proper motion of the lens relative to the source is also measurable for a caustic crossing event, one can find a full solution for microlensing properties of the event, including the lens mass. To determine the lens mass with sufficient accuracy, the light curve near the caustic crossing should be observed within uncertainty of $\\sim$ 1%. We argue that the Hubble Space Telescope observation of the caustic crossing supplied with ground-based observations of the full light curve will enable us to determine the mass of MACHOs, which is crucial for understanding the nature of MACHOs.

  3. Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bertolli; T. Papenbrock; S. Wild

    2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of \\chi = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

  4. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  5. Origin of the low-mass electron pair excess in light nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The HADES Collaboration; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; D. Belver; A. V. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Böhmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; M. Destefanis; J. Díaz; F. Dohrmann; A. Dybczak; L. Fabbietti; O. V. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzón; R. Gernhäuser; A. Gil; C. Gilardi; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; F. Guber; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; T. Karavicheva; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; R. Kotte; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; E. Morinière; J. Mousa; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; E. Schwab; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; V. Wagner; M. Weber; M. Wisniowski; T. Wojcik; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. V. Zanevsky; P. Zhou

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of electron pair production in elementary p+p and d+p reactions at 1.25 GeV/u with the HADES spectrometer. For the first time, the electron pairs were reconstructed for n+p reactions by detecting the proton spectator from the deuteron breakup. We find that the yield of electron pairs with invariant mass Me+e- > 0.15 GeV/c2 is about an order of magnitude larger in n+p reactions as compared to p+p. A comparison to model calculations demonstrates that the production mechanism is not sufficiently described yet. The electron pair spectra measured in C+C reactions are compatible with a superposition of elementary n+p and p+p collisions, leaving little room for additional electron pair sources in such light collision systems.

  6. Oscillating Decay Rate in Electron Capture and the Neutrino Mass Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peshkin, Murray

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported oscillations in the rate of decay of certain ions by K-electron capture have raised questions about whether and how such oscillations can arise in quantum mechanical theory and whether they can measure the neutrino mass difference. Here I show that simple principles of quantum mechanics answer some questions and clarify what must be done theoretically or experimentally to answer some others.

  7. Low-Energy Electron Microscopy Studies of Interlayer Mass Transport Kinetics on TiN(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israeli, Navot

    Low-Energy Electron Microscopy Studies of Interlayer Mass Transport Kinetics on TiN(111) S annealing of three-dimensional (3D) TiN(111) mounds, consisting of stacked 2D islands, at temperatures-limited decay of 2D TiN islands on atomically-flat TiN(111) terraces [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 176102

  8. Anisotropy of effective electron masses in highly doped nonpolar GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feneberg, Martin, E-mail: martin.feneberg@ovgu.de; Lange, Karsten; Lidig, Christian; Wieneke, Matthias; Witte, Hartmut; Bläsing, Jürgen; Dadgar, Armin; Krost, Alois; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The anisotropic effective electron masses in wurtzite GaN are determined by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. Nonpolar (112{sup ¯}0) oriented thin films allow accessing both effective masses, m{sub ?}{sup *} and m{sub ?}{sup *}, by determining the screened plasma frequencies. A n-type doping range up to 1.7?×?10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3} is investigated. The effective mass ratio m{sub ?}{sup *}/m{sub ?}{sup *} is obtained with highest accuracy and is found to be 1.11 independent on electron concentration up to 1.2?×?10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}. For higher electron concentrations, the conduction band non-parabolicity is mirrored in changes. Absolute values for effective electron masses depend on additional input of carrier concentrations determined by Hall effect measurements. We obtain m{sub ?}{sup *}=(0.239±0.004)m{sub 0} and m{sub ?}{sup *}=(0.216±0.003)m{sub 0} for the parabolic range of the GaN conduction band. Our data are indication of a parabolic GaN conduction band up to an energy of approximately 400?meV above the conduction band minimum.

  9. Electronic transport in graphene-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, J. Y.; Avsar, A.; Balakrishnan, J.; Taychatanapat, T.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H. [Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, B., E-mail: barbaros@nus.edu.sg [Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    While boron nitride (BN) substrates have been utilized to achieve high electronic mobilities in graphene field effect transistors, it is unclear how other layered two dimensional (2D) crystals influence the electronic performance of graphene. In this Letter, we study the surface morphology of 2D BN, gallium selenide (GaSe), and transition metal dichalcogenides (tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})) crystals and their influence on graphene's electronic quality. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows that these crystals have improved surface roughness (root mean square value of only ?0.1?nm) compared to conventional SiO{sub 2} substrate. While our results confirm that graphene devices exhibit very high electronic mobility (?) on BN substrates, graphene devices on WS{sub 2} substrates (G/WS{sub 2}) are equally promising for high quality electronic transport (????38?000 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature), followed by G/MoS{sub 2} (????10?000 cm{sup 2}/V s) and G/GaSe (????2200 cm{sup 2}/V s). However, we observe a significant asymmetry in electron and hole conduction in G/WS{sub 2} and G/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, most likely due to the presence of sulphur vacancies in the substrate crystals. GaSe crystals are observed to degrade over time even under ambient conditions, leading to a large hysteresis in graphene transport making it a less suitable substrate.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of GSI based mechanical characterization of rock mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ván, P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the rock mechanical and rock engineering designs and calculations are frequently based on Geological Strength Index (GSI) method, because it is the only system that provides a complete set of mechanical properties for design purpose. Both the failure criteria and the deformation moduli of the rock mass can be calculated with GSI based equations, which consists of the disturbance factor, as well. The aim of this paper is the sensitivity analysis of GSI and disturbance factor dependent equations that characterize the mechanical properties of rock masses. The survey of the GSI system is not our purpose. The results show that the rock mass strength calculated by the Hoek-Brown failure criteria and both the Hoek-Diederichs and modified Hoek-Diederichs deformation moduli are highly sensitive to changes of both the GSI and the D factor, hence their exact determination is important for the rock engineering design.

  11. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Bernstein WaveElectronElectron

  12. Methanol as a Sensitive Probe for Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol as a Sensitive Probe for Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Proton-to-Electron Mass, corresponding to the 51 ! 60Aþ and 20 ! 3À1E transitions in methanol (CH3OH), respectively, are among transitions in the ground state of methanol to a variation of the proton-to- electron mass ratio. We show

  13. Kinetic Electron and Ion Instability of the Lunar Wake Simulated at Physical Mass Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Zhou, Chuteng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar wind wake behind the moon is studied with 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using a physical ion to electron mass ratio (unlike prior investigations); the simulations also apply more generally to supersonic flow of dense magnetized plasma past non-magnetic objects. A hybrid electrostatic Boltzmann electron treatment is first used to investigate the ion stability in the absence of kinetic electron effects, showing that the ions are two-stream unstable for downstream wake distances (in lunar radii) greater than about three times the solar wind Mach number. Simulations with PIC electrons are then used to show that kinetic electron effects can lead to disruption of the ion streams at least three times closer to the moon than in the hybrid simulations. This disruption occurs as the result of a novel wake phenomenon: the non-linear growth of electron holes spawned from a narrow dimple in the electron velocity distribution. Most of the holes arising from the dimple are small and quickly l...

  14. Oscillating Decay Rate in Electron Capture and the Neutrino Mass Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray Peshkin

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported oscillations in the rate of decay of certain ions by K-electron capture have raised questions about whether and how such oscillations can arise in quantum mechanical theory and whether they can measure the neutrino mass difference. Here I show that simple principles of quantum mechanics answer some questions and clarify what must be done theoretically or experimentally to answer some others. The principal result is that quantum mechanics does allow mass-difference-dependent oscillations in principle, but it imposes conditions not obeyed by the approximate dynamical models that have been put forth up to now. What needs to be done experimentally and theoretically is discussed.

  15. The top quark to electron mass ratio m(t) = 18*m(e)/alpha^2 where alpha = e^2/hslash*c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malcolm H. Mac Gregor

    2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Threshold-state elementary particle lifetimes exhibit a scaling in powers of alpha = e^2/hslash*c, and a reciprocal electron-based 1/alpha scaling in particle masses that extends over two powers of 1/alpha. The m(e)/alpha coupling generates accurate q = (u,d), s, c, b quark masses for particles up to 11 GeV. The m(e)/alpha^2 coupling creates the "alpha-quarks" q^alpha = q/alpha that reproduce the top quark mass and average W^+-, Z^0 doublet mass. The calculated Bc mass is 6303.3 MeV/c^2, and the lattice QCD value is 6304 +- 12 MeV/c^2. The calculated and experimental top quark masses are m(t)calc = 18*m(e)/alpha^2 = 172.73 GeV/c^2 and m(t)exp = 172.5 +- 2.3 GeV/c^2.

  16. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  17. Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

    2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

  18. Characteristics of Graphitic Films for Carbon Based Magnetism and Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Jeongmin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Rangwala, “Electricity and Magnetism,” 419 (1989) 81. S.L. Helm, “Defect-Induced Magnetism in Graphene,” Phys Rev. BGraphitic Films for Carbon Based Magnetism and Electronics A

  19. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  20. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Bernstein Wave StudiesElectron

  1. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Bernstein WaveElectron

  2. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy BernsteinElectron Correlation

  3. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnetEffectiveElectricAprilElectrolyteElectron

  4. Concepts for ELIC - A High Luminosity CEBAF Based Electron-Light Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ya. Derbenev, A. Bogacz, G. Krafft, R. Li, L. Merminga, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CEBAF accelerator based electron-light ion collider (ELIC) of rest mass energy from 20 to 65 GeV and luminosity from 10^33 to 10^35 cm6-2s^-1 with both beams polarized is envisioned as a future upgrade to CEBAF. A two step upgrade scenario is under study: CEBAF accelerator-ring-ring scheme (CRR) as the first step, and a multi-turn ERL-ring as the second step, to attain a better electron emittance and maximum luminosity. In this paper we report results of our studies of the CRR version of ELIC.

  5. Probabilistic Damage Detection Based on Large Area Electronics Sensing Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probabilistic Damage Detection Based on Large Area Electronics Sensing Sheets Yao Yao and Branko-stage damage detection and characterization requires continuous sensing over large areas of structure are not sensitive to damage. In this research, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations

  6. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: existing capabilities and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Aryal, Uma K.; Hengel, Shawna M.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Kelly, Ryan T.; Robinson, Errol W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides a means for identification, characterization, and quantification of biomolecules that are integral components of the processes essential for life. Characterization of proteins present in a biological system at the proteome and sub-proteomes (e.g., the phosphoproteome, proteoglycome, or degradome/peptidome) levels provides a foundation for understanding fundamental aspects as well as potentially a range of translational applications. Emerging technologies such as ion mobility separations coupled with mass spectrometry and microchip-based - proteome measurements combined with continued enhancement of MS instrumentation and separation techniques, such as reversed phase liquid chromatography and potentially capillary electrophoresis, show great promise for both broad undirected as well as targeted measurements and will be critical for e.g., the proteome-wide characterization of post translational modifications and identification, or the verification, and validation of potential biomarkers of disease. MS-based proteomics is also increasingly demonstrating great potential for contributing to our understanding of the dynamics, reactions, and roles proteins and peptides play advancing our understanding of biology on a system wide level for a wide range of applications, from investigations of microbial communities, bioremediation, and human health and disease states alike.

  7. In situ characterization of GaN quantum dot growth with reflection high-energy electron diffraction and line-of-sight mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, J S; Koblmuller, G; Averbeck, R; Riechert, H; Speck, J S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mass spectrometry and re?ection high-energy electronmass spectrometry ?QMS? and re?ection high-energy electron

  8. Ga adsorbate on (0001) GaN: In situ characterization with quadrupole mass spectrometry and reflection high-energy electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, J S; Koblmuller, G; Wu, F; Averbeck, R; Riechert, H; Speck, J S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mass spectrometry and re?ection high-energy electronmass spectrometry ?QMS? and re?ection high-energy electron

  9. Using Disorder to Study How Electrons Pair in Iron-Based Superconducto...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Disorder to Study How Electrons Pair in Iron-Based Superconductors Researchers introduced disorder to test electron pairing in iron-based superconductors and produced...

  10. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  11. Relativistic Cyclotron Radiation Detection of Tritium Decay Electrons as a New Technique for Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shape of the beta decay energy distribution is sensitive to the mass of the electron neutrino. Attempts to measure the endpoint shape of tritium decay have so far seen no distortion from the zero-mass form, thus placing an upper limit of m_nu_beta < 2.3 eV. Here we show that a new type of electron energy spectroscopy could improve future measurements of this spectrum and therefore of the neutrino mass. We propose to detect the coherent cyclotron radiation emitted by an energetic electron in a magnetic field. For mildly relativistic electrons, like those in tritium decay, the relativistic shift of the cyclotron frequency allows us to extract the electron energy from the emitted radiation. We present calculations for the energy resolution, noise limits, high-rate measurement capability, and systematic errors expected in such an experiment.

  12. Relativistic Cyclotron Radiation Detection of Tritium Decay Electrons as a New Technique for Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Monreal; Joseph A. Formaggio

    2009-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The shape of the beta decay energy distribution is sensitive to the mass of the electron neutrino. Attempts to measure the endpoint shape of tritium decay have so far seen no distortion from the zero-mass form, thus placing an upper limit of m_nu_beta < 2.3 eV. Here we show that a new type of electron energy spectroscopy could improve future measurements of this spectrum and therefore of the neutrino mass. We propose to detect the coherent cyclotron radiation emitted by an energetic electron in a magnetic field. For mildly relativistic electrons, like those in tritium decay, the relativistic shift of the cyclotron frequency allows us to extract the electron energy from the emitted radiation. We present calculations for the energy resolution, noise limits, high-rate measurement capability, and systematic errors expected in such an experiment.

  13. Relativistic cyclotron radiation detection of tritium decay electrons as a new technique for measuring the neutrino mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, Benjamin

    The shape of the beta-decay energy distribution is sensitive to the mass of the electron neutrino. Attempts to measure the endpoint shape of tritium decay have so far seen no distortion from the zero-mass form, thus placing ...

  14. Surface plasmon modes revealed by fast electron based spectroscopies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface plasmon modes revealed by fast electron based spectroscopies Arthur Losquin Laboratoire de://www.stem.lps.u-psud.fr Directeur de thèse: Mathieu Kociak #12;Outline 1 - Introduction: Nanooptics, Surface Plasmon (SP) modes - Application to the SP modes of disordered media · Motivation · Evidence of Hot Spot-like EELS plasmon maps

  15. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors Coskun Kocabas*, Hoon properties of individ- ual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demon- stration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios

  16. Chemistry and Electronic Structure of Iron-Based Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid state provides a richly varied fabric for intertwining chemical bonding, electronic structure, and magnetism. The discovery of superconductivity in iron pnictides and chalcogenides has revealed new aspects of this interplay, especially involving magnetism and superconductivity. Moreover, it has challenged prior thinking about high-temperature superconductivity by providing a set of materials that differ in many crucial aspects from the previously known cuprate superconductors. Here we review some of what is known about the superconductivity and its interplay with magnetism, chemistry, and electronic structure in Fe-based superconductors.

  17. Conversion of experimental half-life to effective electron neutrino mass in 0nubetabeta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolnikov, Anatoly; Grabmayr, Peter [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) collaboration will be searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. As a result it will measure the half-life T{sub 1/2} of this rare process; or at least a new value for the lower limit for T{sub 1/2} will be derived. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment on the effective electron neutrino mass depends on the theoretical value for the nuclear matrix element M and the kinematical phase space factor G.In this Brief Report we focus on existing difficulties in applying the dimensionless values of M calculated by various theoretical groups, which use different methods and parametrizations. The implicit radius dependencies in M and G are discussed. Resulting values of the neutrino mass are tabulated for various representative half-lives T{sub 1/2} representing the sensitivity of the various phases of the GERDA experiment.

  18. Measurement of the W Boson Mass with the D0 Run II Detector using the Electron P(T) Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andeen, Timothy R., Jr.; /Northwestern U.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a description of the measurement of the W boson mass using the D0 Run II detector with 770 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data. These collisions were produced by the Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV between 2002 and 2006. We use a sample of W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee decays to determine the W boson mass with the transverse momentum distribution of the electron and the transverse mass distribution of the boson. We measure M{sub W} = XXXXX {+-} 37 (stat.) {+-} 26 (sys. theo.) {+-} 51 (sys. exp.) MeV = XXXXX {+-} 68 MeV with the transverse momentum distribution of the electron and M{sub W} = XXXXX {+-} 28 (stat.) {+-} 17 (sys. theo.) {+-} 51 (sys. exp.) MeV = XXXXX {+-} 61 MeV with the transverse mass distribution.

  19. UNDULATOR-BASED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR ELECTRON BEAM DIAGNOSTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakeman, M.S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ultra-short, high-peak- current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (

  20. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Hye-Mi [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jin Woo [Advanced Nano Technology Ltd., Seoul 132-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinhyeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Energy Science and School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  1. OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging Oliver Rübel, AnnetteMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging Oliver Rubel,* Annette Greiner. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by and used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific

  2. HOLMES - The Electron Capture Decay of 163Ho to Measure the Electron Neutrino Mass with sub-eV sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alpert; M. Balata; D. Bennett; M. Biasotti; C. Boragno; C. Brofferio; V. Ceriale; D. Corsini; P. K. Day; M. De Gerone; R. Dressler; M. Faverzani; E. Ferri; J. Fowler; F. Gatti; A. Giachero; J. Hays-Wehle; S. Heinitz; G. Hilton; U. Koester; M. Lusignoli; M. Maino; J. Mates; S. Nisi; R. Nizzolo; A. Nucciotti; G. Pessina; G. Pizzigoni; A. Puiu; S. Ragazzi; C. Reintsema; M. Ribeiro Gomes; D. Schmidt; D. Schumann; M. Sisti; D. Swetz; F. Terranova; J. Ullom

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Research Council has recently funded HOLMES, a new experiment to directly measure the neutrino mass. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of 163Ho. The calorimetric measurement eliminates systematic uncertainties arising from the use of external beta sources, as in experiments with beta spectrometers. This measurement was proposed in 1982 by A. De Rujula and M. Lusignoli, but only recently the detector technological progress allowed to design a sensitive experiment. HOLMES will deploy a large array of low temperature microcalorimeters with implanted 163Ho nuclei. The resulting mass sensitivity will be as low as 0.4 eV. HOLMES will be an important step forward in the direct neutrino mass measurement with a calorimetric approach as an alternative to spectrometry. It will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV. We outline here the project with its technical challenges and perspectives.

  3. HOLMES - The Electron Capture Decay of 163Ho to Measure the Electron Neutrino Mass with sub-eV sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alpert; M. Balata; D. Bennett; M. Biasotti; C. Boragno; C. Brofferio; V. Ceriale; D. Corsini; M. De Gerone; R. Dressler; M. Faverzani; E. Ferri; J. Fowler; F. Gatti; A. Giachero; J. Hays-Wehle; S. Heinitz; G. Hilton; U. Koester; M. Lusignoli; M. Maino; J. Mates; S. Nisi; R. Nizzolo; A. Nucciotti; G. Pessina; G. Pizzigoni; A. Puiu; S. Ragazzi; C. Reintsema; M. Ribeiro Gomes; D. Schmidt; D. Schumann; M. Sisti; D. Swetz; F. Terranova; J. Ullom

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Research Council has recently funded HOLMES, a new experiment to directly measure the neutrino mass. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of 163Ho. The calorimetric measurement eliminates systematic uncertainties arising from the use of external beta sources, as in experiments with beta spectrometers. This measurement was proposed in 1982 by A. De Rujula and M. Lusignoli, but only recently the detector technological progress allowed to design a sensitive experiment. HOLMES will deploy a large array of low temperature microcalorimeters with implanted 163Ho nuclei. The resulting mass sensitivity will be as low as 0.4 eV. HOLMES will be an important step forward in the direct neutrino mass measurement with a calorimetric approach as an alternative to spectrometry. It will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV. We outline here the project with its technical challenges and perspectives.

  4. Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    we study the long-wavelength plasmon dispersion and the Drude weight of archetypical spin-orbit-coupled 2DEGs. We first show that these measurable quantities are sensitive to electron-electron interactions due to broken Galilean invariance...

  5. Microstructure-based laser-driven free-electron laser T. Plettner , R.L. Byer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Microstructure-based laser-driven free-electron laser T. Plettner Ã, R.L. Byer E.L. Ginzton-synchronous with the electron beam. This allows for an undulator period that is much greater than the laser wavelength. Due and therefore lead to a very compact free-electron-based radiation device. & 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. VOF-BASED SIMULATION OF REACTIVE MASS TRANSFER ACROSS DEFORMABLE INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    . of the bubbles is there- fore of fundamental importance for effective design of the reactor. In case of fast-based approach for the Direct Numerical Simulation of reactive mass transfer in gas-liquid flows is described simulation results are presented for non reactive and reactive mass transfer from rising gas bubbles

  7. An electronic laboratory notebook based on HTML forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marstaller, J.E.; Zorn, M.D.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic notebook records information that has traditionally been kept in handwritten laboratory notebooks. It keeps detailed information about the progress of the research , such as the optimization of primers, the screening of the primers and, finally, the mapping of the probes. The notebook provides two areas of services: Data entry, and reviewing of data in all stages. The World wide Web browsers, with HTML based forms provide a fast and easy mechanism to create forms-based user interfaces. The computer scientist can sit down with the biologist and rapidly make changes in response to the user`s comments. Furthermore the HTML forms work equally well on a number of different hardware platforms; thus the biologists may continue using their Macintosh computers and find a familiar interface if they have to work on a Unix workstation. The web browser can be run from any machine connected to the Internet: thus the users are free to enter or view information even away from their labs at home or while on travel. Access can be restricted by password and other means to secure the confidentiality of the data. A bonus that is hard to implement otherwise is the facile connection to outside resources. Linking local information to data in public databases is only a hypertext link away with little or no additional programming efforts.

  8. Multilevel learning-based segmentation of ill-defined and spiculated masses in mammograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Yimo; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Makariou, Erini; Xuan, Jianhua [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States) and Department of Radiology, ISIS Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Radiology, ISIS Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Radiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A learning-based approach integrating the use of pixel-level statistical modeling and spiculation detection is presented for the segmentation of mammographic masses with ill-defined margins and spiculations. Methods: The algorithm involves a multiphase pixel-level classification, using a comprehensive group of features computed from regional intensity, shape, and textures, to generate a mass-conditional probability map (PM). Then, the mass candidate, along with the background clutters consisting of breast fibroglandular and other nonmass tissues, is extracted from the PM by integrating the prior knowledge of shape and location of masses. A multiscale steerable ridge detection algorithm is employed to detect spiculations. Finally, all the object-level findings, including mass candidate, detected spiculations, and clutters, along with the PM, are integrated by graph cuts to generate the final segmentation mask. Results: The method was tested on 54 masses (51 malignant and 3 benign), all with ill-defined margins and irregular shape or spiculations. The ground truth delineations were provided by five experienced radiologists. Area overlapping ratio of 0.689 ({+-}0.160) and 0.540 ({+-}0.164) were obtained for segmenting entire mass and margin portion only, respectively. Williams index of area and contour based measurements indicated that the segmentation results of the algorithm agreed well with the radiologists' delineation. Conclusions: The proposed approach could closely delineate the mass body. Most importantly, it is capable of including mass margin and its spicule extensions which are considered as key features for breast lesion analyses.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim E.; Wunschel, David S.; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martinez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

  10. Mass Enhancement of Two-Dimensional Electrons in Thin Oxide Si-MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draper, B.L.; Pan, W.; Tsui, D.C.

    1998-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We report in this paper a study of the effective mass in thin oxide Si-MOSFETs, using the temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect and following the methodology developed by Smith and Stiles.

  11. Electronic readout of microchannel resonators for precision mass sensing in solution by Rumi Chunara.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chunara, Rumi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfabricated transducers have enabled new approaches for detection of biomolecules and cells. Integration of electronics with these tools simplify systems and provide platforms for robust use outside of the laboratory ...

  12. "BLUE BOX" POWER ELECTRONICS CONTROL MODULES FOR LABORATORY-BASED EDUCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    "BLUE BOX" POWER ELECTRONICS CONTROL MODULES FOR LABORATORY-BASED EDUCATION R. S. BALOG, J. W of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign Urbana, Illinois 61801 #12;#12;UILU-ENG-2004-2504 "BLUE BOX" POWER ELECTRONICS of design documents detailing the design and fabrication of "blue box" power electronics control modules

  13. An Electron Bunch Compressor Based on an FEL Interaction in the Far Infra Red

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaupp, Andreas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note an electron bunch compressor is proposed based on FEL type interaction of the electron bunch with far infrared (FIR) radiation. This mechanism maintains phase space density and thus requires a high quality electron beam to produce bunches of the length of a few ten micrometer.

  14. THE VUV FREE ELECTRON LASER BASED ON THE TESLA TEST FACILITY AT DESY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE VUV FREE ELECTRON LASER BASED ON THE TESLA TEST FACILITY AT DESY J. Rossbach, for the TESLA FEL Collaboration Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, 22603 Hamburg , Germany Abstract A Free-Electron Laser exceptionally well suited for a short-wavelength Free-Electron Laser: Excellent beam quality, mandatory

  15. Single-electron shuttle based on a silicon quantum dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. W. Chan; M. Mottonen; A. Kemppinen; N. S. Lai; K. Y. Tan; W. H. Lim; A. S. Dzurak

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on single-electron shuttling experiments with a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot at 300 mK. Our system consists of an accumulated electron layer at the Si/SiO_2 interface below an aluminum top gate with two additional barrier gates used to deplete the electron gas locally and to define a quantum dot. Directional single-electron shuttling from the source and to the drain lead is achieved by applying a dc source-drain bias while driving the barrier gates with an ac voltage of frequency f_p. Current plateaus at integer levels of ef_p are observed up to f_p = 240 MHz operation frequencies. The observed results are explained by a sequential tunneling model which suggests that the electron gas may be heated substantially by the ac driving voltage.

  16. Spin-based quantum computing using electrons on liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Lyon

    2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous physical systems have been proposed for constructing quantum computers, but formidable obstacles stand in the way of making even modest systems with a few hundred quantum bits (qubits). Several approaches utilize the spin of an electron as the qubit. Here it is suggested that the spin of electrons floating on the surface of liquid helium will make excellent qubits. These electrons can be electrostatically held and manipulated much like electrons in semiconductor heterostructures, but being in a vacuum the spins on helium suffer much less decoherence. In particular, the spin orbit interaction is reduced so that moving the qubits with voltages applied to gates has little effect on their coherence. Remaining sources of decoherence are considered and it is found that coherence times for electron spins on helium can be expected to exceed 100 s. It is shown how to obtain a controlled-NOT operation between two qubits using the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction.

  17. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, 225 North Ave NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Steiger, R. von [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  18. Electron generation of leptons and hadrons with reciprocal -quantized lifetimes and masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generation occurs via an initial "-leap" from an electron pair to a "platform state" M, and then subsequent in modern physics has been the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED). This is the theory for the much stronger had- ron interactions is quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which was patterned after QED

  19. Vertical design of cubic GaN-based high electron mobility transistors R. Granzner,1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Vertical design of cubic GaN-based high electron mobility transistors R. Granzner,1,a) E. Tschumak 2011; accepted 24 October 2011; published online 1 December 2011) Cubic (zinc blende) AlGaN=GaN heterostructures for application in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are investigated theoretically

  20. Methanol as a Sensitive Probe for Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Institute for Lasers, Life and Biophotonics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Xu Lihong [Department of Physics and Centre for Laser, Atomic, and Molecular Sciences, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 4L5 (Canada); Kleiner, Isabelle [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS UMR 7583 et Universites Paris 7 et Paris Est, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France)

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The 6.7 and 12.2 GHz masers, corresponding to the 5{sub 1}{yields}6{sub 0}A{sup +} and 2{sub 0}{yields}3{sub -1}E transitions in methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), respectively, are among the brightest radio objects in the sky. We present calculations for the sensitivity of these and other transitions in the ground state of methanol to a variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We show that the sensitivity is greatly enhanced due to a cancellation of energies associated with the hindered internal rotation and the overall rotation of the molecule. We find sensitivities of K{sub {mu}=}-42 and K{sub {mu}=}-33, for the 5{sub 1}{yields}6{sub 0}A{sup +} and 2{sub 0}{yields}3{sub -1}E transitions, respectively. The sensitivities of other transitions in the different isotopologues of methanol range from -88 to 330. This makes methanol a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio.

  1. Accurate Prediction of the Ammonia Probes of a Variable Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Alec; Thiel, Walter; Špirko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study of the mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of $^{14}$NH$_3$, $^{15}$NH$_3$, $^{14}$ND$_3$, and $^{15}$ND$_3$ is carried out variationally using the TROVE approach. Variational calculations are robust and accurate, offering a new way to compute sensitivity coefficients. Particular attention is paid to the $\\Delta k=\\pm 3$ transitions between the accidentally coinciding rotation-inversion energy levels of the $\

  2. Excitonic BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature: Effects of repulsion and electron-hole mass difference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomio, Yuh; Honda, Kotaro; Ogawa, Tetsuo [CREST, JST, and Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The BCS to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover of electron-hole (e-h) pairs in optically excited semiconductors is studied using the two-band Hubbard model with both repulsive and attractive interactions. Applying the self-consistent t-matrix approximation combined with a local approximation, we examine the properties of a normal phase and an excitonic instability. The transition temperature from the normal phase to an e-h pair condensed one is studied to clarify the crossover from an e-h BCS-like state to an excitonic Bose-Einstein condensation, which takes place on increasing the e-h attraction strength. To investigate effects of the repulsive interaction and the e-h mass difference, we calculate the transition temperature for various parameters of the interaction strengths, the e-h particle density, and the mass difference. While the transition temperature in the e-h BCS regime is sufficiently suppressed by the repulsive interaction, that of the excitonic BEC is largely insensitive to it. We also show quantitatively that in the whole regime the mass difference leads to large suppression of the transition temperature.

  3. Electron-Transport in Calcium-Based Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naugle, Donald G.; DELGADO, R.; ARMBRUSTER, H.; TSAI, CL; CALLAWAY, TO; REYNOLDS, D.; MORUZZI, VL.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Comparison of results from electronic-structure calculations for CaAl, Ca3A1, CaGa, and Ca3Ga alloys in a dose-packed crystalline structure with experiment indicates that the Ca d band may dominate the electron-transport properties of these glassy metals.... I. INTRODUCTION Considerable progress has b n made in the understand- ing of the electrical properties of glassy metals, particular- ly those whose constituents are simple metals. Generally the resistivity values for simple metal glassy alloys...

  4. A Reverberation-Based Mass for the Central Black Hole in NGC 4151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, M C; Cackett, E M; Dietrich, M; Fogel, J K J; Ghosh, H; Horne, K; Kuehn, C; Minezaki, T; Onken, C A; Peterson, B M; Pogge, R W; Pronik, V I; Richstone, D O; Sergeev, S G; Vestergaard, M; Walker, M G; Yoshii, Y; Bentz, Misty C.; Denney, Kelly D.; Cackett, Edward M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Ghosh, Himel; Horne, Keith; Kuehn, Charles; Minezaki, Takeo; Onken, Christopher A.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Pronik, Vladimir I.; Richstone, Douglas O.; Sergeev, Sergey G.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Walker, Matthew G.; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign to improve the estimates of the mass of the central black hole in NGC 4151. We measure the lag time of the broad H beta line response compared to the optical continuum at 5100 A and find a lag of 6.6 (+1.1/-0.8) days. We combine our data with the recent reanalysis of UV emission lines by Metzroth et al. to calculate a weighted mean of the black hole mass, M_BH = 4.57 (+0.57/-0.47) x 10^7 M_sun. The absolute calibration of the black hole mass is based on normalization of the AGN black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion (M_BH - sigma_*) relationship to that of quiescent galaxies by Onken et al. The scatter in the M_BH - sigma_* relationship suggests that reverberation-mapping based mass measurements are typically uncertain by a factor of 3-4.

  5. A Reverberation-Based Mass for the Central Black Hole in NGC 4151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misty C. Bentz; Kelly D. Denney; Edward M. Cackett; Matthias Dietrich; Jeffrey K. J. Fogel; Himel Ghosh; Keith Horne; Charles Kuehn; Takeo Minezaki; Christopher A. Onken; Bradley M. Peterson; Richard W. Pogge; Vladimir I. Pronik; Douglas O. Richstone; Sergey G. Sergeev; Marianne Vestergaard; Matthew G. Walker; Yuzuru Yoshii

    2006-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign to improve the estimates of the mass of the central black hole in NGC 4151. We measure the lag time of the broad H beta line response compared to the optical continuum at 5100 A and find a lag of 6.6 (+1.1/-0.8) days. We combine our data with the recent reanalysis of UV emission lines by Metzroth et al. to calculate a weighted mean of the black hole mass, M_BH = 4.57 (+0.57/-0.47) x 10^7 M_sun. The absolute calibration of the black hole mass is based on normalization of the AGN black hole mass - stellar velocity dispersion (M_BH - sigma_*) relationship to that of quiescent galaxies by Onken et al. The scatter in the M_BH - sigma_* relationship suggests that reverberation-mapping based mass measurements are typically uncertain by a factor of 3-4.

  6. Electronic Transport Characteristics of Gallium Nitride Nanowire-based Nanocircuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayres, Virginia

    . The measurements indicate a working field effect transistor utilizing a global back gate configuration. Very high and drain contacts were patterned using electron beam lithography, with Ti/Au used for the conducting source and drain material. The backside of the wafer was stripped of silicon dioxide using hydrofluoric acid and Ti

  7. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  8. Speeding up Scoring Module of Mass Spectrometry Based Protein Identification by GPU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xiaowen

    protein identification. It becomes very important to study how to speed up database search engines by GPUsSpeeding up Scoring Module of Mass Spectrometry Based Protein Identification by GPU You Li@comp.hkbu.edu.hk Abstract--Database searching is a main method for protein identification in shotgun proteomics, and many

  9. Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry T. Schenkel,1 A high vacuum (10^8 torr). In posi- tive polarity, HCI can be decelerated to an impact energy of $1 ke in the interaction of slow (u highly charged ions (e.g., Au69+ ) with solid surfaces increases secondary

  10. PROBCAST: A Web-Based Portal to Mesoscale Probabilistic Forecasts Clifford Mass1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    1 PROBCAST: A Web-Based Portal to Mesoscale Probabilistic Forecasts Clifford Mass1 , Susan Joslyn over the Pacific Northwest. PROBCAST products are derived from the output of a mesoscale ensemble-processing of mesoscale, short-range ensembles. The NAS report also noted current deficiencies in the communication

  11. Modeling soil respiration based on carbon, nitrogen, and root mass across diverse Great Lake forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    . Introduction Linkages between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global thermal properties have forcedModeling soil respiration based on carbon, nitrogen, and root mass across diverse Great Lake the examination of biospheric carbon flows and pools. Variability in carbon storage or the net ecosystem exchange

  12. Final Technical Report- Back-gate Field Emission-based Cathode RF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Gary; Martin, Allen; Noonan, John

    2010-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective was to complete the design of an electron gun which utilizes a radio frequency (RF) power source to apply a voltage to a field emission (FE) cathode, a so called cold cathode, in order to produce an electron beam. The concept of the RF electron gun was originally conceived at Argonne National Laboratory but never reduced to practice. The research allowed the completion of the design based upon the integration of the FE electron source. Compared to other electron guns, the RF gun is very compact, less than one third the size of other comparable guns, and produces a high energy (to several MeV), high quality, high power electron beam with a long focal length with high repetition rates. The resultant electron gun may be used in welding, materials processing, analytical equipment and waste treatment.

  13. XUV free-electron laser-based projection lithography systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Free-electron laser sources, driven by rf-linear accelerators, have the potential to operate in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range with more than sufficient average power for high-volume projection lithography. For XUV wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm, such sources will enable the resolution limit of optical projection lithography to be extended from 0.25 {mu}m to 0.05{mu}m and with an adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). Recent developments of a photoinjector of very bright electron beams, high-precision magnetic undulators, and ring-resonator cavities raise our confidence that FEL operation below 100 nm is ready for prototype demonstration. We address the motivation for an XUV FEL source for commercial microcircuit production and its integration into a lithographic system, include reflecting reduction masks, reflecting XUV projection optics and alignment systems, and surface-imaging photoresists. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Reevaluating the feasibility of ground-based Earth-mass microlensing planet detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Youn Kil; Park, Hyuk; Han, Cheongho; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Shin, In-Gu; Choi, Joon-Young, E-mail: cheongho@astroph.chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An important strength of the microlensing method to detect extrasolar planets is its high sensitivity to low-mass planets. However, many believe that microlensing detections of Earth-mass planets from ground-based observation would be difficult because of limits set by finite-source effects. This view comes from the previous estimation of planet detection probability based on the fractional deviation of planetary signals; however, a proper probability estimation is required when considering the source brightness, which is directly related to the photometric precision. In this paper, we reevaluate the feasibility of low-mass planet detections by considering photometric precision for different populations of source stars. From this, we find that the contribution of improved photometric precision to the planetary signal of a giant-source event is large enough to compensate for the decrease in magnification excess caused by finite-source effects. As a result, we conclude that giant-source events are suitable targets for Earth-mass planet detections with significantly higher detection probability than events involved with source stars of smaller radii, and we predict that Earth-mass planets could be detected by prospective high-cadence surveys.

  15. Synchrotron based mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular properties of mineral-organic associations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Suet Yi; Kleber, Markus; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Nico, Peter; Keiluweit, Marco; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil organic matter (OM) is important because its decay drives life processes in the biosphere. Analysis of organic compounds in geological systems is difficult because of their intimate association with mineral surfaces. To date there is no procedure capable of quantitatively separating organic from mineral phases without creating artifacts or mass loss. Therefore, analytical techniques that can (a) generate information about both organic and mineral phases simultaneously and (b) allow the examination of predetermined high-interest regions of the sample as opposed to conventional bulk analytical techniques are valuable. Laser Desorption Synchrotron Postionization (synchrotron-LDPI) mass spectrometry is introduced as a novel analytical tool to characterize the molecular properties of organic compounds in mineral-organic samples from terrestrial systems, and it is demonstrated that when combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), can provide complementary information on mineral composition. Mass spectrometry along a decomposition gradient in density fractions, verifies the consistency of our results with bulk analytical techniques. We further demonstrate that by changing laser and photoionization energies, variations in molecular stability of organic compounds associated with mineral surfaces can be determined. The combination of synchrotron-LDPI and SIMS shows that the energetic conditions involved in desorption and ionization of organic matter may be a greater determinant of mass spectral signatures than the inherent molecular structure of the organic compounds investigated. The latter has implications for molecular models of natural organic matter that are based on mass spectrometric information.

  16. TESLA-FEL Report 2004-08 LINAC BASED FREE-ELECTRON LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TESLA-FEL Report 2004-08 1 LINAC BASED FREE-ELECTRON LASER J. Rossbach Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Abstract A basic treatment of the principle of the linac-driven free-electron laser (FEL) is given. The first part of the paper describes the FEL in low-gain approximation, and in the second part the high

  17. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS)-Based Shotgun Lipidomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezengie, Giorgis I.

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, many new strategies for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analyses of lipids have been developed. Lipidomics is one of the most promising research fields to emerge as a result of these advances in MS. Currently, mass spectrometric analysis of lipids involves two complementary approaches: direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) and liquid chromatography coupled to MS. In this chapter, I will demonstrate the approach of shotgun lipidomics using electrospray ionization tandem MS for the analysis of lipid molecular species directly from crude biological extracts of tissue or fluids.

  18. Taxonomy based models for reasoning: making inferences from electronic road sign information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Taxonomy based models for reasoning: making inferences from electronic road sign information Université de Paris 8, 2 rue de la Liberté F-93526 St DenisCédex02 France Abstract Taxonomy Based modeling to the behaviour of the drivers we interviewed. Finally, Taxonomy Based Modeling is discussed as a tool for mental

  19. Large-Eddy Simulations of Zero-Net-Mass-Flux Jet Based Separation Control in a Canonical Separated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Rajat

    Large-Eddy Simulations of Zero-Net-Mass-Flux Jet Based Separation Control in a Canonical Separated by Mittal et al1 for investigating active separation control using zero-net-mass-flux jets. Large. Zero-net-mass-flux forcing of the separated flow at the superharmonics of this baseline lock

  20. Device-level thermal analysis of GaN-based electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagnall, Kevin Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium nitride (GaN)-based microelectronics are one of the most exciting semiconductor technologies for high power density and high frequency electronics. The excellent electrical properties of GaN and its related alloys ...

  1. Excited states and electron transfer in solution : models based on density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, Timothy Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our understanding of organic materials for solar energy conversion stands to benefit greatly from accurate, computationally tractable electronic structure methods for excited states. Here we apply two approaches based on ...

  2. Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and the response time. Rutile-structured tin oxide (SnO2) is an n-type semiconducting material widely used in gas

  3. A micro seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer technology for planetary exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Tang, Rui [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Carande, Bryce; Oiler, Jonathan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Zaitsev, Dmitri; Agafonov, Vadim [Center of Molecular Electronics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Center of Molecular Electronics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yu, Hongyu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States) [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter describes an implementation of micromachined seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET) technology. As opposed to a solid inertial mass, MET seismometer senses the movement of liquid electrolyte relative to fixed electrodes. The employment of micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques reduces the internal size of the sensing cell to 1{mu}m and improves the reproducibility of the device. For operating bias of 600 mV, a sensitivity of 809 V/(m/s{sup 2}) was measured under acceleration of 400{mu}g(g{identical_to}9.81m/s{sup 2}) at 0.32 Hz. A -115 dB (relative to (m/s{sup 2})/{radical}(Hz)) noise level at 1 Hz was achieved. This work develops an alternative paradigm of seismic sensing device with small size, high sensitivity, low noise floor, high shock tolerance, and independence of installation angle, which is promising for next generation seismometers for planetary exploration.

  4. Modeling of diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji, E-mail: yamaguchi.tetsuji@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Negishi, Kumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Taiheiyo Consultant Company Limited, 2-4-2, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-8655 (Japan); Hoshino, Seiichi; Tanaka, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to predict long-term leaching behavior of cement constituents for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal, we modeled diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials. Based on available knowledge on the pore structure, we developed a transport porosity model that enables us to estimate effective porosity available for diffusion (transport porosity) in cement based materials. We microscopically examined the pore structure of hardened cement pastes to partially verify the model. Effective diffusivities of tritiated water in hardened cement pastes were also obtained experimentally, and were shown to be proportional to the estimated transport porosity.

  5. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Juan, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Liu, Chenlian, E-mail: chenglian.liu@gmail.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com [Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  6. Comparison of Solution-Based versus Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Larval Fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison of Solution-Based versus Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry otoliths of larvae. Herein, we evaluate the abilities of solution-based (SO) and laser ablation (LA

  7. Induced Gravity Model Based on External Impinging Neutrinos: Calculation of G in Terms of Collision Phenomena and Inferences to Inertial Mass and Atomic Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William G. Stanley; Gary C. Vezzoli

    2001-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein, we present a particle-based mechanism and mathematical formulation of gravity, focusing on the neutrino as the gravity-inducing particle. The mechanism is based on the primacy of momentum conservation and postulates an omni-directional distribution throughout the universe of fast small particles of finite mass that have a low probability of colliding with nucleons. The measured acceleration between two neighboring mass bodies results from an alteration of this distribution caused by nucleons of each body interacting with some of those particles. Based on findings establishing that the neutrino has mass, we evaluate the various neutrinos as external particle candidates. We show that for mass quantities up to several times that of the sun the form of the time rate of momentum transfer to each body is proportional to the product of the two body masses because of the probability nature of any collision process, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them because of the mathematical properties of an altered particle flux. A derived expression involving the neutrino momentum flux, the neutrino-nucleon collision cross section, and the nucleon mass replaces the constant G from the classical gravitational model. The neutrino momentum flux that is required to account for gravity is so large as to cause us herein to re-evaluate conventional notions in kinematics and the cause of inertial properties and to examine neutrino-nucleon collisions as a possible source of electromagnetic standing waves essential to establish electron shell states. This reasoning indicates that in a much more massive body that is accreting mass, a coulombic collapse to a black hole will ensue when external neutrinos lose the ability to penetrate in sufficient numbers to the central region.

  8. Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum-and Coal-Derived Asphaltenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum- and Coal: Petroleum- and coal-derived asphaltenes have been studied with three laser-based mass spectrometric-MS), in which a single laser desorbs and ionizes solid analytes from an activated surface; and laser desorption

  9. Self-heating simulation of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors including hot electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Peide "Peter"

    Self-heating simulation of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors the results of self-heating simulations of the GaN-based MOS-HEMTs, including hot electron and quantum effects of the gate and source/drain extension lengths on both the output performance and self-heating is discussed

  10. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy by precise measurements of two delta m**2 in electron-neutrino and muon-neutrino disappearance experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minakata, H.; /Tokyo Metropolitan U.; Nunokawa, H.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab; Zukanovich Funchal, R.; /Sao Paulo U.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, the authors discuss the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the two effective atmospheric neutrino mass squared differences measured, respectively, in electron, and in muon neutrino disappearance oscillation experiments. if the former, is larger (smaller) than the latter, the mass hierarchy is of normal (inverted) type. They consider two very high precision (a few per mil) measurements of such mass squared differences by the phase II of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) experiment and by the novel Moessbauer enhanced resonant {bar {nu}}{sub e} absorption technique. Under optimistic assumptions for the systematic errors of both measurements, they determine the region of sensitivities where the mass hierarchy can be distinguished. Due to the tight space limitation, they present only the general idea and show a few most important plots.

  11. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A. [JS Co FIKO, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  12. Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    trade-offs in electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting diodes. A finite- toelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes LEDs and lasers. It has been suggested that a thin slabCoupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting

  13. Automated Design of Microfluidics-Based Biochips: Connecting Biochemistry to Electronics CAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Automated Design of Microfluidics-Based Biochips: Connecting Biochemistry to Electronics CAD, USA Abstract Microfluidics-based biochips offer exciting possibilities for high- throughput sequencing monitoring. The complexity of microfluidic devices is expected to become significant in the near future due

  14. FIRST COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROTON-TO-ELECTRON MASS RATIO FROM OBSERVATIONS OF ROTATIONAL TRANSITIONS OF METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Lovell, J. E. J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Voronkov, M. A.; Breen, S. L., E-mail: Simon.Ellingsen@utas.edu.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to measure the absorption from the 2{sub 0} {yields} 3{sub -1} E 12.2 GHz transition of methanol toward the z = 0.89 lensing galaxy in the PKS B1830-211 gravitational lens system. Comparison of the velocity of the main absorption feature with the published absorption spectrum from the 1{sub 0} {yields} 2{sub -1} E transition of methanol shows that they differ by -0.6 {+-} 1.6 km s{sup -1}. We can use these observations to constrain the changes in the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu} from z = 0.89 to the present to 0.8 {+-} 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. This result is consistent, and of similar precision to recent observations at z = 0.68 achieved through comparison of a variety of rotational and inversion transitions, and approximately a factor of two better than previous constraints obtained in this source. Future more sensitive observations that incorporate additional rotational methanol transitions offer the prospect of improving current results by a factor of 5-10.

  15. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Institute for Lasers, Life and Biophotonics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kleiner, Isabelle [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS UMR 7583 et Universites Paris 7 et Paris Est, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, FR-94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Xu, Li-Hong [Department of Physics and Centre for Laser, Atomic, and Molecular Sciences, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  16. Enrichment and Analysis of Nonenzymatically Glycated Peptides: Boronate Affinity Chromatography Coupled with Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Brock, Jonathan W.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ames, Jennifer M.; Baynes, John; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. However, no effective high-throughput methods exist for identifying proteins containing this low abundance post-translational modification in bottom-up proteomic studies. In this report, phenylboronate affinity chromatography was used in a two-step enrichment scheme to selectively isolate first glycated proteins and then glycated, tryptic peptides from human serum glycated in vitro. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by alternating electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. It was observed that ETD fragmentation mode resulted in a significantly higher number of glycated peptide identifications (87.6% of all identified peptides) versus CID mode (17.0% of all identified peptides), when utilizing dual glycation enrichment on both the protein and peptide level. This study illustrates that phenylboronate affinity chromatography coupled with LC-MS/MS with ETD as the fragmentation mode is an efficient approach for analyses of glycated proteins and can have broad applications in studies of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael [Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)] [Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France); Dellis, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  18. Role of defects in III-nitride based electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAN,JUNG; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; SHUL,RANDY J.; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LDRD entitled ``Role of Defects in III-Nitride Based Devices'' is aimed to place Sandia National Laboratory at the forefront of the field of GaN materials and devices by establishing a scientific foundation in areas such as material growth, defect characterization/modeling, and processing (metalization and etching) chemistry. In this SAND report the authors summarize their studies such as (1) the MOCVD growth and doping of GaN and AlGaN, (2) the characterization and modeling of hydrogen in GaN, including its bonding, diffusion, and activation behaviors, (3) the calculation of energetic of various defects including planar stacking faults, threading dislocations, and point defects in GaN, and (4) dry etching (plasma etching) of GaN (n- and p-types) and AlGaN. The result of the first AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor is also presented.

  19. Improved Description of One- and Two-Hole States after Electron Capture in 163 Holmium and the Determination of the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amand Faessler; Fedor Simkovic

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The atomic pair 163 Holmium and 163 Dysprosium seems due to the small Q value of about 2.3 to 2.8 keV the best case to determine the neutrino mass by electron capture. The bolometer spectrum measures the full deexcitation energy of Dysprosium by X rays, by Auger electrons and by the recoil of Holmium. The spectrum has an upper energy limit given by the Q value minus the neutrino mass. Till now this spectrum has been calculated allowing in Dysprosium excitations with 3s1/2, 3p1/2, 4s1/2, 4p1/2, 5s1/2, 5p1/2 one-holes only. Robertson calculated recently also the spectrum with two electron hole excitations in Dy. He took the probability for the excitation for the second electron hole from work of Carlson and Nestor for Z=54 Xenon. He claims, that the bolometer spectrum with two holes is "not well enough understood to permit a sensitive determination of the neutrino mass in this way." The purpose of the present work is to determine the theoretical bolometer spectrum with two hole excitations more reliably directly in holmium and dysprosium. In addition it will be shown, that the two-hole excitations do not complicate more the determination of the neutrino mass compared to the situation with one-hole states only. At the Q value the highest one-hole resonance is dominant. Under the assumption of a Lorentzian line shape one has to fit after inclusion of the experimental spectral function of the detector four quantities to the data: (1) The neutrino mass, (2) the energy distance of the dominant resonance to the Q value, (3) the line witdth and (4) the strength of the resonance. Compared to Robertson this work includes major improvements and it shows, that a determination of the neutrino mass is difficult but not impossible.

  20. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael (Brooktondale, NY) [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  1. A statistical view on nuclear mass formula based on liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenxi Yuan

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical method can be used to verify whether a theory is improved or not. As an example, a statistical study is applied to the error of the nuclear binding energy between the observed values and the theoretical values from the mass formula based on the liquid drop model (LDM). A new shell correction term is introduced to the traditional LDM. With such improvement, the error shows smaller standard deviation, better normality, reduced systematic part, and less dependent on the shell effect. The inclusion of the shell effect can be concluded to be an improvement purely from a statistical view. The present eight-parameter mass formula including shell effect gives standard deviation $\\sigma=1.4$ MeV for $2350$ observed binding energies from AME2012.

  2. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  3. Measurements of the Higgs boson mass and width in the four-lepton final state and electron reconstruction in the CMS experiment at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Charlot, Claude

    This thesis document reports measurements of the mass and width of the new boson re- cently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), candidating to be the Standard Model Higgs boson. The analysis uses proton-proton collision data recorded by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of $5.1~fb^{?1}$ at $7~$TeV center of mass energy and $19.7~fb^{?1}$ at $8~$TeV center of mass energy. Set of events selecting Higgs boson via the $H\\to ZZ$ decay channel, where both $Z$ bosons decay to electron or muon lepton pairs, is used for the Higgs boson properties measurements. A precise measurement of its mass has been performed and gives $125.6\\pm0.4\\mbox{(stat)}\\pm0.2\\mbox{(syst)}~$GeV. Constraints on the Higgs boson width were established using its off-shell production and decay to a pair of $Z$ bosons, where one $Z$ boson decays to an electron or muon pair, and the other to an electron, muon, or neutrino pair. The obtained result is an upper limit on the Hi...

  4. Improved Description of One- and Two-Hole States after Electron Capture in 163 Holmium and the Determination of the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faessler, Amand

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atomic pair 163 Holmium and 163 Dysprosium$ seems due to the small Q value of about 2.3 to 2.8 keV the best case to determine the neutrino mass by electron capture. The bolometer spectrum measures the full deexcitation energy of Dysprosium by X rays, by Auger electrons and by the recoil of Holmium. The spectrum has an upper energy limit given by the Q value minus the neutrino mass. Till now this spectrum has been calculated allowing in Dysprosium excitations with 3s1/2, 3p1/2, 4s1/2, 4p1/2, 5s1/2, 5p1/2 holes only. Robertson calculated recently also the spectrum with two electron hole excitations in Dy. He took the probability for the excitation for the second electron hole from work of Carlson and Nestor for Z=54 Xenon. He claims, that the bolometer spectrum with two holes is "not well enough understood to permit a sensitive determination of the neutrino mass in this way." The purpose of the present work is to determine the theoretical bolometer spectrum with two hole excitations more reliably. In additi...

  5. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within...

  6. Graphene and New Electronic Materials Silicon-based electronics will reach its fundamental limits over the next 6-10 years. This will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    to allow continued advances in this critical field. A material that has received extensive attention device fabrication. Interfaces and thus bonding structures between materials are criticalGraphene and New Electronic Materials Silicon-based electronics will reach its fundamental limits

  7. Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl) borate (BIM4) based zwitterionic and related molecules used as electron injection layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Huaping; Xu, Yunhua; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate (BIm4) based zwitterionic and/or related molecules for the fabrication of PLEDs is provided. Device performances with these materials approaches that of devices with Ba/Al cathodes for which the cathode contact is ohmic. Methods of producing such materials, and electron injection layers and devices containing these materials are also provided.

  8. PROGRESS WITH FEL-BASED COHERENT ELECTRON COOLING * Vladimir N. Litvinenko#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROGRESS WITH FEL-BASED COHERENT ELECTRON COOLING * Vladimir N. Litvinenko# , Ilan Ben Zvi, Michael, TJNAF, Newport News, VA, USA Sven Reiche, UCLA, Los Angelis, CA, USA Abstract Cooling intense high, while efficiency of two other cooling methods falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i

  9. BPM Electronics based on Compensated Diode Detectors – Results from development Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasior, M; Steinhagen, RJ

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution beam position monitor (BPM) electronics based on diode peak detectors is being developed for processing signals from button BPMs embedded into future LHC collimators. Its prototypes were measured in a laboratory as well as with beam signals from the collimator BPM installed on the SPS and with LHC BPMs. Results from these measurements are presented and discussed.

  10. POWER ELECTRONICS HARMONIC ANALYSIS BASED ON THE LINEAR TIME PERIODIC MODELING. APPLICATIONS FOR AC/DC/AC POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /Simulink simulations. Key words: power system harmonics, power electronic, linear time periodic modeling, PWM, control1 POWER ELECTRONICS HARMONIC ANALYSIS BASED ON THE LINEAR TIME PERIODIC MODELING. APPLICATIONS in power electronic systems. The considered system is described by a set of differential equations, which

  11. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  12. Estimation of the electron density and radiative energy losses in a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin@imp.kiae.ru; Ustinov, A. L. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The parameters of a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge were calculated. The analysis was performed as applied to an ion cyclotron resonance system designed for separation of calcium isotopes. The plasma electrons in the source were heated by gyrotron microwave radiation in the zone of the inhomogeneous magnetic field. It was assumed that, in such a combined trap, the energy of the extraordinary microwave propagating from the high-field side was initially transferred to a small group of resonance electrons. As a result, two electron components with different transverse temperatures-the hot resonance component and the cold nonresonance component-were created in the plasma. The longitudinal temperatures of both components were assumed to be equal. The entire discharge space was divided into a narrow ECR zone, where resonance electrons acquired transverse energy, and the region of the discharge itself, where the gas was ionized. The transverse energy of resonance electrons was calculated by solving the equations for electron motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Using the law of energy conservation and the balance condition for the number of hot electrons entering the discharge zone and cooled due to ionization and elastic collisions, the density of hot electrons was estimated and the dependence of the longitudinal temperature T{sub e Parallel-To} of the main (cold) electron component on the energy fraction {beta} lost for radiation was obtained.

  13. Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod-ucts via Electron Impact and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod- ucts via Electron Impact for application in energy re- lated electrocatalysis is demonstrated using continuous methanol oxidation over

  14. Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane-based microfluidic emitter for high performance nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) has been fabricated and evaluated. The ~100-?m-thick emitter was created by cutting a PDMS membrane that protrudes beyond the bulk substrate. The reduced surface area at the emitter enhances the electric field and reduces wetting of the surface by the electrospray solvent. As such, the emitter provides highly stable electrospray at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min, and is compatible with electrospray solvents containing a large organic component (e.g., 90% methanol). This approach enables facile emitter construction, and provides excellent stability, reproducibility and sensitivity, as well as compatibility with multilayer soft lithography.

  15. Magnetic fluctuations and heavy electron superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, M.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic fluctuation self-energy based on neutron scattering data is used to calculate mass renormalizations, and superconducting critical temperatures and order parameters, for various heavy electron metals.

  16. Trapping in deep defects under substrate hot electron stress in TiN/Hf-silicate based gate stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Durgamadhab "Durga"

    Trapping in deep defects under substrate hot electron stress in TiN/Hf-silicate based gate stacks N. Zaslavsky Abstract Substrate hot electron stress was applied on n+ -ringed n-channel MOS capacitors with TiN/Hf-silicate. Introduction Hafnium silicate based high-j gate dielectrics have been put forth as the leading candidates

  17. Electron concentration and phase stability in NbCr2-based Laves phase alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases was studied, based on the data reported for binary X-Cr, Nb-X, and ternary Nb-Cr-X phase diagrams. It was shown that when the atomic size ratios are kept identical, the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases. The e/a ratios for different Laves polytypes were determined as followed: with e/a < 5.76, the C15 structure is stabilized; at an e/a range of 5.88--7.53, the C14 structure is stabilized; with e/a > 7.65, the C15 structure is stabilized again. A further increase in the electron concentration factor (e/a > 8) leads to the disordering of the alloy. The electron concentration effect on the phase stability of Mg-based Laves phases and transition-metal A{sub 3}B intermetallic compounds is also reviewed and compared with the present observations in transition-metal Laves phases. In order to verify the e/a/phase stability relationship experimentally, additions of Cu (with e/a = 11) were selected to replace Cr in the NbCr{sub 2} Laves phase. Experimental results for the ternary Nb-Cr-Cu system are reported and discussed in terms of the correlation between the e/a ratio and phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases. A new phase was found, which has an average composition of Nb-47Cr-3Cu. Within the solubility limit, the electron concentration and phase stability relationship is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Cu system.

  18. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Congedo

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalise over nuisance parameters. The $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalised to marginalise over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  19. Future advances: Stretchable silicon-based electronics http://www.whatistheword.com/story/SciTech_418.html 1 of 1 12/21/2005 5:57 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    electronics devices can be built on "rubber substrates." The researchers have detailed their efforts integrated device elements on rubber represents a new form of stretchable, high-performance electronicsFuture advances: Stretchable silicon-based electronics http

  20. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion ponent of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the electrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  1. Heavy electrons: Electron droplets generated by photogalvanic and pyroelectric effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Krasnoholovets; N. Kukhtarev; T. Kukhtareva

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron clusters, X-rays and nanosecond radio-frequency pulses are produced by 100 mW continuous-wave laser illuminating ferroelectric crystal of LiNbO_3. A long-living stable electron droplet with the size of about 100 mcm has freely moved with the velocity 0.5 cm/s in the air near the surface of the crystal experiencing the Earth gravitational field. The microscopic model of cluster stability, which is based on submicroscopic mechanics developed in the real physical space, is suggested. The role of a restraining force plays the inerton field, a substructure of the particles' matter waves, which a solitary one can elastically withstand the Coulomb repulsion of electrons. It is shown that electrons in the droplet are heavy electrons whose mass at least 1 million of times exceeds the rest mass of free electron. Application for X-ray imaging and lithography is discussed.

  2. First principles study of the structural, electronic, and transport properties of triarylamine-based nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akande, Akinlolu, E-mail: akandea@tcd.ie; Bhattacharya, Sandip; Cathcart, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics, AMBER and CRANN Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)] [School of Physics, AMBER and CRANN Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate with state of the art density functional theory the structural, electronic, and transport properties of a class of recently synthesized nanostructures based on triarylamine derivatives. First, we consider the single molecule precursors in the gas phase and calculate their static properties, namely (i) the geometrical structure of the neutral and cationic ions, (ii) the electronic structure of the frontier molecular orbitals, and (iii) the ionization potential, hole extraction potential, and internal reorganization energy. This initial study does not evidence any direct correlation between the properties of the individual molecules and their tendency to self-assembly. Subsequently, we investigate the charge transport characteristics of the triarylamine derivatives nanowires, by using Marcus theory. For one derivative we further construct an effective Hamiltonian including intermolecular vibrations and evaluate the mobility from the Kubo formula implemented with Monte Carlo sampling. These two methods, valid respectively in the sequential hopping and polaronic band limit, give us values for the room-temperature mobility in the range 0.1–12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Such estimate confirms the superior transport properties of triarylamine-based nanowires, and make them an attracting materials platform for organic electronics.

  3. OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E. Wes; Northen, Trent R.; Bowen, Benjamin P.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis.

  4. Development of an electron gun for an ERL based light source in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimori, N.; Nagai, R.; Iijima, H.; Hajima, R. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Honda, Y.; Muto, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kuriki, M. [Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Okumi, S.; Nakanishi, T. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a prototype DC photoemission electron gun for a future energy recovery linac (ERL) based light source in Japan. The prototype gun is operated at up to 250 kV and is designed to deliver up to 50 mA beam current. A diagnostic beam line for emittance and bunch length measurements has been constructed. We have also designed a new 500 kV DC gun which is capable of producing up to 10 mA electron current with emittance lower than 1 mm-mrad. The high voltage terminal will be isolated by ten ceramics stacked in series. The new gun will satisfy performance required as an injector for the compact ERL, which will be constructed at KEK site as a prototype of the future ERL light source.

  5. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of {sup 174}Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Saito, Makina [Beamline Spectroscopy/Scattering Group, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14 Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Iga, Fumitoshi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5?keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  6. High-brightness electron beam evolution following laser-based cleaning of a photocathode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, F.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F-J.; Emma, P.; Gilevich, S.; Iverson, R.; Stefan, P.; Turner, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-based techniques have been widely used for cleaning metal photocathodes to increase quantum efficiency (QE). However, the impact of laser cleaning on cathode uniformity and thereby on electron beam quality are less understood. We are evaluating whether this technique can be applied to revive photocathodes used for high-brightness electron sources in advanced x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The laser-based cleaning was applied to two separate areas of the current LCLS photocathode on July 4 and July 26, 2011, respectively. The QE was increased by 8–10 times upon the laser cleaning. Since the cleaning, routine operation has exhibited a slow evolution of the QE improvement and comparatively rapid improvement of transverse emittance, with a factor of 3 QE enhancement over five months, and a significant emittance improvement over the initial 2–3 weeks following the cleaning. Currently, the QE of the LCLS photocathode is holding constant at about 1.2×10?4 , with a normalized injector emittance of about 0.3???m for a 150-pC bunch charge. With the proper procedures, the laser-cleaning technique appears to be a viable tool to revive the LCLS photocathode. We present observations and analyses for the QE and emittance evolution in time following the laser-based cleaning of the LCLS photocathode, and comparison to the previous studies, the measured thermal emittance versus the QE and comparison to the theoretical model.

  7. A compact transport and charge model for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors for RF applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhakrishna, Ujwal

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are rapidly emerging as front-runners in high-power mm-wave circuit applications. For circuit design with current devices and to allow sensible future ...

  8. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB; Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Hutton, Andrew M. [JLAB; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [JLAB; Nissen, Edward W. [JLAB

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  9. Transport in hybrid electronic devices based on a modified DNA nucleoside (deoxyguanosine)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Rinaldi; E. Branca; R. Cingolani; R. Di Felice; E. Molinari; S. Masiero; G. P. Spada; G. Gottarelli; A. Garbesi

    2000-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a new class of hybrid electronic devices based on a DNA nucleoside (deoxyguanosine lipophilic derivative) whose assembled polymeric ribbons interconnect a submicron metallic gate. The device exhibits large conductivity at room temperature, rectifying behaviour and strong current-voltage hysteresis. The transport mechanism through the molecules is investigated by comparing films with different self-assembling morphology. We found that the main transport mechanism is connected to pi-pi interactions between guanosine molecules in adjacent ribbons, consistently with the results of our first-principles calculations.

  10. The equilibrium of the dense electron-nuclear plasma in the gravitational field. The magnetic fields and masses of stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Vasiliev

    2003-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium of a hot dense plasma in a gravitational field is considered. From the standard equilibrium equations, the energy minimum at density about $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$ and temperature about $10^7 K$ was found. This effect plays an important role for astrophysics. It enables to explain the mechanism of the star magnetic field generation and to make a prediction for the spectrum of a star mass with a wholly satisfactory agreement for the observation data.

  11. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, W.L.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion component of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the elecrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  12. Nonminimal Macroscopic Models of a Scalar Field Based on Microscopic Dynamics. I. Extension of the Theory for Negative Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat'ev, Yu G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article proposes generalizations of the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles to the cases of inter-particle interaction with multiple scalar fields and negative effective masses of these particles. The model is based on the microscopic dynamics of a particle at presence of scalar fields. The theory is managed to be generalized naturally having strictly reviewed a series of its key positions depending on the sign of particle masses. Thereby, it is possible to remove the artiicial restriction contradicting the more fundamental principle of action functional additivity.

  13. 19-electron intermediates in the Ligand Substitution of CpW(CO)3with a Lewis Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahoon, James F.; Kling, Matthias F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Frei,Heinz; Harris, Charles B.

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Odd electron species are important intermediates in organometallic chemistry, participating in a variety of catalytic and electron-transfer reactions which produce stable even-electron products. While electron deficient 17-electron (17e) radicals have been well characterized, the possible existence of short-lived 19-electron (19e) radicals has been a subject of continuing investigation. 19e radicals have been postulated as intermediates in the photochemical ligand substitution and disproportionation reactions of organometallic dimers containing a single metal-metal bond, yet the reactions of these intermediates on diffusion-limited time scales (ns-{micro}s) have never been directly observed. This study resolves the 19e dynamics in the ligand substitution of 17e radicals CpW(CO){sub 3}{sup {sm_bullet}} (Cp = C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) with the Lewis base P(OMe){sub 3}, providing the first complete description 19e reactivity.

  14. Development of and Application of Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Mass Spectrometry Based Biosensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamez, Roberto

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibited by gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials have made for versatile platforms in a wide range of applications including surface plasmon biosensing techniques and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). A primary driver for this work...

  15. Development of Advanced Optics and High Resolution Instrumentation for Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrod, Stacy D.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ) improving the analytical figures of merit (i.e., spatial resolution, analysis time) by implementing a spatially dynamic optical system, and (3) increasing both mass spectral resolution and ion detection sensitivity by modifying a commercial time...

  16. Development of and Application of Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Mass Spectrometry Based Biosensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamez, Roberto

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibited by gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials have made for versatile platforms in a wide range of applications including surface plasmon biosensing techniques and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). A primary driver for this work...

  17. Neutrinos in the Electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron is equal to the sum of the rest masses of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron is given by the energy in the sum of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass, the electric charge, the spin and the magnetic moment of the electron.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet ionization of pure He nanodroplets: Mass-correlated photoelectron imaging, Penning ionization, and electron energy-loss spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchta, D.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)] [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Krishnan, S. R.; Moshammer, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brauer, N. B.; Drabbels, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); O’Keeffe, P.; Coreno, M. [CNR Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CP10, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Italy)] [CNR Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CP10, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Italy); Devetta, M. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Di Fraia, M. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, 34128 Trieste (Italy)] [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, 34128 Trieste (Italy); Callegari, C.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)] [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany) [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization dynamics of pure He nanodroplets irradiated by Extreme ultraviolet radiation is studied using Velocity-Map Imaging PhotoElectron-PhotoIon COincidence spectroscopy. We present photoelectron energy spectra and angular distributions measured in coincidence with the most abundant ions He{sup +}, He{sub 2}{sup +}, and He{sub 3}{sup +}. Surprisingly, below the autoionization threshold of He droplets, we find indications for multiple excitation and subsequent ionization of the droplets by a Penning-like process. At high photon energies we observe inelastic collisions of photoelectrons with the surrounding He atoms in the droplets.

  19. IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS FOR USE IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: EFFECT OF ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING AND ELECTRON-DONATING SUBSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.; Fu, Y.; Kerr, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require humidifi cation for acceptable proton conductivity. Development of a novel polymer that is conductive without a water-based proton carrier is desirable for use in automobiles. Imidazole (Im) is a possible replacement for water as a proton solvent; Im can be tethered to the polymer structure by means of covalent bonds, thereby providing a solid state proton conducting membrane where the solvating groups do not leach out of the fuel cell. These covalent bonds can alter the electron availability of the Im molecule. This study investigates the effects of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the conductivity of Im complexed with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in the form of ionic liquids. Due to the changes in the electronegativity of nitrogen, it is expected that 2-phenylimidazole (2-PhIm, electron-withdrawing) will exhibit increased conductivity compared to Im, while 2-methylimidazole (2-MeIm, electron-donating) will exhibit decreased conductivity. Three sets of ionic liquids were prepared at defi ned molar ratios: Im-MSA, 2-PhIm-MSA, and 2-MeIm- MSA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and 1H-NMR were used to characterize each complex. Impedance analysis was used to determine the conductivity of each complex. Both the 2-PhIm-MSA and 2-MeIm-MSA ionic liquids were found to be less conductive than the Im-MSA complex at base-rich compositions, but more conductive at acid-rich compositions. 1H-NMR data shows a downfi eld shift of the proton on nitrogen in 2-PhIm compared to Im, suggesting that other factors may diminish the electronic effects of the electron withdrawing group at base-rich compositions. Further studies examining these effects may well result in increased conductivity for Im-based complexes. Understanding the conductive properties of Im-derivatives due to electronic effects will help facilitate the development of a new electrolyte appropriate for automotive fuel cell use.

  20. The components for a quantum computer based on surface state electrons on liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naberhuis, Brian Patrick

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrons on Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1calculating the stability of electrons on the helium poolNanoscale Posts . . 3.4.2 Helium Pool . . . . Wire Chapter 4

  1. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakeman, M.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ultra-short, high- peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact X U V free electron laser (

  2. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  3. Measurement of the high-mass Drell-Yan cross section and limits on quark-electron compositeness scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Drell-Yan Monte Carlo model and MRSsA 0 d [11] parton distribution func- tions, is ?53% and does not depend strongly on mass above m ee ? 250 GeVyc 2 . This makes the analysis rela- tively model independent. The systematic uncertainty on the acceptance... (negative sign for constructive interference) LR 1 RL LL 2 LR RL 2 RR VV AA 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.3 6.1 5.5 [16,17], LL 2 LR, RL 2 RR [18], vector-vector sVV ? LL 1 RR 1 LR 1 RLd [19], and axial vector-axial vector sAA ? LL 1 RR 2 LR 2 RLd [19...

  4. Neutrino mixing based on mass matrices with a 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, Yoshio; Takasugi, Eiichi [Institute for Higher Education Research and Practice, Osaka University, 1-16 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under an assumption that the 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry is broken only through phases, we give a systematic investigation of possible lepton mass matrix forms without referring to explicit parameter values. Two types of the 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry are investigated: one is that the left- and right-handed fields (f{sub L},f{sub R}) obey the symmetry, and another one is that only f{sub L} obeys the symmetry. In the latter case, in spite of no 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry in the Majorana mass matrix M{sub R} for {nu}{sub R}, the neutrino seesaw mass matrix still obeys the 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry. Possible phenomenology is discussed.

  5. Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xuan

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . This research is supported by the. This work was sponsored by a subcontract from PNNL and by the NIH R25-CA-90301 training grant at TAMU. Additional support was provided by KAUST-IAMCS Innovation grant, by NIH grant DK070146 and by the National Institute...-MS Liquid chromatographyCMass spectrometry M/Z Mass over charge ratio NET Normalized elution time NMC Number of missed cleavage sites NTE Number of tryptic ends PEP Posterior error probability PM Potential matches PMF Probability mass function PNNL...

  6. Electron irradiation of Co, Ni, and P-doped BaFe2As2type iron-based superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ± superconductivity in the multiband iron-based superconductors [1, 2], with a sign-changing order parameter betweenElectron irradiation of Co, Ni, and P-doped BaFe2As2­type iron-based superconductors Cornelis-scale point-like disorder on superconductivity in these materials [5, 6]. In particular, interband scattering

  7. Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators, which are capable of supporting fields in excess of 100 GV/m, are reviewed. This includes the laser wakefield accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self

  8. Neutrino Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Weinheimer; Kai Zuber

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The various experiments on neutrino oscillation evidenced that neutrinos have indeed non-zero masses but cannot tell us the absolute neutrino mass scale. This scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing constraints on the sum of all neutrino masses from cosmological observations two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and the direct neutrino mass search by investigating single $\\beta$-decays or electron captures. The former method is not only sensitive to neutrino masses but also probes the Majorana character of neutrinos and thus lepton number violation with high sensitivity. Currently quite a few experiments with different techniques are being constructed, commissioned or are even running, which aim for a sensitivity on the neutrino mass of {\\cal O}(100) meV. The principle methods and these experiments will be discussed in this short review.

  9. H Loop shaping control for PLL-based mechanical resonance tracking in NEMS resonant mass sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    problem that rejects the disturbance described by the resonance frequency shift, attenuates the phase the measurement scheme to a disturbance rejection control issue which considers the resonance frequency variation--A simple dynamic detection of the resonance frequency shift in NEMS resonant mass sensors is described

  10. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy based on conventional optics and fast dual chopper data acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heisler, Ismael A., E-mail: i.heisler@uea.ac.uk; Moca, Roberta; Meech, Stephen R., E-mail: s.meech@uea.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Camargo, Franco V. A. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília - DF 70040-020 (Brazil)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an improved experimental scheme for two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) based solely on conventional optical components and fast data acquisition. This is accomplished by working with two choppers synchronized to a 10 kHz repetition rate amplified laser system. We demonstrate how scattering and pump-probe contributions can be removed during 2D measurements and how the pump probe and local oscillator spectra can be generated and saved simultaneously with each population time measurement. As an example the 2D-ES spectra for cresyl violet were obtained. The resulting 2D spectra show a significant oscillating signal during population evolution time which can be assigned to an intramolecular vibrational mode.

  11. High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross-Section and Search for New Phenomena in Multi-Electron/Positron Final States with the ATLAS Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wollstadt, Simon

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a very successful theory which describes nearly all known processes of particle physics very precisely. Nevertheless, there are several observations which cannot be explained within the existing theory. In this thesis, two analyses with high energy electrons and positrons using data of the ATLAS detector are presented. One, probing the Standard Model of particle physics and another searching for phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The production of an electron-positron pair via the Drell-Yan process leads to a very clean signature in the detector with low background contributions. This allows for a very precise measurement of the cross-section and can be used as a precision test of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) where this process has been calculated at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). The invariant mass spectrum $m_{ee}$ is sensitive to parton distribution functions (PFDs), in particular to the poorly known distribution of antiquarks at large moment...

  12. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  13. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimm, Lars J., E-mail: Lars.grimm@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  14. Mass spectrometry-based methods for detection and differentiation of botulinum neurotoxins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyer, Anne E. (Atlanta, GA); Kalb, Suzanne R. (Atlanta, GA); Moura, Hercules (Tucker, GA); Barr, John R. (Suwannee, GA); Woolfitt, Adrian R. (Atlanta, GA)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for detecting the presence of clostridial neurotoxins in a sample by mixing a sample with a peptide that can serve as a substrate for proteolytic activity of a clostridial neurotoxin; and measuring for proteolytic activity of a clostridial neurotoxin by a mass spectroscopy technique. In one embodiment, the peptide can have an affinity tag attached at two or more sites.

  15. The fine art of electronics : paper-based circuits for creative expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Jie, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the creative possibilities enabled by combining circuit building with paper craft to create paper electronics-a medium that adds the magical interactivity of electronics to the physical intuitiveness ...

  16. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China) [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 ?m and 80 ?m, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  17. Neutrino mass matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed.

  18. Ab initio correlation effects on the electronic and transport properties of metal(II)-phthalocyanine based devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrigo Calzolari; Andrea Ferretti; Marco Buongiorno Nardelli

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first principles calculations in the framework of Density Functional Theory, we investigated the electronic and transport properties of metal(II)-phthalocyanine (M(II)Pc) systems, both in a single molecule configuration and in a model-device geometry. In particular, using the Copper(II)- and Manganese(II)-Pc as prototypical examples, we studied how electronic correlations on the central metal-ion influence the analysis of the electronic structure of the system and we demonstrated that the choice of the exchange-correlation functional, also beyond the standard local or gradient corrected level, is of crucial importance for a correct interpretation of the data. Finally, our electronic transport simulations have shown that M(II)Pc-based devices can act selectively as molecular conductors, as in the case of Copper, or as spin valves, as in the case of Manganese, demonstrating once more the great potential of these systems for molecular nanoelectronics applications.

  19. Viscosity of hadron matter within relativistic mean-field based model with scaled hadron masses and couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Khvorostukhin; V. D. Toneev; D. N. Voskresensky

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The shear ($\\eta$) and bulk ($\\zeta$) viscosities are calculated in a quasiparticle relaxation time approximation for a hadron matter described within the relativistic mean-field based model with scaled hadron masses and couplings. Comparison with results of other models is presented. We demonstrate that a small value of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio required for explaining a large elliptic flow observed at RHIC may be reached in the hadron phase. Large values of the bulk viscosity are noted in case of the baryon enriched matter.

  20. 668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 Chemical Sensors and Electronic Noses Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    and Electronic Noses Based on 1-D Metal Oxide Nanostructures Po-Chiang Chen, Guozhen Shen, and Chongwu Zhou warfare agents is important to human health and safety. Thus, the development of chemical sensors- trial gases, chemical warfare agents, and human breath. In this review, we provide an overview

  1. GaAs-based self-aligned laser incorporating InGaP opto-electronic confinement layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GaAs-based self-aligned laser incorporating InGaP opto-electronic confinement layer K.M. Groom, B fabrication, is demonstrated. An n-doped InGaP layer is utilised for both electrical and optical confinement-doped InGaP current blocking layer that also provides optical confinement. This tech- nology relies

  2. In this paper, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device based on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Kyounghoon

    205 Abstract In this paper, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device basedBm at 2 GHz have been demonstrated from the fabricated device. 1. Introduction In recent years, AlGaN/GaN noise amplifier and switch. Superior results have been reported in microwave power performance of AlGaN/GaN

  3. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundr...

  4. PCB Origami: A Material-Based Design Approach to Computer-Aided Foldable Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik

    that contain electronic functions. Conductivity, output devices (such as Light Emitting Diodes functions such as light and sound performance. In addition, conductivity, LED (Light Emitting Diodes) output

  5. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  6. New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Matthew Todd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1-2% of the oil mass, however the calcium ion peak at m/z 40and elemental carbon (EC) peaks. The HDDV oil mass spectraoil mass spectra were characterized by an intense Ca + ion peak and

  7. Facilities: NHMFL 14.5 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: A Pseudoatomic Model of the COPII Cage Obtained from Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Facilities: NHMFL 14.5 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation ultrahigh-resolution 14.5 tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The Mag

  8. Progress on Internet-Based Educational Material Development for Electronic Products and Systems Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandborn, Peter

    on this project are the Computer Aided Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) Electronic Products and Systems Center Laboratory (ESCML) develops modeling methodologies and tools that address all aspects of the life cycle cost of electronic system from hardware fabrication and software development through sustainment and end of life

  9. The powerful high-voltage glow discharge electron gun and power unit on its base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernov, V.A. [All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and operational characteristics and features of powerful electron gun with cold cathodes on the basis of high-voltage glow discharge (HGD) are submitted. The systems, ensuring their work are described. Some results of operation and applications of these non-traditional electron guns are presented.

  10. Accelerator-based neutron source using a cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron generator is considered in which a beam of tritons is incident on a hypothetical cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons. The energy efficiency of neutron generation is found to increase substantially with electron density. Recent reports of potential targets are discussed.

  11. Metamaterial Perfect Absorber Based Hot Electron Photodetection Wei Li and Jason Valentine*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors, and photocatalysis systems. KEYWORDS: Plasmonics, metamaterial perfect absorber, hot electrons, infrared including photo- detection,11-20 photovoltaic devices,21,22 photocatalysis,23-26 and surface imaging.27

  12. Modeling of free electronic state density in hydrogenic plasmas based on nearest neighbor approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishikawa, Takeshi, E-mail: nishikawa.takeshi@okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most conventional atomic models in a plasma do not treat the effect of the plasma on the free-electron state density. Using a nearest neighbor approximation, the state densities in hydrogenic plasmas for both bound and free electrons were evaluated and the effect of the plasma on the atomic model (especially for the state density of the free electron) was studied. The model evaluates the electron-state densities using the potential distribution formed by the superposition of the Coulomb potentials of two ions. The potential from one ion perturbs the electronic state density on the other. Using this new model, one can evaluate the free-state density without making any ad-hoc assumptions. The resulting contours of the average ionization degree, given as a function of the plasma temperature and density, are shifted slightly to lower temperatures because of the effect of the increasing free-state density.

  13. An OpenCL-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engine (oclMC) for coupled photon-electron transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zhen; Folkerts, Michael; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo (MC) method has been recognized the most accurate dose calculation method for radiotherapy. However, its extremely long computation time impedes clinical applications. Recently, a lot of efforts have been made to realize fast MC dose calculation on GPUs. Nonetheless, most of the GPU-based MC dose engines were developed in NVidia CUDA environment. This limits the code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC simulations to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast cross-platform MC dose engine oclMC using OpenCL environment for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy in MeV energy range. Coupled photon-electron MC simulation was implemented with analogue simulations for photon transports and a Class II condensed history scheme for electron transports. To test the accuracy and efficiency of our dose engine oclMC, we compared dose calculation results of oclMC and gDPM, our previously developed GPU-based MC code, for a 15 MeV electron ...

  14. Oxide-based method of making compound semiconductor films and making related electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kapur, Vijay K. (Tarzana, CA); Basol, Bulent M. (Manhattan Beach, CA); Leidholm, Craig R. (Woodland Hills, CA); Roe, Robert A. (Glendale, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a compound film includes the steps of preparing a source material, depositing the source material on a base and forming a preparatory film from the source material, heating the preparatory film in a suitable atmosphere to form a precursor film, and providing suitable material to said precursor film to form the compound film. The source material includes oxide-containing particles including Group IB and IIIA elements. The precursor film includes non-oxide Group IB and IIIA elements. The compound film includes a Group IB-IIIA-VIA compound. The oxides may constitute greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IB elements and greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IIIA elements in the source material. Similarly, non-oxides may constitute greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IB elements and greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IIIA elements in the precursor film. The molar ratio of Group IB to Group IIIA elements in the source material may be greater than about 0.6 and less than about 1.0, or substantially greater that 1.0, in which case this ratio in the compound film may be reduced to greater than about 0.6 and less than about 1.0. The source material may be prepared as an ink from particles in powder form. The oxide-containing particles may include a dopant, as may the compound film. Compound films including a Group IIB-IVA-VA compound may be substituted using appropriate substitutions in the method. The method, also, is applicable to fabrication of solar cells and other electronic devices.

  15. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  16. Development of a Mass Flowmeter based on the Coriolis Acceleration for Liquid, Supercritical and Superfluid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonge, T; Rivetti, A; Serio, L

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in the 1980's, Coriolis meters have gained generalised acceptance in liquid applications with a worldwide installed base of over 300,000 units. To meet the demands of cryogenic applications below 20 K, off-the-shelf Coriolis meters have been used, with minor design modifications and operational changes. The meters were originally calibrated on water and tested on liquid helium at 4.5 K, supercritical helium around 5 K and superfluid helium below 2 K. The meters maintain their intrinsic robustness and accuracy of better than 1% of measured value; accuracy is independent of density and temperature.

  17. Effects of Base -Stacking on Damage to DNA by Low-Energy Electrons Iwona Anusiewicz,,, Joanna Berdys,, Monika Sobczyk,, Piotr Skurski,, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Effects of Base -Stacking on Damage to DNA by Low-Energy Electrons Iwona Anusiewicz,,,§ JoannaVersity of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland ReceiVed: June 16, 2004; In Final Form: July 28, 2004 In this work, we -stacking. In thsese studies, we consider SSBs induced by low-energy electrons that attach to DNA bases

  18. Electronic structure of Fe-vs. Ru-based dye molecules Phillip S. Johnson, Peter L. Cook, Ioannis Zegkinoglou, J. M. Garca-Lastra, Angel Rubio et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    Electronic structure of Fe- vs. Ru-based dye molecules Phillip S. Johnson, Peter L. Cook, Ioannis molecules Phillip S. Johnson,1 Peter L. Cook,2 Ioannis Zegkinoglou,1,3 J. M. García-Lastra,4,5 Angel Rubio,4 molecules for solar cells, the differences in the electronic structure of Fe- and Ru-based dyes

  19. Surface mapping based on the correlated emission of ions and electrons from hypervelocity C60 impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eller, Michael

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution mapping of molecular species, specifically sub-micrometer spatial resolution mapping, is at the forefront of recent interest in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Large projectiles, e.g. C60, Au400, display high quasi...

  20. PCB Origami: A Material-Based Design Approach to Computer-Aided Foldable Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, Yoav

    Origami is traditionally implemented in paper, which is a passive material. This research explores the use of material with embedded electronics such as printed circuit boards (PCB) as the medium for origami folding to ...

  1. A study of power electronic building block (PEBB)-based integrated shipboard power systems during reconfiguration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adediran, Adeoti Taiwo

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    concept with electric propulsion, direct current (DC) distribution, and modular technology. In the all electric ship concept, ship propulsion and ship service loads are powered by alternating current (AC) generation. For the IPS, power electronics...

  2. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakeman, M.S.; Van Tilborg, J.; Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; Lin, C.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Weingartner, R.; Gruner, F.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

  3. Extremely Electron-Rich, Boron-Functionalized, Icosahedral Carborane-Based Phosphinoboranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spokoyny, Alexander M.

    We have prepared the first examples of B9-connected trivalent aryl and alkyl phosphinoborane species via Pd-catalyzed phosphination of 9-iodo-meta-carborane. Our studies highlight the unique electronic features of the ...

  4. Casimir vacuum energy and the semiclassical electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. E. Puthoff

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1953 Casimir proposed a semiclassical model for the electron based on the concept that net inward radiation pressure from the electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations fields (as in the Casimir effect, generally) might play the role of Poincare stresses, compensating outward coulomb pressure to yield a stable configuration at small dimensions. Given that in scattering experiments the electron appears point-like, critical to the success of the proposed model is demonstration that the self-energy corresponding to the divergent coulomb field does not contribute to the electron mass. Here we develop a self-consistent, vacuum-fluctuation-based model that satisfies this requirement and thereby resolves the issue of what would otherwise appear to be an incompatibility between a point-like electron and finite mass.

  5. Likelihood-based modification of experimental crystal structure electron density maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. (Sante Fe, NM)

    2005-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum-likelihood method for improves an electron density map of an experimental crystal structure. A likelihood of a set of structure factors {F.sub.h } is formed for the experimental crystal structure as (1) the likelihood of having obtained an observed set of structure factors {F.sub.h.sup.OBS } if structure factor set {F.sub.h } was correct, and (2) the likelihood that an electron density map resulting from {F.sub.h } is consistent with selected prior knowledge about the experimental crystal structure. The set of structure factors {F.sub.h } is then adjusted to maximize the likelihood of {F.sub.h } for the experimental crystal structure. An improved electron density map is constructed with the maximized structure factors.

  6. A Discrimination Procedure between Muon and Electron in Superkamiokande Experiment Based on the Angular Distribution Function Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Galkin[1; A. M. Anokhina[1; E. Konishi[2; A. Misaki{3

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In the previous paper, we construct the angular distribution functions for muon and electron as well as their relative fluctuation functions to find suitable discrimination procedure between muon and electron in Superkamiokande experiment. In the present paper, we are able to discriminate muons from electrons in Fully Contained Events with a probability of error of less than several %. At the same time, our geometrical reconstruction procedure, considering only the ring-like structure of the Cherenkov image, gives an unsatisfactory resolution for 1GeV electron and muon, with a mean vertex position error, delta r, of 5-10 m and a mean directional error, delta theta, of about 6-20 degrees. In contrast, a geometrical reconstruction procedure utilizing the full image and using a detailed approximation of the event angular distribution works much better: for a 1 GeV electron, delta r is about 2 m and delta theta is about 3 degrees; for a 1GeV muon, delta r is about 3 m and delta theta is about 5 degrees. At 5 GeV, the corresponding values are about 1.4 m and about 2 degree for electron and are about 2.9m and about 4.3 degrees for muon. The numerical values depend on a single PMT contribution threshold. The values quoted above are the minima with respect to this threshold. Even the methodologically correct approach we have adopted, based on detailed simulations using closer approximations than those adopted in the SK analysis, cannot reproduce the accuracies for particle discrimination, momentum resolution, interaction vertex location, and angular resolution obtained by the SK simulations, suggesting the assumptions in these may be inadequate.

  7. Performance of the Fully Digital FPGA-based Front-End Electronics for the GALILEO Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Barrientos; M. Bellato; D. Bazzacco; D. Bortolato; P. Cocconi; A. Gadea; V. González; M. Gulmini; R. Isocrate; D. Mengoni; A. Pullia; F. Recchia; D. Rosso; E. Sanchis; N. Toniolo; C. A. Ur; J. J. Valiente-Dobón

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present the architecture and results of a fully digital Front End Electronics (FEE) read out system developed for the GALILEO array. The FEE system, developed in collaboration with the Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA) collaboration, is composed of three main blocks: preamplifiers, digitizers and preprocessing electronics. The slow control system contains a custom Linux driver, a dynamic library and a server implementing network services. The digital processing of the data from the GALILEO germanium detectors has demonstrated the capability to achieve an energy resolution of 1.53 per mil at an energy of 1.33 MeV.

  8. Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzen, D., E-mail: henzen@ams.unibe.ch; Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K. [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Neuenschwander, H. [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)] [Clinic for Radiation-Oncology, Lindenhofspital Bern, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Stampanoni, M. F. M. [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 × 34, 5 × 5, and 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

  9. Neutrino mass limit from tritium beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. W. Otten; C. Weinheimer

    2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews recent experiments on tritium beta spectroscopy searching for the absolute value of the electron neutrino mass $m(\

  10. A study of planar anchor groups for graphene-based single-molecule electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Steven; Visontai, David; Lambert, Colin J., E-mail: c.lambert@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Bryce, Martin R. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Frampton, Harry; Chappell, David [BP Exploration Operating Company Limited, Chertsey Road, Sunbury on Thames, Middlesex TW16 7BP (United Kingdom)] [BP Exploration Operating Company Limited, Chertsey Road, Sunbury on Thames, Middlesex TW16 7BP (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify families of stable planar anchor groups for use in single molecule electronics, we report detailed results for the binding energies of two families of anthracene and pyrene derivatives adsorbed onto graphene. We find that all the selected derivatives functionalized with either electron donating or electron accepting substituents bind more strongly to graphene than the parent non-functionalized anthracene or pyrene. The binding energy is sensitive to the detailed atomic alignment of substituent groups over the graphene substrate leading to larger than expected binding energies for –OH and –CN derivatives. Furthermore, the ordering of the binding energies within the anthracene and pyrene series does not simply follow the electron affinities of the substituents. Energy barriers to rotation or displacement on the graphene surface are much lower than binding energies for adsorption and therefore at room temperature, although the molecules are bound to the graphene, they are almost free to move along the graphene surface. Binding energies can be increased by incorporating electrically inert side chains and are sensitive to the conformation of such chains.

  11. Specification of >2 MeV geosynchronous electrons based on solar wind measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    affected by the solar wind. Statistical asynchronous regression (SAR), a statistical method recently use measurements directly from the solar wind, instead of the Kp index, and the SAR method when they pass through these local times. We cross calibrate the electron measurements from the five

  12. Model-Based Automated Extraction of Microtubules from Electron Tomography Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the microtubules attach to chromosomes via kinetochore to drive the movement of chromosomes during mitosis. Re by NIH grants GM066270 and RR01219 and the Wadsworth Core Facility for Electron Microscopy M. Jiang segmentation. In the first phase, the volume is first processed with an anisotropic invariant wavelet transform

  13. Flexible nuclear screening approximation to the two-electron spin–orbit coupling based on ab initio parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalupský, Jakub, E-mail: jakub@ims.ac.jp; Yanai, Takeshi [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The derivation, implementation, and validation of a new approximation to the two-electron spin–orbit coupling (SOC) terms is reported. The approximation, referred to as flexible nuclear screening spin–orbit, is based on the effective one-electron spin–orbit operator and accounts for two-electron SOC effects by screening nuclear charges. A highly flexible scheme for the nuclear screening is developed, mainly using parameterization based on ab initio atomic SOC calculations. Tabulated screening parameters are provided for contracted and primitive Gaussian-type basis functions of the ANO-RCC basis set for elements from H to Cm. The strategy for their adaptation to any other Gaussian basis set is presented and validated. A model to correct for the effect of splitting of transition metal d orbitals on their SOC matrix elements is introduced. The method is applied to a representative set of molecules, and compared to exact treatment and other approximative approaches at the same level of relativistic theory. The calculated SOC matrix elements are in very good agreement with their “exact” values; deviation below 1% is observed on average. The presented approximation is considered to be generally applicable, simple to implement, highly efficient, and accurate.

  14. An Atlas-Based Electron Density Mapping Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone Treatment Planning and Adaptive MRI-Based Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowling, Jason A., E-mail: jason.dowling@csiro.au [Australian e-Health Research Center, CSIRO ICT Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Queensland (Australia); Lambert, Jonathan [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Parker, Joel [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Salvado, Olivier; Fripp, Jurgen [Australian e-Health Research Center, CSIRO ICT Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Queensland (Australia); Capp, Anne; Wratten, Chris; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Prostate radiation therapy dose planning directly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans would reduce costs and uncertainties due to multimodality image registration. Adaptive planning using a combined MRI-linear accelerator approach will also require dose calculations to be performed using MRI data. The aim of this work was to develop an atlas-based method to map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for dose calculations and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Methods and Materials: Whole-pelvis MRI and CT scan data were collected from 39 prostate patients. Scans from 2 patients showed significantly different anatomy from that of the remaining patient population, and these patients were excluded. A whole-pelvis MRI atlas was generated based on the manually delineated MRI scans. In addition, a conjugate electron-density atlas was generated from the coregistered computed tomography (CT)-MRI scans. Pseudo-CT scans for each patient were automatically generated by global and nonrigid registration of the MRI atlas to the patient MRI scan, followed by application of the same transformations to the electron-density atlas. Comparisons were made between organ segmentations by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and point dose calculations for 26 patients on planning CT and pseudo-CT scans. Results: The agreement between pseudo-CT and planning CT was quantified by differences in the point dose at isocenter and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi-squared values indicated that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions were equivalent. No significant differences (p > 0.9) were found between CT and pseudo-CT Hounsfield units for organs of interest. Mean {+-} standard deviation DSC scores for the atlas-based segmentation of the pelvic bones were 0.79 {+-} 0.12, 0.70 {+-} 0.14 for the prostate, 0.64 {+-} 0.16 for the bladder, and 0.63 {+-} 0.16 for the rectum. Conclusions: The electron-density atlas method provides the ability to automatically define organs and map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for radiotherapy dose planning and DRR generation. This method provides the necessary tools for MRI-alone treatment planning and adaptive MRI-based prostate radiation therapy.

  15. Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, W. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China) [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ma, Y. Y. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ?200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ?160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ?5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

  16. Development of a Window Based Security System for Electronic Data Interchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip, Achimugu; Joshua, Abah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the exchange of standardized documents between computer systems for business use. The objective of this study is to make Electronic Data Interchange secure to use and to eliminate human intervention in the transfer of data between business partners so that productivity and efficiency can be improved and also promote its usage between two or more trading organizations. This paper provides an overview of EDI by describing the traditional problems of exchanging information in business environments and how the EDI solves those problems and gives benefits to the company that makes use of EDI. This paper also introduces the common EDI Standards and explains how it works, how it is used over the internet and the security measures implemented. The system was executed on both local area network and wide area network after a critical study of the existing EDI methods and also implemented using VB.Net programming language. Finally, an interactive program was developed that handle...

  17. Quantum Electronic Devices Based on Metal-Dielectric Transition in Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Antoniou; B. Pavlov; A. Yafyasov

    1996-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Two types of optically manipulated quantum electronic devices are considered: a quantum dot and a finite periodic molecular chain, with the period doubled under resonance optical excitation. The stability of the working regimes of the devices in large scale of temperatures is discussed. Some motivation in favor of the molecular chain is suggested. A class of materials, which can be used for producing this device is discussed.

  18. Metal complex-based electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, C. Michael (Fort Collins, CO); Sapp, Shawn A. (Broomfield, CO); Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto (Ferrara, IT); Contado, Cristiano (Legnago, IT); Caramori, Stefano (Viconovo, IT)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This present invention provides a metal-ligand complex and methods for using and preparing the same. In particular, the metal-ligand complex of the present invention is of the formula: L.sub.a-M-X.sub.b where L, M, X, a, and b are those define herein. The metal-ligand complexes of the present invention are useful in a variety of applications including as electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells and related photoelectrochromic devices.

  19. A Space Weather Information Service Based Upon Remote and In-Situ Measurements of Coronal Mass Ejections Heading for Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Birgit; Miles, Oscar; Rußwurm, Michael; Scully, Stephen; Roldán, Andrés; Hartkorn, Oliver; Jüstel, Peter; Réville, Victor; Lupu, Sorina; Ruffenach, Alexis

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather (SW) forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CM...

  20. agent-based electronic commerce: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    KEYWORDS: Agent-based Computing, Software Engineering, Methodologies, Process Models. 1. Luca Cernuzzi; Massimo Cossentino; Franco Zambonelli 2005-01-01 133 Intelligent...

  1. MRS BULLETIN VOLUME 33 NOVEMBER 2008 www.mrs.org/bulletin 1027 Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) based on conventional semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    transitions, novel types of quantum Hall systems, and unique super- conductors can be obtained. Well generation of oxide electronic devices. They comple- ment the interface-based bulk oxide capacitors

  2. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  3. High-Sensitivity Two-Photon Spectroscopy in a Dark Optical Trap, based on Electron Shelving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khaykovich, B; Baluschev, S; Fathi, D; Davidson, N E

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new spectroscopic method for measuring weak transitions in cold and trapped atoms, which exploits the long interaction times and tight confinement offered by dark optical traps together with an electron shelving technique to achieve extremely high sensitivity. We demonstrate our scheme by measuring a 5S_{1/2}-> 5D_{5/2} two-photon transition in cold Rb atoms trapped in a new single-beam dark optical trap, using an extremely weak probe laser power of 25 micro-Watt. We were able to measure transitions with as small excitation rate as 0.09 sec^(-1).

  4. A Scenario for the Fine Structures of Solar Type IIIb Radio Bursts Based on the Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A scenario based on the electron cyclotron maser emission is proposed for the fine structures of solar radio emission in the present discussion. It is suggested that under certain conditions modulation of the ratio between the plasma frequency and electron gyro-frequency by ultra low frequency waves, which is a key parameter for excitation of the electron cyclotron maser instability, may lead to the intermittent emission of radio waves. As an example, the explanation of the observed fine-structure components in the solar type IIIb burst is discussed in detail. Three primary issues of the type IIIb bursts are addressed: 1) what is the physical mechanism that results in the intermittent emission elements that form a chain in the dynamic spectrum of type IIIb bursts, 2) what causes the split pair (or double stria) and the triple stria, 3) why in the events of fundamental-harmonic pair emission there is only IIIb-III, but IIIb-IIIb or III-IIIb cases are very rarely observed.

  5. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  6. Plasmonic terahertz detectors based on a high-electron mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bia?ek, M., E-mail: marcin.bialek@fuw.edu.pl; Witowski, A. M.; Grynberg, M.; ?usakowski, J. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Orlita, M.; Potemski, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA, 25, avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Czapkiewicz, M. [Institute of Physics, PAS, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wróbel, J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Rzeszów University, al. Rejtana 16A, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Umansky, V. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehevot 76100 (Israel)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to characterize magnetic field (B) tunable THz plasmonic detectors, spectroscopy experiments were carried out at liquid helium temperatures and high magnetic fields on devices fabricated on a high electron mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The samples were either gated (the gate of a meander shape) or ungated. Spectra of a photovoltage generated by THz radiation were obtained as a function of B at a fixed THz excitation from a THz laser or as a function of THz photon frequency at a fixed B with a Fourier spectrometer. In the first type of measurements, the wave vector of magnetoplasmons excited was defined by geometrical features of samples. It was also found that the magnetoplasmon spectrum depended on the gate geometry which gives an additional parameter to control plasma excitations in THz detectors. Fourier spectra showed a strong dependence of the magnetoplasmon resonance amplitude on the conduction-band electron filling factor which was explained within a model of the electron gas heating with THz radiation. The study allows to define both the advantages and limitations of plasmonic devices based on high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures for THz detection at low temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  7. Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Xing, H.; Fay, P., E-mail: pfay@nd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Sensale-Rodriguez, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140–220?GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

  8. Gallium Arsenide-Based Readout Electronics Thomas J. Cunningham and Eric R. Fossum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    susceptible to radiation and hot carrier damage than are MaS-based structures. This should result in increased;among these has been the construction of optical emitters such as LEDs and lasers, since efficient

  9. New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Matthew Todd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mass fractions in particles. Aerosol Science and Technology,mediated lung injury, J. Aerosol Sci. , 29 (5-6), 553-560,from natural to anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing:

  10. Enzymatic Digestion in Aqueous-Organic Solvents: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach in Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuvilla, Mavreen Rose

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    but reports only an average of conformation and the technique severely suffers from spectral overlapping due to the thousands of resonances of the protein. More recently, mass spectrometry has been employed not only to elucidate primary structures but also...

  11. 237. S.A. Eliseev, .. Yu.N. Novikov et Resonant Enhancement of Neutrinoless Double-Electron Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    . Octupolar ­Excitation Penning-Trap Mass Spectrometry for Q- value Measurement of Double-Electron Capture 18 O . 75 (2011) 4, 1-5. 246. E.A. Garibin,... D.M. Seliverstov et al. New Scintillators Based

  12. High voltage power supply systems for electron beam and plasma technologies. Its new element base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermengi, P.G.; Kureghan, A.S.; Pokrovsky, S.V.; Tchvanov, V.A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Transforming technique and high voltage technique supplementing each other more and more unite in indivisible constructions of modern apparatuses and systems and applicated in modern technologies providing its high efficiency. Specially worked out, ecologically clean, inertial, inflammable perfluororganic liquid is used in elements and electronic apparatuses simultaneously as insulating and cooling media. This liquid is highly fluid, fills tiny cavities in construction elements and in the places of high concentration of losses, where maximum local overheating of active parts or apparatus constructions takes place, it transforms to boiling state with highly intensive taking off of heat energy from cooled surface point. For instance, being cooled by mentioned perfluororganic liquid, copper wire can conduct current to 50 A/mm{sup 2} density, but in ordinary conditions of transformers, reactors and busses, current density can reach only few Amperes. Possibility of considerable increasing of current density, that is reached by means of intensive cooling, provided by worked out liquid, and taking into account its incredibly high insulating features (liquid has electric strength to 50 KV/mm) allows to provide optimum heat regime of active parts of transformers. reactors, condenser, semiconductor devices, resistors, construction elements and electrotechnical apparatus in general. Particularly high effect of decreasing of weight and dimensions characteristics of elements and electrotechnical apparatus in general can be reached under working out of special constructions of each element and apparatus details, adapted to use of mentioned liquid as insulating and cooling media.

  13. Study of Electron Transport in Organic and Inorganic Atomic Monolayer Based MOS/MOSFET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azariah, J Cyril Robinson; Devaprakasam, D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wide research interest for the potential nanoelectronics applications are attracted by the organic and inorganic monolayer materials. In this work, we have studied the organic monolayer such as trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)-silane (FOTS), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and inorganic monolayers such as hexagonal - boron nitride (h-BN) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based MOS devices. The organic monolayer based configurations are Au/FOTS/p-Si and Au/HMDS/p-Si. The inorganic monolayer based configurations are Au/MoS2/SiO2/p-Si and Au/h-BN/SiO2/p-Si. These configurations were examined and compared with Au/SiO2/p-Si MOS configuration using the Multi-dielectric Energy Band Diagram Program (MEBDP) and MOSFeT simulation software. The C-V and I-V characteristics of MOS and MOSFET of FOTS, HMDS, h-BN, MoS2 and SiO2 were reported. The results show that the above configurations are suitable for designing MOSFETs with smaller drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and reduced threshold voltage. We noted that th...

  14. Effect of the Presence of Iodide on the Electron Injection Dynamics of Dye-Sensitized TiO2-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, James K.

    dynamics of dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cells have been investigated to determine the effectsEffect of the Presence of Iodide on the Electron Injection Dynamics of Dye-Sensitized TiO2-Based Solar Cells Amanda L. Smeigh, Jordan E. Katz, Bruce S. Brunschwig,*,,§ Nathan S. Lewis,*, and James K

  15. Attempt at a gauge-theory-based explanation of the mass spectrum and number of light neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyatlov, I. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The symplectic group Sp(n/2) of invariance of flavors of n Majorana states (n is even) does not admit the existence of invariant Majorana masses. Only a specific mass matrix involving diagonal and off-diagonal elements is possible. A mass matrix as a result of spontaneous flavor- and chiral-symmetry breaking may appear here only in the case where the number of flavors is n = 6 and only together with spontaneous R- and L-symmetry violation-that is, parity violation. As a result, three light and three heavy Dirac particles (neutrinos) are present if the seesaw mechanism is operative. Special features of the observed spectrum of light neutrinos-in particular, the fact that two states are far off the third one-can be explained by simple properties of the mass matrices arising in Sp(3). The arrangement of states corresponds to an ordinary mass hierarchy. The mixing angles for physical neutrinos cannot be determined without understanding the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the charged-lepton spectrum and the weak current of Majorana states.

  16. Spatial modeling of the 3D morphology of hybrid polymer-ZnO solar cells, based on electron tomography data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Stenzel; V. Schmidt; H. Hassfeld; R. Thiedmann; L. J. A. Koster; S. D. Oosterhout; S. S. van Bavel; M. M. Wienk; J. Loos; R. A. J. Janssen

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A spatial stochastic model is developed which describes the 3D nanomorphology of composite materials, being blends of two different (organic and inorganic) solid phases. Such materials are used, for example, in photoactive layers of hybrid polymer zinc oxide solar cells. The model is based on ideas from stochastic geometry and spatial statistics. Its parameters are fitted to image data gained by electron tomography (ET), where adaptive thresholding and stochastic segmentation have been used to represent morphological features of the considered ET data by unions of overlapping spheres. Their midpoints are modeled by a stack of 2D point processes with a suitably chosen correlation structure, whereas a moving-average procedure is used to add the radii of spheres. The model is validated by comparing physically relevant characteristics of real and simulated data, like the efficiency of exciton quenching, which is important for the generation of charges and their transport toward the electrodes.

  17. Engineering of optical polarization based on electronic band structures of A-plane ZnO layers under biaxial strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, Hiroaki, E-mail: hiroaki@ee.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tabata, Hitoshi [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, 1-3-7 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 1-3-7 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hasuike, Noriyuki; Harima, Hiroshi [Department of Electronics and Information Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In-plane anisotropic strains in A-plane layers on the electronic band structure of ZnO were investigated from the viewpoint of optical polarization anisotropy. Investigations utilizing k·p perturbation theory revealed that energy transitions and associated oscillation strengths were dependent on in-plane strains. The theoretical correlation between optical polarizations and in-plane strains was experimentally demonstrated using A-plane ZnO layers with different in-plane strains. Finally, optical polarization anisotropy and its implications for in-plane optical properties are discussed in relation to the energy shift between two orthogonal directions. Higher polarization rotations were obtained in an A-plane ZnO layer with in-plane biaxially compressive strains as compared to strain-free ZnO. This study provides detailed information concerning the role played by in-plane strains in optically polarized applications based on nonpolar ZnO in the ultra-violet region.

  18. Automated Design of Microfluidics-Based Biochips: Connecting Biochemistry to Electronics CAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Microfluidics-based biochips offer exciting possibilities for highthroughput sequencing, parallel immunoassays, blood chemistry for clinical diagnostics, DNA sequencing, and environmental toxicity monitoring. The complexity of microfluidic devices is expected to become significant in the near future due to the need for multiple and concurrent biochemical assays on multifunctional and reconfigurable platforms. This paper presents early work on topdown system-level computer-aided design (CAD) tools for the synthesis, testing and reconfiguration of microfluidic biochips. Synthesis tools map behavioral descriptions to a droplet-based microfluidic biochip and generate an optimized schedule of assay operations, the binding of assay operations to functional units, and the layout and droplet flow-paths. Cost-effective testing techniques lead to the detection of manufacturing defects and operational faults. Reconfiguration techniques, incorporated in these CAD tools, can easily bypass faults once they are detected. Thus the biochip user can concentrate on the development of the nano- and micro-scale bioassays, leaving assay optimization and implementation details to design automation tools. 1.

  19. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  20. Si and SiGe based double top gated accumulation mode single electron transistors for quantum bits.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Childs, Kenton David; Celler, G. (SOITEC); Eng, Kevin; Eriksson, Mark A. (University of Wisconsin); Kluskiewicz, Dan (University of New Mexico); Stevens, Jeffrey; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Nordberg, Eric; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Lemp, Thomas; Sheng, Josephine Juin-Jye

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is significant interest in forming quantum bits (qubits) out of single electron devices for quantum information processing (QIP). Information can be encoded using properties like charge or spin. Spin is appealing because it is less strongly coupled to the solid-state environment so it is believed that the quantum state can better be preserved over longer times (i.e., that is longer decoherence times may be achieved). Long spin decoherence times would allow more complex qubit operations to be completed with higher accuracy. Recently spin qubits were demonstrated by several groups using electrostatically gated modulation doped GaAs double quantum dots (DQD) [1], which represented a significant breakthrough in the solid-state field. Although no Si spin qubit has been demonstrated to date, work on Si and SiGe based spin qubits is motivated by the observation that spin decoherence times can be significantly longer than in GaAs. Spin decoherence times in GaAs are in part limited by the random spectral diffusion of the non-zero nuclear spins of the Ga and As that couple to the electron spin through the hyperfine interaction. This effect can be greatly suppressed by using a semiconductor matrix with a near zero nuclear spin background. Near zero nuclear spin backgrounds can be engineered using Si by growing {sup 28}Si enriched epitaxy. In this talk, we will present fabrication details and electrical transport results of an accumulation mode double top gated Si metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) nanostructure, Fig 1 (a) & (b). We will describe how this single electron device structure represent a path towards forming a Si based spin qubit similar in design as that demonstrated in GaAs. Potential advantages of this novel qubit structure relative to previous approaches include the combination of: no doping (i.e., not modulation doped); variable two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density; CMOS compatible processes; and relatively small vertical length scales to achieve smaller dots. A primary concern in this structure is defects at the insulator-silicon interface. The Sandia National Laboratories 0.35 {micro}m fab line was used for critical processing steps including formation of the gate oxide to examine the utility of a standard CMOS quality oxide silicon interface for the purpose of fabricating Si qubits. Large area metal oxide silicon (MOS) structures showed a peak mobility of 15,000 cm{sup 2}/V-s at electron densities of {approx}1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} for an oxide thickness of 10 nm. Defect density measured using standard C-V techniques was found to be greater with decreasing oxide thickness suggesting a device design trade-off between oxide thickness and quantum dot size. The quantum dot structure is completed using electron beam lithography and poly-silicon etch to form the depletion gates, Fig 1 (a). The accumulation gate is added by introducing a second insulating Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer, deposited by atomic layer deposition, followed by an Al top gate deposition, Fig. 1 (b). Initial single electron transistor devices using SiO{sub 2} show significant disorder in structures with relatively large critical dimensions of the order of 200-300 nm, Fig 2. This is not uncommon for large silicon structures and has been cited in the literature [2]. Although smaller structures will likely minimize the effect of disorder and well controlled small Si SETs have been demonstrated [3], the design constraints presented by disorder combined with long term concerns about effects of defects on spin decoherence time (e.g., paramagnetic centers) motivates pursuit of a 2nd generation structure that uses a compound semiconductor approach, an epitaxial SiGe barrier as shown in Fig. 2 (c). SiGe may be used as an electron barrier when combined with tensilely strained Si. The introduction of strained-Si into the double top gated device structure, however, represents additional fabrication challenges. Thermal budget is potentially constrained due to concerns related to strain relaxation. Fabrication details related to the introduction of st

  1. Laboratory-Based Cryogenic Soft X-ray Tomography with Correlative Cryo-Light and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, David B.; Gelb, Jeff; Palshin, Vadim; Evans, James E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present a novel laboratory-based cryogenic soft X-ray microscope for whole cell tomography of frozen hydrated samples. We demonstrate the capabilities of this compact cryogenic microscope by visualizing internal sub-cellular structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The microscope is shown to achieve better than 50 nm spatial resolution with a Siemens star test sample. For whole biological cells, the microscope can image specimens up to 5 micrometers thick. Structures as small as 90 nm can be detected in tomographic reconstructions at roughly 70 nm spatial resolution following a low cumulative radiation dose of only 7.2 MGy. Furthermore, the design of the specimen chamber utilizes a standard sample support that permits multimodal correlative imaging of the exact same unstained yeast cell via cryo-fluorescence light microscopy, cryo-soft x-ray microscopy and cryo-transmission electron microscopy. This completely laboratory-based cryogenic soft x-ray microscope will therefore enable greater access to three-dimensional ultrastructure determination of biological whole cells without chemical fixation or physical sectioning.

  2. Electron Transfer within Self-Assembling Cyclic Tetramers Using Chlorophyll-Based Donor?Acceptor Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Victoria L.; Smeigh, Amanda L.; Kim, Chul Hoon; Co, Dick T.; Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and photoinduced charge transfer properties of a series of Chl-based donor-acceptor triad building blocks that self-assemble into cyclic tetramers are reported. Chlorophyll a was converted into zinc methyl 3-ethylpyrochlorophyllide a (Chl) and then further modified at its 20-position to covalently attach a pyromellitimide (PI) acceptor bearing a pyridine ligand and one or two naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) secondary electron acceptors to give Chl-PI-NDI and Chl-PI-NDI2. The pyridine ligand within each ambident triad enables intermolecular Chl metal-ligand coordination in dry toluene, which results in the formation of cyclic tetramers in solution, as determined using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering at a synchrotron source. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of the monomers in toluene-1% pyridine and the cyclic tetramers in toluene shows that the selective photoexcitation of Chl results in intramolecular electron transfer from 1*Chl to PI to form Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-{lg_bullet}-NDI and Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-{lg_bullet}-NDI2. This initial charge separation is followed by a rapid charge shift from PI-{lg_bullet} to NDI and subsequent charge recombination of Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-NDI-{lg_bullet} and Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-(NDI)NDI-{lg_bullet} on a 5-30 ns time scale. Charge recombination in the Chl-PI-NDI2 cyclic tetramer ({tau}CR = 30 {+-} 1 ns in toluene) is slower by a factor of 3 relative to the monomeric building blocks ({tau}CR = 10 {+-} 1 ns in toluene-1% pyridine). This indicates that the self-assembly of these building blocks into the cyclic tetramers alters their structures in a way that lengthens their charge separation lifetimes, which is an advantageous strategy for artificial photosynthetic systems.

  3. Why Lead Methylammonium tri-IODIDE perovskite-based solar cells requires a mesoporous electron transporting scaffold (but not necessarily a hole conductor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edri, Eran; Henning, Alex; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Gartsman, Konstantin; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells were characterized with electron beam-induced current (EBIC), and compared to CH3NH3PbI3-xClx ones. A spatial map of charge separation efficiency in working cells shows p-i-n structures for both thin film cells. Effective diffusion lengths, LD, (from EBIC profile) show that holes are extracted significantly more efficiently than electrons in CH3NH3PbI3, explaining why CH3NH3PbI3-based cells require mesoporous electron conductors, while CH3NH3PbI3-xClx ones, where LD values are comparable for both charge types, do not.

  4. Quark masses: An environmental impact statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimchi, Itamar

    We investigate worlds that lie on a slice through the parameter space of the standard model over which quark masses vary. We allow as many as three quarks to participate in nuclei, while fixing the mass of the electron and ...

  5. A Review of Power Electronics Based Microgrids 181 JPE 12-1-23 http://dx.doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2012.12.1.181

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    is followed by the descriptions of system controls and power management strategies for AC microgrids. Finally, but enables also microgrids to control and manage the power and energy flows efficiently [6]­[9]. FurthermorA Review of Power Electronics Based Microgrids 181 JPE 12-1-23 http://dx.doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2012

  6. An infrared free electron laser system for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL based on a 500 MHz superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.J.; Byrns, R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Donahue, R.; Edighoffer, J.; Gough, R.; Hoyer, E.; Leemans, W.; Staples, J.; Taylor, B.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a new design of the Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRFEL) for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The design and choice of parameters are dictated by the unique requirements of the CDRL scientific program. The accelerator system is based on the 500 MHz superconducting cavity technology to achieve a wavelength stability of 10{sup {minus}4}.

  7. An infrared free electron laser system for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL based on a 500 MHz superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.J.; Byrns, R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Donahue, R.; Edighoffer, J.; Gough, R.; Hoyer, E.; Leemans, W.; Staples, J.; Taylor, B.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a new design of the Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRFEL) for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The design and choice of parameters are dictated by the unique requirements of the CDRL scientific program. The accelerator system is based on the 500 MHz superconducting cavity technology to achieve a wavelength stability of 10[sup [minus]4].

  8. 1282 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Top-Gate GaN Thin-Film Transistors Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is to deposit high-quality GaN thin films using inexpensive substrate under low temper- ature. Recently1282 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Top-Gate GaN Thin-Film Transistors Based on AlN/GaN Heterostructures Rongsheng Chen, Wei Zhou, Meng Zhang, and Hoi Sing Kwok Abstract

  9. New Insights into Dissipation in the Electron Layer During Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, H.; Ren, Y,; Yamada, M.; Dorfman, S.; Daughton, W.; Gerhardt, S. P.

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ELECTRON DISSIPATION IN RECONNECTION Detailed comparisons are reported between laboratory observations of electron scale dissipation layers near a reconnecting X-line and direct two-dimensional full-particle simulations. Many experimental features of the electron layers, such as insensitivity to the ion mass, are reproduced by the simulations; the layer thickness, however, is about 3 - 5 times larger than the predictions. Consequently, the leading candidate 2D mechanism based on collisionless electron nongyrotropic pressure is insuffcient to explain the observed reconnection rates. These results suggest that, in addition to the residual collisions, 3D effects play an important role in electron-scale dissipation during fast reconnection.

  10. Towards secondary ion mass spectrometry on the helium ion microscope: An experimental and simulation based feasibility study with He{sup +} and Ne{sup +} bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtz, T.; Vanhove, N.; Pillatsch, L.; Dowsett, D. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Sijbrandij, S.; Notte, J. [Carl Zeiss NTS LLC, One Corporation Way, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960 (United States)

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of the high-brightness He{sup +}/Ne{sup +} atomic level ion source with secondary ion mass spectrometry detection capabilities opens up the prospect of obtaining chemical information with high lateral resolution and high sensitivity on the Zeiss ORION helium ion microscope. The analytical performance in terms of sputtering yield, useful yield, and detection limit is studied and subsequently optimized by oxygen and cesium flooding. Detection limits down to 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -5} can be obtained for silicon using Ne{sup +} and He{sup +}, respectively. A simulation based study reveals furthermore that a lateral resolution <10 nm can be obtained.

  11. A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP (Positron Electron Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClaire, B.W.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e-tilde, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, ..gamma..-tilde, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb/sup -1/ of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10/sup -2/ pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Kan, E-mail: xiekan@bit.edu.cn [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r?=?0.9?m) under ?10{sup ?5?}Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ?300?eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ?75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3?A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  13. Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of non-thermal electrons at Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purohit, S., E-mail: pshishir@ipr.res.in; Joisa, Y. S.; Raval, J. V.; Ghosh, J.; Tanna, R.; Shukla, B. K.; Bhatt, S. B. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the non-thermal electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the non-thermal electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.

  14. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  15. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  16. Electronic structure and spectroscopy of nucleic acid bases: Ionization energies, ionization-induced structural changes, and photoelectron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Kostko, Oleg; Dolgikh, Stanislav; Landau, Arie; Ahmed, Musahid; Krylov, Anna I.

    2010-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We report high-level ab initio calculations and single-photon ionization mass spectrometry study of ionization of adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). For thymine and adenine, only the lowest-energy tautomers were considered, whereas for cytosine and guanine we characterized five lowest-energy tautomeric forms. The first adiabatic and several vertical ionization energies were computed using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for ionization potentials with single and double substitutions. Equilibrium structures of the cationic ground states were characterized by DFT with the {omega}B97X-D functional. The ionization-induced geometry changes of the bases are consistent with the shapes of the corresponding molecular orbitals. For the lowest-energy tautomers, the magnitude of the structural relaxation decreases in the following series G > C > A > T, the respective relaxation energies being 0.41, 0.32, 0.25 and 0.20 eV. The computed adiabatic ionization energies (8.13, 8.89, 8.51-8.67 and 7.75-7.87 eV for A,T,C and G, respectively) agree well with the onsets of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves (8.20 {+-} 0.05, 8.95 {+-} 0.05, 8.60 {+-} 0.05 and 7.75 {+-} 0.05 eV). Vibrational progressions for the S{sub 0}-D{sub 0} vibronic bands computed within double-harmonic approximation with Duschinsky rotations are compared with previously reported experimental photoelectron spectra.

  17. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Christian; C. Akers; D. Connolly; J. Fallis; D. Hutcheon; K. Olchanski; C. Ruiz

    2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product ($\\gamma$ ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a $20$ MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the $E_{\\text{c}.\\text{m}.} = 1113$ keV resonance in the $^{20}$Ne$\\left(p, \\gamma \\right)^{21}$Na radiative proton capture reaction.

  18. Testable two-loop radiative neutrino mass model based on an $LLQd^cQd^c$ effective operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul W. Angel; Yi Cai; Nicholas L. Rodd; Michael A. Schmidt; Raymond R. Volkas

    2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A new two-loop radiative Majorana neutrino mass model is constructed from the gauge-invariant effective operator $L^i L^j Q^k d^c Q^l d^c \\epsilon_{ik} \\epsilon_{jl}$ that violates lepton number conservation by two units. The ultraviolet completion features two scalar leptoquark flavors and a color-octet Majorana fermion. We show that there exists a region of parameter space where the neutrino oscillation data can be fitted while simultaneously meeting flavor-violation and collider bounds. The model is testable through lepton flavor-violating processes such as ${\\mu} \\to e{\\gamma}$, $\\mu \\to eee$, and $\\mu N \\to eN$ conversion, as well as collider searches for the scalar leptoquarks and color-octet fermion. We computed and compiled a list of necessary Passarino-Veltman integrals up to boxes in the approximation of vanishing external momenta and made them available as a Mathematica package, denoted as ANT.

  19. Tile-Based Fisher-Ratio Software for Improved Feature Selection Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marney, Luke C.; Siegler, William C.; Parsons, Brendon A.; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC – TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The complex data can be overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic use of Fisher ratios has been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between classes relative to those that are not (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is a problem for both pixel-based and peak table- based methods. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio software maximizes the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. To study this software, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio software was able to discover all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06.

  20. Improving inventory and production control in an electronic company : capacity planning, base stock policy, and Kanban system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Youqun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research developed improved methods of inventory and production control in an electronic manufacturing company, which faces fluctuating seasonal demands and is categorized as a multiple part type production system ...

  1. Neutralization of space charge on high-current low-energy ion beam by low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Shuhei; Ikeda, Keita; Kitagawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki [Dept. of Electron. Sci. Eng., Kyoto Univ. Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Dept. of Electron. Information Eng., Chubu Univ., 1200, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8502 (Japan)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutralization of space charge on a high-current and low-energy ion beam was attempted to reduce the divergence with an aid of low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). An argon ion beam with the energy of 500 eV and the current of 0.25 mA was produced by a microwave ion source. The initial beam divergence and the emittance were measured at the entrance of the analysis chamber in order to estimate the intrinsic factors for beam divergence. The current density distribution of the beam after transport of 730 mm was measured by a movable Faraday cup, with and without electron supply from Si-FEAs. A similar experiment was performed with tungsten filaments as an electron source. The results indicated that the electron supply from FEA had almost the same effect as the thermionic filament, and it was confirmed that both electron sources can neutralize the ion beam.

  2. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IEKP, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  3. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Stuart R., E-mail: s.thomas09@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: s.thomas09@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Adamopoulos, George [Department of Engineering, Engineering Building, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Sygellou, Labrini [Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes (ICEHT), Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), Stadiou Strasse Platani, P.O. Box 1414, Patras GR-265 04 (Greece); Stratakis, Emmanuel [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University, of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Pliatsikas, Nikos; Patsalas, Panos A. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400–450?°C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700?°C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ?4.9?eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ?2?cm{sup 2}/V s.

  4. Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems Print Heavy-fermion systems are characterized by electrons with extremely large effective masses. The corresponding...

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH 2003 769 A Wigner Function-Based Quantum Ensemble Monte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringhofer, Christian

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH 2003 769 A Wigner Function AS CURRENT device technologies quickly approach the scales whereby quantum effects due to the strong confine and trusted method for device simulation, as it is proven to be reliable and predictive [3]. However, as EMC

  6. Application of Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in diabetes mellitus research, particularly in the context of development of diabetic...

  7. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  8. 2-dimensional hyperbolic medium for electrons and photons based on the array of tunnel-coupled graphene nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iorsh, Ivan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the electronic band structure and optical conductivity of an array of tunnel-coupled array of graphene nanoribbons. We show that due to the coupling of electronic edge states for the zigzag nanoribbon structure, the Fermi surface can become a hyperbola similarly to the case of the layered metal-dielectric structures, where the hyperbolic isofrequency contours originate from the coupling of localized surface plasmon polaritons. Moreover, we show that for both types of the ribbon edge, the optical response of the structure can be characterized by a uniaxial conductivity tensor, having principal components of the different signs. Therefore, the tunnel-coupled nanoribbon array can be regarded as a tunable hyperbolic metasurface.

  9. Electronic structure of Pt based topological Heusler compounds with C1{sub b} structure and 'zero band gap'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouardi, Siham; Shekhar, Chandra; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Kozina, Xeniya; Stryganyuk, Gregory; Felser, Claudia [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Ueda, Shigenori; Kobayashi, Keisuke [NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Besides of their well-known wide range of properties it was recently shown that many of the heavy Heusler semiconductors with 1:1:1 composition and C1{sub b} structure exhibit a zero band gap behavior and are topological insulators induced by their inverted band structure. In the present study, the electronic structure of the Heusler compounds PtYSb and PtLaBi was investigated by bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The measured valence band spectra are clearly resolved and in well agreement to the first-principles calculations of the electronic structure of the compounds. The experimental results give clear evidence for the zero band gap state.

  10. Adjustment of ablation shapes and subwavelength ripples based on electron dynamics control by designing femtosecond laser pulse trains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Yanping; Jiang Lan; Li Xin; Wang Cong [Laser Micro/Nano-Fabrication Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Lu Yongfeng [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum model is proposed to investigate femtosecond laser pulse trains processing of dielectrics by including the plasma model with the consideration of laser particle-wave duality. Central wavelengths (400 nm and 800 nm) strongly impact the surface plasmon field distribution, the coupling field intensity distribution (between the absorbed intensity and the surface plasma), and the distribution of transient localized free electron density in the material. This, in turn, significantly changes the localized transient optical/thermal properties during laser materials processing. The effects of central wavelengths on ablation shapes and subwavelength ripples are discussed. The simulation results show that: (1) ablation shapes and the spacing of subwavelength ripples can be adjusted by localized transient electron dynamics control using femtosecond laser pulse trains; (2) the adjustment of the radii of ablation shapes is stronger than that of the periods of subwavelength ripples.

  11. Transition from Three-Dimensional Anisotropic Spin Excitations to Two-Dimensional Spin Excitations by Electron Doping the FeAs-Based BaFe1:96Ni0:04As2 Superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jiangping

    by Electron Doping the FeAs-Based BaFe1:96Ni0:04As2 Superconductor Leland W. Harriger,1 Astrid Schneidewind,2 arsenides is important because high-transition temperature (high-Tc) superconductivity arises from electron optimal superconductivity [4­6], the gapped spin wave excitations were replaced by a gapless continuum

  12. Electron radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 51, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2004 1545 Impact of Compositionally Graded Base Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asbeck, Peter M.

    Graded Base Regions on the DC and RF Properties of Reduced Turn-On Voltage InGaP­GaInAsN DHBTs Kevin S be extended to HBTs with GaInAsN base layers. Index Terms--Bipolar transistor, GaInAsN, graded base, InGaP minimizing strain. In addition to reduction, the double heterojunction nature of the InGaP

  14. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, Erin C. H., E-mail: erinkyle@umail.ucsb.edu; Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wu, Yuh-Renn [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup ?}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (?2?×?10{sup 6}?cm{sup ?2} to ?2?×?10{sup 10}?cm{sup ?2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (?2?×?10{sup 6}?cm{sup ?2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296?K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113?K.

  15. Microlens Mass Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William D. Heacox

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-parametric statistical model is constructed to directly relate The distribution of observed microlens timescales to that of the mass Function of the population from which the lenses are drawn, corrected For observational selection based on timescales and event amplifications. Explicit distributions are derived for microlensing impact parameters and maximum amplifications; both are shown to be statistically independent of all other parameters in the problem, including lens mass. The model is used to demonstrate that the narrow range of microlens timescales observed toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is probably not consistent with lensing by a widely distributed spheroidal population of large velocity dispersion, as expected of a dark halo; but is consistent with lensing within a rotating thick disk. Poor numerical conditioning on the statistical connection between lens masses and event timescales, and small number statistics, severely limit the mass function information obtainable from current microlensing surveys toward the LMC.

  16. Improving Collision Induced Dissociation (CID), High Energy Collision Dissociation (HCD), and Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) Fourier Transform MS/MS Degradome-Peptidome Identifications Using High Accuracy Mass Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Identification of peptides through analysis of peptide ion fragmentation mass spectra is key to proteomic/peptidomic studies. Advanced mass spectrometry has enabled measurement of peptide fragments with {approx}ppm mass error levels; however, mass accuracy has not been widely utilized in broad aspects of peptide identification. In this work we describe how peptide high-precision fragments measured with Fourier transform mass spectrometry can provide a powerful discriminative capability to distinguish true peptide 'hits' from possible incorrect peptides. For identification of peptides having multiple termini and carrying multiple charges, we show that the simple utilization of high-precision mass fragments information results in improved peptide analysis coverage and consistency, with coverage of >95% peptides identified totally from different spectral scoring and peptide statistic probability methods developed for moderate accuracy mass spectral peptide identification.

  17. On the importance of AlGaN electron blocking layer design for GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Xia, Chang, E-mail: xiachsh@crosslight.com.cn; Simon Li, Z. M.; Sheng, Yang [Crosslight Software Inc., China Branch, Suite 906, Building JieDi, 2790 Zhongshan Bei Road, Shanghai 200063 (China)] [Crosslight Software Inc., China Branch, Suite 906, Building JieDi, 2790 Zhongshan Bei Road, Shanghai 200063 (China)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been confusion regarding the usefulness of AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with some published experimental data indicating that the LEDs without EBL performed better than those with it. InGaN/GaN LEDs have been investigated numerically to analyze its actual effect in these devices. Simulation results show that hole blocking effect of EBL mainly determines the effectiveness of using it which is more sensitive to its Al composition, band offset ratio, and polarization charges. It is found that the choice of Al composition is critical for EBL to improve the optical performance of GaN-based LEDs.

  18. Structure, magnetic and electronic properties of new 1111-type and 42622-type transition metal-based oxyarsenides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasperkiewicz, Karolina

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Discovery of high-temperature superconductors aroused a great interest in studies on these materials. In 1987 an yttrium-based compound YBCO (Yttrium-Barium- Copper-Oxide) was synthesised with Tc at 93 K. It was immediately ...

  19. An Infrared Free Electron Laser System for the Proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL Based on a 500 MHz Superconducting Linac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K.-J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Free Electron Laser Conference, Kobe, Japan,2 i An Infrared Free Electron Laser System for the ProposedDE93 004723 AN INFRARED FREE ELECTRON LASER SYSTEM FOR THE

  20. Electronic structure and transport in molecular and nanoscale electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two approaches based on first-principles method are developed to qualitatively and quantitatively study electronic structure and phase-coherent transport in molecular and nanoscale electronics, where both quantum mechanical ...

  1. FACTSHEET: Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power Electronics Across Every Industry In the last century, silicon semiconductor-based power electronics - which control or convert electrical energy into usable power -...

  2. Correlated Electrons in Photoactive and Superconducting Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the interactions between electrons. The two methods proposed leverage high-performance computing and are directly based on the many-electron Schrdinger equation that...

  3. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgiades, Nikos P. (Pasadena, CA); Polzik, Eugene S. (H.o slashed.jbjerg, DK); Kimble, H. Jeff (LaCanada, CA)

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100's THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 .mu.m to 1.66 .mu.m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage.

  4. Hot-stage transmission electron microscopy study of (Na, K)NbO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo, E-mail: shengbo.lu@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Centre, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu, Zhengkui [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Kwok, K. W.; Chan, Helen L. W. [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Centre, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hierarchical nanodomains assembled into micron-sized stripe domains, which is believed to be associated with outstanding piezoelectric properties, were observed at room temperature in a typical lead free piezoceramics, (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48?x})(Nb{sub 0.95?x}Ta{sub 0.05})-xLiSbO{sub 3}, with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (x?=?0.0465) by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of domain morphology and crystal structure under heating and cooling cycles in the ceramic was investigated by in-situ hot stage study. It is found that the nanodomains are irreversibly transformed into micron-sized rectangular domains during heating and cooling cycles, which lead to the thermal instability of piezoelectric properties of the materials.

  5. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgiades, N.P.; Polzik, E.S.; Kimble, H.J.

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies are disclosed. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100`s THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 {micro}m to 1.66 {micro}m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage. 7 figs.

  6. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  7. The electron geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Guzdar, P. N. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, a novel new mode, named the electron geodesic acoustic mode, is presented. This mode can occur in toroidal plasmas like the conventional geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The frequency of this new mode is much larger than that of the conventional GAM by a factor equal to the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio.

  8. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wanli (El Cerrito, CA); Fabbri, Jason D. (San Francisco, CA); Melosh, Nicholas A. (Menlo Park, CA); Hussain, Zahid (Orinda, CA); Shen, Zhi-Xun (Stanford, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  9. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  10. Electron g-2 in Light-front Quantization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basis Light-front Quantization has been proposed as a nonperturbative framework for solving quantum field theory. We apply this approach to Quantum Electrodynamics and explicitly solve for the light-front wave function of a physical electron. Based on the resulting light-front wave function, we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. Nonperturbative mass renormalization is performed. Upon extrapolation to the infinite basis limit our numerical results agree with the Schwinger result obtained in perturbation theory to an accuracy of 0.06%.

  11. Electron g-2 in Light-Front Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xingbo Zhao; Heli Honkanen; Pieter Maris; James P. Vary; Stanley J. Brodsky

    2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Basis Light-front Quantization has been proposed as a nonperturbative framework for solving quantum field theory. We apply this approach to Quantum Electrodynamics and explicitly solve for the light-front wave function of a physical electron. Based on the resulting light-front wave function, we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. Nonperturbative mass renormalization is performed. Upon extrapolation to the infinite basis limit our numerical results agree with the Schwinger result obtained in perturbation theory to an accuracy of 0.06%.

  12. Electron and positron pair production of compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Biao Han; Remo Ruffini; She-Sheng Xue

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral stellar core at or over nuclear densities is described by a positive charged baryon core and negative charged electron fluid since they possess different masses and interactions. Based on a simplified model of a gravitationally collapsing or pulsating baryon core, we approximately integrate the Einstein-Maxwell equations and the equations for the number and energy-momentum conservation of complete degenerate electron fluid. We show possible electric processes that lead to the production of electron-positron pairs in the boundary of a baryon core and calculate the number and energy of electron-positron pairs. This can be relevant for understanding the energetic sources of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts.

  13. 1060 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 47, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2000 Neural-Network-Based Motor Rolling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Mo-Yuen

    -Network-Based Motor Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Bo Li, Student Member, IEEE, Mo-Yuen Chow, Senior Member, IEEE, Yodyium Tipsuwan, Student Member, IEEE, and James C. Hung, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Motor systems are very forms of energy to provide power to other equipment. In the performance of all motor systems, bearings

  14. 13th Int'l Symposium on Quality Electronic Design Thermal Analysis of 3D Integrated Circuits Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    on Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method Amir Zjajo, Nick van der Meijs, Rene van Leuken Circuits options. Within this framework, a novel methodology based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element method-silicon vias increase the complexity of the conductive heat transfer paths in a stacked die structure. Dummy

  15. aerosol mass spectrometry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis of aerosol organic nitrates with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry MIT - DSpace Summary: Four hydroxynitrates (R(OH)R'ONO2) representative of...

  16. S3 x Z2 model for neutrino mass matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Grimus; L. Lavoura

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a model for lepton mass matrices based on the seesaw mechanism, a complex scalar gauge singlet and a horizontal symmetry $S_3 \\times \\mathbbm{Z}_2$. In a suitable weak basis, the charged-lepton mass matrix and the neutrino Dirac mass matrix are diagonal, but the vacuum expectation value of the scalar gauge singlet renders the Majorana mass matrix of the right-handed neutrinos non-diagonal, thereby generating lepton mixing. When the symmetry $S_3$ is not broken in the scalar potential, the effective light-neutrino Majorana mass matrix enjoys $\\mu$--$\\tau$ interchange symmetry, thus predicting maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing together with $U_{e3} = 0$. A partial and less predictive form of $\\mu$--$\\tau$ interchange symmetry is obtained when the symmetry $S_3$ is softly broken in the scalar potential. Enlarging the symmetry group $S_3 \\times \\mathbbm{Z}_2$ by an additional discrete electron-number symmetry $\\mathbbm{Z}_2^{(e)}$, a more predicitive model is obtained, which is in practice indistinguishable from a previous one based on the group $D_4$.

  17. Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Anil K.; Zhang, Rui; Orton, Daniel J.; Zhao, Rui; Clauss, Therese RW; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two unexpected singly charged ions at m/z 1103 and 944 have been observed in mass spectra obtained from electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of liquid chromatography effluents with mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid. Accurate mass measurement and tandem mass spectrometry studies revealed that these two ions are not due to any contamination from solvents and chemicals used for mobile and stationary phases or from the laboratory atmospheric environment. Instead these ions are clusters of trifluoroacetic acid formed in association with acetonitrile, water and iron from the stainless steel union used to connect the column with the electrospray tip and to apply high voltage; the molecular formulae are Fe+((OH)(H2O)2)9(CF3COOH)5 and Fe+((OH)(H2O)2)6 (CF3COOH)5.

  18. Search for High-Mass States with One Lepton Plus Missing Transverse Momentum in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} with the ATLAS Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; /Freiburg U. /Oklahoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Geneva U. /Oxford U. /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Oklahoma State U. /Michigan State U. /Tel Aviv U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Udine /ICTP, Trieste /Brookhaven /Hampton U. /Yale U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Munich U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS detector is used to search for high-mass states, such as heavy charged gauge bosons (W{prime},W*), decaying to a charged lepton (electron or muon) and a neutrino. Results are presented based on the analysis of ppcollisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb{sup -1}. No excess beyond standard model expectations is observed. A W{prime} with sequential standard model couplings is excluded at 95% confidence level for masses below 1.49 TeV, and a W* (charged chiral boson) for masses below 1.35 TeV.

  19. Recent Progress on Design Studies of High-Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Bruell, A; Chevtsov, P; Derbenev, Y S; Ent, R; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Merminga, L

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF has been continuously optimized to cover a wide center-of-mass energy region and to achieve high luminosity and polarization to support next generation nuclear science programs. Here, we summarize the recent design improvements and R&D progress on interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation, matching and tracking of electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, beam-beam simulations and ion beam cooling studies.

  20. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    't be determined A correlation for Sherwood number (Sh) based on di i l l i b d l i Sh diff idimensional analysis for mass transfer with convection: I l f d fl d b (l b l )­ Internal forced flow: inside a tube (laminar A in fluid medium B in a flow with characteristic velocity and size characteristic d: kA = f(d, w, (= fluid

  1. Electronic and thermoelectric transport in semiconductor and metallic superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling of the electron gas. The HIT cooler is based on either a single barrier or a multi barrier than the Fermi energy, Ef) are emitted above the bar- rier, electron­electron and electron

  2. In Search of the Inverted Region: Chromophore-Based Driving Force Dependence of Interfacial Electron Transfer Reactivity at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron Transfer Reactivity at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor/Solution Interface Susan: June 20, 2000 Intentional variations of the driving force for back electron transfer from titanium electron transfer for several variants of the classic tris polypyridyl ruthenium/nanocrystalline titanium

  3. Energy or Mass and Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavo R Gonzalez-Martin

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A review. Problems: 1-Many empirical parameters and large dimension number; 2-Gravitation and Electrodynamics are challenged by dark matter and energy. Energy and nonlinear electrodynamics are fundamental in a unified nonlinear interaction. Nuclear energy appears as nonlinear SU(2) magnetic energy. Gravitation and electromagnetism are unified giving Einstein's equation and a geometric energy momentum tensor. A solution energy in the newtonian limit gives the gravitational constant G. Outside of this limit G is variable. May be interpreted as dark matter or energy. In vacuum, known gravitational solutions are obtained. Electromagnetism is an SU(2) subgroup. A U(1) limit gives Maxwell's equations. Geometric fields determine a generalized Dirac equation and are the germ of quantum physics. Planck's h and of Einstein's c are given by the potential and the metric. Excitations have quanta of charge, flux and spin determining the FQHE. There are only three stable 1/2 spin fermions. Mass is a form of energy. The rest energies of the fermions give the proton/electron mass ratio. Potential excitations have energies equal to the weak boson masses allowing a geometric interpretation of Weinberg's angle. SU(2) gives the anomalous magnetic moments of proton, electron, neutron and generates nuclear range attractive potentials strong enough to produce the binding energies of the deuteron and other nuclides. Lepton and meson masses are due to topological excitations. The geometric mass spectrum is satisfactory. The proton has a triple structure. The alpha constant is a geometric number.

  4. Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4395. I. A Reverberation-Based Measurement of the Black Hole Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley M. Peterson; Misty C. Bentz; Louis-Benoit Desroches; Alexei V. Filippenko; Luis C. Ho; Shai Kaspi; Ari Laor; Dan Maoz; Edward C. Moran; Richard W. Pogge; Alice C. Quillen

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverberation-mapping program on NGC 4395, the least-luminous known Seyfert 1 galaxy, undertaken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, yields a measurement of the mass of the central black hole of 360,000 solar masses. The observations consist of two visits of 5 orbits each, in 2004 April and July. During each of these visits, the UV continuum varied by at least 10% (rms) and only C IV 1549 showed corresponding variations large enough to reliably determine the emission-line lag, which was measured to be of order one hour for both visits. The size of the C IV-emitting region is about a factor of three smaller than expected if the slope of the broad-line region radius-luminosity relationship is identical to that for the H-beta emission line. NGC 4395 is underluminous even for its small black hole mass; the Eddington ratio of 0.0012 is lower than that of any other active galactic nucleus for which a black hole mass measurement has been made by emission-line reverberation.

  5. Landau quantization and mass-radius relation of magnetized White Dwarfs in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, several white dwarfs have been proposed with masses significantly above the Chandrasekhar limit, known as Super-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs, to account for the overluminous Type Ia supernovae. In the present work, Equation of State of a completely degenerate relativistic electron gas in magnetic field based on Landau quantization of charged particles in a magnetic field is developed. The mass-radius relations for magnetized White Dwarfs are obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. The effects of the magnetic energy density and pressure contributed by a density-dependent magnetic field are treated properly to find the stability configurations of realistic magnetic White Dwarf stars.

  6. Comment on "Cyclotron resonance study of the electron and hole velocity in graphene monolayers"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. C. Tiwari

    2007-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this comment it is pointed out that the electron velocity of the same order as observed in graphene had been measured in GaAs submicron devices long ago. Particle- antiparticle asymmetry related with electron and hole effective masses in graphene seems puzzling as hole in a condensed matter system cannot be treated as anti-electron. It is argued that there should be a universal electrodynamics for QHE and superconductivity. In this context attention is drawn to the new approach based on massless electron and the interpretation that magnetic field represents angular momentum of the photon fluid. Measurement of electron velocity in graphene and GaAs in parallel is suggested for testing the massless electrodynamics.

  7. The nature of the electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu-Hong Hu

    2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Through investigating history, evolution of the concept, and development in the theories of electrons, I am convinced that what was missing in our understanding of the electron is a structure, into which all attributes of the electron could be incorporated in a self-consistent way. It is hereby postulated that the topological structure of the electron is a closed two-turn Helix (a so-called Hubius Helix) that is generated by circulatory motion of a mass-less particle at the speed of light. A formulation is presented to describe an isolated electron at rest and at high speed. It is shown that the formulation is capable of incorporating most (if not all) attributes of the electron, including spin, magnetic moment, fine structure constant, anomalous magnetic moment, and charge quantization into one concrete description of the Hubius Helix. The equations for the description emerge accordingly. Implications elicited by the postulate are elaborated. Inadequacy of the formulation is discussed.

  8. Graphene, neutrino mass and oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Y. Wang

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A resolution of the Abraham-Minkowski dilemma is presented that other constant velocities can play the role of c in the theory of relativity. For example, in 2005 electrons of graphene were discovered to behave as if the coefficient is a Fermi velocity. Then we propose a conjecture for neutrinos to avoid the contradiction among two-component theory, negative rest mass-square and oscillation.

  9. A New Method of Accelerated Bayesian Inference for Comparable Mass Binaries in both Ground and Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward K. Porter

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advance in computational resources, Bayesian inference is increasingly becoming the standard tool of practise in GW astronomy. However, algorithms such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) require a large number of iterations to guarantee convergence to the target density. Each chain demands a large number of evaluations of the likelihood function, and in the case of a Hessian MCMC, calculations of the Fisher information matrix for use as a proposal distribution. As each iteration requires the generation of at least one gravitational waveform, we very quickly reach a point of exclusion for current Bayesian algorithms, especially for low mass systems where the length of the waveforms is large and the waveform generation time is on the order of seconds. This suddenly demands a timescale of many weeks for a single MCMC. As each likelihood and Fisher information matrix calculation requires the evaluation of noise-weighted scalar products, we demonstrate that by using the linearity of integration, and the fact that more than 90% of the generation time is spent at frequencies less that one third of the maximum, we can construct composite integrals that speed up the MCMCs for comparable mass binaries by a factor of between 3.5 and 5.5, depending on the waveform length. This method is both source and detector type independent, and can be applied to any waveform that displays significant frequency evolution, such as stellar mass binaries with Advanced LIGO/Virgo, as well as supermassive black holes with eLISA

  10. MIMESIS: Interactive Interface for Mass-Interaction Matthieu Evrard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIMESIS: Interactive Interface for Mass-Interaction Modeling Matthieu Evrard ICA Laboratory introduces MIMESIS, a end-user software based on mass-interaction modeling. In MIMESIS, the mass-interaction-based modeling, simulation, animation, mass-interaction network, user-friendly interface, animation language. 1

  11. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; Cliff, John B.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles influence many aspects of climate, air quality and human health. Understanding the composition, chemistry and behavior of atmospheric aerosols is a key remaining challenge in improving climate models. Furthermore, particles may be traced back to a particular source based on composition, stable isotope ratios, or the presence of particular surface chemistries. Finally, the characterization of atmospheric particles in the workplace plays an important role in understanding the potential for exposure and environmental and human health effects to engineered and natural nanoscale particles. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a useful tool in determining any of several aspects of the structure, composition and chemistry of these particles. Often used in conjunction with other surface analysis and electron microscopy methods, SIMS has been used to determine or confirm reactions on and in particles, the presence of particular organic species on the surface of atmospheric aerosols and several other interesting and relevant findings. Various versions of SIMS instruments – dynamic SIMS, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry or TOF-SIMS, nanoSIMS – have been used to determine specific aspects of aerosol structure and chemistry. This article describes the strengths of each type of SIMS instrument in the characterization of aerosols, along with guidance on sample preparation, specific characterization specific to the particular information sought in the analysis. Examples and guidance are given for each type of SIMS analysis.

  12. Search for Lepton Flavour Violating Decays of Heavy Resonances and Quantum Black Holes to electron/muon Pairs in pp Collisions at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for heavy states decaying into the e$\\mu$ final state has been performed using an integrated luminosity of $19.7~\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of $8\\,\\text{TeV}$ proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. No evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model is observed in the invariant mass spectrum of selected e$\\mu$ pairs. 95$\\%$ CL upper limits are set on the cross section times branching ratio of different signals arising in theories of new physics with lepton flavour violation in interactions involving charged leptons. In the framework of TeV-scale quantum gravity from a renormalization of Newton's constant, exclusion limits are set on the production threshold of quantum black holes for threshold masses below $1.99\\,\\text{TeV}$, and in extra-dimensional models the bounds range from $2.36\\,\\text{TeV}$ for one extra dimension to $3.63\\,\\text{TeV}$ for six extra dimensions. Scenarios of resonant tau sneutrino LSP production in R-parity violating supersymmetry are excluded for LSP masses...

  13. 1114 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 29, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2013 The 3-D SpringMass Model Reveals a Time-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Hartmut

    a Time-Based Deadbeat Control for Highly Robust Running and Steering in Uncertain Environments Albert Wu to produce highly robust running and steering in uncertain environ- ments. The control naturally extends the time-based control de- rived for the planar version of this model and allows it to navigate rough

  14. Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, A.; Chabior, M.; Zanette, I.; Pfeiffer, F. [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cozzini, C.; Sperl, J. I.; Bequé, D. [GE Global Research, 85748 Garching (Germany); Langner, O.; Coman, J. [QRM GmbH, Möhrendorf (Germany); Ruiz-Yaniz, M. [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many scientific research areas rely on accurate electron density characterization of various materials. For instance in X-ray optics and radiation therapy, there is a need for a fast and reliable technique to quantitatively characterize samples for electron density. We present how a precise measurement of electron density can be performed using an X-ray phase-contrast grating interferometer in a radiographic mode of a homogenous sample in a controlled geometry. A batch of various plastic materials was characterized quantitatively and compared with calculated results. We found that the measured electron densities closely match theoretical values. The technique yields comparable results between a monochromatic and a polychromatic X-ray source. Measured electron densities can be further used to design dedicated X-ray phase contrast phantoms and the additional information on small angle scattering should be taken into account in order to exclude unsuitable materials.

  15. First-principles vs. semi-empirical modeling of global and local electronic transport properties of graphene nanopore-based sensors for DNA sequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Po-Hao Chang; Haiying Liu; Branislav K. Nikolic

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles quantum transport simulations, based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism combined with density functional theory (NEGF+DFT), we examine changes in the total and local electronic currents within the plane of graphene nanoribbon with zigzag edges (ZGNR) hosting a nanopore which are induced by inserting a DNA nucleobase into the pore. We find a sizable change of the zero-bias conductance of two-terminal ZGNR + nanopore device after the nucleobase is placed into the most probable position (according to molecular dynamics trajectories) inside the nanopore of a small diameter \\mbox{$D=1.2$ nm}. Although such effect decreases as the nanopore size is increased to \\mbox{$D=1.7$ nm}, the contrast between currents in ZGNR + nanopore and ZGNR + nanopore + nucleobase systems can be enhanced by applying a small bias voltage $V_b \\lesssim 0.1$ V. This is explained microscopically as being due to DNA nucleobase-induced modification of spatial profile of local current density around the edges of ZGNR. We repeat the same analysis using NEGF combined with self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (NEGF+SCC-DFTB) or self-consistent extended H\\"{u}ckel (NEGF+SC-EH) semi-empirical methodologies. The large discrepancy we find between the results obtained from NEGF+DFT vs. those obtained from NEGF+SCC-DFTB or NEGF+SC-EH approaches could be of great importance when selecting proper computational algorithms for {\\em in silico} design of optimal nanoelectronic sensors for rapid DNA sequencing.

  16. Free electron properties of metals under ultrafast laser-induced electron-phonon nonequilibrium: a first-principles study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Free electron properties of metals under ultrafast laser-induced electron-phonon nonequilibrium modelled based on the free electron classical theory, the free electron number is a key parameter. However or delocalized electronic states, temperature dependent free electron numbers are evaluated for a series

  17. ARTEMiS (Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search) - A possible expert-system based cooperative effort to hunt for planets of Earth mass and below

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Dominik; K. Horne; A. Allan; N. J. Rattenbury; Y. Tsapras; C. Snodgrass; M. F. Bode; M. J. Burgdorf; S. N. Fraser; E. Kerins; C. J. Mottram; I. A. Steele; R. A. Street; P. J. Wheatley; L. Wyrzykowski

    2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) The technique of gravitational microlensing is currently unique in its ability to provide a sample of terrestrial exoplanets around both Galactic disk and bulge stars, allowing to measure their abundance and determine their distribution with respect to mass and orbital separation. In order to achieve these goals in reasonable time, a well-coordinated effort involving a network of either 2m or 4 x 1m telescopes at each site is required. It could lead to the first detection of an Earth-mass planet outside the Solar system, and even planets less massive than Earth could be discovered. From April 2008, ARTEMiS (Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search) is planned to provide a platform for a three-step strategy of survey, follow-up, and anomaly monitoring. As an expert system embedded in eSTAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research), ARTEMiS will give advice on the optimal targets to be observed at any given time, and will also alert on deviations from ordinary microlensing light curves by means of the SIGNALMEN anomaly detector. While the use of the VOEvent (Virtual Observatory Event) protocol allows a direct interaction with the telescopes that are part of the HTN (Heterogeneous Telescope Networks) consortium, additional interfaces provide means of communication with all existing microlensing campaigns that rely on human observers. The success of discovering a planet by microlensing critically depends on the availability of a telescope in a suitable location at the right time, which can mean within 10 min. Real-time modelling offers the opportunity of live discovery of extra-solar planets, thereby providing ''Science live to your home''.

  18. Towards demonstration of electron cooling with bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedotov, A.

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    All electron cooling systems which were in operation so far employed electron beam generated with an electrostatic electron gun in DC operating mode, immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field. At low energies magnetic field is also being used to transport electron beam through the cooling section from the gun to the collector. At higher energies (few MeV), it was shown that one can have simpler electron beam transport without continuous magnetic field. Because of a rather weak magnetic field on the cathode and in the cooling section the latter approach was referred to as 'non-magnetized cooling', since there was no suppression of the transverse angular spread of the electron beam with the magnetic field in the cooling section. Such a cooler successfully operated at FNAL (2005-11) at electron beam energy of 4.3 MeV. Providing cooling at even higher energies would be easier with RF acceleration of electron beam, and thus using bunched electron beam for cooling. Significant efforts were devoted to explore various aspects of such bunched electron beam cooling as part of R and D of high-energy electron cooling for RHIC. However, experimental studies of such cooling are still lacking. Establishing this technique experimentally would be extremely useful for future high-energy applications. Presently there is an ongoing effort to build Proof-of-Principle (PoP) experiment of Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) at RHIC, which promises to be superior to conventional electron cooling for high energies. Since the CEC experiment is based on bunched electron beam and it has sections where electron beam co-propagates with the ion beam at the same velocity, it also provides a unique opportunity to explore experimentally conventional electron cooling but for the first time with a bunched electron beam. As a result, it allows us to explore techniques needed for the high-energy electron cooling such as 'painting' with a short electron beam and control of ion beam distribution under cooling which is essential if cooling is provided in a collider. The software needed for comparison with the experiments is already developed as part of the previous high-energy electron cooling studies for RHIC. Since electron beam will be non-magnetized and there will be no magnetic field in the cooling section it will be also a first demonstration of fully non-magnetized cooling. The purpose of these studies was to explore whether we would be able to observe conventional electron cooling with parameters expected in the CEC PoP experiment. Below we summarize requirements on electron beam and cooling section needed for such demonstration.

  19. High Throughput Ab initio Modeling of Charge Transport for Bio-Molecular-Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruque, Nicolas A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA-Based Molecular Electronics. vol. 725. New York: AIP,Heath, “Whence molecular electronics? ” Science, vol. 306,model,” J. Computational Electronics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp.

  20. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1. 1 Flexible electronics and flexible solar cells. Inof metal oxide based electronics on heat sensitive flexibleNanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by

  1. Measurement of the W Boson Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Clutter, Justace Randall; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    30Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India 31University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland 32Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul, Korea 33SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Korea 34CINVESTAV, Mexico City, Mexico 35FOM... in the plane perpendicular to the beam direction: the trans- verse mass mT , the electron transverse momentum peT , and the neutrino transverse momentum p#1;T . The transverse mass is defined as m...

  2. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlovskii, K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

  3. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  4. Effective Mass and Energy-Mass Relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Ariel

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle effective mass is often a challenging concept in solid state physics due to the many different definitions of the effective mass that are routinely used. Also, the most commonly used theoretical definition of the effective mass was derived from the assumption of a parabolic energy-momentum relationship, E(p), and therefore should not be applied to non-parabolic materials. In this paper, we use wave-particle duality to derive a definition of the effective mass and the energy-mass approximation suitable for non-parabolic materials. The new energy-mass relationship can be considered a generalization of Einstein's E=mc^2 suitable for arbitrary E(p) and therefore applicable to solid state materials and devices. We show that the resulting definition of the effective mass seems suitable for non-paraboic solid state materials such as HgCdTe, GaAs, and graphene.

  5. Resolution study of higher-order-mode-based beam position diagnostics using custom-built electronics in strongly coupled 3.9-GHz multi-cavity accelerating module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Jones, R.M.; Eddy, N.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can provide remote diagnostics information of the beam position and cavity misalignment. In this paper we report on recent studies on the resolution with specially selected series of modes with custom-built electronics. This constitutes the first report of measurements of these cavities in which we obtained a resolution of 20 micron in beam offset. Details of the setup of the electronics and HOM measurements are provided.

  6. LHC Higgs boson mass combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adye, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement of the Higgs boson mass is presented based on the combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN LHC in the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ decay channels. The results are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the reconstructed invariant mass peaks in the two channels and for the two experiments. The measured masses from the individual channels and the two experiments are found to be consistent among themselves. The combined measured mass of the Higgs boson is $m_{H} = 125.09\\pm0.21\\,\\mathrm{(stat.)}\\pm0.11\\,\\mathrm{(syst.)}~\\mathrm{GeV}$.

  7. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  8. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  9. Design of High Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron- Light Ion Collider at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slawomir Bogacz; Antje Bruell; Jean Delayen; Yaroslav Derbenev; Rolf Ent; Joseph Grames; Andrew Hutton; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Byung Yunn; Yuhong Zhang; C Montag

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies of fundamental structure of nucleons require an electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams polarized. A CEBAF-based collider of 9 GeV electrons/positrons and 225 GeV ions is envisioned to meet this science need and as a next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. A ring-ring scheme of this collider developed recently takes advantage of the existing polarized electron CW beam from the CEBAF and a green-field design of an ion complex with electron cooling. We present a conceptual design and report design studies of this high-luminosity collider.

  10. First Calorimetric Measurement of OI-line in the Electron Capture Spectrum of $^{163}$Ho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. -O. Ranitzsch; C. Hassel; M. Wegner; S. Kempf; A. Fleischmann; C. Enss; L. Gastaldo; A. Herlert; K. Johnston

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The isotope $^{163}$Ho undergoes an electron capture process with a recommended value for the energy available to the decay, $Q_{\\rm EC}$, of about 2.5 keV. According to the present knowledge, this is the lowest $Q_{\\rm EC}$ value for electron capture processes. Because of that, $^{163}$Ho is the best candidate to perform experiments to investigate the value of the electron neutrino mass based on the analysis of the calorimetrically measured spectrum. We present for the first time the calorimetric measurement of the atomic de-excitation of the $^{163}$Dy daughter atom upon the capture of an electron from the 5s shell in $^{163}$Ho, OI-line. The measured peak energy is 48 eV. This measurement was performed using low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters with the $^{163}$Ho ion implanted in the absorber. We demonstrate that the calorimetric spectrum of $^{163}$Ho can be measured with high precision and that the parameters describing the spectrum can be learned from the analysis of the data. Finally, we discuss the implications of this result for the Electron Capture $^{163}$Ho experiment, ECHo, aiming to reach sub-eV sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass by a high precision and high statistics calorimetric measurement of the $^{163}$Ho spectrum.

  11. Higher-Order Mass Defect Analysis for Mass Spectra of Complex Organic Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH2, H2, O, CH2O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an iterative renormalization routine for defining higher order homologous series and multidimensional clustering of mass spectral features. This approach greatly simplifies visualization of complex mass spectra and increases the number of chemical formulae that can be confidently assigned for given mass accuracy. The potential for using higher-order mass defects for data reduction and visualization is shown. Higher-order mass defect analysis is described and demonstrated through third-order analysis of a de-isotoped high-resolution mass spectrum of crude oil containing nearly 13,000 peaks.

  12. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  13. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  14. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  15. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  16. Electron performance with J/$\\psi$ with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theveneaux-Pelzer, T

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The understanding of the reconstruction of electrons in the ATLAS experiment at LHC is one of the key issues for the 2010 run at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. Two aspects are of interest: the energy calibration and the reconstruction efficiency. The energy measurement of electrons is based on the electromagnetic calorimeter over most of the relevant energy range (5 GeV to a few TeV). The electromagnetic calorimeter clusters are formed from electronically calibrated calorimeter cells and are corrected for local position and energy variations. A refined calibration procedure, developed and validated over years of test-beam strives to identify all sources of energy losses upstream of the outside the cluster and corrects for them one by one (using Monte Carlo). The present study is aiming at a first validation of this calibration strategy on prompt electrons from known physics processes. The electron reconstruction efficiency can be measured with data using a tag-and-probe approach with J/psi->ee decay...

  17. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  18. Electron tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suyama, Motohiro (Hamamatsu, JP); Fukasawa, Atsuhito (Hamamatsu, JP); Arisaka, Katsushi (Los Angeles, CA); Wang, Hanguo (North Hills, CA)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  19. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF SUBGIANT PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, James P. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High mass stars are hostile to Doppler measurements due to rotation and activity on the main-sequence, so RV searches for planets around massive stars have relied on evolved stars. A large number of planets have been found around evolved stars with M > 1.5 M{sub Sun }. To test the robustness of mass determinations, Lloyd compared mass distributions of planet hosting subgiants with distributions from integrating isochrones and concluded that it is unlikely the subgiant planet hosts are this massive, but rather that the mass inferences are systematically in error. The conclusions of Lloyd have been called in to question by Johnson et al., who show TRILEGAL-based mass distributions that disagree with the mass distributions in Lloyd, which they attribute to Malmquist bias. Johnson et al. argue that the very small spectroscopic observational uncertainties favor high masses, and there are a large number of high mass sub giants in RV surveys. However, in this Letter, it is shown that Malmquist bias does not impact the mass distributions, but the mass distribution is sensitive to Galaxy model. The relationship needed to reconcile the subgiant planet host masses with any model of the Galactic stellar population is implausible, and the conclusion of Lloyd that spectroscopic mass determinations of subgiants are likely to have been overestimated is robust.

  20. Mass Spectrometer: Time of Flight Secondary Ion (ToF SIMS) -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 1997 Mass Spectrometer: Time of Flight Secondary Ion (ToF SIMS) - 1997 The Physical Electronics Instruments (PHI) Model T2100 time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer...

  1. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  2. Identifying Electronic Properties Relevant to Improving the Performance and Stability of Amorphous Silicon Based Photovoltaic Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 27 November 2002--31 March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J. D.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major effort during this subcontract period has been to evaluate the microcrystalline Si material under development at United Solar Ovonics Corporation (USOC). This material is actually a hydrogenated nanocrystalline form of Si and it will be denoted in this report as nc-Si:H. Second, we continued our studies of the BP Solar high-growth samples. Third, we evaluated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys produced by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition growth process. This method holds some potential for higher deposition rate Ge alloy materials with good electronic properties. In addition to these three major focus areas, we examined a couple of amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) samples produced by the ECR method at Iowa State University. Our studies of the electron cyclotron resonance a-Ge:H indicated that the Iowa State a Ge:H material had quite superior electronic properties, both in terms of the drive-level capacitance profiling deduced defect densities, and the transient photocapacitance deduced Urbach energies. Also, we characterized several United Solar a Si:H samples deposited very close to the microcrystalline phase transition. These samples exhibited good electronic properties, with midgap defect densities slightly less than 1 x 1016 cm-3 in the fully light-degraded state.

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 559 Design and Implementation of an Adaptive Tuning System Based on Desired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 559 Design and Implementation with component degradation, input voltage variations, etc. These types of power stage pa- rameter changes and reliability over a wider range of possible operating points. Recent work in the area of digital control of dc

  4. Energetics of Electron Transfer at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor/ Aqueous Solution Interface: pH Invariance of the Metal-Based Formal Potential of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energetics of Electron Transfer at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor/ Aqueous,4-(CH2PO3)-2,2-bipyridine)3 10-, bound to a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide film shows energy (ECB) of the underlying semiconductor electrode in response to the same environmental

  5. Semiconductor-Based Interfacial Electron-Transfer Reactivity: Decoupling Kinetics from pH-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution System Susan G. Yan and Joseph T energy of the electron in the electrode). The observed insensitivity to large changes in band-functionalized ruthenium bipyridyl complexes to- gether with high-area nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films.2

  6. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  7. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  8. Quark Masses: An Environmental Impact Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. Jaffe; Alejandro Jenkins; Itamar Kimchi

    2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate worlds that lie on a slice through the parameter space of the Standard Model over which quark masses vary. We allow as many as three quarks to participate in nuclei, while fixing the mass of the electron and the average mass of the lightest baryon flavor multiplet. We classify as "congenial" worlds that satisfy the environmental constraint that the quark masses allow for stable nuclei with charges one, six, and eight, making organic chemistry possible. Whether a congenial world actually produces observers depends on a multitude of historical contingencies, beginning with primordial nucleosynthesis, which we do not explore. Such constraints may be independently superimposed on our results. Environmental constraints such as the ones we study may be combined with information about the a priori distribution of quark masses over the landscape of possible universes to determine whether the measured values of the quark masses are determined environmentally, but our analysis is independent of such an anthropic approach. We estimate baryon masses as functions of quark masses and nuclear masses as functions of baryon masses. We check for the stability of nuclei against fission, strong particle emission, and weak nucleon emission. For two light quarks with charges 2/3 and -1/3, we find a band of congeniality roughly 29 MeV wide in their mass difference. We also find another, less robust region of congeniality with one light, charge -1/3 quark, and two heavier, approximately degenerate charge -1/3 and 2/3 quarks. No other assignment of light quark charges yields congenial worlds with two baryons participating in nuclei. We identify and discuss the region in quark-mass space where nuclei would be made from three or more baryon species.

  9. Simulation of multicomponent evaporation in electron beam melting and refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, A.; Szekely, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Van Den Avyle, J.; Damkroger, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results and a mathematical model are presented to describe differential evaporation rates in electron beam melting of titanium alloys containing aluminum and vanadium. Experiments characterized the evaporation rate of commercially pure titanium, and vapor composition over titanium with up to 6% Al and 4.5% V content as a function of beam power, scan frequency and background pressure. The model is made up of a steady-state heat and mass transport model of a melting hearth and a model of transient thermal and flow behavior near the surface. Activity coefficients for aluminum and vanadium in titanium are roughly estimated by fitting model parameters to experimental results. Based on the ability to vary evaporation rate by 10-15% using scan frequency alone, we discuss the possibility of on-line composition control by means of intelligent manipulation of the electron beam.

  10. Neutrino mass matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capps, R.H.; Strobel, E.L.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the neutrinos (..nu../sub e/,..nu../sub ..mu../,..nu../sub tau/) is similar in form to those for the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed ..nu.. masses results from the Gell-Mann--Ramond--Slansky mechanism. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the ..nu.. masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. Some general properties of the Dirac matrices are discussed.

  11. Top Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. H. L. S. Wang

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the latest measurements of the top quark mass from the Tevatron. The different top decay channels and measurement techniques used for these results are also described. The world average of the top quark mass based on some of these new results combined with previous results is mtop=172.6+-1.4 GeV.

  12. Slowly rotating homogeneous masses revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reina, Borja

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hartle's model for slowly rotating stars has been extensively used to compute equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating stars to second order in perturbation theory in General Relativity, given a barotropic equation of state (EOS). A recent study based on the modern theory of perturbed matchings show that the model must be amended to accommodate EOS's in which the energy density does not vanish at the surface of the non rotating star. In particular, the expression for the change in mass given in the original model, i.e. a contribution to the mass that arises when the perturbations are chosen so that the pressure of the rotating and non rotating configurations agree, must be modified with an additional term. In this paper, the amended change in mass is calculated for the case of constant density stars.

  13. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  14. EMSL - Mass Spectrometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass-spectrometry Proteomics Capabilities High resolution and mass accuracy Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) spectrometers, from 6 Tesla (T) to 15T and 21T in...

  15. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  16. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with Negligible Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswajoy Brahmachari; Ernest Ma

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    If the electron neutrino has an effective nonzero Majorana mass, then neutrinoless double beta decay will occur. However, the latter is possible also with a negligible neutrino mass. We show how this may happen in a simple model of scalar diquarks and dileptons. This possibility allows neutrino masses to be small and hierarchical, without conflicting with the possible experimental evidence of neutrinoless double beta decay.

  17. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  18. Numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in unsteady nanofluid between two orthogonally moving porous coaxial disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Kashif; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Akbar, Muhammad Zubair [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Technology, Sahiwal (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper deals with the study of heat and mass transfer in an unsteady viscous incompressible water-based nanofluid (containing Titanium dioxide nanoparticles) between two orthogonally moving porous coaxial disks with suction. A combination of iterative (successive over relaxation) and a direct method is employed for solving the sparse systems of linear algebraic equations arising from the FD discretization of the linearized self similar ODEs. It has been noticed that the rate of mass transfer at the disks decreases with the permeability Reynolds number whether the disks are approaching or receding. The findings of the present investigation may be beneficial for the electronic industry in maintaining the electronic components under effective and safe operational conditions.

  19. ELECTRONIC WARFARE NOVEMBER 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FM 3-36 ELECTRONIC WARFARE NOVEMBER 2012 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release Electronic Warfare Contents Page PREFACE..............................................................................................................iv Chapter 1 ELECTRONIC WARFARE OVERVIEW ............................................................ 1

  20. MEASURING THE MASS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Margaret J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Rines, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Serra, Ana Laura, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: kenneth.rines@wwu.edu, E-mail: serra@to.infn.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cluster mass profiles are tests of models of structure formation. Only two current observational methods of determining the mass profile, gravitational lensing, and the caustic technique are independent of the assumption of dynamical equilibrium. Both techniques enable the determination of the extended mass profile at radii beyond the virial radius. For 19 clusters, we compare the mass profile based on the caustic technique with weak lensing measurements taken from the literature. This comparison offers a test of systematic issues in both techniques. Around the virial radius, the two methods of mass estimation agree to within {approx}30%, consistent with the expected errors in the individual techniques. At small radii, the caustic technique overestimates the mass as expected from numerical simulations. The ratio between the lensing profile and the caustic mass profile at these radii suggests that the weak lensing profiles are a good representation of the true mass profile. At radii larger than the virial radius, the extrapolated Navarro, Frenk and White fit to the lensing mass profile exceeds the caustic mass profile. Contamination of the lensing profile by unrelated structures within the lensing kernel may be an issue in some cases; we highlight the clusters MS0906+11 and A750, superposed along the line of sight, to illustrate the potential seriousness of contamination of the weak lensing signal by these unrelated structures.

  1. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of [sup 228]Np

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreek, S.A.; Hall, H.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Henderson, R.A.; Leyba, J.D.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Neu, M.P.; Kacher, C.D.; Hamilton, T.M.; Lane, M.R.; Sylwester, E.R.; Tuerler, A.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. (Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, MS-70A/3307 Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-capture delayed fission was positively identified for the first time in [sup 228]Np produced via the [sup 233]U(50-MeV [ital p],6[ital n])[sup 228]Np reaction. The half-life of the observed fission activity was measured to be 61.4[plus minus]1.4 s. The ECDF mode was verified by an x-ray--fission coincidence experiment. Only about 25% of the expected x-ray--fission coincidences were detected which indicates that [sup 228]U does not have a fission isomer populated by the electron-capture and that the overall lifetime of the high-energy states populated by the electron-capture is less than about 10[sup [minus]17] s. The fission activity was assigned to ECDF of [sup 228]Np based on chemical separation and observation of known progeny activities. The ratio of electron-capture to alpha decay is 1.5[plus minus]0.4 for [sup 228]Np. The production cross section for [sup 228]Np is 35[plus minus]10 [mu]b and the delayed fission probability is (2.0[plus minus]0.9)[times]10[sup [minus]4]. The kinetic energies of coincident fission fragments were measured and a pre-neutron emission, most probable total kinetic energy, of 169[plus minus]6 MeV was obtained. The mass-yield distribution was found to be predominantly asymmetric.

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer in donor-acceptor aryl dyads based on N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyl-p-phenylenedimine as the donor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossum, R.D.; Fox, M.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Gelormini, A.M.; Pearson, A.J. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1997-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The solution-phase photophysics of several electron transfer donor-donor-acceptor assemblies (2 and 3) incorporating N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) derivatized with piperazyl, piperidyl, morpholinyl, and prolinyl groups in the 1- and 4-positions as donors and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline, anthraquinone, 3,5-dinitrobenzene, and 2,4-dinitrobenzene as acceptors are described. In measurements of the model compounds 1 incorporating only the donor moieties, flash photolysis generated the radical cation and triplet species of TMPD as evidenced by the superposition of their transient absorption spectra. Lifetime measurements reveal, as well, a delayed fluorescence derived from triplet-triplet annihilation. In 2 and 3, electron transfer from the lowest excited singlet state of TMPD to the various acceptors was established by the following: (1) steady-state emission measurements where the fluorescence of TMPD was drastically quenched by the acceptor, (2) the transient absorption spectra of the radical cation and radical anion of the donor and acceptor, and (3) a single-exponential decay profile in 2 and 3, superseding the biexponential decay observed in the model donor. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Laser-induced electron localization in H$_2^+$: Mixed quantum-classical dynamics based on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Maitra, Neepa T; Gross, E K U

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the exact nuclear time-dependent potential energy surface (TDPES) for laser-induced electron localization with a view to eventually developing a mixed quantum-classical dynamics method for strong-field processes. The TDPES is defined within the framework of the exact factorization [A. Abedi, N. T. Maitra, and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123002 (2010)] and contains the exact effect of the couplings to the electronic subsystem and to any external fields within a scalar potential. We compare its features with those of the quasistatic potential energy surfaces (QSPES) often used to analyse strong-field processes. We show that the gauge-independent component of the TDPES has a mean-field-like character very close to the density-weighted average of the QSPESs. Oscillations in this component are smoothened out by the gauge-dependent component, and both components are needed to yield the correct force on the nuclei. Once the localization begins to set in, the gradient of the exact TDPES tracks one ...

  4. Quantum information processing with trapped electrons and superconducting electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikos Daniilidis; Dylan J Gorman; Lin Tian; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a parametric frequency conversion scheme for trapped charged particles which enables a coherent interface between atomic and solid-state quantum systems. The scheme uses geometric non-linearities of the potential of a coupling electrode near a trapped particle. Our scheme does not rely on actively driven solid-state devices, and is hence largely immune to noise in such devices. We present a toolbox which can be used to build electron-based quantum information processing platforms, as well as quantum interfaces between trapped electrons and superconducting electronics.

  5. Ratio method of measuring $w$ boson mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Feng; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in D0 experiment. Instead of extracting M{sub W} from the fitting of W {yields} e{nu} fast Monte Carlo simulations to W {yields} e{nu} data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W {yields} e{nu} data and Z {yields} ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (M{sub W}/M{sub Z}). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb{sup -1} D0 Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives M{sub W} = 80435 {+-} 43(stat) {+-} 26(sys) MeV.

  6. HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    King Air ARCTASISDAC Operations and Science Richard Ferrare, Chris Hostetler, John Hair, Anthony Cook, David Harper, Mike Obland, Ray Rogers, Sharon Burton, Matt Shupe, Dave...

  7. HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal848 Unlimited Release1/2 HR 1.00 $ 0HSI BestNASA

  8. HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal848 Unlimited Release1/2 HR 1.00 $ 0HSI

  9. Proton Mass Shift in Muonic Hydrogen Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiichi Iwazaki

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the value of the proton mass depends on each bound state of muonic or electronic hydrogen atom. The charged particle bound to the proton produces magnetic field inside the proton. This makes a change to the amount of chiral condensate inside the proton. The change gives rise to the shift in the value of the proton mass. Numerically, the shift in the $2S$ state of the muonic hydrogen atom can be of the order of $0.1$ meV. The effect may solve the puzzle of the proton radius.

  10. Best care practices in anesthesiology : development and evaluation of an electronic feedback system to improve physician compliance with evidence-based practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarin, Pankaj, M.D. University of Rochester

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, hospitals, regulatory agencies, and insurers have renewed their focus on improving patient care and safety. Outcomes based measures are being utilized and hospitals are being asked to report on whether patients ...

  11. Coherent Manipulation of Coupled Electron Spins in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    to control quantum systems in the solid state is a major challenge of modern condensed-matter physics (5, 6. Gossard3 We demonstrated coherent control of a quantum two-level system based on two-electron spin states) based on two-electron spin states (14) and demonstrate coherent control of this system through the use

  12. Assessment of molecular effects on neutrino mass measurements from tritium beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. I. Bodine; D. S. Parno; R. G. H. Robertson

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The beta decay of molecular tritium currently provides the highest sensitivity in laboratory-based neutrino mass measurements. The upcoming Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment will improve the sensitivity to 0.2 eV, making a percent-level quantitative understanding of molecular effects essential. The modern theoretical calculations available for neutrino-mass experiments agree with spectroscopic data. Moreover, when neutrino-mass experiments performed in the 1980s with gaseous tritium are re-evaluated using these modern calculations, the extracted neutrino mass-squared values are consistent with zero instead of being significantly negative. On the other hand, the calculated molecular final-state branching ratios are in tension with dissociation experiments performed in the 1950s. We re-examine the theory of the final-state spectrum of molecular tritium decay and its effect on the determination of the neutrino mass, with an emphasis on the role of the vibrational- and rotational-state distribution in the ground electronic state. General features can be reproduced quantitatively from considerations of kinematics and zero-point motion. We summarize the status of validation efforts and suggest means for resolving the apparent discrepancy in dissociation rates.

  13. Properties of Inconel 625 Mesh Structures Grown by Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Lowe, Larry E [ORNL; Sames, William J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relationships between electron beam parameters (beam current, beam speed, and beam focus) and physical properties (mass, diameter, elastic modulus, and yield strength) have been investigated for Inconel 625 mesh cubes fabricated using an additive manufacturing technology based on electron beam melting. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the mesh cubes have been systematically varied by approximately a factor of ten by changing the electron beam parameters. Simple models have been used to understand better these relationships. Structural anisotropies of the mesh associated with the layered build architecture have been observed and may contribute, along with microstructural anisotropies, to the anisotropic mechanical properties of the mesh. Knowledge of this kind is likely applicable to other metal and alloy systems and is essential to rapidly realize the full potential of this burgeoning technology.

  14. LaTiO?/KTaO? interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO?, and a band insulator, KTaO?. For LaTiO?/KTaO? interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO?-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO? at room temperature. By using KTaO?, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO?/KTaO? interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO?. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobilitymore »in KTaO? 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO?.« less

  15. Investigation of a high spatial resolution method based on polar coordinate maximum entropy method for analyzing electron density fluctuation data measured by laser phase contrast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, K. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Iguchi, H.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser phase contrast is a powerful diagnostic method to determine the spatial distribution of electron density fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas, although its applicability depends on magnetic field configurations. The spatial resolution of fluctuations is linked with the resolution of the propagation direction that is derived from the two-dimensional spectral analysis of the wavenumber for the fluctuations. The method was applied to fluctuation measurements in a compact helical system. In order to improve the resolution of the propagation direction with a relatively small number of data points, the maximum entropy method with polar coordinates was employed. A spatial resolution of the order of 1 cm was obtained, which is satisfactory in a plasma with a 20 cm minor radius.

  16. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  17. A summary of high-temperature electronics research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thome, F.V.; King, D.B.

    1991-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Current and future needs in automative, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronics at higher temperatures than today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the First International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16--20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  18. STABLE, MONOENERGETIC 50-400 MeV ELECTRON BEAMS WITH A MATCHED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    progress in laser-based particle accelera- tors [1]. Early breakthroughs in laser-based electron accel

  19. MassMass transfer andtransfer and MassMass transfer andtransfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Heat conductivity T'1 Heat flux h" (W/m2), local and overall heat transfer coeffients h1 Heat transfer coefficientcoefficient /1/1 Mass flow species A:interface a p A = A mol/s M f1 (L) 2 (G) Mass transfer rate per area: A = A/a = "A mol/(m2·s) 1 (L) 2 (G) xi C1.i M t f ffi i t k x C y 1.i AA !!! Mass transfer coefficients

  20. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  1. Democratic neutrino mass matrix from generalized Fridberg-Lee model with the perturbative solar mass splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razzaghi, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a phenomenological model of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix based on the Fridberg-Lee neutrino mass model at a special point. In this case, the Fridberg-Lee model reduces to the Democratic mass matrix with the $S_3$ permutation family symmetry. The Democratic mass matrix has an experimentally unfavored degenerate mass spectrum on the base of tribimaximal mixing matrix. We rescue the model to find a nondegenerate mass spectrum by adding the breaking mass term as preserving the twisted Fridberg-Lee symmetry. The tribimaximal mixing matrix can be also realized. Exact tribimaximal mixing leads to $\\theta_{13}=0$. However, the results from Daya Bay and RENO experiments have established a nonzero value for $\\theta_{13}$. Keeping the leading behavior of $U$ as tribimaximal, we use Broken Democratic neutrino mass model. We characterize a perturbation mass matrix which is responsible for a nonzero $\\theta_{13}$ along with CP violation, besides the solar neutrino mass splitting has been resulted from it. We c...

  2. Nuclear Masses in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christine Weber; Klaus Blaum; Hendrik Schatz

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of N and Z and the data obtained apply to a variety of physics topics. One of the most crucial questions to be addressed in mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides is the one of understanding the processes of element formation in the Universe. To this end, accurate atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations. In this paper, a review on the latest achievements in mass spectrometry for nuclear astrophysics is given.

  3. Multiple mass solvers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jegerlehner

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general method to construct multiple mass solvers from standard algorithms. As an example, the BiCGstab-M algorithm is derived.

  4. EMSL - Mass Spectrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MS) with high mass resolution (m&61636;m100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrilewater and acetonitriletoluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar...

  5. Electron screening in nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further investigate electron screening phenomenon we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. Also, we have studied the decay of {sup 61}Cu produced in the reaction {sup 60}Ni(p,{gamma}), in order to find a possible decay rate perturbation by atomic electrons and found a small difference in half-life for metallic compared to oxide environment, respectively. The present results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energy and that it might also affect the decay rate.

  6. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 10, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2004 445 Model-Based Optoelectronic Packaging Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurzweg, Timothy P.

    -Based Optoelectronic Packaging Automation Timothy P. Kurzweg, Member, IEEE, Allon Guez, and Shubham K. Bhat Abstract--In this paper, we present an automation technique that yields high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic of the automation system. In addition to this feed-forward model, the controller is designed with feed- back

  7. 1552 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 9, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2003 Toward a Scalable, Silicon-Based Quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubiatowicz, John D.

    for constructing scalable communication and computation. Finally, we explore an actual layout scheme for recursive error correction, and demonstrate the exponential growth in communication costs with levels of recursion, and that teleportation limits those costs. Index Terms--Quantum architecture, quantum computers, sil- icon-based quantum

  8. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2006 945 Learning Identification Control for Model-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurzweg, Timothy P.

    that incorporates the materials and mechanics in order to position the components and devices, exerting forces Learning Identification Control for Model-Based Optoelectronic Packaging Shubham K. Bhat, Timothy P and learning algorithms. Index Terms--Alignment, learning model identification, optical automation, optical

  9. IEEE TRANS. AEROSP. ELECTRON. SYST., VOL. 43, NO. 4, PP. 1617-1624, OCT. 2007 1617 Terrain-Based Simulation of IEEE 802.11a and b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Leon, Phillip

    path loss, coverage, and medium access control (MAC) throughput in a corporate office environment using for proximity wireless networks on the Martian surface. The radio frequency (RF) environment on the Martian), is found to be much more adversely affected in the multipath environment. The DEM-based simulation

  10. mass communication advertising &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finzi, Adrien

    mass communication advertising & public relations introduction. Graduate programs in the Department of Mass Communication, Advertising, and Public Relations provide an entry to a wide spectrum of careers in the communication industry. Classes, internships, site visits, and presentations by top professionals offer students

  11. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  12. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  13. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  14. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  15. Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatelain, Robert P.; Morrison, Vance R.; Godbout, Chris; Siwick, Bradley J. [Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Center for the Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the complete characterization of time resolution in an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) instrument based on radio-frequency electron pulse compression. The temporal impulse response function of the instrument was determined directly in pump-probe geometry by performing electron-laser pulse cross-correlation measurements using the ponderomotive interaction. With optimal settings, a stable impulse response of 334{+-}10 fs was measured at a bunch charge of 0.1 pC (6.24 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} electrons/pulse); a dramatic improvement compared to performance without pulse compression. Phase stability currently limits the impulse response of the UED diffractometer to the range of 334-500 fs, for bunch charges ranging between 0.1 and 0.6 pC.

  16. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid?base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron?proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ ?. Multiple-Site Electron?Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron?proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron?proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e{sup -}/2H{sup +} MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (?G)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pK{sub a}(H{sub 3}O{sup +}) = ?1.74) nor good acids (pK{sub a}(H{sub 2}O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

  17. Relativistic Electron Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marvel, Robert E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an undergraduate laboratory experiment to make independent measurements of the momentum and kinetic energy of relativistic electrons from a \\beta -source. The momentum measurements are made with a magnetic spectrometer and a silicon surface-barrier detector is used to measure the kinetic energy. A plot of the kinetic energy as a function of momentum compared to the classical and relativistic predictions clearly shows the relativistic nature of the electrons. Accurate values for the rest mass of the electron and the speed of light are also extracted from the data.

  18. Electron-beam scull melting with electromagnetic stirring of melt in crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladokhin, S.V. [Institute for Casting Problems, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The technologies and equipment have been developed for electron-beam scull melting with electromagnetic stirring of melt for some Ni-based superalloys as well as for multi-component Ti-, Zr-, Nb-, and Mo-based alloys. Two types of scull crucible sets with electromagnetic stirring systems have been constructed, with the metal pouring by the crucible tilting or through the hole in the crucible bottom. In the second case slag does not fall into a mold, and the electron beam may be used for metal heating in the costing head, thus improving the quality of castings. The technologies developed allow to utilize scrap, cost part reverts, chips etc. thus saving virgin alloys. The electromagnetic stirring application permits to product multi-component alloys, to increase the mass of the metal poured, and to reduce the specific energy expenditure and metal loss through evaporation.

  19. Faradaurate-940: Synthesis, Mass Spectrometry, STEM, PDF, and SAXS Study of Au~940(SR)~160 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumara, Chanaka [University of Mississippi, The; Zuo, Xiaobing [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cullen, David A [ORNL; Dass, Amala [University of Mississippi, The

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Obtaining monodisperse nanocrystals, and determining its composition to the atomic level and its atomic structure is highly desirable, but is generally lacking. Here, we report the discovery and comprehensive characterization of a 3-nm plasmonic nanocrystal with a composition of Au940 20(SCH2CH2Ph)160 4, which is, the largest mass spectrometrically characterized gold thiolate nanoparticle produced to date. The compositional assignment has been made using electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The MS results show an unprecedented size monodispersity, where the number of Au atoms vary by only 40 atoms (940 20). The mass spectrometrically-determined size and composition are supported by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and synchrotron-based methods such as atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Lower resolution STEM images show an ensemble of particles 1000 s per frame visually demonstrating monodispersity. Modelling of SAXS on statistically significant nanoparticle population approximately 1012 individual nanoparticles - shows that the diameter is 3.0 0.2nm, supporting mass spectrometry and electron microscopy results on monodispersity. Atomic PDF based on high energy X-ray diffraction experiments show decent match with either a Marks decahedral or truncated octrahedral structure. Atomic resolution STEM images of single particles and its FFT suggest face-centered cubic (fcc) arrangement. UV-visible spectroscopy data shows that the 940-atom size supports a surface plasmon resonance peak at 505 nm. These monodisperse plasmonic nanoparticles minimize averaging effects and has potential application in solar cells, nano-optical devices, catalysis and drug delivery.

  20. Automated Synthesis Tool for Design Optimization of Power Electronic Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirjafari, Mehran

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Designers of power electronic converters usually face the challenge of having multiple performance indices that must be simultaneously optimized, such as maximizing efficiency while minimizing mass or maximizing reliability while minimizing cost...

  1. Polaris: Mass and Multiplicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nancy Remage Evans; Gail Schaefer; Howard E. Bond; Edmund Nelan; Giuseppe Bono; Margarita Karovska; Scott Wolk; Dimitar Sasselov; Edward Guinan; Scott Engle; Eric Schlegel; Brian Mason

    2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Polaris, the nearest and brightest classical Cepheid, is a member of at least a triple system. It has a wide ($18''$) physical companion, the F-type dwarf Polaris B. Polaris itself is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 30 years (Kamper, 1996, JRASC, 90, 140). By combining {\\it Hipparcos} measurements of the instantaneous proper motion with long-term measurements and the Kamper radial-velocity orbit, Wielen et al. (2000, A&A, 360, 399) have predicted the astrometric orbit of the close companion. Using the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} and the Advanced Camera for Surveys' High-Resolution Channel with an ultraviolet (F220W) filter, we have now directly detected the close companion. Based on the Wielen et al. orbit, the {\\it Hipparcos} parallax, and our measurement of the separation ($0.176''$ $\\pm$ $0.002''$), we find a preliminary mass of 5.0 $\\pm$ 1.5 M$_{\\odot}$ for the Cepheid and 1.38 $\\pm$ 0.61 M$_{\\odot}$ for the close companion. These values will be refined by additional {\\it HST} observations scheduled for the next 3 years. We have also obtained a {\\it Chandra} ACIS-I image of the Polaris field. Two distant companions C and D are not X-rays sources and hence are not young enough to be physical companions of the Cepheid. There is one additional stellar X-ray source in the field, located $253''$ from Polaris A, which is a possible companion. Further investigation of such a distant companion is valuable to confirm the full extent of the system.

  2. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  3. Masses of Fundamental Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidezumi Terazawa

    2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the original paper entitled, "Masses of Fundamental Particles"(arXiv:1109.3705v5, 10 Feb 2012), not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs boson, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite models of quarks and leptons successfully. In this addendum entitled, "Higgs Boson Mass in the Minimal Unified Subquark Model", it is emphasized that the Higgs boson mass is predicted to be about 130Gev in the minimal unified subquark model, which agrees well with the experimental values of 125-126GeV recently found by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC.

  4. Electrical/Electronic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology The Division of Engineering of Science in Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology Get ready for a dynamic career in Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology. Possible applications

  5. FREE-ELECTRON LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable-Wiggler Free-Electron-Laser Oscillat.ion. Phys. :_.The Los Alamos Free Electron Laser: Accelerator Perfoemance.First Operation of a Free-Electron Laser. Phys . __ Rev~.

  6. FREE ELECTRON LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colson, W.B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1984). Colson, W. B. , "Free electron laser theory," Ph.D.aspects of the free electron laser," Laser Handbook i,Quant. Elect. Bendor Free Electron Laser Conference, Journal

  7. Chapter 9: Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Armstrong Contents Electronics 9.1 Introduction 9.2measurements 9.11 Digital electronics 9.11.1 Logic elementsProblems page 1 vii Electronics This chapter was contributed

  8. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of {sup 242}Es

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Adams, J. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gregorich, K. E. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lane, M. R. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Laue, C. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, D. M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); McGrath, C. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Patin, J. B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Strellis, D. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sylwester, E. R. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-capture delayed fission of {sup 242}Es produced via the {sup 233}U({sup 14}N,5n){sup 242}Es reaction at 87 MeV (on target) was observed to decay with a half-life of 11{+-}3 s, consistent with the reported {alpha}-decay half-life of {sup 242}Es of 16{sub -4}{sup +6} s. The mass-yield distribution of the fission fragments is highly asymmetric. The average pre-neutron emission total kinetic energy of the fragments was measured to be 183{+-}18 MeV. Based on the ratio of the measured number of fission events to the measured number of {alpha} decays from the electron-capture daughter {sup 242}Cf (100% {alpha} branch), the probability of delayed fission was determined to be 0.006{+-}0.002. This value for the delayed fission probability fits the experimental trend of increasing delayed fission probability with increasing Q value for electron capture. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. HIGEE Mass Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, R. J.; Fowler, R.

    HIGEE MASS TRANSFER R.J. Mohr and R. Fowler GLITSCH, INC. Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Distillation, absorption, and gas stripping have traditionally been performed in tall columns utilizing trays or packing. Columns perform satisfactorily... transfer system which utilizes a rotating bed of packing to achieve high efficiency separations, and consequent reduction in size and weight. INTRODUCTION HIGEE is probably one of the most interesting developments in mass transfer equipment made...

  10. Mass of Cu-57

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagliardi, Carl A.; Semon, D. R.; Tribble, Robert E.; Vanausdeln, L. A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the experimental and theoretical Coulomb displacement energies for similar cases in A =17 and 41 has been attributed~ to ground state correlations in the nuclear wave functions. It is in- teresting to examine the mass 57 mirror nuclei to investi- gate... indicated. Reference 9. 'Reference 7. Reference 6. 'This work. 34 MASS OF Cu 1665 the 3=57 Coulomb displacement energy, using radial wave functions obtained in a spherical Hartree-Fock cal- culation, assuming a closed Ni core, and including...

  11. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: ktakahashi@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: umeda@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M{sub Sun} and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  12. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has...

  13. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in...

  14. Electron Microscopy Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Electron Microscopy Center Web Site has moved This page has moved to http:www.anl.govcnmgroupelectron-microscopy-cente...

  15. Determination of effective axion masses in the helium-3 buffer of CAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruz, J

    2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a ground based experiment located in Geneva (Switzerland) searching for axions coming from the Sun. Axions, hypothetical particles that not only could solve the strong CP problem but also be one of the favored candidates for dark matter, can be produced in the core of the Sun via the Primakoff effect. They can be reconverted into X-ray photons on Earth in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. In order to look for axions, CAST points a decommissioned LHC prototype dipole magnet with different X-ray detectors installed in both ends of the magnet towards the Sun. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV/c{sup 2}. During the second phase, CAST extends its mass sensitivity by tuning the electron density present in the magnetic field region. Injecting precise amounts of helium gas has enabled CAST to look for axion masses up to 1.2 eV/c{sup 2}. This paper studies the determination of the effective axion masses scanned at CAST during its second phase. The use of a helium gas buffer at temperatures of 1.8 K has required a detailed knowledge of the gas density distribution. Complete sets of computational fluid dynamic simulations validated with experimental data have been crucial to obtain accurate results.

  16. Europium oxide as a perfect electron spin filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Tiffany S. (Tiffany Suzanne), 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Essential to the emergence of spin-based electronics is a source of highly polarized electron spins. Conventional ferromagnets have at best a spin polarization P-50%. Europium monoxide is a novel material capable of ...

  17. Auction Market System in Electronic Security Trading Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Auction Market System in Electronic Security Trading Platform Li Xihao Bielefeld Graduate School security trading platform Xetra oper- ated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange, we consider the Xetra auction. Keywords: agent-based modelling, computational market experiment, electronic security trading platform

  18. Organic Electronics and Photovoltaics CopyrightDaveWhite2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY Organic Electronics and Photovoltaics Objective CopyrightDaveWhite2008 Organic electronics and photovoltaic technology are reaching critical mass with the establishment of a U.S. consortium and the recent an inte- grated suite of measurement methods to tie the electrical and photovoltaic performance of organic

  19. Single electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Asner; R. F. Bradley; L. de Viveiros; P. J. Doe; J. L. Fernandes; M. Fertl; E. C. Finn; J. A. Formaggio; D. Furse; A. M. Jones; J. N. Kofron; B. H. LaRoque; M. Leber; E. L. McBride; M. L. Miller; P. Mohanmurthy; B. Monreal; N. S. Oblath; R. G. H. Robertson; L. J Rosenberg; G. Rybka; D. Rysewyk; M. G. Sternberg; J. R. Tedeschi; T. Thummler; B. A. VanDevender; N. L. Woods

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta elec- tron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta spectroscopy for future neutrino mass experiments.

  20. Direct Search for Low Mass Dark Matter Particles with CCDs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barreto, J [Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Cease, H.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Harrison, N.; Jones, J.; Kilminster, B [Fermilab; Molina, J [Asuncion Natl. U.; Smith, J.; Sonnenschein, A [Fermilab

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct dark matter search is performed using fully-depleted high-resistivity CCD detectors. Due to their low electronic readout noise (RMS ~7 eV) these devices operate with a very low detection threshold of 40 eV, making the search for dark matter particles with low masses (~5 GeV) possible. The results of an engineering run performed in a shallow underground site are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technology in the low mass region.

  1. Identifying electronic properties relevant to improving stability in a-Si:H-based cells and overall performance in a-Si,Ge:H-based cells. Annual subcontract report, 18 April 1995--17 April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.D. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work done during this second phase of the University of Oregon`s NREL subcontract focused on degradation studies in both pure a-Si:H and a-Si,Ge:H alloys, as well as a detailed study of the interface between these two materials in a-Si:H/a-Si, Ge:H heterostructures. All samples discussed in this report were produced by the glow-discharge method and were obtained either in collaboration with United Solar Systems Corporation or with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley laboratory. First, the results from the a-Si, Ge:H degradation studies support the conclusion that considerable quantities of charged defects exist in nominally intrinsic material. Researchers found that on light-soaking, all the observed defect sub-bands increased; however, their ratios varied significantly. Second, researchers performed voltage pulse stimulated capacitance transient measurements on a-Si:H/a-Si, Ge:H heterostructure samples and found a clear signature of trapped hole emission extending over long times. Finally, researchers began comparison studies of the electronic properties of a-Si:H grown by glow discharge either with 100% silane, or with silane diluted in H{sub 2} or He gas. The results on these samples indicate that the films grown under high hydrogen dilution exhibit roughly a factor of 3 lower deep defect densities than those grown using pure silane.

  2. On Quasar Masses and Quasar Host Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Laor

    1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass of massive black holes in quasar cores can be deduced using the typical velocities of Hb-emitting clouds in the Broad Line Region (BLR) and the size of this region. However, this estimate depends on various assumptions and is susceptible to large systematic errors. The Hb-deduced black hole mass in a sample of 14 bright quasars is found here to correlate with the quasar host galaxy luminosity, as determined with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This correlation is similar to the black hole mass vs. bulge luminosity correlation found by Magorrian et al. in a sample of 32 nearby normal galaxies. The similarity of the two correlations is remarkable since the two samples involve apparently different types of objects and since the black hole mass estimates in quasars and in nearby galaxies are based on very different methods. This similarity provides a ``calibration'' of the Hb-deduced black hole mass estimate, suggesting it is accurate to +-0.5 on log scale. The similarity of the two correlations also suggests that quasars reside in otherwise normal galaxies, and that the luminosity of quasar hosts can be estimated to +-0.5 mag based on the quasar continuum luminosity and the Hb line width. Future imaging observations of additional broad-line active galaxies with the HST are required in order to explore the extent, slope, and scatter of the black hole mass vs. host bulge luminosity correlation in active galaxies.

  3. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  4. Atomic mass compilation 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeiffer, B., E-mail: bpfeiffe@uni-mainz.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Venkataramaniah, K. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam (India)] [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam (India); Czok, U. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany)] [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic mass reflects the total binding energy of all nucleons in an atomic nucleus. Compilations and evaluations of atomic masses and derived quantities, such as neutron or proton separation energies, are indispensable tools for research and applications. In the last decade, the field has evolved rapidly after the advent of new production and measuring techniques for stable and unstable nuclei resulting in substantial ameliorations concerning the body of data and their precision. Here, we present a compilation of atomic masses comprising the data from the evaluation of 2003 as well as the results of new measurements performed. The relevant literature in refereed journals and reports as far as available, was scanned for the period beginning 2003 up to and including April 2012. Overall, 5750 new data points have been collected. Recommended values for the relative atomic masses have been derived and a comparison with the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation has been performed. This work has been carried out in collaboration with and as a contribution to the European Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network of Evaluations.

  5. Is Second Law of Thermodynamics Violated for Electron Transition from Lower-Energy Level to Higher-Energy Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Gupta; Ruchi Gupta; Sanjay Gupta

    2003-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Second law of thermodynamics is applied to a few electronic processes. It is seen that the second law of thermodynamics holds good for all except one mentioned here. The classical approach, based on exact equivalence of emission and absorption spectra, for electron transition from lower energy level (first orbit) to higher energy level (second orbit) violates the second law of thermodynamics. But since second law which implies irreversibility and is universally true, a new explanation of electron transition from lower to higher energy level is proposed which leads to better understanding of several topics such as Fraunhofer lines, Optical laser. Also, interestingly, it is shown that widely different fields such as second law of thermodynamics and special relativity are in fact closely linked to each other. Also, possible links between supersymmetry and new concept of quaternion mass are mentioned.

  6. Electronic field permeameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, Mark A. (Madison, WI); Goggin, David J. (Austin, TX); Horne, Patrick J. (Austin, TX); Kocurek, Gary G. (Roundrock, TX); Lake, Larry W. (Austin, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For making rapid, non-destructive permeability measurements in the field, a portable minipermeameter of the kind having a manually-operated gas injection tip is provided with a microcomputer system which operates a flow controller to precisely regulate gas flow rate to a test sample, and reads a pressure sensor which senses the pressure across the test sample. The microcomputer system automatically turns on the gas supply at the start of each measurement, senses when a steady-state is reached, collects and records pressure and flow rate data, and shuts off the gas supply immediately after the measurement is completed. Preferably temperature is also sensed to correct for changes in gas viscosity. The microcomputer system may also provide automatic zero-point adjustment, sensor calibration, over-range sensing, and may select controllers, sensors, and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements. Electronic sensors may provide increased accuracy and precision. Preferably one microcomputer is used for sensing instrument control and data collection, and a second microcomputer is used which is dedicated to recording and processing the data, selecting the sensors and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements, and instructing the user how to set-up and operate the minipermeameter. To provide mass data collection and user-friendly operation, the second microcomputer is preferably a lap-type portable microcomputer having a non-volatile or battery-backed CMOS memory.

  7. Electronics, Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCHOOL OF Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science IS IN YOUR HANDS THE FUTURE #12;SCHOOL OF Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science2 CAREERS IN ELECTRONICS, ELECTRICAL Belfast. Ranked among the top 100 in the world for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (QS World

  8. Design of a free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma-accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the visible free- electron laser oscillator experiment”,based VUV and X-ray free electron lasers”, Appl. Phys. BDesign of a free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-

  9. Galaxy Cosmological Mass Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanda R. Lopes; Alvaro Iribarrem; Marcelo B. Ribeiro; William R. Stoeger

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach using observational data provided by galaxy redshift surveys. Starting from the theory of Ribeiro & Stoeger (2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0304094) between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity $L$ and the average galactic mass $\\mathcal{M}_g$ are computed in terms of the redshift. $\\mathcal{M}_g$ is also alternatively estimated by a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allows us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range $0.5 light ratio and its GSMF data. Assuming ${\\mathcal{M}_{g_0}} \\approx 10^{11} \\mathcal{M}_\\odot$ as the local value of the average galactic mass, the LF approach results in $L_{B} \\propto (1+z)^{(2.40 \\pm 0.03)}$ and $\\mathcal{M}_g \\propto (1+z)^{(1.1\\pm0.2)}$. However, using the GSMF results produces $\\mathcal{M}_g \\propto (1+z)^{(-0.58 \\pm 0.22)}$. We chose the latter result as it is less biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function. The derived GCMF follows theoretical predictions in which the less massive objects form first, being followed later by more massive ones. In the range $0.5 < z < 2.0$ the GCMF has a strong variation that can be interpreted as a higher rate of galaxy mergers or as a strong evolution in the star formation history of these galaxies.

  10. Ultralow-Power Electronics for Cardiac Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turicchia, Lorenzo

    Ultralow-power electronics for cardiac monitoring make possible the development of new light-weight and low-cost devices that are ideal for long-term medical measurements and home-based tele-monitoring services. Nowadays, ...

  11. Mass of Ne-16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodward, C. J.; Tribble, Robert E.; Tanner, D. M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . E. Tribble, J. D. Cossairt, D. P. May, and R. A. Kenefick, Phys. Rev. C 16, 1835 (1977). 4E. Kashy, W. Benenson, D. Mueller, R. G. H. Robert- son, and D. R. Goosman, Phys. Rev. C 11, 1959 (1975). 5For a review of the various calculations, see Ref...PHYSICAL REVIEWER C VOLUME 27, NUMBER 1 Mass of ' Ne JANUARY 1983 C. J. Woodward, * R. E. Tribble, and D. M. Tanner Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 23 August 1982) The mass of ' Ne has been...

  12. Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Berkeley, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

  13. DNA Damage Induced by Low-Energy Electrons: Electron Transfer and Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yi; Wagner, J. Richard; Sanche, Leon [Groupe de Recherche en Sciences des Radiations, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of the short single strand of DNA, GCAT, in which guanine (G) or adenine (A) have been removed, were bombarded under vacuum by 4 to 15 eV electrons. The fragments corresponding to base release and strand breaks (SB) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and their yields compared with those obtained from unmodified GCAT. From such a comparison, it is shown that, using GCAT as a model system (1) most SB result from electron capture by DNA bases followed by electron transfer to the phosphate group and (2) the initial capture probability depends on the coherence of the electron wave within the tetramer.

  14. Future Electron-Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.

    2010-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Outstanding research potential of electron-hadron colliders (EHC) was clearly demonstrated by first - and the only - electron-proton collider HERA (DESY, Germany). Physics data from HERA revealed new previously unknown facets of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). EHC is an ultimate microscope probing QCD in its natural environment, i.e. inside the hadrons. In contrast with hadrons, electrons are elementary particles with known initial state. Hence, scattering electrons from hadrons provides a clearest pass to their secrets. It turns EHC into an ultimate machine for high precision QCD studies and opens access to rich physics with a great discovery potential: solving proton spin puzzle, observing gluon saturation or physics beyond standard model. Access to this physics requires high-energy high-luminosity EHCs and a wide reach in the center-of-mass (CM) energies. This paper gives a brief overview of four proposed electron-hadron colliders: ENC at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), ELIC/MEIC at TJNAF (Newport News, VA, USA), eRHIC at BNL (Upton, NY, USA) and LHeC at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). Future electron-hadron colliders promise to deliver very rich physics not only in the quantity but also in the precision. They are aiming at very high luminosity two-to-four orders of magnitude beyond the luminosity demonstrated by the very successful HERA. While ENC and LHeC are on opposite side of the energy spectrum, eRHIC and ELIC are competing for becoming an electron-ion collider (EIC) in the U.S. Administrations of BNL and Jlab, in concert with US DoE office of Nuclear Physics, work on the strategy for down-selecting between eRHIC and ELIC. The ENC, EIC and LHeC QCD physics programs to a large degree are complimentary to each other and to the LHC physics. In last decade, an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) collaboration held about 25 collaboration meetings to develop physics program for EIC with CM energy {approx}100 GeV. One of these meetings was held at GSI, where ENC topic was in the center of discussions. First dedicated LHeC workshop was held in 2008, with a number of dedicated workshops following it. Intense accelerator R&D program is needed to address the challenges posed by the EIC.

  15. Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei/ the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.

  16. Electronic security device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); LeBlanc, Edward J. (Kennewick, WA); Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  17. Electronic security device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs.

  18. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  19. Residential Thermal Mass Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thieken, J. S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The southwest has long known the value of building homes with high mass materials. The ancient Pueblo Indians found that by using "adobe" they could capture the energy necessary to survive the harsh desert climate. Our ancestors knew that a heavy...

  20. Riddle of the Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss some known approaches and results as well as few new ideas concerning origins and nature of neutrino mass. The key issues include (i) connections of neutrino and charged fermions masses, relation between masses and mixing, energy scale of new physics behind neutrino mass where possibilities spread from the Planck and GUT masses down to a sub-eV scale. The data hint two different new physics involved in generation of neutrino mass. Determination of the CP phase as well as mass hierarchy can play important role in identification of new physics. It may happen that sterile neutrinos provide the key to resolve the riddle.

  1. Investigation of Metalloproteins Utilizing High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhaoxiang

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    studies using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) have shown that Cu? ions preferentially bind to electron rich groups in gas phase (i.e., N-terminal amino group, the side-chains of lysine, histidine and arginine...

  2. Mass transfer effects in a gasification riser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, Ronald W [U.S. DOE; Li, Tingwen [URS; Nicoletti, Phillip [URS

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the development of multiphase reacting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a number of simplifications were incorporated into the codes and models. One of these simplifications was the use of a simplistic mass transfer correlation for the faster reactions and omission of mass transfer effects completely on the moderate speed and slow speed reactions such as those in a fluidized bed gasifier. Another problem that has propagated is that the mass transfer correlation used in the codes is not universal and is being used far from its developed bubbling fluidized bed regime when applied to circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser reactors. These problems are true for the major CFD codes. To alleviate this problem, a mechanistic based mass transfer coefficient algorithm has been developed based upon an earlier work by Breault et al. This fundamental approach uses the local hydrodynamics to predict a local, time varying mass transfer coefficient. The predicted mass transfer coefficients and the corresponding Sherwood numbers agree well with literature data and are typically about an order of magnitude lower than the correlation noted above. The incorporation of the new mass transfer model gives the expected behavior for all the gasification reactions evaluated in the paper. At the expected and typical design values for the solid flow rate in a CFB riser gasifier an ANOVA analysis has shown the predictions from the new code to be significantly different from the original code predictions. The new algorithm should be used such that the conversions are not over predicted. Additionally, its behaviors with changes in solid flow rate are consistent with the changes in the hydrodynamics.

  3. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?°C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?°C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  4. Graphene-Base Hot-Electron Transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Caifu

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. Jozsa, M. Popinciuc, H. T. Jonkman, and B. J. van Wees, "C. Jozsa, M. Popinciuc, H. T. Jonkman, and B. J. van Wees, "

  5. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), the Netherlands; and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa (CONACyT), Mexico. Operation of the ALS is supported by BES....

  6. Patterning Organic Electronics Based on Nanoimprint Lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Yi-Chen

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    with organic semiconductors. This technique was then used to fabricate passive-matrix organic light-emitting diode (PMOLED) arrays for flat-panel display applications. Fabrication of a self-aligned bottom gate electrode for organic metal semiconductor field...

  7. Patterning Organic Electronics Based on Nanoimprint Lithography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Yi-Chen

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters such as the solution concentration or the spin-coating speed, changes the sidewall dimension, which, after pattern transfer, also changes the structure dimension on the substrate. High-resolution trenches of about 15 nm have been achieved after...

  8. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Bernstein Wave

  9. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Bernstein

  10. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnetEffectiveElectricAprilElectrolyte

  11. Measuring Deuterium Enrichment of Glucose Hydrogen Atoms by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoniewicz, Maciek R.

    We developed a simple and accurate method for determining deuterium enrichment of glucose hydrogen atoms by electron impact gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). First, we prepared 18 derivatives of glucose and ...

  12. RSMASS: A simple model for estimating reactor and shield masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, A.C.; Aragon, J.; Gallup, D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple mathematical model (RSMASS) has been developed to provide rapid estimates of reactor and shield masses for space-based reactor power systems. Approximations are used rather than correlations or detailed calculations to estimate the reactor fuel mass and the masses of the moderator, structure, reflector, pressure vessel, miscellaneous components, and the reactor shield. The fuel mass is determined either by neutronics limits, thermal/hydraulic limits, or fuel damage limits, whichever yields the largest mass. RSMASS requires the reactor power and energy, 24 reactor parameters, and 20 shield parameters to be specified. This parametric approach should be applicable to a very broad range of reactor types. Reactor and shield masses calculated by RSMASS were found to be in good agreement with the masses obtained from detailed calculations.

  13. Top-Quark Mass Data and the Sum of Quasi-Degenerate Neutrino Masses (One small electroweak-bound e-parameter organizes elementary particle 3-flavor phenomenology)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. M. Lipmanov

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absolute neutrino masses and type of neutrino mass hierarchy are among the main problems in neutrino physics. Top-quark mass is another topical problem in particle physics. These problems extend the old puzzle of electron-muon mass ratio close to the fine structure constant, which is still not solved by known theory. Here I continue the search for a general flavor pattern that may incorporate these problems. Relations between neutrino/electron and electron/top-quark pole mass ratios are obtained from supposition that realistic elementary particle dimensionless bare flavor quantities are small deviated (measured by universal parameter e) from the values of a stated flavor pattern (at e=0) and experimental data hints. With the world average t-quark mass data the sum of QD-neutrino masses is estimated (0.50 +- 0.003)eV in agreement with cosmological constraints and known QD-neutrino mass estimations from experimental data on neutrino oscillation mass-squared differences.

  14. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Brian C. (Oakland, CA); Aloni, Shaul (Albany, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

    2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  15. Mass of Si-24

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tribble, Robert E.; Tanner, D. M.; Zeller, A. F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of a nuclear cdi than to accur- ately account for the trivial Coulomb contribution to the IMME coefficients. In addition to testing the IMME, mass measurements in isobaric quar- tets and quintets determine Coulomb energies rather far from... stability. Comparisons between these Coulomb energies and those obtained closer to stability may provide one such alternate method for determining the role of a nuclear cdi. The Coulomb energies determined for the A = 36 iso- baric quintet already point...

  16. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  17. Top Mass and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yen-Chu Chen

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The top quark was discovered in 1995. The top quark mass is now well measured at the Tevatron, with uncertainty getting below 1% of the top mass. The world average from last year was 170.9 $\\pm$ 1.8 GeV/$c^2$. The new CDF measurement is 172 $\\pm$ 1.2 (stat) $\\pm$ 1.5 (sys) GeV/$c^2$, and D0 will soon present a new measurement. The top quark mass is an important parameter in the Standard Model, and should be measured as precisely as possible. To learn more about the top quark observed and study possible new physics, other properties also should be measured. At the Tevatron, the charge of the top quark can be measured directly. Examples of other properties studied and reported in this presentation are W helicity, top decay branching ratio to b ($R_b$), searches for $t \\to H b$ and for flavor changing neutral current (FCNC). The results are all consistent with the Standard Model within current statistics. With significantly more data being collected at the Tevatron, precision measurements of the top properties are just starting.

  18. Flexible Electronics New Devices on Nearly Any Type of Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Flexible Electronics ­ New Devices on Nearly Any Type of Substrate by Angelika Boeer published: 2011-07-06 Flexible electronic devices ­ this is a fascinating topic and becoming more and more such as display systems, flexible and stretchable electronics, or other, no-waver-based devices. Sign up

  19. Deconstruction of Activity-Dependent Covalent Modification of Heme in Human Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase by Multistage Mass Spectrometry (MS[superscript 4])

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoghegan, Kieran F.; Varghese, Alison H.; Feng, Xidong; Bessire, Andrew J.; Conboy, James J.; Ruggeri, Roger B.; Ahn, Kay; Spath, Samantha N.; Filippov, Sergey V.; Conrad, Steven J.; Carpino, Philip A.; Guimarães, Cristiano R.W.; Vajdos, Felix F. (Pfizer)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is known to be inactivated and covalently modified by treatment with hydrogen peroxide and agents similar to 3-(2-ethoxypropyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-purin-6(9H)-one (1), a 254.08 Da derivative of 2-thioxanthine. Peptide mapping by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detected modification by 1 in a labile peptide-heme-peptide fragment of the enzyme, accompanied by a mass increase of 252.08 Da. The loss of two hydrogen atoms was consistent with mechanism-based oxidative coupling. Multistage mass spectrometry (MS{sup 4}) of the modified fragment in an ion trap/Orbitrap spectrometer demonstrated that 1 was coupled directly to heme. Use of a 10 amu window delivered the full isotopic envelope of each precursor ion to collision-induced dissociation, preserving definitive isotopic profiles for iron-containing fragments through successive steps of multistage mass spectrometry. Iron isotope signatures and accurate mass measurements supported the structural assignments. Crystallographic analysis confirmed linkage between the methyl substituent of the heme pyrrole D ring and the sulfur atom of 1. The final orientation of 1 perpendicular to the plane of the heme ring suggested a mechanism consisting of two consecutive one-electron oxidations of 1 by MPO. Multistage mass spectrometry using stage-specific collision energies permits stepwise deconstruction of modifications of heme enzymes containing covalent links between the heme group and the polypeptide chain.

  20. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  1. Matter & Energy Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    See also: Matter & Energy Electronics· Detectors· Technology· Construction· Sports Science Electronic Tongue Tastes Wine Variety, Vintage (Aug. 12, 2008) -- You don't need a wine expert to Advance

  2. Achromatic and Isochronous Electron Beam Transport for Free Electron Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bengtsson, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beamlines for Free Electron Lasers," LBL-28880 Preprint (Thirteenth mtemational Free Electron Laser Conference, SantaTransport for Tunable Free Electron Lasers 1. Bengtsson and

  3. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the...

  4. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  5. Dark Energy and Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the light of recent developments in Dark Energy, we consider the electron in a such a background field and show that at the Compton wavelength the electron is stable, in that the Cassini inward pressure exactly counterbalances the outward Coulomb repulsive pressure thus answering a problem of the earlier electron theory.

  6. Electron spin magnetism of zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Kun, E-mail: xu83@purdue.edu; Ye, Peide D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron spin states of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) edge play a pivotal role in the applications of graphene nanoribbons. However, the exact arrangements of the electron spins remain unclear to date. In this report, the electronic spin states of the ZGNR edge have been elucidated through a combination of quantum chemical investigation and previous electron spin resonance experiment observations. An alternating ? and ? spin configuration of the unpaired electrons along the ZGNR edge is established in ambient condition without any external magnetic field, and the origin of the spin magnetism of the ZGNR edge is revealed. It paves a pathway for the understanding and design of graphene based electronic and spintronic devices.

  7. Introduction to direct neutrino mass measurements and KATRIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Thümmler; for the KATRIN Collaboration

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of neutrinos and especially their rest mass play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. On the other hand experiments such as MARE, KATRIN and the recently proposed Project 8 will investigate the spectral shape of beta-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Here, because of neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. It combines an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source with an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. It will investigate the neutrino rest mass with 0.2 eV/c (90% C.L.) sensitivity and allow beta spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint at 18.6 keV with unprecedented precision.

  8. Higgs boson mass and new physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedor Bezrukov; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl; Mikhail Shaposhnikov

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling alpha_s to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure ("one-loop matching--two-loop running"). This results in reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in the Higgs boson mass bounds and predictions, associated with the Standard Model physics, to 1-2 GeV. We find that with the account of existing experimental uncertainties in the mass of the top quark and alpha_s (taken at 2sigma level) the bound reads M_H>=M_min (equality corresponds to the asymptotic safety prediction), where M_min=129+-6 GeV. We argue that the discovery of the SM Higgs boson in this range would be in agreement with the hypothesis of the absence of new energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales, whereas the coincidence of M_H with M_min would suggest that the electroweak scale is determined by Planck physics. In order to clarify the relation between the Fermi and Planck scale a construction of an electron-positron or muon collider with a center of mass energy ~200+200 GeV (Higgs and t-quark factory) would be needed.

  9. Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions G. Royer, M. Guilbaud, A. Onillon manuscript, published in "Nuclear Physics A 847 (2010) 24-41" DOI : 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.06.014 #12 including the pairing ef- fects have been firstly developed to reproduce the experimental nuclear masses [2

  10. Nuclear astrophysics and electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenk, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron beams provide important probes and constraints for nuclear astrophysics. This is especially exciting at energies within the regime of chiral effective field theory (EFT), which provides a systematic expansion for nuclear forces and electroweak operators based on quantum chromodynamics. This talk discusses some recent highlights and future directions based on chiral EFT, including nuclear structure and reactions for astrophysics, the neutron skin and constraints for the properties of neutron-rich matter in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, and the dark matter response of nuclei.

  11. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-Processed Graphene Electronics,” Nano Letters, vol.applications,” Organic Electronics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 249-design in organic electronics by dual-gate technology,” in

  12. Chemical oxidation of tryptic digests to improve sequence coverage in peptide mass fingerprint protein identification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Jessica Elaine

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) of protein digests is a widely-accepted method for protein identification in MS-based proteomic studies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) is the ...

  13. JLAB Electron Driver Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazimi, Reza [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several schemes have been proposed for adding a positron beam option at the Continuous Electron Beam Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB). They involve using a primary beam of electrons or gamma rays striking a target to produce a positron beam. At JLAB electron beams are produced and used in two different accelerators, CEBAF and the JLAB FEL (Free Electron Laser). Both have low emittance and energy spread. The CEBAF beam is polarized. The FEL beam is unpolarized but the injector can produce a higher current electron beam. In this paper we describe the characteristics of these beams and the parameters relevant for positron production.

  14. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  15. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  16. MASS 2-pager Andrei Tokovinin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    . After each 1-min. accumulation time, the MASS software, Turbina, calculates 10 scintillation indices ­ 4 functions centered on the respective layers. The altitude resolution of MASS is h/h 0.5. Turbina

  17. JEMMRLA - Electron Model of a Muon RLA with Multi-pass Arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Roblin, Yves R.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a demonstration experiment for a new concept of a 'dogbone' RLA with multi-pass return arcs -- JEMMRLA (Jlab Electron Model of Muon RLA). Such an RLA with linear-field multi-pass arcs was introduced for rapid acceleration of muons for the next generation of Muon Facilities. It allows for efficient use of expensive RF while the multi-pass arc design based on linear combined-function magnets exhibits a number of advantages over separate-arc or pulsed-arc designs. Here we describe a test of this concept by scaling a GeV scale muon design for electrons. Scaling muon momenta by the muon-to-electron mass ratio leads to a scheme, in which a 4.5 MeV electron beam is injected in the middle of a 3 MeV/pass linac with two double-pass return arcs and is accelerated to 18 MeV in 4.5 passes. All spatial dimensions including the orbit distortion are scaled by a factor of 7.5, which arises from scaling the 200 MHz muon RF to a readily available 1.5 GHz. The hardware requirements are not very demanding making it straightforward to implement. Such an RLA may have applications going beyond muon acceleration: in medical isotope production, radiation cancer therapy and homeland security.

  18. Electron Pulse Compression with a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yihua

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful method for studying time-resolved structural changes. Currently, space charge induced temporal broadening prevents obtaining high brightness electron pulses with sub-100 fs durations limiting the range of phenomena that can be studied with this technique. We review the state of the the art of UED in this respect and propose a practical design for reflectron based pulse compression which utilizes only electro-static optics and has a tunable temporal focal point. Our simulation shows that this scheme is capable of compressing an electron pulse containing 100,000 electrons with 60:1 temporal compression ratio.

  19. Turbulent electron transport in edge pedestal by electron temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego 92093-0424, California (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for turbulent electron thermal transport at the edge pedestal in high (H)-mode plasmas based on electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. A quasi-linear analysis of electrostatic toroidal ETG modes shows that both turbulent electron thermal diffusivity and hyper-resistivity exhibits the Ohkawa scaling in which the radial correlation length of turbulence becomes the order of electron skin depth. Combination of the Ohkawa scales and the plasma current dependence results in a novel confinement scaling inside the pedestal region. It is also shown that ETG turbulence induces a thermoelectric pinch, which may accelerate the density pedestal formation.

  20. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this proceedings I review the physics that future experiments will use to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  1. Textures with two traceless submatrices of the neutrino mass matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. A. Alhendi; E. I. Lashin; A. A. Mudlej

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new texture for the light neutrino mass matrix. The proposal is based upon imposing zero-trace condition on the two by two sub-matrices of the complex symmetric Majorana mass matrix in the flavor basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal. Restricting the mass matrix to have two traceless sub-matrices may be found sufficient to describe the current data. Eight out of fifteen independent possible cases are found to be compatible with current data. Numerical and some approximate analytical results are presented.

  2. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  3. Electron thermal conductivity owing to collisions between degenerate electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the thermal conductivity of electrons produced by electron-electron Coulomb scattering in a strongly degenerate electron gas taking into account the Landau damping of transverse plasmons. The Landau damping strongly reduces this conductivity in the domain of ultrarelativistic electrons at temperatures below the electron plasma temperature. In the inner crust of a neutron star at temperatures T scattering and becomes competitive with the the electron conductivity due to scattering of electrons by impurity ions.

  4. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  5. Improved operation of the nonambipolar electron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longmier, Ben; Hershkowitz, Noah [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant improvements have been made to the nonambipolar electron source (NES), a radio frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface [B. Longmier, S. Baalrud, and N. Hershkowitz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 113504 (2006)]. A prototype NES has produced 30 A of continuous electron current, using 2 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) Xe, 1300 W rf power at 13.56 MHz, yielding a 180 times gas utilization factor. A helicon mode transition has also been identified during NES operation with an argon propellant, using 15 SCCM Ar, 1000 W rf, and 100 G magnetic field. This NES technology has the ability to replace hollow cathode electron sources and to enable high power electric propulsion missions, eliminating one of the lifetime restrictions that many ion thrusters have previously been faced with.

  6. Extraction of radiative and nonradiative rates in Sb based midwave infrared lasers using a novel approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay

    of applications such as remote sensing, LADAR, detection of chemical warfare agents, intelligence, surveillance for fabricating MWIR lasers employs antimonide based materials. Electronic and opto- electronic devices based

  7. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM); Main, John Alan (Lexington, KY); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Henson, Tammy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  8. Tachyonic Field Theory and Neutrino Mass Running

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. D. Jentschura

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper three things are done. (i) We investigate the analogues of Cerenkov radiation for the decay of a superluminal neutrino and calculate the Cerenkov angles for the emission of a photon through a W loop, and for a collinear electron-positron pair, assuming the tachyonic dispersion relation for the superluminal neutrino. The decay rate of a freely propagating neutrino is found to depend on the shape of the assumed dispersion relation, and is found to decrease with decreasing tachyonic mass of the neutrino. (ii) We discuss a few properties of the tachyonic Dirac equation (symmetries and plane-wave solutions), which may be relevant for the description of superluminal neutrinos seen by the OPERA experiment, and discuss the calculation of the tachyonic propagator. (iii) In the absence of a commonly accepted tachyonic field theory, and in view of an apparent "running" of the observed neutrino mass with the energy, we write down a model Lagrangian, which describes a Yukawa-type interaction of a neutrino coupling to a scalar background field via a scalar-minus-pseudoscalar interaction. This constitutes an extension of the standard model. If the interaction is strong, then it leads to a substantial renormalization-group "running" of the neutrino mass and could potentially explain the experimental observations.

  9. Di-electron Continuum at PHENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorito Yamaguchi; for the PHENIX collaboration

    2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has been carried out to investigate the properties of QGP. Di-electron yields in p+p and Au+Au collisions have been measured. An enhancement of the yield over a hadronic cocktail calculation is clearly seen for $p_{T} electron yield is measured from a shape analysis using the di-electron mass distributions for $1.0 < p_{T} < 5.0 $GeV/$c$ and $m_{ee} < 300 $MeV/$c^{2}$, and the real direct photon spectra are deduced from the fractions obtained for p+p and Au+Au collisions. An excess of the direct photon yield above a binary-scaled p+p result is seen in Au+Au collisions. The excess is fitted with an exponential function with an inverse slope parameter of $221 \\pm 23 \\pm 18 $MeV.

  10. Measurements of the tau mass and the mass difference of the tau+ and tau- at BABAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Peter H.

    We present the result from a precision measurement of the mass of the tau lepton, M?, based on 423??fb[subscript -1] of data recorded at the ?(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. Using a pseudomass endpoint method, we ...

  11. Electronic Compliance and Approval Project (ECAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Hope; Varela, Richard A.; LaHood, Deborah; Cisco, Susan; Benavides, Mary Ann; Burks, Donna

    2002-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Texas Railroad Commission (RRC), working in partnership with the United States Department of Energy and the oil and gas industry it regulates, implemented a strategy for improving efficiency in regulations and significantly reducing administrative operating costs through the Electronic Compliance and Approval Process (ECAP). This project streamlined regulatory compliance and reporting by providing the ability to electronically submit, process, and query oil and gas applications and reports through the Internet-based ECAP system.

  12. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  13. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besley, Nicholas A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  14. Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Chai, G.; Heinrich, H.; Chow, L.; Schenkel, T.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the transport of energetic electrons through single, well aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). Embedding of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables the application of focused ion beam based sample preparation techniques for the non-destructive isolation and alignment of individual tubes. Aligned tubes with lengths of 0.7 to 3 mu m allow transport of 300 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope through their hollow cores at zero degree incident angles and for a misalignment of up to 1 degree.

  15. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloß, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jüttner, G., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Löser, C., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Michaelis, J., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Krajewsky, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de [Kunststoff-Zentrum in Leipzig gGmbH (KuZ), Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  16. Prospects to Measure the Higgs Boson Mass and Cross Section in ee-->ZH Using the Recoil Mass Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Lohmann; M. Ohlerich; A. Raspereza; A. Schälicke

    2007-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The process ee-->ZH allows to measure the Higgs boson in the recoil mass spectrum against the Z boson without any assumptions on the Higgs boson decay. We performed a full simulation and reconstruction of ee-->ZH using the MOKKA and MARLIN packages describing the LDC detector. The Z is reconstructed from its decays into electrons and muons. The mass of the Higgs boson is set to 120 GeV. Assuming a centre-of-mass energy of 250 GeV and an integrated luminosity of 50/fb the Higgs boson mass and the Higgs-strahlung cross section can be measured with a precision of 120 MeV and 9%, respectively.

  17. Prospects to Measure the Higgs Boson Mass and Cross Section in ee-->ZH Using the Recoil Mass Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohmann, W; Raspereza, A; Schälicke, A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process ee-->ZH allows to measure the Higgs boson in the recoil mass spectrum against the Z boson without any assumptions on the Higgs boson decay. We performed a full simulation and reconstruction of ee-->ZH using the MOKKA and MARLIN packages describing the LDC detector. The Z is reconstructed from its decays into electrons and muons. The mass of the Higgs boson is set to 120 GeV. Assuming a centre-of-mass energy of 250 GeV and an integrated luminosity of 50/fb the Higgs boson mass and the Higgs-strahlung cross section can be measured with a precision of 120 MeV and 9%, respectively.

  18. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kilgour, David P.; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B.; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image and then these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode ?Datacubes? for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  19. WMAPping out Neutrino Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron Pierce; Hitoshi Murayama

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent data from from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND). We also note that the Heidelberg--Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

  20. Method for analyzing the mass of a sample using a cold cathode ionization source mass filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.