National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mass electron based

  1. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  2. Electron Ionization Mass Spectrum of Tellurium Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Richard A.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Peterson, James M.; Govind, Niranjan; Andersen, Amity; Abrecht, David G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2015-05-18

    The first electron ionization mass spectrum of tellurium hexafluoride (TeF6) is reported. The starting material was produced by direct fluorination of Te metal or TeO2 with nitrogen trifluoride. Formation of TeF6 was confirmed through cryogenic capture of the tellurium fluorination product and analysis through Raman spectroscopy. The eight natural abundance isotopes were observed for each of the set of fragment ions: TeF5+, TeF4+ TeF3+, TeF2+, TeF1+, and Te+, Te2+. A trend in increasing abundance was observed for the even fluoride bearing ions: TeF1+ < TeF3+ < TeF5+, and a decreasing abundance was observed for the even fragment series: Te(0)+ > TeF2+ > TeF4+ > TeF6+, with the molecular ion TeF6+ not observed at all. Density functional theory based electronic structure calculations were used to calculate optimized ground state geometries of these gas phase species and their relative stabilities explain the trends in the data and the lack of observed signal for TeF6+.

  3. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  4. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  5. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stretchable polymer-based electronic device Title: Stretchable polymer-based electronic device A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to ...

  6. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, R. T.; Mojarradi, M.; MacAskill, J. A.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Shortt, B. J.

    2008-09-15

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  7. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  8. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant...

  9. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of

  10. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One clue lies in whether the electrons in...

  11. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  12. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  13. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  14. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  15. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  16. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  17. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  18. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Benett, William J.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2008-02-26

    A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to produce a circuit or electronic device containing a stretchable conducting circuit. The stretchable electronic apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body. The circuit line extends in the longitudinal direction and has a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and has an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal component and the offset component allow the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the circuit line.

  19. ERL BASED ELECTRON-ION COLLIDER ERHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.; BEN-ZVI,I.; ANDERSON,D.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper we describe eRHIC design based on the RHIC hadron rings and 10-to-20 GeV energy recovery electron linac. RHIC requires a very large tunability range for c.m. energies while maintaining very high luminosity up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} per nucleon. The designs of this future polarized electron-hadron collider, eRHIC, based on a high current super-conducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) with energy of electrons up to 20 GeV, have a number of specific requirements on the ERL optics. Two of the most attractive features of this scheme are full spin transparency of the ERL at all operational energies and the capability to support up to four interaction points. We present two main layouts of the eRHIC, the expected beam and luminosity parameter, and discuss the potential limitation of its performance. Two of the most attractive features of this scheme are full spin transparency of the ERL at all operational energies and the capability to support up to four interaction points. We present two main layouts of the eRHIC, the expected beam and luminosity parameter, and discuss the potential limitation of its performance.

  20. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different theoretical models and experimental data indicated that, instead of localized states due to strong electron interactions, electrons in iron pnictides prefer...

  1. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Abhronil Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik

    2015-04-06

    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ?3 lower power than a 45?nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ?80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.

  2. CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Denney, Kelly D., E-mail: pds2001@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jjshin@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2013-06-20

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  3. Enzyme Nanoparticles-Based Electronic Biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Ostatna, V.; Wang, Joseph

    2005-06-28

    A novel method for fabricating electronic biosensors based on coupling enzyme nanoparticles and self assembly technology is illustrated. Redox horseradish peroxidase nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation with ethanol and subsequent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The cross-linked enzyme nanoparticles were functionalized by cysteine to introduce thiol groups on the nanoparticle surface. Immobilized enzyme nanoparticle on the gold electrode by self-assembly kept redox and electrocatalytic activities, and was used to develop reagentless biosensors for H2O2 detection without promoters and mediators. The new approach is simple, low cost and circumvents complications associated with solution systems. It is a universal immobilization method for biosensor, biomedical devices, biofuel cells and enzymatic bioreactors fabrication and expected to open new opportunities for biosensor, clinical diagnostics, and for bioanalysis, in general.

  4. Measurement of the electron antineutrino mass from the beta spectrum of gaseous tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the mass of the electron antineutrino using the beta spectrum from a source of gaseous molecular tritium, and an upper limit of 36 eV/c/sup 2/ has been set on this mass. This measurement is the first upper limit on neutrino mass that does not rely on assumptions about the atomic configuration after the beta decay, and it has significantly smaller systematic errors associated with it than do previous measurements. 130 refs., 83 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which prevents two electrons from occupying the same site, resulting in a so-called Mott insulator. The lack of information on the strength of electron correlation in the iron...

  6. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  7. Kinetic electron and ion instability of the lunar wake simulated at physical mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt Hutchinson, Ian H. Zhou, Chuteng

    2015-03-15

    The solar wind wake behind the moon is studied with 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using a physical ion to electron mass ratio (unlike prior investigations); the simulations also apply more generally to supersonic flow of dense magnetized plasma past non-magnetic objects. A hybrid electrostatic Boltzmann electron treatment is first used to investigate the ion stability in the absence of kinetic electron effects, showing that the ions are two-stream unstable for downstream wake distances (in lunar radii) greater than about three times the solar wind Mach number. Simulations with PIC electrons are then used to show that kinetic electron effects can lead to disruption of the ion beams at least three times closer to the moon than in the hybrid simulations. This disruption occurs as the result of a novel wake phenomenon: the non-linear growth of electron holes spawned from a narrow dimple in the electron velocity distribution. Most of the holes arising from the dimple are small and quickly leave the wake, approximately following the unperturbed electron phase-space trajectories, but some holes originating near the center of the wake remain and grow large enough to trigger disruption of the ion beams. Non-linear kinetic-electron effects are therefore essential to a comprehensive understanding of the 1D electrostatic stability of such wakes, and possible observational signatures in ARTEMIS data from the lunar wake are discussed.

  8. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  9. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  10. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Sm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ?11MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (?100 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  11. Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for

  12. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature...

  13. Electron impact action spectroscopy of mass/charge selected macromolecular ions: Inner-shell excitation of ubiquitin protein

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rankovic, Milos Lj.; Giuliani, Alexandre; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar R.

    2016-02-11

    In this study, we have performed inner-shell electron impact action spectroscopy of mass and charge selected macromolecular ions. For this purpose, we have coupled a focusing electron gun with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This experiment represents a proof of principle that an energy-tunable electron beam can be used in combination with radio frequency traps as an activation method in tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) and allows performing action spectroscopy. Electron impact MS2 spectra of multiply protonated ubiquitin protein ion have been recorded at incident electron energies around the carbon 1s excitation. Both MS2 and single ionization energy dependencemore » spectra are compared with literature data obtained using the soft X-ray activation conditions.« less

  14. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  15. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  16. Conversion of experimental half-life to effective electron neutrino mass in 0nubetabeta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolnikov, Anatoly; Grabmayr, Peter [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) collaboration will be searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. As a result it will measure the half-life T{sub 1/2} of this rare process; or at least a new value for the lower limit for T{sub 1/2} will be derived. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment on the effective electron neutrino mass depends on the theoretical value for the nuclear matrix element M and the kinematical phase space factor G.In this Brief Report we focus on existing difficulties in applying the dimensionless values of M calculated by various theoretical groups, which use different methods and parametrizations. The implicit radius dependencies in M and G are discussed. Resulting values of the neutrino mass are tabulated for various representative half-lives T{sub 1/2} representing the sensitivity of the various phases of the GERDA experiment.

  17. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  18. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  19. Electron-doping of graphene-based devices by hydrazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Tingting; Xie, Dan; Wang, Dongxia; Wen, Lang; Wu, Mengqiang

    2014-12-14

    A facile and effective technique to tune the electronic properties of graphene is essential to facilitate the flexibility of graphene-based device performances. Here, the use of hydrazine as a solution-processable and effective n-type dopant for graphene is described. By dropping hydrazine solutions at different concentrations on a graphene surface, the Dirac point of graphene can be remarkably tuned. The transport behavior of graphene can be changed from p-type to n-type accordingly, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of the hydrazine solutions. Accompanying the Dirac point shift is an enhanced hysteretic behavior of the graphene conductance, indicating an increasing trap state density induced by the hydrazine adsorbates. The electron-doping of graphene by the hydrazine solutions can be additionally confirmed with graphene/p-type silicon heterojunctions. The decrease of the junction current after the hydrazine treatment demonstrates an increase of the junction barrier between graphene and silicon, which is essentially due to the electron-doping of graphene and the resultant upshift of the Fermi level. Finally, partially doped graphene is realized and its electrical property is studied to demonstrate the potential of the hydrazine solutions to selectively electron-doping graphene for future electronic applications.

  20. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yue

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  1. The VME-based D0 muon trigger electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortner, M; Green, J; Hedin, D; Morphis, R; Repond, S; Willis, S; Zazula, R; Johns, K; Bazizi, K; Fahland, T; Hall, R E; Jerger, S; Lietzke, C; Smith, D; Butler, J M; Diehl, H T; Eartly, D; Fitzpatrick, T; Green, D; Haggerty, H; Hansen, S; Hawkins, J; Igarashi, S; Joestlein, H

    1990-11-01

    The trigger electronics for the muon system of the Fermilab D0 detector is described. The hardware trigger consists of VME-based cards designed to find probable tracks in individual chambers and then match these track segments. The fast trigger is highly parallel and able to discern probable tracks from about 15,000 trigger cells in under 200 ns from receipt of all bits in the counting house. There is a parallel confirmation trigger with a response time of 1--5 microseconds that provides a crude calculation of the momentum and charge of the muon. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  2. High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

    1996-09-01

    This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

  3. A reliability and mass perspective of SP-100 Stirling cycle lunar-base powerplant designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose was to obtain reliability and mass perspectives on selection of space power system conceptual designs based on SP-100 reactor and Stirling cycle power-generation subsystems. The approach taken was to: (1) develop a criterion for an acceptable overall reliability risk as a function of the expected range of emerging technology subsystem unit reliabilities; (2) conduct reliability and mass analyses for a diverse matrix of 800-kWe lunar-base design configurations employing single and multiple powerplants with both full and partial subsystem redundancy combinations; and (3) derive reliability and mass perspectives on selection of conceptual design configurations that meet an acceptable reliability criterion with the minimum system mass increase relative to reference powerplant design. The developed perspectives provided valuable insight into the considerations required to identify and characterize high-reliability and low-mass lunar-base powerplant conceptual design.

  4. Multilevel learning-based segmentation of ill-defined and spiculated masses in mammograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Yimo; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Makariou, Erini; Xuan, Jianhua

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: A learning-based approach integrating the use of pixel-level statistical modeling and spiculation detection is presented for the segmentation of mammographic masses with ill-defined margins and spiculations. Methods: The algorithm involves a multiphase pixel-level classification, using a comprehensive group of features computed from regional intensity, shape, and textures, to generate a mass-conditional probability map (PM). Then, the mass candidate, along with the background clutters consisting of breast fibroglandular and other nonmass tissues, is extracted from the PM by integrating the prior knowledge of shape and location of masses. A multiscale steerable ridge detection algorithm is employed to detect spiculations. Finally, all the object-level findings, including mass candidate, detected spiculations, and clutters, along with the PM, are integrated by graph cuts to generate the final segmentation mask. Results: The method was tested on 54 masses (51 malignant and 3 benign), all with ill-defined margins and irregular shape or spiculations. The ground truth delineations were provided by five experienced radiologists. Area overlapping ratio of 0.689 ({+-}0.160) and 0.540 ({+-}0.164) were obtained for segmenting entire mass and margin portion only, respectively. Williams index of area and contour based measurements indicated that the segmentation results of the algorithm agreed well with the radiologists' delineation. Conclusions: The proposed approach could closely delineate the mass body. Most importantly, it is capable of including mass margin and its spicule extensions which are considered as key features for breast lesion analyses.

  5. An electronic laboratory notebook based on HTML forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marstaller, J.E.; Zorn, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    The electronic notebook records information that has traditionally been kept in handwritten laboratory notebooks. It keeps detailed information about the progress of the research , such as the optimization of primers, the screening of the primers and, finally, the mapping of the probes. The notebook provides two areas of services: Data entry, and reviewing of data in all stages. The World wide Web browsers, with HTML based forms provide a fast and easy mechanism to create forms-based user interfaces. The computer scientist can sit down with the biologist and rapidly make changes in response to the user`s comments. Furthermore the HTML forms work equally well on a number of different hardware platforms; thus the biologists may continue using their Macintosh computers and find a familiar interface if they have to work on a Unix workstation. The web browser can be run from any machine connected to the Internet: thus the users are free to enter or view information even away from their labs at home or while on travel. Access can be restricted by password and other means to secure the confidentiality of the data. A bonus that is hard to implement otherwise is the facile connection to outside resources. Linking local information to data in public databases is only a hypertext link away with little or no additional programming efforts.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim E.; Wunschel, David S.; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martinez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2014-02-03

    IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

  7. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks onmore » the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.« less

  8. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  9. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-09-15

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  10. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768 0812

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  11. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Xu, Li-Hong

    2011-12-15

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  12. FIRST COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROTON-TO-ELECTRON MASS RATIO FROM OBSERVATIONS OF ROTATIONAL TRANSITIONS OF METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Voronkov, M. A.; Breen, S. L.

    2012-03-15

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to measure the absorption from the 2{sub 0} {yields} 3{sub -1} E 12.2 GHz transition of methanol toward the z = 0.89 lensing galaxy in the PKS B1830-211 gravitational lens system. Comparison of the velocity of the main absorption feature with the published absorption spectrum from the 1{sub 0} {yields} 2{sub -1} E transition of methanol shows that they differ by -0.6 {+-} 1.6 km s{sup -1}. We can use these observations to constrain the changes in the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu} from z = 0.89 to the present to 0.8 {+-} 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. This result is consistent, and of similar precision to recent observations at z = 0.68 achieved through comparison of a variety of rotational and inversion transitions, and approximately a factor of two better than previous constraints obtained in this source. Future more sensitive observations that incorporate additional rotational methanol transitions offer the prospect of improving current results by a factor of 5-10.

  13. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  14. Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a ...

  15. Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers ...

  16. Final Technical Report- Back-gate Field Emission-based Cathode RF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Gary; Martin, Allen; Noonan, John

    2010-10-30

    The objective was to complete the design of an electron gun which utilizes a radio frequency (RF) power source to apply a voltage to a field emission (FE) cathode, a so called cold cathode, in order to produce an electron beam. The concept of the RF electron gun was originally conceived at Argonne National Laboratory but never reduced to practice. The research allowed the completion of the design based upon the integration of the FE electron source. Compared to other electron guns, the RF gun is very compact, less than one third the size of other comparable guns, and produces a high energy (to several MeV), high quality, high power electron beam with a long focal length with high repetition rates. The resultant electron gun may be used in welding, materials processing, analytical equipment and waste treatment.

  17. A Hybrid Approach to Protein Differential Expression in Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xuan; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2012-04-19

    Motivation: Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics involves statistical inference on protein abundance, based on the intensities of each protein's associated spectral peaks. However, typical MS-based proteomics data sets have substantial proportions of missing observations, due at least in part to censoring of low intensities. This complicates intensity-based differential expression analysis. Results: We outline a statistical method for protein differential expression, based on a simple Binomial likelihood. By modeling peak intensities as binary, in terms of 'presence/ absence,' we enable the selection of proteins not typically amendable to quantitative analysis; e.g., 'one-state' proteins that are present in one condition but absent in another. In addition, we present an analysis protocol that combines quantitative and presence/ absence analysis of a given data set in a principled way, resulting in a single list of selected proteins with a single associated FDR.

  18. Betatron radiation based measurement of the electron-beam size in a wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander; Reuter, Maria; and others

    2012-07-09

    We present a spatial and spectral characterization of a laser-plasma based betatron source which allows us to determine the betatron oscillation amplitude of the electrons which decreases with increasing electron energies. Due to the observed oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8{+-}0.3){mu}m we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6{+-}0.3){mu}m.

  19. A micro seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer technology for planetary exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Tang, Rui; Carande, Bryce; Oiler, Jonathan; Zaitsev, Dmitri; Agafonov, Vadim; Yu, Hongyu; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287

    2013-05-13

    This letter describes an implementation of micromachined seismometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET) technology. As opposed to a solid inertial mass, MET seismometer senses the movement of liquid electrolyte relative to fixed electrodes. The employment of micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques reduces the internal size of the sensing cell to 1{mu}m and improves the reproducibility of the device. For operating bias of 600 mV, a sensitivity of 809 V/(m/s{sup 2}) was measured under acceleration of 400{mu}g(g{identical_to}9.81m/s{sup 2}) at 0.32 Hz. A -115 dB (relative to (m/s{sup 2})/{radical}(Hz)) noise level at 1 Hz was achieved. This work develops an alternative paradigm of seismic sensing device with small size, high sensitivity, low noise floor, high shock tolerance, and independence of installation angle, which is promising for next generation seismometers for planetary exploration.

  20. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  1. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  2. Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adli, E.; Gessner, S. J.; Corde, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Bjerke, H. H.

    2015-02-09

    We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for measuring large beam sizes, with large photon yield per beam charge and excellent signal linearity with beam charge. Furthermore, the profile monitor signal is independent of the particle energy for ultrarelativistic particles. Different design and parameter considerations are discussed. A Cherenkov light-based profile monitor has been installed at the FACET User Facility at SLAC. Finally,more » we report on the measured performance of this profile monitor.« less

  3. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Juan; Liu, Chenlian; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-06

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  4. Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cuprate superconductors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate superconductors Authors: Miller, Tristan L. ; Ärrälä, Minna ; Smallwood, Christopher L. ; Zhang, Wentao ; Hafiz, Hasnain ; Barbiellini, Bernardo ; Kurashima, Koshi ; Adachi, Tadashi ; Koike, Yoji ; Eisaki,

  5. Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron thermal transport within magnetic islands in the reversed-field pinch a... H. D. Stephens, 1,b͒ D. J. Den Hartog, 1,3 C. C. Hegna, 1,2 and J. A. Reusch 1 1 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 2 Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of

  6. Electron Microscopy > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction Electron Microscopy Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscope Facility Electron...

  7. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  8. Electronically conductive perovskite-based oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Schultz, Andrew M

    2015-04-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has a perovskite-based crystal structure and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has an empirical formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta., where A is at least a first element at the A-site, B is at least a second element at the B-site, and where 0.8electronically conducting perovskite-based oxides include but are not limited to La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCoO.sub.3, La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xMnO.sub.3, LaCrO.sub.3, LaNiO.sub.3, La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xMn.sub.1-yCr.sub.yO.sub.3, SrFeO.sub.3, SrVO.sub.3, La-doped SrTiO.sub.3, Nb-doped SrTiO.sub.3, and SrTiO.sub.3-.delta..

  9. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  10. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  11. Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gradient undulator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse gradient undulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse gradient undulator Authors: Baxevanis, Panagiotis ; Huang, Zhirong ; Ruth, Ronald ; Schroeder, Carl B. Publication Date: 2015-01-27 OSTI Identifier: 1181185 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231; AC02-76SF00515

  12. Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-09

    An integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane-based microfluidic emitter for high performance nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) has been fabricated and evaluated. The ~100-?m-thick emitter was created by cutting a PDMS membrane that protrudes beyond the bulk substrate. The reduced surface area at the emitter enhances the electric field and reduces wetting of the surface by the electrospray solvent. As such, the emitter provides highly stable electrospray at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min, and is compatible with electrospray solvents containing a large organic component (e.g., 90% methanol). This approach enables facile emitter construction, and provides excellent stability, reproducibility and sensitivity, as well as compatibility with multilayer soft lithography.

  13. Structural Analysis of a Highly Glycosylated and Unliganded gp120-Based Antigen Using Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L Wang; Y Qin; S Ilchenko; J Bohon; W Shi; M Cho; K Takamoto; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Structural characterization of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is very important for providing an understanding of the protein's immunogenicity and its binding to cell receptors. So far, the crystallographic structure of gp120 with an intact V3 loop (in the absence of a CD4 coreceptor or antibody) has not been determined. The third variable region (V3) of the gp120 is immunodominant and contains glycosylation signatures that are essential for coreceptor binding and entry of the virus into T-cells. In this study, we characterized the structure of the outer domain of gp120 with an intact V3 loop (gp120-OD8) purified from Drosophila S2 cells utilizing mass spectrometry-based approaches. We mapped the glycosylation sites and calculated the glycosylation occupancy of gp120-OD8; 11 sites from 15 glycosylation motifs were determined as having high-mannose or hybrid glycosylation structures. The specific glycan moieties of nine glycosylation sites from eight unique glycopeptides were determined by a combination of ECD and CID MS approaches. Hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was employed to provide detailed information about protein structure of gp120-OD8 by directly identifying accessible and hydroxyl radical-reactive side chain residues. Comparison of gp120-OD8 experimental footprinting data with a homology model derived from the ligated CD4-gp120-OD8 crystal structure revealed a flexible V3 loop structure in which the V3 tip may provide contacts with the rest of the protein while residues in the V3 base remain solvent accessible. In addition, the data illustrate interactions between specific sugar moieties and amino acid side chains potentially important to the gp120-OD8 structure.

  14. Design of a proton-electron beam overlap monitor for the new RHIC electron lens, based on detecting energetic backscattered electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieberger T.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Minty, M.; Miller, T.; Montag, C.; Pikin, A.

    2012-04-15

    The optimal performance of the two electron lenses that are being implemented for high intensity polarized proton operation of RHIC requires excellent collinearity of the {approx}0.3 mm RMS wide electron beams with the proton bunch trajectories over the {approx}2m interaction lengths. The main beam overlap diagnostic tool will make use of electrons backscattered in close encounters with the relativistic protons. These electrons will spiral along the electron guiding magnetic field and will be detected in a plastic scintillator located close to the electron gun. A fraction of these electrons will have energies high enough to emerge from the vacuum chamber through a thin window thus simplifying the design and operation of the detector. The intensity of the detected electrons provides a measure of the overlap between the e- and the opposing proton beams. Joint electron arrival time and energy discrimination may be used additionally to gain some longitudinal position information with a single detector per lens.

  15. Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl) borate (BIM4) based zwitterionic and related molecules used as electron injection layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Huaping; Xu, Yunhua; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2013-02-05

    Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate (BIm4) based zwitterionic and/or related molecules for the fabrication of PLEDs is provided. Device performances with these materials approaches that of devices with Ba/Al cathodes for which the cathode contact is ohmic. Methods of producing such materials, and electron injection layers and devices containing these materials are also provided.

  16. Constraint-Based Modeling of Carbon Fixation and the Energetics of Electron Transfer in Geobacter metallireducens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feist, AM; Nagarajan, H; Rotaru, AE; Tremblay, PL; Zhang, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR; Zengler, K

    2014-04-24

    Geobacter species are of great interest for environmental and biotechnology applications as they can carry out direct electron transfer to insoluble metals or other microorganisms and have the ability to assimilate inorganic carbon. Here, we report on the capability and key enabling metabolic machinery of Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 to carry out CO2 fixation and direct electron transfer to iron. An updated metabolic reconstruction was generated, growth screens on targeted conditions of interest were performed, and constraint-based analysis was utilized to characterize and evaluate critical pathways and reactions in G. metallireducens. The novel capability of G. metallireducens to grow autotrophically with formate and Fe(III) was predicted and subsequently validated in vivo. Additionally, the energetic cost of transferring electrons to an external electron acceptor was determined through analysis of growth experiments carried out using three different electron acceptors (Fe(III), nitrate, and fumarate) by systematically isolating and examining different parts of the electron transport chain. The updated reconstruction will serve as a knowledgebase for understanding and engineering Geobacter and similar species. Author Summary The ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons directly with their environment has large implications for our knowledge of industrial and environmental processes. For decades, it has been known that microbes can use electrodes as electron acceptors in microbial fuel cell settings. Geobacter metallireducens has been one of the model organisms for characterizing microbe-electrode interactions as well as environmental processes such as bioremediation. Here, we significantly expand the knowledge of metabolism and energetics of this model organism by employing constraint-based metabolic modeling. Through this analysis, we build the metabolic pathways necessary for carbon fixation, a desirable property for industrial chemical production. We further discover a novel growth condition which enables the characterization of autotrophic (i.e., carbon-fixing) metabolism in Geobacter. Importantly, our systems-level modeling approach helped elucidate the key metabolic pathways and the energetic cost associated with extracellular electron transfer. This model can be applied to characterize and engineer the metabolism and electron transfer capabilities of Geobacter for biotechnological applications.

  17. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2010-09-30

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  18. Estimation of the electron density and radiative energy losses in a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potanin, E. P. Ustinov, A. L.

    2013-06-15

    The parameters of a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge were calculated. The analysis was performed as applied to an ion cyclotron resonance system designed for separation of calcium isotopes. The plasma electrons in the source were heated by gyrotron microwave radiation in the zone of the inhomogeneous magnetic field. It was assumed that, in such a combined trap, the energy of the extraordinary microwave propagating from the high-field side was initially transferred to a small group of resonance electrons. As a result, two electron components with different transverse temperatures-the hot resonance component and the cold nonresonance component-were created in the plasma. The longitudinal temperatures of both components were assumed to be equal. The entire discharge space was divided into a narrow ECR zone, where resonance electrons acquired transverse energy, and the region of the discharge itself, where the gas was ionized. The transverse energy of resonance electrons was calculated by solving the equations for electron motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Using the law of energy conservation and the balance condition for the number of hot electrons entering the discharge zone and cooled due to ionization and elastic collisions, the density of hot electrons was estimated and the dependence of the longitudinal temperature T{sub e Parallel-To} of the main (cold) electron component on the energy fraction {beta} lost for radiation was obtained.

  19. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascali, D. Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Universit Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dellInformazione, delle Infrastrutture e dellEnergia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria ; Sorbello, G.; Universit degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this barrier confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  20. OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E. Wes; Northen, Trent R.; Bowen, Benjamin P.

    2013-10-02

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis.

  1. ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

    2010-09-01

    Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  2. UV-Vis, infrared, and mass spectroscopy of electron irradiated frozen oxygen and carbon dioxide mixtures with water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Ozone has been detected on the surface of Ganymede via observation of the Hartley band through the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and is largely agreed upon to be formed by radiolytic processing via interaction of magnetospheric energetic ions and/or electrons with oxygen-bearing ices on Ganymede's surface. Interestingly, a clearly distinct band near 300 nm within the shoulder of the UV-Vis spectrum of Ganymede was also observed, but currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. Consequently, the primary motivation behind this work was the collection of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy of ozone formation by energetic electron bombardment of a variety of oxygen-bearing ices (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water) relevant to this moon as well as other solar system. Ozone was indeed synthesized in pure ices of molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide and a mixture of water and oxygen, in agreement with previous studies. The Hartley band of the ozone synthesized in these ice mixtures was observed in the UV-Vis spectra and compared with the spectrum of Ganymede. In addition, a solid state ozone absorption cross section of 6.0 0.6 10{sup 17} cm{sup 2} molecule{sup 1} was obtained from the UV-Vis spectral data. Ozone was not produced in the irradiated carbon dioxide-water mixtures; however, a spectrally 'red' UV continuum is observed and appears to reproduce well what is observed in a large number of icy moons such as Europa.

  3. Electron - polar acoustical phonon interactions in nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well via hot electron magnetotransport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.

  4. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion ponent of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the electrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  5. In situ electrical characterization of palladium-based single electron transistors made by electromigration technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arzubiaga, L.; Llopis, R.; Golmar, F.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    2014-11-15

    We report the fabrication of single electron transistors (SETs) by feedback-controlled electromigration of palladium and palladium-nickel alloy nanowires. We have optimized a gradual electromigration process for obtaining devices consisting of three terminals (source, drain and gate electrodes), which are capacitively coupled to a metallic cluster of nanometric dimensions. This metal nanocluster forms into the inter-electrode channel during the electromigration process and constitutes the active element of each device, acting as a quantum dot that rules the electron flow between source and drain electrodes. The charge transport of the as-fabricated devices shows Coulomb blockade characteristics and the source to drain conductance can be modulated by electrostatic gating. We have thus achieved the fabrication and in situ measurement of palladium-based SETs inside a liquid helium cryostat chamber.

  6. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

  7. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Douglas, David R.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Nissen, Edward W.

    2013-05-01

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  8. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion component of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the elecrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  9. Web-based Electronic Sharing and RE-allocation of Assets

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-09

    The Electronic Asses Sharing Program is a web-based application that provides the capability for complex-wide sharing and reallocation of assets that are excess, under utilized, or un-utilized. through a web-based fron-end and supporting has database with a search engine, users can search for assets that they need, search for assets needed by others, enter assets they need, and enter assets they have available for reallocation. In addition, entire listings of available assets and needed assetsmore » can be viewed. The application is written in Java, the hash database and search engine are in Object-oriented Java Database Management (OJDBM). The application will be hosted on an SRS-managed server outside the Firewall and access will be controlled via a protected realm. An example of the application can be viewed at the followinig (temporary) URL: http://idgdev.srs.gov/servlet/srs.weshare.WeShare« less

  10. Mass spectrometry-based methods for detection and differentiation of botulinum neurotoxins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G.; Boyer, Anne E.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R.; Woolfitt, Adrian R.

    2009-11-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for detecting the presence of clostridial neurotoxins in a sample by mixing a sample with a peptide that can serve as a substrate for proteolytic activity of a clostridial neurotoxin; and measuring for proteolytic activity of a clostridial neurotoxin by a mass spectroscopy technique. In one embodiment, the peptide can have an affinity tag attached at two or more sites.

  11. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  12. A nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry-based enzyme activity assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siuzdak, Gary; Northen, Trent R.; Lee, Jinq-Chyi; Hoang, Linh; Raymond, Jason; Hwang, Der-Ren; Yannone, Steven M.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Siuzdak, Gary

    2008-03-10

    We describe a Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) enzymatic (Nimzyme) assay in which enzyme substrates are immobilized on the mass spectrometry surface by using fluorous-phase interactions. This 'soft' immobilization allows efficient desorption/ionization while also enabling the use of surface-washing steps to reduce signal suppression from complex biological samples, which results from the preferential retention of the tagged products and reactants. The Nimzyme assay is sensitive to subpicogram levels of enzyme, detects both addition and cleavage reactions (sialyltransferase and galactosidase), is applicable over a wide range of pHs and temperatures, and can measure activity directly from crude cell lysates. The ability of the Nimzyme assay to analyze complex mixtures is illustrated by identifying and directly characterizing {beta}-1,4-galactosidase activity from a thermophilic microbial community lysate. The optimal enzyme temperature and pH were found to be 65 C and 5.5, respectively, and the activity was inhibited by both phenylethyl-{beta}-d-thiogalactopyranoside and deoxygalactonojirimycin. Metagenomic analysis of the community suggests that the activity is from an uncultured, unsequenced {gamma}-proteobacterium. In general, this assay provides an efficient method for detection and characterization of enzymatic activities in complex biological mixtures prior to sequencing or cloning efforts. More generally, this approach may have important applications for screening both enzymatic and inhibitor libraries, constructing and screening glycan microarrays, and complementing fluorous-phase organic synthesis. The interest in leveraging mass spectrometry for studying enzyme activities in complex biological samples derives from its high sensitivity and specificity; however, signal suppression and significant sample preparation requirements limit its overall utility (1). Here we describe a Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) enzymatic (Nimzyme) assay, which uses the fluorous liquid-coated surface of NIMS (2) to noncovalently attach enzyme substrates by means of fluorous tags. Enzymes play essential roles in a wide range of cellular processes and account for >20% of all drug targets (3). In addition, enzymes have found great utility in organic synthesis because they can efficiently catalyze chemical transformations that are difficult and inefficient to catalyze using conventional synthetic approaches. Furthermore, enzymatic transformations are particularly useful in reactions requiring multiple functional groups or stereo/regiochemically defined products (4). These properties make them particularly well suited for the synthesis and degradation of carbohydrates (5). Indeed, enzymatic approaches have found widespread applications in glycobiology (6, 7) and are of intense interest for the utilization of plant biomass for biofuels (8).

  13. GPAW - massively parallel electronic structure calculations with Python-based software.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enkovaara, J.; Romero, N.; Shende, S.; Mortensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations are a widely used tool in materials science and large consumer of supercomputing resources. Traditionally, the software packages for these kind of simulations have been implemented in compiled languages, where Fortran in its different versions has been the most popular choice. While dynamic, interpreted languages, such as Python, can increase the effciency of programmer, they cannot compete directly with the raw performance of compiled languages. However, by using an interpreted language together with a compiled language, it is possible to have most of the productivity enhancing features together with a good numerical performance. We have used this approach in implementing an electronic structure simulation software GPAW using the combination of Python and C programming languages. While the chosen approach works well in standard workstations and Unix environments, massively parallel supercomputing systems can present some challenges in porting, debugging and profiling the software. In this paper we describe some details of the implementation and discuss the advantages and challenges of the combined Python/C approach. We show that despite the challenges it is possible to obtain good numerical performance and good parallel scalability with Python based software.

  14. Star-cluster mass and age distributions of two fields in M83 based on HST/WFC3 observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Connell, Robert

    2014-05-20

    We study star clusters in two fields in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 using broadband and narrowband optical imaging taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We present results on the basis of several different catalogs of star clusters in inner and outer fields, and we conclude that different methods of selection do not strongly affect the results, particularly for clusters older than ?10 Myr. The age distributions can be described by a power law, dN/d???{sup ?}, with ? ? 0.84 0.12 in the inner field, and ? ? 0.48 0.12 in the outer field for ? ? 10 Myr. We bracket the difference, ??, between the two fields to be in the 0.18 to 0.36 range, based on estimates of the relative star-formation histories. The mass functions can also be described by a power law, dN/dM?M {sup ?}, with ? ? 1.98 0.14 and ? ? 2.34 0.26 in the inner and outer fields, respectively. We conclude that the shapes of the mass and age distributions of the clusters in the two fields are similar, as predicted by the quasi-universal model. Any differences between the two fields are at the ?2?-3? (?1?-2?) level for the age (mass) distributions. Therefore, any dependence of these distributions on the local environment is probably weak. We compare the shapes of the distributions with those predicted by two popular cluster disruption models. We find that both show evidence that the clusters are disrupted at a rate that is approximately independent of their mass. We compare the shapes of the distributions with those predicted by two popular cluster disruption models, and find that both show evidence that the clusters are disrupted at a rate that is approximately independent of their mass, and that observational results do not support the earlier disruption of lower-mass clusters relative to their higher-mass counterparts.

  15. Room temperature, hybrid sodium-based flow batteries with multi-electron transfer redox reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.

  16. Urethane-based stabilizers for radiation-crosslinked polyethylene. [Electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, S.; Rajbenbach, L.A.

    1982-11-01

    Unsaturated urethane-based stabilizers for use in radiation-crosslinked polyethylene were synthesized. Aromatic amine moieties were attached to allylic and acrylic monomers by means of aromatic or aliphatic diisocyanates. The synthesized stabilizers were incorporated in high-density polyethylene films which were subjected to electron beam irradiation. The oxidative stability of the films prior to and after extraction was determined by DTA in the temperature range 185-210/sup 0/C and compared with samples treated with commercial amine-bearing antioxidants. Tensile strength and gel content were also determined. Best results were obtained with a stabilizer prepared from equimolecular amounts of allyl alcohol, tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate and N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine. Estimated lifetimes at 70/sup 0/C of stabilized irradiated polyethylene samples were calculated.

  17. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.

  18. Recommendations for the generation, quantification, storage and handling of peptides used for mass spectrometry-based assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Carr, Steven A.; Kuhn, Eric; Liu, Tao; Massoni, Sam A.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Boja, Emily; Chen, Jing; Crimmins, Daniel L.; Davies, Sherri; Gao, Yuqian; Hiltke, Tara R.; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Mesri, Mehdi; Meyer, Matthew R.; Qian, Weijun; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Scott, Mitchell; Shi, Tujin; Whiteley, Gordon; Wrobel, John; Wu, Chaochao; Ackermann, Bradley L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Barnidge, David R.; Bunk, David M.; Clarke, Nigel; Fishman, Jordan B.; Grant, Russ P.; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Kushnir, Mark M.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Moritz, Robert; Neubert, Hendrik; Patterson, Scott D.; Rockwood, Alan L.; Rogers, John; Singh, Ravinder J.; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Wong, Steven H.; Zhang, Shucha; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Ellis, Matthew J.; Liebler, Daniel; Rodland, Karin D.; Rodriguez, Henry; Smith, Richard D.; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2015-12-30

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (1) (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust technologies and workflows for the quantitative measurements of proteins. The Assay Development Working Group of the CPTAC Program aims to foster broad uptake of targeted mass spectrometry-based assays employing isotopically labeled peptides for confident assignment and quantification, including multiple reaction monitoring (MRM; also referred to as Selected Reaction Monitoring), parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), and other targeted methods.

  19. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Gonzlez, Ana; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brewster, Aaron S.; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Chang, Joseph F.; Chollet, Matthieu; Ehrensberger, Paul; Eriksson, Thomas L.; Feng, Yiping; Hattne, Johan; Hedman, Britt; Hollenbeck, Michael; Holton, James M.; Keable, Stephen; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Lemke, Henrik T.; Lin, Guowu; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; Mathews, Irimpan I.; McPhillips, Scott E.; Nelson, Silke; Peters, John W.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Clyde A.; Song, Jinhu; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Tsai, Yingssu; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Vinetsky, Vladimir; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Weis, William I.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Zhu, Diling; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2014-10-31

    The emerging method of femtosecond crystallography (FX) may extend the diffraction resolution accessible from small radiation-sensitive crystals and provides a means to determine catalytically accurate structures of acutely radiation-sensitive metalloenzymes. Automated goniometer-based instrumentation developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source enabled efficient and flexible FX experiments to be performed on a variety of sample types. In the case of rod-shaped Cpl hydrogenase crystals, only five crystals and about 30 min of beam time were used to obtain the 125 still diffraction patterns used to produce a 1.6- resolution electron density map. With smaller crystals, high-density grids were used to increase sample throughput; 930 myoglobin crystals mounted at random orientation inside 32 grids were exposed, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Screening results from cryocooled crystals of ?2-adrenoreceptor and an RNA polymerase II complex indicate the potential to extend the diffraction resolution obtainable from very radiation-sensitive samples beyond that possible with undulator-based synchrotron sources.

  20. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; González, Ana; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brewster, Aaron S.; Brunger, Axel T.; et al

    2014-10-31

    The emerging method of femtosecond crystallography (FX) may extend the diffraction resolution accessible from small radiation-sensitive crystals and provides a means to determine catalytically accurate structures of acutely radiation-sensitive metalloenzymes. Automated goniometer-based instrumentation developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source enabled efficient and flexible FX experiments to be performed on a variety of sample types. In the case of rod-shaped Cpl hydrogenase crystals, only five crystals and about 30 min of beam time were used to obtain the 125 still diffraction patterns used to produce a 1.6-Å resolution electron density map. With smaller crystals, high-density grids were usedmore » to increase sample throughput; 930 myoglobin crystals mounted at random orientation inside 32 grids were exposed, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Screening results from cryocooled crystals of β2-adrenoreceptor and an RNA polymerase II complex indicate the potential to extend the diffraction resolution obtainable from very radiation-sensitive samples beyond that possible with undulator-based synchrotron sources.« less

  1. Femtosecond laser ablation-based mass spectrometry. An ideal tool for stoichiometric analysis of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Kurian, Jose; Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Alff, Lambert; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2015-08-19

    An accurate and routinely available method for stoichiometric analysis of thin films is a desideratum of modern materials science where a material’s properties depend sensitively on elemental composition. We thoroughly investigated femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-MS) as an analytical technique for determination of the stoichiometry of thin films down to the nanometer scale. The use of femtosecond laser ablation allows for precise removal of material with high spatial and depth resolution that can be coupled to an ICP-MS to obtain elemental and isotopic information. We used molecular beam epitaxy-grown thin films of LaPd(x)Sb2 and T´-La2CuO4 to demonstrate the capacity of fs-LA-ICP-MS for stoichiometric analysis and the spatial and depth resolution of the technique. Here we demonstrate that the stoichiometric information of thin films with a thickness of ~10 nm or lower can be determined. Furthermore, our results indicate that fs-LA-ICP-MS provides precise information on the thin film-substrate interface and is able to detect the interdiffusion of cations.

  2. Femtosecond laser ablation-based mass spectrometry. An ideal tool for stoichiometric analysis of thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Kurian, Jose; Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Alff, Lambert; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2015-08-19

    An accurate and routinely available method for stoichiometric analysis of thin films is a desideratum of modern materials science where a material’s properties depend sensitively on elemental composition. We thoroughly investigated femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-MS) as an analytical technique for determination of the stoichiometry of thin films down to the nanometer scale. The use of femtosecond laser ablation allows for precise removal of material with high spatial and depth resolution that can be coupled to an ICP-MS to obtain elemental and isotopic information. We used molecular beam epitaxy-grown thin films of LaPd(x)Sb2 and T´-La2CuO4 to demonstrate themore » capacity of fs-LA-ICP-MS for stoichiometric analysis and the spatial and depth resolution of the technique. Here we demonstrate that the stoichiometric information of thin films with a thickness of ~10 nm or lower can be determined. Furthermore, our results indicate that fs-LA-ICP-MS provides precise information on the thin film-substrate interface and is able to detect the interdiffusion of cations.« less

  3. Training the Masses ? Web-based Laser Safety Training at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprague, D D

    2004-12-17

    The LLNL work smart standard requires us to provide ongoing laser safety training for a large number of persons on a three-year cycle. In order to meet the standard, it was necessary to find a cost and performance effective method to perform this training. This paper discusses the scope of the training problem, specific LLNL training needs, various training methods used at LLNL, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and the rationale for selecting web-based laser safety training. The tools and costs involved in developing web-based training courses are also discussed, in addition to conclusions drawn from our training operating experience. The ILSC lecture presentation contains a short demonstration of the LLNL web-based laser safety-training course.

  4. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  5. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volumemoreof the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.less

  6. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs) for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub th}). A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (≈3 eV) was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger V{sub th} shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  7. Room temperature, hybrid sodium-based flow batteries with multi-electron transfer redox reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volumemore » of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.« less

  8. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2012-02-10

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  9. Accelerator-based neutron source using a cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    A neutron generator is considered in which a beam of tritons is incident on a hypothetical cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons. The energy efficiency of neutron generation is found to increase substantially with electron density. Recent reports of potential targets are discussed.

  10. Modeling of free electronic state density in hydrogenic plasmas based on nearest neighbor approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishikawa, Takeshi

    2014-07-15

    Most conventional atomic models in a plasma do not treat the effect of the plasma on the free-electron state density. Using a nearest neighbor approximation, the state densities in hydrogenic plasmas for both bound and free electrons were evaluated and the effect of the plasma on the atomic model (especially for the state density of the free electron) was studied. The model evaluates the electron-state densities using the potential distribution formed by the superposition of the Coulomb potentials of two ions. The potential from one ion perturbs the electronic state density on the other. Using this new model, one can evaluate the free-state density without making any ad-hoc assumptions. The resulting contours of the average ionization degree, given as a function of the plasma temperature and density, are shifted slightly to lower temperatures because of the effect of the increasing free-state density.

  11. An alpha–gamma coincidence spectrometer based on the Photon–Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS®) system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cadieux, J. R.; Fugate, G. A.; King, III, G. S.

    2015-02-07

    Here, an alpha–gamma coincidence spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of selected actinide isotopes in the presence of high beta/gamma fields. The system is based on a PERALS® liquid scintillation counter for beta/alpha discrimination and was successfully tested with both high purity germanium and bismuth germanate, gamma-ray detectors using conventional analog electronics.

  12. Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. [Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE); micellar electrokinetic capillary kchromatography (MECC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepaniak, M.J.; Cook, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the years following the 1986 seminal paper (J. Chromatogr. Sci., 24, 347-352) describing modern capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the prominence of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques has grown. A related electrochromatographic technique is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). This report presents a brief synopsis of research efforts during the current 3-year period. In addition to a description of analytical separations-based research, results of efforts to develop and expand spectrometric detection for the techniques is reviewed. Laser fluorometric detection schemes have been successfully advanced. Mass spectrometric research was less fruitful, largely owing to personnel limitations. A regenerable fiber optic sensor was developed that can be used to remotely monitor chemical carcinogens, etc. (DLC)

  13. Oxide-based method of making compound semiconductor films and making related electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kapur, Vijay K.; Basol, Bulent M.; Leidholm, Craig R.; Roe, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a compound film includes the steps of preparing a source material, depositing the source material on a base and forming a preparatory film from the source material, heating the preparatory film in a suitable atmosphere to form a precursor film, and providing suitable material to said precursor film to form the compound film. The source material includes oxide-containing particles including Group IB and IIIA elements. The precursor film includes non-oxide Group IB and IIIA elements. The compound film includes a Group IB-IIIA-VIA compound. The oxides may constitute greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IB elements and greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IIIA elements in the source material. Similarly, non-oxides may constitute greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IB elements and greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IIIA elements in the precursor film. The molar ratio of Group IB to Group IIIA elements in the source material may be greater than about 0.6 and less than about 1.0, or substantially greater that 1.0, in which case this ratio in the compound film may be reduced to greater than about 0.6 and less than about 1.0. The source material may be prepared as an ink from particles in powder form. The oxide-containing particles may include a dopant, as may the compound film. Compound films including a Group IIB-IVA-VA compound may be substituted using appropriate substitutions in the method. The method, also, is applicable to fabrication of solar cells and other electronic devices.

  14. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  15. A brief comparison between grid based real space algorithms andspectrum algorithms for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-12-01

    Quantum mechanical ab initio calculation constitutes the biggest portion of the computer time in material science and chemical science simulations. As a computer center like NERSC, to better serve these communities, it will be very useful to have a prediction for the future trends of ab initio calculations in these areas. Such prediction can help us to decide what future computer architecture can be most useful for these communities, and what should be emphasized on in future supercomputer procurement. As the size of the computer and the size of the simulated physical systems increase, there is a renewed interest in using the real space grid method in electronic structure calculations. This is fueled by two factors. First, it is generally assumed that the real space grid method is more suitable for parallel computation for its limited communication requirement, compared with spectrum method where a global FFT is required. Second, as the size N of the calculated system increases together with the computer power, O(N) scaling approaches become more favorable than the traditional direct O(N{sup 3}) scaling methods. These O(N) methods are usually based on localized orbital in real space, which can be described more naturally by the real space basis. In this report, the author compares the real space methods versus the traditional plane wave (PW) spectrum methods, for their technical pros and cons, and the possible of future trends. For the real space method, the author focuses on the regular grid finite different (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. These are the methods used mostly in material science simulation. As for chemical science, the predominant methods are still Gaussian basis method, and sometime the atomic orbital basis method. These two basis sets are localized in real space, and there is no indication that their roles in quantum chemical simulation will change anytime soon. The author focuses on the density functional theory (DFT), which is the most used method for quantum mechanical material science simulation.

  16. An algorithm for nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical finite-nuclear-mass variational calculations of nitrogen atom in L = 0, M = 0 states using all-electrons explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721

    2014-05-07

    An algorithm for quantum-mechanical nonrelativistic variational calculations of L = 0 and M = 0 states of atoms with an arbitrary number of s electrons and with three p electrons have been implemented and tested in the calculations of the ground {sup 4}S state of the nitrogen atom. The spatial part of the wave function is expanded in terms of all-electrons explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with the appropriate pre-exponential Cartesian angular factors for states with the L = 0 and M = 0 symmetry. The algorithm includes formulas for calculating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements, as well as formulas for calculating the analytic energy gradient determined with respect to the Gaussian exponential parameters. The gradient is used in the variational optimization of these parameters. The Hamiltonian used in the approach is obtained by rigorously separating the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory-frame all-particle Hamiltonian, and thus it explicitly depends on the finite mass of the nucleus. With that, the mass effect on the total ground-state energy is determined.

  17. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with effectively zero mass and constant velocity, like photons. Graphene's intrinsically low scattering rate from defects...

  18. Functionalized Thiophene-Based [7]Helicene: Chirooptical Properties versus Electron Delocalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajca, Andrzej; Pink, Maren; Xiao, Shuzhang; Miyasaka, Makoto; Rajca, Suchada; Das, Kausik; Plessel, Kristin

    2009-11-04

    The functionalized, enantiomerically pure [7]helicene 1 derived from bis(benzodithiophene) functionalized with four heptyl groups is prepared from 1,8-dibromo-4,5-diheptylbenzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene building block 2. Such [7]helicene structure, functionalized with bromines at the terminal positions of the helicene inner rim and multiple solubilizing alkyl groups, is an attractive building block for long [n]helicenes and oligo[7]helicenes. Chirooptical properties and the degree of electron delocalization are determined and compared to those of analogous carbon-sulfur [7]helicene and [7]helicenes derived from benzodithiophene to provide a correlation between chirooptical properties and the degree of electron delocalization. [7]Helicene 1 possesses a moderately increased electron delocalization, but its chirooptical properties are similar to those for analogous [7]helicenes with relatively lower electron delocalization, indicating that chirooptical properties are not significantly affected by electron delocalization for this series of [7]helicenes. Molecular structures of racemic [7]helicene 1 and its benzodithiophene building block 2 are confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Crystals of 2 are chiral and adopt the shape of long, flexible, flat needles that can be readily bent.

  19. Likelihood-based modification of experimental crystal structure electron density maps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2005-04-16

    A maximum-likelihood method for improves an electron density map of an experimental crystal structure. A likelihood of a set of structure factors {F.sub.h } is formed for the experimental crystal structure as (1) the likelihood of having obtained an observed set of structure factors {F.sub.h.sup.OBS } if structure factor set {F.sub.h } was correct, and (2) the likelihood that an electron density map resulting from {F.sub.h } is consistent with selected prior knowledge about the experimental crystal structure. The set of structure factors {F.sub.h } is then adjusted to maximize the likelihood of {F.sub.h } for the experimental crystal structure. An improved electron density map is constructed with the maximized structure factors.

  20. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-05-12

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  1. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-11-10

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The methods include providing: a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  2. Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzen, D. Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K.; Neuenschwander, H.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 34, 5 5, and 2 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

  3. Temporal profile measurements of relativistic electron bunch based on wakefield generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bettoni, S.; Craievich, P.; Lutman, A. A.; Pedrozzi, M.

    2016-02-25

    A complete characterization of the time-resolved longitudinal beam phase space is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator, and in particular this is crucial for Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. In this study we propose a novel method to characterize the profile of a relativistic electron bunch by passively streaking the beam using its self-interaction with the transverse wakefield excited by the bunch itself passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated waveguide. Results of a proof-of-principle experiment at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility are discussed.

  4. Manifestation of Voltages on Pristine- and Thin Film-Coated Lithium Battery (LIB) Electrodes Using electronic DFT-based calculations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Manifestation of Voltages on Pristine- and Thin SAND2015-2258C Film-Coated Lithium Battery (LIB) Electrodes Using electronic DFT-based calculations Kevin Leung Sandia National Laboratories 1. Devised methods for calibrating voltages 2. LIB surfaces can be charged 3. Need new conceptualization of "EDL" 4. Two "voltage" definitions: for e-, Li+ content 5. computational electrochemistry needs new capability, is not just applied Mater. Sci. Acknowledgement Andrew Leenheer, Craig

  5. CORONAL MASS EJECTION PROPAGATION AND EXPANSION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE IN THE HELIOSPHERE BASED ON STEREO/SECCHI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poomvises, Watanachak; Zhang Jie; Olmedo, Oscar

    2010-07-10

    We report on several new findings regarding the kinematic and morphological evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere using the unprecedented STEREO/SECCHI observations. The CME tracking is based on the three-dimensional Raytrace model, which is free of the projection effect, resulting in true CME velocities. We also measure the cross section size of the CME and hence its expansion velocity. For the four major CME events investigated, we find that their leading edge (LE) velocity converges from an initial range between 400 km s{sup -1} and 1500 km s{sup -1} at 5-10 R{sub sun} to a narrow range between 500 km s{sup -1} and 750 km s{sup -1} at 50 R{sub sun}. The expansion velocity is also found to converge into a narrow range between 75 km s{sup -1} and 175 km s{sup -1}. Both LE and expansion velocities are nearly constant after 50 R{sub sun}. We further find that the acceleration of CMEs in the inner heliosphere from {approx}10 to 90 R{sub sun} can be described by an exponential function, with an initial value as large as {approx}-80 m s{sup -2} but exponentially decreasing to almost zero (more precisely, less than {+-}5 m s{sup -2} considering the uncertainty of measurements). These results provide important observational constraints on understanding CME dynamics in interplanetary space.

  6. HELIOSPHERIC PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL WSA-ENLIL+CONE MODEL AND ANALYTICAL DRAG-BASED MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrnak, B.; ic, T.; Dumbovi?, M.; Temmer, M.; Mstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Odstr?il, D. E-mail: tzic@geof.hr E-mail: manuela.temmer@uni-graz.at E-mail: astrid.veronig@uni-graz.at E-mail: m.leila.mays@nasa.gov

    2014-08-01

    Real-time forecasting of the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at Earth, based on remote solar observations, is one of the central issues of space-weather research. In this paper, we compare arrival-time predictions calculated applying the numerical ''WSA-ENLIL+Cone model'' and the analytical ''drag-based model'' (DBM). Both models use coronagraphic observations of CMEs as input data, thus providing an early space-weather forecast two to four days before the arrival of the disturbance at the Earth, depending on the CME speed. It is shown that both methods give very similar results if the drag parameter ? = 0.1 is used in DBM in combination with a background solar-wind speed of w = 400 km s{sup 1}. For this combination, the mean value of the difference between arrival times calculated by ENLIL and DBM is ?-bar =0.099.0 hr with an average of the absolute-value differences of |?|-bar =7.1 hr. Comparing the observed arrivals (O) with the calculated ones (C) for ENLIL gives O C = 0.3 16.9 hr and, analogously, O C = +1.1 19.1 hr for DBM. Applying ? = 0.2 with w = 450 km s{sup 1} in DBM, one finds O C = 1.7 18.3 hr, with an average of the absolute-value differences of 14.8 hr, which is similar to that for ENLIL, 14.1 hr. Finally, we demonstrate that the prediction accuracy significantly degrades with increasing solar activity.

  7. Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, W.; College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 ; Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ma, Y. Y.; Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 ; Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yu, M. Y.; Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum

    2013-10-21

    The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ≤200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ∼160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ≥5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

  8. Metal complex-based electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, C. Michael; Sapp, Shawn A.; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto; Contado, Cristiano; Caramori, Stefano

    2006-03-28

    This present invention provides a metal-ligand complex and methods for using and preparing the same. In particular, the metal-ligand complex of the present invention is of the formula: L.sub.a-M-X.sub.b where L, M, X, a, and b are those define herein. The metal-ligand complexes of the present invention are useful in a variety of applications including as electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells and related photoelectrochromic devices.

  9. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate thatby changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on stateit is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  10. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29

    LSIs fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The companys Fuel Cell on a Chip technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  11. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  12. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of {sup 174}Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Ryo Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Mitsui, Takaya; Iga, Fumitoshi; Seto, Makoto

    2014-02-24

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5 keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  13. Development of Tandem, Double-Focusing, Electron Impact, Gas Source Mass Spectrometer for Measurement of Rare Double-Substituted Isotoplogues in Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Edward D.

    2015-07-30

    This project culminated in construction and delivery of the world’s first large-radius gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometer that permits unparalleled analyses of the stable isotopic composition of methane gas. The instrument, referred to as the “Panorama” and installed at UCLA in March 2015, can now be used to determine the relative abundances of rare isotopic species of methane that serve as tracers of temperature of formation and/or subsequent processing of gas. With this technology we can begin to delineate different sources and sinks of methane isotopically in ways not possible until now.

  14. Plasmonic terahertz detectors based on a high-electron mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bia?ek, M. Witowski, A. M.; Grynberg, M.; ?usakowski, J.; Orlita, M.; Potemski, M.; Czapkiewicz, M.; Umansky, V.

    2014-06-07

    In order to characterize magnetic field (B) tunable THz plasmonic detectors, spectroscopy experiments were carried out at liquid helium temperatures and high magnetic fields on devices fabricated on a high electron mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The samples were either gated (the gate of a meander shape) or ungated. Spectra of a photovoltage generated by THz radiation were obtained as a function of B at a fixed THz excitation from a THz laser or as a function of THz photon frequency at a fixed B with a Fourier spectrometer. In the first type of measurements, the wave vector of magnetoplasmons excited was defined by geometrical features of samples. It was also found that the magnetoplasmon spectrum depended on the gate geometry which gives an additional parameter to control plasma excitations in THz detectors. Fourier spectra showed a strong dependence of the magnetoplasmon resonance amplitude on the conduction-band electron filling factor which was explained within a model of the electron gas heating with THz radiation. The study allows to define both the advantages and limitations of plasmonic devices based on high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures for THz detection at low temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  15. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-16

    We report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergentmore » semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. In conclusion, since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.« less

  16. Carrier density independent scattering rate in SrTiO3-based electron liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y.; Marshall, Patrick B.; Kajdos, Adam P.; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-02-10

    We examine the carrier density dependence of the scattering rate in two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 in the regime where it scales with Tn (T is the temperature and n ≤ 2) in the cases when it is varied by electrostatic control and chemical doping, respectively. It is shown that the scattering rate is independent of the carrier density. This is contrary to the expectations from Landau Fermi liquid theory, where the scattering rate scales inversely with the Fermi energy (EF). We discuss that the behavior is very similar to systems traditionally identified as non-Fermi liquids (n

  17. Carrier density independent scattering rate in SrTiO₃-based electron liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y.; Marshall, Patrick B.; Kajdos, Adam P.; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-02-10

    We examine the carrier density dependence of the scattering rate in two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 in the regime where it scales with Tn (T is the temperature and n ≤ 2) in the cases when it is varied by electrostatic control and chemical doping, respectively. It is shown that the scattering rate is independent of the carrier density. This is contrary to the expectations from Landau Fermi liquid theory, where the scattering rate scales inversely with the Fermi energy (EF). We discuss that the behavior is very similar to systems traditionally identified as non-Fermi liquids (n

  18. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-16

    We report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergent semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. In conclusion, since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.

  19. Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Xing, H.; Fay, P.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

    2014-10-27

    In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140220?GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of diamond-based nano-carbon composite materials with high electron field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Yeh, C. J.; Leou, K. C.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-06-08

    A diamond-based nano-carbon composite (d/NCC) material, which contains needle-like diamond grains encased with the nano-graphite layers, was synthesized at low substrate temperature via a bias enhanced growth process using CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma. Such a unique granular structure renders the d/NCC material very conductive (??=?714.8?S/cm), along with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties (E{sub 0}?=?4.06?V/?m and J{sub e}?=?3.18?mA/cm{sup 2}) and long lifetime (??=?842?min at 2.41?mA/cm{sup 2}). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and EFE behavior of d/NCC material can be tuned in a wide range that is especially useful for different kind of applications.

  1. Simulation Studies of Beam-Beam Effects of a Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider Based on CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhong Zhang,Ji Qiang

    2009-05-01

    The collective beam-beam effect can potentially cause a rapid growth of beam sizes and reduce the luminosity of a collider to an unacceptably low level. The ELIC, a proposed ultra high luminosity electron-ion collider based on CEBAF, employs high repetition rate crab crossing colliding beams with very small bunch transverse sizes and very short bunch lengths, and collides them at up to 4 interaction points with strong final focusing. All of these features can make the beam-beam effect challenging. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect in ELIC using a self-consistent strong-strong beam-beam simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This simulation study is used for validating the ELIC design and for searching for an optimal parameter set.

  2. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metalsemiconductormetal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  3. Characterisation of amorphous silica in air-oxidised Ti3SiC2 at 500-1000 °C using secondary-ion mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, W K; Low, I M; Hanna, J V

    2010-05-18

    In this paper we have described the use of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), solid state {sup 29}Si magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect the existence of amorphous silica in Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} oxidised at 500-1000 C. The formation of amorphous SiO{sub 2} and growth of crystalline TiO{sub 2} with temperature was monitored using dynamic SIMS and synchrotron radiation diffraction. A duplex structure with an outer TiO{sub 2}-rich layer and an inner mixed layer of SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} was observed. Results of NMR and TEM verified for the first time the direct evidence of amorphous silica formation during the oxidation of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} at the temperature range 500-1000 C.

  4. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  5. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  6. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  7. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  8. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of TaO{sub 1-x}N{sub 1+x}-based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Apostol, Florin; Mei, Wai-Ning; Sabirianov, Renat F.; Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588

    2013-02-15

    TaON is considered as a potential candidate as a visible-light responsive photocatalyst. We report the results of ab initio studies of electronic structure of TaON-based alloys. Specifically, we show that the position of conduction and valence band can be modified by varying the oxygen and nitrogen concentrations in TaO{sub 1-x}N{sub 1+x}. We find that the band gap decreases monotonically with the increase of N/O ratio. The band gap energy is decreased in monoclinic TaON from near 2.3 eV to just over 1.7 eV (i.e., by 35%) when N/O ratio is increased from 3/5 to 5/3. Our calculations show that the band gap reduces in a series of experimentally fabricated alloys ZrTa{sub 3}O{sub 5}N{sub 3}{yields}TaON{yields}YTa{sub 7}O{sub 7}N{sub 8}. The band gap reduction is mostly associated with the change in the position of the valence band due to the hybridization of N 2p states, while the conduction band consisting mostly of Ta 5d-states is not sensitive to N content. The calculated optical absorption spectra show reduction in the optical band gap with increasing N/O ratio. - Graphical abstract: Band gap energy of TaO{sub 1-x}N{sub 1+x} as a function of N/O ratio. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic and optical properties of TaON-based alloys are studied using DFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The position of conduction and valence bands can be modified by varying N/O ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases monotonically with the increase of N/O ratio in TaO{sub 1-x}N{sub 1+x}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap reduces in a series of fabricated alloys ZrTa{sub 3}O{sub 5}N{sub 3}{yields}TaON{yields}YTa{sub 7}O{sub 7}N{sub 8}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical band gap decreases with the increase of N/O ratio.

  10. Utilizing the Inherent Electrolysis in a Chip-Based Nanoelectrospray Emitter System to Facilitate Selective Ionization and Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Metallo Alkylporphyrins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2012-01-01

    A commercially available chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system was used to ionize metallo alkylporphyrins for mass spectrometric detection and structure elucidation by mass spectrometry. Different ionic forms of model compounds (nickel (II), vanadyl (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) octaethylporphyrin) were created by using two different types of conductive pipette tips supplied with the device. These pipette tips provide the conductive contact to solution at which the electrolysis process inherent to electrospray takes places in the device. The original unmodified, bare carbon-impregnated plastic pipette tips, were exploited to intentionally electrochemically oxidize (ionize) the porphyrins to form molecular radical cations for detection. Use of modified pipette tips, with a surface coating devised to inhibit analyte mass transport to the surface, was shown to limit the ionic species observed in the mass spectra of these porphyrins largely, but not exclusively, to the protonated molecule. Under the conditions of these experiments, the effective upper potential limit for oxidation with the uncoated pipette tip was 1.1 V or less and the coated pipette tips effectively prevented the oxidation of analytes with redox potentials greater than about 0.25 V. Product ion spectra of either molecular ionic species could be used to determine the alkyl chain length on the porphyrin macrocycle. The utility of this electrochemical ionization approach for the analysis of naturally occurring samples was demonstrated using nickel geoporphyrin fractions isolated from Gilsonite bitumen. Acquiring neutral loss spectra as a means to improve the specificity of detection in these complex natural samples was also illustrated.

  11. Manasa Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manasa Electronics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Manasa Electronics Place: Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201 005 Sector: Solar Product: Ghaziabad-based manufacturer of...

  12. Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of non-thermal electrons at Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purohit, S., E-mail: pshishir@ipr.res.in; Joisa, Y. S.; Raval, J. V.; Ghosh, J.; Tanna, R.; Shukla, B. K.; Bhatt, S. B. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the non-thermal electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the non-thermal electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.

  13. Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. Final technical progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepaniak, M.J.; Cook, K.D.

    1992-09-01

    In the years following the 1986 seminal paper (J. Chromatogr. Sci., 24, 347-352) describing modern capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the prominence of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques has grown. A related electrochromatographic technique is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). This report presents a brief synopsis of research efforts during the current 3-year period. In addition to a description of analytical separations-based research, results of efforts to develop and expand spectrometric detection for the techniques is reviewed. Laser fluorometric detection schemes have been successfully advanced. Mass spectrometric research was less fruitful, largely owing to personnel limitations. A regenerable fiber optic sensor was developed that can be used to remotely monitor chemical carcinogens, etc. (DLC)

  14. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  15. An efficient electron-beam-pumped semiconductor laser for the green spectral range based on II-VI multilayer nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zverev, M. M.; Gamov, N. A.; Peregoudov, D. V.; Studionov, V. B.; Zdanova, E. V.; Sedova, I. V. Gronin, S. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Kop'ev, P. S.

    2008-12-15

    Emission characteristics of an electron-beam-pumped Cd(Zn)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor laser are studied. The laser's active region consists of a set of ten equidistant ZnSe quantum wells containing fractional-monolayer CdSe quantum-dot inserts and a waveguide formed by a short-period superlattice with the net thickness of {approx}0.65 {mu}m. Lasing occurs at room temperature at a wavelength of 542 nm. Pulsed power as high as 12 W per cavity face and an unprecedentedly high efficiency of {approx}8.5% are attained for the electron-beam energy of 23 keV.

  16. Quark Masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasser, Juerg

    2005-10-26

    In my talk, I reviewed some basic aspects of quark masses: what do they mean, how can they be determined, what is our present knowledge on them. The talk was addressed to non specialists in the field, and so is this write up.

  17. Handbook of mass spectra of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hites, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 394 commonly encountered environmental pollutants. Each page is devoted to the examination of a single pollutant, which is presented as a bar graph always starting at M/z = 40. Each spectra is determined by analyses of data in EPA data bases. The major fragment ions are correlated with their respective structure. The mass and intensity of the four most intense ions in the spectrum are given. Each spectrum is marked to indicate the origin of the selected fragment ions. For each spectra, also given are the approved name of the chemical Abstract Service, the common name of the compound, the article number (if any) given to the Merck Index, the CAS Registry Number, the molecular formula, and the nominal molecular weight of the compound. Each spectra is indexed by common chemical name, CAS Registry Number, exact molecular weight, and intense peaks.

  18. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Stuart R. E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Adamopoulos, George; Sygellou, Labrini; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Patsalas, Panos A.

    2014-09-01

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400450?C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700?C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ?4.9?eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ?2?cm{sup 2}/V s.

  19. Electron-Heated Target Temperature Measurements in Petawatt Laser Experiments Based on Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging and Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T; Beg, F; Macphee, A; Chung, H; Key, M; Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Hatchett, S; Akli, K; Stephens, R; Chen, C; Freeman, R; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B

    2008-05-02

    Three independent methods (XUV spectroscopy, imaging at 68 eV and 256 eV) have been used to measure planar target rear surface plasma temperature due to heating by hot electrons. The hot electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser plasma interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser. Soft x-ray spectroscopy in the 50-400 eV region and imaging at the 68 eV and 256 eV photon energies were used to determine the rear surface temperature of planar CD targets. Temperatures were found to be in the 60-150 eV range, with good agreement between the three diagnostics.

  20. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: A foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dantas, Joana M.; Morgado, Leonor; Aklujkar, Muktak; Bruix, Marta; Londer, Yuri Y.; Schiffer, Marianne; Pokkuluri, P. Raj; Salgueiro, Carlos A.

    2015-07-30

    Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens extracellular electron transfer (EET). These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by G. sulfurreducens. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Throughout the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of G. sulfurreducens multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. Inmore » previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of G. sulfurreducens by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E). These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell's outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e-/H+ transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of G. sulfurreducens. For the first time G. sulfurreducens strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential proteins with the aim to develop and improve bioelectrochemical technologies.« less

  1. Hybrid DFT Functional-Based Static and Molecular Dynamics Studies of Excess Electron in Liquid Ethylene Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J. M.; Balbuena, P. B.; Budzien, J. L.; Leung, Kevin

    2011-02-22

    We applied static and dynamic hybrid functional density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the interactions of one and two excess electrons with ethylene carbonate (EC) liquid and clusters. Optimal structures of (EC)n and (EC)n- clusters devoid of Li+ ions, n = 16, were obtained. The excess electron was found to be localized on a single EC in all cases, and the EC dimeric radical anion exhibits a reduced barrier associated with the breaking of the ethylene carbonoxygen covalent bond compared to EC-. In ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of EC- solvated in liquid EC, large fluctuations in the carbonyl carbonoxygen bond lengths were observed. AIMD simulations of a two-electron attack on EC in EC liquid and on Li metal surfaces yielded products similar to those predicted using nonhybrid DFT functionals, except that CO release did not occur for all attempted initial configurations in the liquid state.

  2. Effect of electron withdrawing unit for dye-sensitized solar cell based on D-A-?-A organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Chang, Dong Min; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: To gain the red-shifted absorption spectra, withdrawing unit was substituted in dye. By the introduction of additional withdrawing unit, LUMOs level of dye are decreased. Decreasing LUMOs level of dye caused the red-shifted absorption spectra of dye. Novel acceptor, DCRD, showed better photovoltaic properties than cyanoacetic acid. - Abstract: In this work, two novel D-A-?-A dye sensitizers with triarylamine as an electron donor, isoindigo and cyano group as electron withdrawing units and cyanoacetic acid and 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene) rhodanine as an electron acceptor for an anchoring group (TICC, TICR) were designed and investigated with the ID6 dye as the reference. The difference in HOMO and LUMO levels were compared according to the presence or absence of isoindigo in ID6 (TC and ID6). To gain insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic performance, we used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Owing to different LUMO levels for each acceptor, the absorption band and molar extinction coefficient of each dye was different. Among the dyes, TICR showed more red-shifted and broader absorption spectra than other dyes and had a higher molar extinction coefficient than the reference. It is expected that TICR would show better photovoltaic properties than the other dyes, including the reference dye.

  3. Electron radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  4. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  5. MEMC Electronic Materials Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MEMC Electronic Materials Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MEMC Electronic Materials Inc Place: St. Peters, Missouri Zip: 63376 Product: US-based manufacturer of silicon-based...

  6. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibrationan external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  7. Laser based analysis using a passively Q-switched laser employing analysis electronics and a means for detecting atomic optical emission of the laser media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.

    2016-03-29

    A device for Laser based Analysis using a Passively Q-Switched Laser comprising an optical pumping source optically connected to a laser media. The laser media and a Q-switch are positioned between and optically connected to a high reflectivity mirror (HR) and an output coupler (OC) along an optical axis. The output coupler (OC) is optically connected to the output lens along the optical axis. A means for detecting atomic optical emission comprises a filter and a light detector. The optical filter is optically connected to the laser media and the optical detector. A control system is connected to the optical detector and the analysis electronics. The analysis electronics are optically connected to the output lens. The detection of the large scale laser output production triggers the control system to initiate the precise timing and data collection from the detector and analysis.

  8. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  9. Hot-stage transmission electron microscopy study of (Na, K)NbO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2014-07-28

    Hierarchical nanodomains assembled into micron-sized stripe domains, which is believed to be associated with outstanding piezoelectric properties, were observed at room temperature in a typical lead free piezoceramics, (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48−x})(Nb{sub 0.95−x}Ta{sub 0.05})-xLiSbO{sub 3}, with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (x = 0.0465) by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of domain morphology and crystal structure under heating and cooling cycles in the ceramic was investigated by in-situ hot stage study. It is found that the nanodomains are irreversibly transformed into micron-sized rectangular domains during heating and cooling cycles, which lead to the thermal instability of piezoelectric properties of the materials.

  10. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgiades, N.P.; Polzik, E.S.; Kimble, H.J.

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies are disclosed. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100`s THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 {micro}m to 1.66 {micro}m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage. 7 figs.

  11. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgiades, Nikos P.; Polzik, Eugene S.; Kimble, H. Jeff

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100's THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 .mu.m to 1.66 .mu.m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage.

  12. Method based on atomic photoionization for spot-size measurement on focused soft x-ray free-electron laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Schoeppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.; Bobashev, S. V.; Domracheva, I. V.; Smirnov, D. N.; Tiedtke, K.; Duesterer, S.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Kuhlmann, M.; Nunez, T.; Ploenjes, E.; Treusch, R.

    2006-11-27

    A method has been developed and applied to measure the beam waist and spot size of a focused soft x-ray beam at the free-electron laser FLASH of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg. The method is based on a saturation effect upon atomic photoionization and represents an indestructible tool for the characterization of powerful beams of ionizing electromagnetic radiation. At the microfocus beamline BL2 at FLASH, a full width at half maximum focus diameter of (15{+-}2) {mu}m was determined.

  13. MASS SEPARATORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, F.; Bell, J.W.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement in the mounting arrangement for the ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron is presented. The entire source is supported by the vacuum envelope through the medium of a bracket secured to a removable face plate. The bracket forms a supporting platform that is generally transverse to the magnetic field. The ion generator is mounted on a pedestal-type insulator supported on the bracket, and the hot leads are brought into the vacuum envelope through a tubular elbow connected to the vacuum envelope, having the axis of its outer opening aligned with the magnetic field at which point a bushing-type insulator is employed. With this arrangement thc ion source is maintained at a positive potential with respect to the vacuum tank and the problem of electron bombardment of the insulator is considerably reduced.

  14. Geochemical Speciation Mass Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-12-01

    PHREEQC is designed to model geochemical reactions. Based on an ion association aqueous model, PHREEQC can calculate pH, redox potential, and mass transfer as a function of reaction progress. It can be used to describe geochemical processes for both far-field and near-field performance assessment and to evaluate data acquisition needs and test data. It can also calculate the composition of solutions in equilibrium with multiple phases. The data base, including elements, aqueous species, and mineralmore » phases, is independent of the program and is completely user-definable. PHREEQC requires thermodynamic data for each solid, gaseous, or dissolved chemical species being modeled. The two data bases, PREPHR and DEQPAK7, supplied with PHREEQC are for testing purposes only and should not be applied to real problems without first being carefully examined. The conceptual model embodied in PHREEQC is the ion-association model of Pearson and Noronha. In this model a set of mass action equations are established for each ion pair (and controlling solid phases when making mass transfer calculations) along with a set of mass balance equations for each element considered. These sets of equations are coupled using activity coefficient values for each aqueous species and solved using a continued fraction approach for the mass balances combined with a modified Newton-Raphson technique for all other equations. The activity coefficient expressions in PHREEQC include the extended Debye-Huckel, WATEQ Debye-Huckel, and Davies equations from the original United States Geological Survey version of the program. The auxiliary preprocessor program PHTL, which is derived from EQTL, converts EQ3/6 thermodynamic data to PHREEQC format so that the two programs can be compared. PHREEQC can be used to determine solubility limits on the radionuclides present in the waste form. These solubility constraints may be input to the WAPPA leach model.« less

  15. WE-E-BRE-01: An Image-Based Skeletal Dosimetry Model for the ICRP Reference Adult Female - Internal Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Reilly, S; Maynard, M; Marshall, E; Bolch, W; Sinclair, L; Rajon, D; Wayson, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Limitations seen in previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used software today, include the lack of consideration of electron escape and cross-fire from cortical bone, the modeling of infinite spongiosa, the disregard of the effect of varying cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation, and the lack of use of the more recent ICRP definition of a 50 micron surrogate tissue region for the osteoprogenitor cells - shallow marrow. These limitations were addressed in the present dosimetry model. Methods: Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to active marrow and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the adult female. The bone macrostructure was obtained from the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference phantoms, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 year-old female cadaver. The target tissue regions were active marrow and shallow marrow. The source tissues were active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume and cortical bone surfaces. The marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or modeled analytically. Results: The method of combining macro- and microstructure absorbed fractions calculated using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model for the UF adult male in the Hough et al. study. Conclusion: The calculated skeletal averaged absorbed fractions for each source-target combination were found to follow similar trends of more recent dosimetry models (image-based models) and did not follow current models used in nuclear medicine dosimetry at high energies (due to that models use of an infinite expanse of trabecular spongiosa)

  16. The electron geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Guzdar, P. N. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-09-15

    In this report, a novel new mode, named the electron geodesic acoustic mode, is presented. This mode can occur in toroidal plasmas like the conventional geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The frequency of this new mode is much larger than that of the conventional GAM by a factor equal to the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio.

  17. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  18. Incorporating Amino Acid Esters into Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation: Steric and Electronic Effects and the Role of Water as a Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lense, Sheri; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Jain, Avijita; Raugei, Simone; Linehan, John C.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-10-08

    Four derivatives of a hydrogen oxidation catalyst, [Ni(PCy2NBn-R2)]2+ (Cy=cyclohexyl, Bn=benzyl, R= OMe, COOMe, CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester), have been prepared to investigate steric and electronic effects on catalysis. Each complex was characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically, and thermodynamic data were determined. Crystal structures are also reported for the -OMe and -COOMe derivatives. All four catalysts were found to be active for H2 oxidation. The methyl ester (R = COOMe) and amino acid ester containing complexes (R = CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester) had slower rates (4 s-1) than that of the parent complex (10 s-1), in which R = H, consistent with the lower amine pKa’s and less favorable GH2’s found for these electron-withdrawing substituents. Dynamic processes for the amino acid ester containing complexes were also investigated and found not to hinder catalysis. The electron-donating methoxy ether derivative (R = OMe) was prepared to compare electronic effects and has a similar catalytic rate as the parent complex. In the course of these studies, it was found that water could act as a weak base for H2 oxidation, although catalytic turnover requires a significantly higher potential and utilizes a different sequence of catalytic steps than when using a base with a higher pKa. Importantly, these catalysts provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached to [Ni(PCy2NBn2)2]2+ hydrogen oxidation catalysts in order to more fully investigate and implement the effects of the outer-coordination sphere. This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SL and WJS), by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (JR), and by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AMA, AJ). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  20. Electron Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Pierre Kennepohl1,2 and Edward Solomon1* 1Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Electron transfer, or the act of moving an electron from one place to another, is amongst the simplest of chemical processes, yet certainly one of the most critical. The process of efficiently and controllably moving electrons around is one of the primary regulation mechanisms in biology. Without stringent control of electrons in living organisms, life could simply not exist. For example,

  1. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  2. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  3. Electron g-2 in Light-front Quantization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2014-10-01

    Basis Light-front Quantization has been proposed as a nonperturbative framework for solving quantum field theory. We apply this approach to Quantum Electrodynamics and explicitly solve for the light-front wave function of a physical electron. Based on the resulting light-front wave function, we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. Nonperturbative mass renormalization is performed. Upon extrapolation to the infinite basis limit our numerical results agree with the Schwinger result obtained in perturbation theory to an accuracy of 0.06%.

  4. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzari, Rmi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  5. Green Electronics Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Electronics Council Place: Portland, Oregon Product: Oregon-based program that supports the design, manufacture, use and...

  6. Vickers Electronics Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vickers Electronics Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vickers Electronics Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manchester-based company which installs an Energy Management System...

  7. MGI Electronics LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MGI Electronics LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: MGI Electronics LLC Place: Temple, Arizona Zip: 85282 Product: US-based manufacturer of wafer transfer and PV cell handling...

  8. Search for High-Mass States with One Lepton Plus Missing Transverse Momentum in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} with the ATLAS Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; /Freiburg U. /Oklahoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Geneva U. /Oxford U. /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Oklahoma State U. /Michigan State U. /Tel Aviv U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Udine /ICTP, Trieste /Brookhaven /Hampton U. /Yale U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Munich U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford

    2012-06-20

    The ATLAS detector is used to search for high-mass states, such as heavy charged gauge bosons (W{prime},W*), decaying to a charged lepton (electron or muon) and a neutrino. Results are presented based on the analysis of ppcollisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb{sup -1}. No excess beyond standard model expectations is observed. A W{prime} with sequential standard model couplings is excluded at 95% confidence level for masses below 1.49 TeV, and a W* (charged chiral boson) for masses below 1.35 TeV.

  9. Compel Electronics GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Compel Electronics GmbH Place: Germany Product: Germany-based manufacturer of electronic cables and interconnections. The...

  10. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  11. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  12. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  13. Consumer Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  14. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  15. Advancing the surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish: a gap analysis and research agenda based on a review of trends in intracoelomic tagging effects studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2011-03-08

    Early approaches to surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish were often through trial and error, however, in recent years there has been an interest in using scientific research to identify techniques and procedures that improve the outcome of surgical procedures and determine the effects of tagging on individuals. Here we summarize the trends in 108 peer-reviewed electronic tagging effect studies focused on intracoleomic implantation to determine opportunities for future research. To date, almost all of the studies have been conducted in freshwater, typically in laboratory environments, and have focused on biotelemetry devices. The majority of studies have focused on salmonids, cyprinids, ictalurids and centrarchids, with a regional bias towards North America, Europe and Australia. Most studies have focused on determining whether there is a negative effect of tagging relative to control fish, with proportionally fewer that have contrasted different aspects of the surgical procedure (e.g., methods of sterilization, incision location, wound closure material) that could advance the discipline. Many of these studies included routine endpoints such as mortality, growth, healing and tag retention, with fewer addressing sublethal measures such as swimming ability, predator avoidance, physiological costs, or fitness. Continued research is needed to further elevate the practice of electronic tag implantation in fish in order to ensure that the data generated are relevant to untagged conspecifics (i.e., no long-term behavioural or physiological consequences) and the surgical procedure does not impair the health and welfare status of the tagged fish. To that end, we advocate for i) rigorous controlled manipulations based on statistical designs that have adequate power, account for inter-individual variation, and include controls and shams, ii) studies that transcend the laboratory and the field with more studies in marine waters, iii) incorporation of knowledge and techniques emerging from the medical and veterinary disciplines, iv) addressing all components of the surgical event, v) comparative studies that evaluate the same surgical techniques on multiple species and in different environments, vi) consideration of how biotic factors (e.g., sex, age, size) influence tagging outcomes, and vii) studies that cover a range of endpoints over ecologically-relevant time periods.

  16. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  17. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  18. Cookson Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Providence, Rhode Island Zip: 2903 Product: Rhode Island-based materials science company. The division produces PV junction boxes. References: Cookson Electronics1...

  19. Tyco Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Pennsylvania-based passive component manufacturer. The firm produces power storage devices. References: Tyco Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  20. Enhanced electron collection in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells by an array of metal micropillars on a planar fluorinated tin oxide anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.; Xu, T.; Gao, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Materials Science Division; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2010-01-01

    Charge collection efficiency exhibits a strong influence on the overall efficiency of nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells. It highly depends on the quality of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticulate layer in the photoanode, and hence most efforts have been directed on the improvement and deliberate optimization of the quality the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline layer. In this work, we aim to reduce the electron collection distance between the place of origin in the TiO{sub 2} layer to the electron-collecting TCO anode as an alternative way to enhance the charge collection efficiency. We use an array of metal micropillars on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the collecting anode. Under the same conditions, the Ni micropillar-on-FTO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) exhibit a remarkably enhanced current density, which is approximately 1.8 times greater compared with the bare FTO-based DSSCs. Electron transport was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. Our results reveal that the electron collection time in Ni micropillar-on-FTO-based DSSCs is much shorter than that of bare FTO-based DSSCs, indicating faster electron collection due to the Ni micropillars buried in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticulate layer that serve as electron transport shortcuts. As a result, the charge collection efficiency was enhanced by 15?20% with respect to that of the bare FTO-based DSSCs. Consequently, the overall energy conversion efficiency was found to increase from 2.6% in bare FTO-based DSSCs to 4.8% in Ni micropillar-on-FTO-based DSSCs for a 6 {micro}m-thick TiO{sub 2} NP film.

  1. Low thermal budget photonic processing of highly conductive Cu interconnects based on CuO nanoinks. Potential for flexible printed electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rager, Matthew S.; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joshi, Pooran C.

    2015-12-31

    The developing field of printed electronics nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation, before and during the sintering process, that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of inkjet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditionsmore » on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints in < 1 s with resistivity values as low as 100 n m has been achieved. We also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.« less

  2. Low thermal budget photonic processing of highly conductive Cu interconnects based on CuO nanoinks. Potential for flexible printed electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rager, Matthew S.; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joshi, Pooran C.

    2015-12-31

    The developing field of printed electronics nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation, before and during the sintering process, that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of inkjet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditions on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints in < 1 s with resistivity values as low as 100 n m has been achieved. We also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.

  3. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  4. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Lewis, Patrick R.

    2007-01-30

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  5. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 , while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  6. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  7. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  8. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  9. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  10. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  11. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yong

    2015-03-23

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  12. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Andrew J. Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris; Jacob, Jan; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  13. Coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  14. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  15. Electron tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suyama, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Atsuhito; Arisaka, Katsushi; Wang, Hanguo

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  16. Electronic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  17. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  18. Resolution study of higher-order-mode-based beam position diagnostics using custom-built electronics in strongly coupled 3.9-GHz multi-cavity accelerating module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Jones, R.M.; Eddy, N.

    2012-11-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can provide remote diagnostics information of the beam position and cavity misalignment. In this paper we report on recent studies on the resolution with specially selected series of modes with custom-built electronics. This constitutes the first report of measurements of these cavities in which we obtained a resolution of 20 micron in beam offset. Details of the setup of the electronics and HOM measurements are provided.

  19. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  20. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a method for Monte Carlo (MC) characterization of the miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources (MEBXS) and to set dosimetric parameters according to TG-43U1 formalism. TG-43U1 parameters were used to get optimal designs of MEBXS. Parameters that affect the dose distribution such as anode shapes, target thickness, target angles, and electron beam source characteristics were evaluated. Optimized MEBXS designs were obtained and used to determine radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions in the electron energy range of 25-80 keV. Methods: Tungsten anode material was considered in two different geometries, hemispherical and conical-hemisphere. These configurations were analyzed by the 4C MC code with several different optimization techniques. The first optimization compared target thickness layers versus electron energy. These optimized thicknesses were compared with published results by Ihsan et al.[Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264, 371-377 (2007)]. The second optimization evaluated electron source characteristics by changing the cathode shapes and electron energies. Electron sources studied included; (1) point sources, (2) uniform cylinders, and (3) nonuniform cylindrical shell geometries. The third optimization was used to assess the apex angle of the conical-hemisphere target. The goal of these optimizations was to produce 2D-dose anisotropy functions closer to unity. An overall optimized MEBXS was developed from this analysis. The results obtained from this model were compared to known characteristics of HDR {sup 125}I, LDR {sup 103}Pd, and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source (XAEBS) [Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)]. Results: The optimized anode thicknesses as a function of electron energy is fitted by the linear equation Y ({mu}m) = 0.0459X (keV)-0.7342. The optimized electron source geometry is obtained for a disk-shaped parallel beam (uniform cylinder) with 0.9 mm radius. The TG-43 distribution is less sensitive to the shape of the conical-hemisphere anode than the hemispherical anode. However, the optimized apex angle of conical-hemisphere anode was determined to be 60 deg. For the hemispherical targets, calculated radial dose function values at a distance of 5 cm were 0.137, 0.191, 0.247, and 0.331 for 40, 50, 60, and 80 keV electrons, respectively. These values for the conical-hemisphere targets are 0.165, 0.239, 0.305, and 0.412, respectively. Calculated 2D anisotropy functions values for the hemispherical target shape were F(1 cm, 0 deg.) = 1.438 and F(1 cm, 0 deg.) = 1.465 for 30 and 80 keV electrons, respectively. The corresponding values for conical-hemisphere targets are 1.091 and 1.241, respectively. Conclusions: A method for the characterizations of MEBXS using TG-43U1 dosimetric data using the MC MCNP4C has been presented. The effects of target geometry, thicknesses, and electron source geometry have been investigated. The final choices of MEBXS design are conical-hemisphere target shapes having an apex angle of 60 deg. Tungsten material having an optimized thickness versus electron energy and a 0.9 mm radius of uniform cylinder as a cathode produces optimal electron source characteristics.

  1. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  2. Electron heating during magnetic reconnection: A simulation scaling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shay, M. A. Haggerty, C. C.; Phan, T. D.; Oieroset, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Cassak, P. A.; Wu, P.; Malakit, K.

    2014-12-15

    Electron bulk heating during magnetic reconnection with symmetric inflow conditions is examined using kinetic particle-in-cell simulations. Inflowing plasma parameters are varied over a wide range of conditions, and the increase in electron temperature is measured in the exhaust well downstream of the x-line. The degree of electron heating is well correlated with the inflowing Alfvn speed c{sub Ar} based on the reconnecting magnetic field through the relation ?T{sub e}=0.033?m{sub i}?c{sub Ar}{sup 2}, where ?T{sub e} is the increase in electron temperature. For the range of simulations performed, the heating shows almost no correlation with inflow total temperature T{sub tot}=T{sub i}+T{sub e} or plasma ?. An out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field of similar magnitude to the reconnecting field does not affect the total heating, but it does quench perpendicular heating, with almost all heating being in the parallel direction. These results are qualitatively consistent with a recent statistical survey of electron heating in the dayside magnetopause (Phan et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4475, 2013), which also found that ?T{sub e} was proportional to the inflowing Alfvn speed. The net electron heating varies very little with distance downstream of the x-line. The simulations show at most a very weak dependence of electron heating on the ion to electron mass ratio. In the antiparallel reconnection case, the largely parallel heating is eventually isotropized downstream due a scattering mechanism, such as stochastic particle motion or instabilities. The simulation size is large enough to be directly relevant to reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the present findings may prove to be universal in nature with applications to the solar wind, the solar corona, and other astrophysical plasmas. The study highlights key properties that must be satisfied by an electron heating mechanism: (1) preferential heating in the parallel direction; (2) heating proportional to m{sub i}?c{sub Ar}{sup 2}; (3) at most a weak dependence on electron mass; and (4) an exhaust electron temperature that varies little with distance from the x-line.

  3. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  4. Fast transit portal dosimetry using density-scaled layer modeling of aSi-based electronic portal imaging device and Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Jae Won; Kim, Jong Oh; Yeo, Inhwan Jason; Cho, Young-Bin; Kim, Sun Mo; DiBiase, Steven

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Fast and accurate transit portal dosimetry was investigated by developing a density-scaled layer model of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and applying it to a clinical environment. Methods: The model was developed for fast Monte Carlo dose calculation. The model was validated through comparison with measurements of dose on EPID using first open beams of varying field sizes under a 20-cm-thick flat phantom. After this basic validation, the model was further tested by applying it to transit dosimetry and dose reconstruction that employed our predetermined dose-response-based algorithm developed earlier. The application employed clinical intensity-modulated beams irradiated on a Rando phantom. The clinical beams were obtained through planning on pelvic regions of the Rando phantom simulating prostate and large pelvis intensity modulated radiation therapy. To enhance agreement between calculations and measurements of dose near penumbral regions, convolution conversion of acquired EPID images was alternatively used. In addition, thickness-dependent image-to-dose calibration factors were generated through measurements of image and calculations of dose in EPID through flat phantoms of various thicknesses. The factors were used to convert acquired images in EPID into dose. Results: For open beam measurements, the model showed agreement with measurements in dose difference better than 2% across open fields. For tests with a Rando phantom, the transit dosimetry measurements were compared with forwardly calculated doses in EPID showing gamma pass rates between 90.8% and 98.8% given 4.5 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD) for all individual beams tried in this study. The reconstructed dose in the phantom was compared with forwardly calculated doses showing pass rates between 93.3% and 100% in isocentric perpendicular planes to the beam direction given 3 mm DTA and 3% DD for all beams. On isocentric axial planes, the pass rates varied between 95.8% and 99.9% for all individual beams and they were 98.2% and 99.9% for the composite beams of the small and large pelvis cases, respectively. Three-dimensional gamma pass rates were 99.0% and 96.4% for the small and large pelvis cases, respectively. Conclusions: The layer model of EPID built for Monte Carlo calculations offered fast (less than 1 min) and accurate calculation for transit dosimety and dose reconstruction.

  5. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physical properties of the substance of interest, and (3) transformation rates in soil. Our particular focus is on approaches for constructing soil-transport algorithms and soil-transport parameters for incorporation within multimedia fate models. We show how MTC's can be developed to construct a simple two-compartment air-soil system. We then demonstrate how a multi-layer-box-model approach for soil-mass balance converges to the exact analytical solution for concentration and mass balance. Finally, we demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to the specimen chemicals benzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane gammahexachlorocyclohexane, benzo(a)pyrene, nickel, and copper.

  6. ELECTRONIC MULTIPLIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P.

    1961-01-31

    S>An electronic multiplier is described for use in analog computers. Two electrical input signals are received; one controls the slope of a saw-tooth voltage wave while the other controls the time duration of the wave. A condenser and diode clamps are provided to sustain the crest voltage reached by the wave, and for storing that voltage to provide an output signal which is a steady d-c voltage.

  7. Electron Bernstein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma P. K. Chattopadhyay, J. K. Anderson, T. M. Biewer, D. Craig, and C. B. Forest a) Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 R. W. Harvey CompX, Del Mar, California 92014 A. P. Smirnov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia ͑Received 11 October 2001; accepted 20 November 2001͒ Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (␻ pe

  8. ELECTRON GUN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  9. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  10. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  11. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  12. MEASURING THE MASS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J.; Serra, Ana Laura E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it E-mail: serra@to.infn.it

    2013-02-10

    Cluster mass profiles are tests of models of structure formation. Only two current observational methods of determining the mass profile, gravitational lensing, and the caustic technique are independent of the assumption of dynamical equilibrium. Both techniques enable the determination of the extended mass profile at radii beyond the virial radius. For 19 clusters, we compare the mass profile based on the caustic technique with weak lensing measurements taken from the literature. This comparison offers a test of systematic issues in both techniques. Around the virial radius, the two methods of mass estimation agree to within {approx}30%, consistent with the expected errors in the individual techniques. At small radii, the caustic technique overestimates the mass as expected from numerical simulations. The ratio between the lensing profile and the caustic mass profile at these radii suggests that the weak lensing profiles are a good representation of the true mass profile. At radii larger than the virial radius, the extrapolated Navarro, Frenk and White fit to the lensing mass profile exceeds the caustic mass profile. Contamination of the lensing profile by unrelated structures within the lensing kernel may be an issue in some cases; we highlight the clusters MS0906+11 and A750, superposed along the line of sight, to illustrate the potential seriousness of contamination of the weak lensing signal by these unrelated structures.

  13. A novel Bi-based phosphomolybdate photocatalyst K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}): Crystal structure, electronic structure and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hongwei; Chen, Gong; Wang, Shuobo; Kang, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhang, Yihe

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A new type of phosphomolybdate K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}) photocatalyst was successfully synthesized. The products synthesized at 600 C were mainly composed of nano-cubes. The indirect band gap of K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}) has been determined to be 2.93 eV. K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}) synthesized at 600 C exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. The electronic structure was calculated by density functional calculations. - Abstract: A novel phosphomolybdate photocatalyst K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}) has been successfully developed via a solid-state reaction. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The photocatalytic activities of the samples prepared at different temperature were determined by the photooxidative decomposition of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The results revealed that K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}) can be used as an effective photocatalyst under UVvis irradiation and the nanocubes obtained at 600 C exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation of MB by K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}) nanocrystals followed the first-order kinetics. Theoretical calculations on electronic structure confirmed the indirect optical transitions property in the absorption edge region of K{sub 2}Bi(PO{sub 4})(MoO{sub 4}), and the orbital constitutions of CB and VB were also analyzed.

  14. Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We apply the Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ) approach to the Hamiltonian field theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in free space. We solve for the mass eigenstates corresponding to an electron interacting with a single photon in light-front gauge. Based on the resulting non-perturbative ground state light-front amplitude we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The numerical results from extrapolating to the infinite basis limit reproduce the perturbative Schwinger result with relative deviation less than 1.2%. We report significant improvements over previous works including the development of analytic methods for evaluating the vertex matrix elements of QED.

  15. HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA B-200 King Air ARCTASISDAC Operations and Science Richard Ferrare, Chris Hostetler, ... hours science *5 flights coordinated with NASA DC-8 *3 flights coordinated with NASA P-3 ...

  16. HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA B-200 King Air ARCTAS/ISDAC Operations and Science Richard Ferrare, Chris Hostetler, John Hair, Anthony Cook, David Harper, Mike Obland, Ray Rogers, Sharon Burton, Matt Shupe, Dave Turner, Connor Flynn B200/HSRL Deployment During ARCTAS (Spring)  Independently measures aerosol/cloud extinction and backscatter profiles at 532 nm  Includes - Backscatter channels at 1064 nm - Polarization sensitivity at 532 and 1064 nm  Profile Measurement capabilities - Extensive measurements *

  17. HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OBSERVATIONS FROM THE NASA LANGLEY AIRBORNE HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION LIDAR AND PLANS FOR ACTIVE-PASSIVE AEROSOL-CLOUD RETRIEVALS Chris A. Hostetler, Richard A. Ferrare, John W. Hair, Raymond R. Rogers, Mike Obland, Sharon P. Burton, Wenying Su, Anthony L. Cook, David B. Harper NASA HQ Science Mission Directorate Radiation Sciences Program Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NASA CALIPSO Project Sponsors Department of Energy Atmospheric Science Program Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

  18. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  19. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  20. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  1. Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons A compound made out of ytterbium (Yb), platinum (Pt), and bismuth (Bi) offers researchers the opportunity to watch the birth of magnetic behavior by applying small changes in magnetic field or temperature. Despite the electrons having effective masses of nearly 10,000 times their normal mass when YbPtBi becomes magnetic, researchers have been able to monitor its quantum oscillations, key for determining important electronic

  2. Florida Power Electronics Center FPEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Center FPEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Power Electronics Center (FPEC) Place: Orlando, Florida Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Research institute based...

  3. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Lian, Tianquan 14 SOLAR ENERGY The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer...

  4. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress; Annual Technical Report, 1 November 2005 - 31 October 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, J.; Seymour, F. H.; Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the results of our continuing study of deep electronic states controlling open-circuit voltage in CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells (Task 1). The study includes: (1) analysis of factors affecting trap signatures derived from admittance spectroscopy and capacitance transients measurements, such as activation-energy capture cross-sections and trap-density estimates, and (2) comparative studies of cells received from four different sources and prepared with significant variations in cell structure and processing procedures.

  5. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: A foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dantas, Joana M.; Morgado, Leonor; Aklujkar, Muktak; Bruix, Marta; Londer, Yuri Y.; Schiffer, Marianne; Pokkuluri, P. Raj; Salgueiro, Carlos A.

    2015-07-30

    Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens extracellular electron transfer (EET). These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by G. sulfurreducens. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Throughout the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of G. sulfurreducens multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. In previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of G. sulfurreducens by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E). These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell's outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e-/H+ transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of G. sulfurreducens. For the first time G. sulfurreducens strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential proteins with the aim to develop and improve bioelectrochemical technologies.

  6. SINTERED REFRACTORY MASS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, A.E.

    1955-09-01

    A method is given for joining sintered masses of refractory compounds. It consists in maintaining the masses in contact with each other by application of a moderate pressure, while they are at sintering temperature. The sintered masses are subjected to am applied pressure of about 1/2 to 1 ton per square inch of the surface in contact for about 10 minutes, and the temperature employed may be fropn about 1400 deg C to 2000 deg C. Refractory oxides to which the invention may be applied are beryllia, alumina, thoria, and magnesia.

  7. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  8. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  9. MEIC electron cooling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.

  10. ELECTRONIC INTEGRATING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englemann, R.H.

    1963-08-20

    An electronic integrating circuit using a transistor with a capacitor connected between the emitter and collector through which the capacitor discharges at a rate proportional to the input current at the base is described. Means are provided for biasing the base with an operating bias and for applying a voltage pulse to the capacitor for charging to an initial voltage. A current dividing diode is connected between the base and emitter of the transistor, and signal input terminal means are coupled to the juncture of the capacitor and emitter and to the base of the transistor. At the end of the integration period, the residual voltage on said capacitor is less by an amount proportional to the integral of the input signal. Either continuous or intermittent periods of integration are provided. (AEC)

  11. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Gan, Jinping; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2015-11-03

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites was studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney, muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed themore » same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. Furthermore, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement.« less

  12. Yamaichi Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yamaichi Electronics Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 143-8515 Product: Tokyo-based company that manufactures electrical connectors,...

  13. Hot electron measurements from the DIME campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, Paul Andrew

    2015-11-17

    This report describes the findings of electron-based experimentation performed by LANL at the Laser Energetics Web Conference of 11/18/2015.

  14. Electronic Educational Devices EED | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Electronic Educational Devices (EED) Place: Colorado Product: Colorado-USA-based manufacturer of higher-end watt meters for plug-in devices. References:...

  15. ELASTIC ELECTRON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    496: Record of Decision EIS-0496: Record of Decision San Luis Transmission Project; Alameda, Merced, San Joaquin and Stanislaus Counties, California Western Area Power Administration (Western) issued a Record of Decision for the proposed San Luis Transmission Project, based on an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report prepared by Western and the San Luis & Delta-Mendota Water Authority as joint federal and state lead agencies. Western decided to implement the preferred

  16. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  17. Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems Print Wednesday, 27 September 2006 00:00 Heavy-fermion systems are characterized by electrons with extremely large effective masses. The corresponding heavy-electron "quasiparticle" states are close to the Fermi energy and govern the thermodynamic, transport, and, in part, magnetic properties of these materials. In the case of rare-earth compounds, the quasiparticle states arise

  18. Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat April 10, 2006 Free-Electron Laser Scientists Rox Anderson, right, and Free-Electron Laser Scientist Steve Benson, left, discuss laser beam parameters while conducting the experiment on pig fat. Image courtesy: Greg Adams, Jefferson Lab Boston, Mass. - Fat may have finally met its match: laser light. Researchers at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and the Department of

  19. Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeFord, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.

  20. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2006-08-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices.

  1. Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beise, Elizabeth

    2007-10-26

    About thirty years ago, electron scattering from nucleons was used [1] to identify, and then measure, the properties of the weak interaction, the only force of nature known to violate the symmetry parity. The basic technique has not fundamentally changed, which is to look for a small asymmetry in count rate from scattering a polarized electron beam from an unpolarized target. Since then, parity-violating (PV) electron scattering has developed substantially, a result of significant improvements in polarized electron beams, accelerator advancements, and developments in cryogenic targets that make it possible to carry out experiments with much higher statistical precision. In the last decade PV experiments have focused on using the complementary electron-quark flavor coupling of the weak interaction to identify and place limits on contributions of strange quark-antiquark pairs to the charge and magnetism of the proton. This observable provides a unique window into the structure of the proton since strange quark contributions can arise only from the sea of quarks and gluons that are responsible for the vast majority of the nucleon's mass. This paper will report on recent results aimed at this goal, along with a brief overview of future directions.

  2. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  3. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  4. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  5. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  6. Quasiparticle states around a nonmagnetic impurity in electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in electron-doped iron-based superconductors with spin-density-wave order Citation ... in electron-doped iron-based superconductors with spin-density-wave order Authors: ...

  7. Visualization of electronic density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atoms volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  8. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atom’s volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  9. Engineering rock mass classifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a reference on rock mass classification, consolidating into one handy source information widely scattered through the literature. Includes new, unpublished material and case histories. Presents the fundamental concepts of classification schemes and critically appraises their practical application in industrial projects such as tunneling and mining.

  10. Theoretical study on strain induced variations in electronic properties of 2H-MoS{sub 2} bilayer sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Liang; Dongare, Avinash M.; Namburu, Raju R.; O'Regan, Terrance P.; Dubey, Madan

    2014-02-03

    The strain dependence of the electronic properties of bilayer sheets of 2H-MoS{sub 2} is studied using ab initio simulations based on density functional theory. An indirect band gap for bilayer MoS{sub 2} is observed for all variations of strain along the basal plane. Several transitions for the indirect band gap are observed for various strains for the bilayer structure. The variation of the band gap and the carrier effective masses for the holes and the electrons for the bilayer MoS{sub 2} structure under conditions of uniaxial strain, biaxial strain, as well as uniaxial stress is investigated.

  11. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  12. Nucleation of diamond by pure carbon ion bombardment--a transmission electron microscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Y.; Liao, M.Y.; Wang, Z.G.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.

    2005-08-08

    A cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of a film deposited by a 1 keV mass-selected carbon ion beam onto silicon held at 800 deg. C is presented. Initially, a graphitic film with its basal planes perpendicular to the substrate is evolving. The precipitation of nanodiamond crystallites in upper layers is confirmed by HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nucleation of diamond on graphitic edges as predicted by Lambrecht et al. [W. R. L. Lambrecht, C. H. Lee, B. Segall, J. C. Angus, Z. Li, and M. Sunkara, Nature, 364 607 (1993)] is experimentally confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of our recent subplantation-based diamond nucleation model.

  13. LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobilitymore » in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.« less

  14. LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobility in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.

  15. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  16. Direct Search for Low Mass Dark Matter Particles with CCDs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barreto, J.; Cease, H.; Diehl, H. T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Harrison, N.; Jones, J.; Kilminster, B.; Molina, J.; Smith, J.; et al

    2012-05-15

    A direct dark matter search is performed using fully-depleted high-resistivity CCD detectors. Due to their low electronic readout noise (RMS ~7 eV) these devices operate with a very low detection threshold of 40 eV, making the search for dark matter particles with low masses (~5 GeV) possible. The results of an engineering run performed in a shallow underground site are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technology in the low mass region.

  17. Twisted mass finite volume effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

  18. Electron Microscopy Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with electron and ion beam instruments, including crystallographic and chemical techniques. April 12, 2012 Transmission electron microscope Rob Dickerson examines a multiphase...

  19. A Community of Electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plutonium's missing magnetism also provides a groundbreaking insight into the overall nature of matter. November 20, 2015 A Community of Electrons With electronic correlations,...

  20. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in...

  1. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale,...

  2. Consumer Electronics Association Comment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) is the preeminent trade association promoting growth in the $285 billion U.S. consumer electronics industry.

  3. Electron Microscopy Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Electron Microscopy Center Web Site has moved This page has moved to http:www.anl.govcnmgroupelectron-microscopy-cente...

  4. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  5. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2008-03-11

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  6. Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

  7. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  8. Photoionization Mass Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoionization Mass Spectroscopy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. Solution mass measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, W.; Marshall, R.S.; Osborn, L.C.; Picard, R.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the efforts to develop and demonstrate a solution mass measurement system for use at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Because of inaccuracy of load cell measurements, our major effort was directed towards the pneumatic bubbler tube. The differential pressure between the air inlet to the bubbler tube and the glovebox interior is measured and is proportional to the solution mass in the tank. An inexpensive, reliable pressure transducer system for measuring solution mass in vertical, cylindrical tanks was developed, tested, and evaluated in a laboratory test bed. The system can withstand the over- and underpressures resulting from solution transfer operations and can prevent solution backup into the measurement pressure transducer during transfers. Drifts, noise, quantization error, and other effects limit the accuracy to 30 g. A transportable calibration system using a precision machined tank, pneumatic bubbler tubes, and a Ruska DDR 6000 electromanometer was designed, fabricated, tested, and evaluated. Resolution of the system is +-3.5 g out of 50 kg. The calibration error is 5 g, using room-temperature water as the calibrating fluid. Future efforts will be directed towards in-plant test and evaluation of the tank measurement systems. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Electronic field permeameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, Mark A.; Goggin, David J.; Horne, Patrick J.; Kocurek, Gary G.; Lake, Larry W.

    1989-01-01

    For making rapid, non-destructive permeability measurements in the field, a portable minipermeameter of the kind having a manually-operated gas injection tip is provided with a microcomputer system which operates a flow controller to precisely regulate gas flow rate to a test sample, and reads a pressure sensor which senses the pressure across the test sample. The microcomputer system automatically turns on the gas supply at the start of each measurement, senses when a steady-state is reached, collects and records pressure and flow rate data, and shuts off the gas supply immediately after the measurement is completed. Preferably temperature is also sensed to correct for changes in gas viscosity. The microcomputer system may also provide automatic zero-point adjustment, sensor calibration, over-range sensing, and may select controllers, sensors, and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements. Electronic sensors may provide increased accuracy and precision. Preferably one microcomputer is used for sensing instrument control and data collection, and a second microcomputer is used which is dedicated to recording and processing the data, selecting the sensors and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements, and instructing the user how to set-up and operate the minipermeameter. To provide mass data collection and user-friendly operation, the second microcomputer is preferably a lap-type portable microcomputer having a non-volatile or battery-backed CMOS memory.

  11. Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate ...

  12. Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High Pressures: Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High ...

  13. Determination of effective axion masses in the helium-3 buffer of CAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruz, J

    2011-11-18

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a ground based experiment located in Geneva (Switzerland) searching for axions coming from the Sun. Axions, hypothetical particles that not only could solve the strong CP problem but also be one of the favored candidates for dark matter, can be produced in the core of the Sun via the Primakoff effect. They can be reconverted into X-ray photons on Earth in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. In order to look for axions, CAST points a decommissioned LHC prototype dipole magnet with different X-ray detectors installed in both ends of the magnet towards the Sun. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV/c{sup 2}. During the second phase, CAST extends its mass sensitivity by tuning the electron density present in the magnetic field region. Injecting precise amounts of helium gas has enabled CAST to look for axion masses up to 1.2 eV/c{sup 2}. This paper studies the determination of the effective axion masses scanned at CAST during its second phase. The use of a helium gas buffer at temperatures of 1.8 K has required a detailed knowledge of the gas density distribution. Complete sets of computational fluid dynamic simulations validated with experimental data have been crucial to obtain accurate results.

  14. Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2013-08-01

    Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei/ the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.

  15. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  16. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticleliquid interface. This knowledge is essential to many semiconductor ...

  17. Mass transfer effects in a gasification riser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, Ronald W; Li, Tingwen; Nicoletti, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    In the development of multiphase reacting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a number of simplifications were incorporated into the codes and models. One of these simplifications was the use of a simplistic mass transfer correlation for the faster reactions and omission of mass transfer effects completely on the moderate speed and slow speed reactions such as those in a fluidized bed gasifier. Another problem that has propagated is that the mass transfer correlation used in the codes is not universal and is being used far from its developed bubbling fluidized bed regime when applied to circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser reactors. These problems are true for the major CFD codes. To alleviate this problem, a mechanistic based mass transfer coefficient algorithm has been developed based upon an earlier work by Breault et al. This fundamental approach uses the local hydrodynamics to predict a local, time varying mass transfer coefficient. The predicted mass transfer coefficients and the corresponding Sherwood numbers agree well with literature data and are typically about an order of magnitude lower than the correlation noted above. The incorporation of the new mass transfer model gives the expected behavior for all the gasification reactions evaluated in the paper. At the expected and typical design values for the solid flow rate in a CFB riser gasifier an ANOVA analysis has shown the predictions from the new code to be significantly different from the original code predictions. The new algorithm should be used such that the conversions are not over predicted. Additionally, its behaviors with changes in solid flow rate are consistent with the changes in the hydrodynamics.

  18. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  19. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  20. Precision electroweak studies using parity violation in electron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschke, Kent D,

    2013-11-01

    The nature of new neutral-current interactions can be revealed at the low-energy precision frontier, where studies of parity-violation in electron scattering will complement the energy-frontier studies at the LHC. Measurements of the parity-violating observable APV - the cross-section asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized target - are sensitive to possible contact interactions from new physics at multi-TeV mass scales. The 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and a new, high-intensity beam at Mainz offer opportunities for significant improvements in measurements of electron-electron and electron-quark parity-violating interactions.

  1. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  2. Electronic security device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-03-17

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs.

  3. Electronic security device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  4. Energy Grasses for the Masses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1-D: The Pitch Energy Grasses for the Masses Jason Force, Chief Executive Officer, Iron Goat Technology, Inc.

  5. Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems Print Heavy-fermion systems are characterized by electrons with extremely large effective masses. The corresponding heavy-electron "quasiparticle" states are close to the Fermi energy and govern the thermodynamic, transport, and, in part, magnetic properties of these materials. In the case of rare-earth compounds, the quasiparticle states arise from the interactions (hybridization) of valence states with strongly localized 4f

  6. Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems Print Heavy-fermion systems are characterized by electrons with extremely large effective masses. The corresponding heavy-electron "quasiparticle" states are close to the Fermi energy and govern the thermodynamic, transport, and, in part, magnetic properties of these materials. In the case of rare-earth compounds, the quasiparticle states arise from the interactions (hybridization) of valence states with strongly localized 4f

  7. Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron-State Hybridization in Heavy-Fermion Systems Print Heavy-fermion systems are characterized by electrons with extremely large effective masses. The corresponding heavy-electron "quasiparticle" states are close to the Fermi energy and govern the thermodynamic, transport, and, in part, magnetic properties of these materials. In the case of rare-earth compounds, the quasiparticle states arise from the interactions (hybridization) of valence states with strongly localized 4f

  8. Precision Determination of the Top Quark Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movilla Fernandez, Pedro A.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-05-01

    The CDF and D0 collaborations have updated their measurements of the mass of the top quark using proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV produced at the Tevatron. The uncertainties in each of the top-antitop decay channels have been reduced. The new Tevatron average for the mass of the top quark based on about 1 fb{sup -1} of data per experiment is 170.9 {+-} 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-20

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M{sub BH{approx}}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H{sub 2}O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M{sub BH} and {sigma}{sub *} seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation in this low-mass regime.

  10. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  11. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  12. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  13. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Electronics Thermal Management A photo of water boiling in liquid cooling lab equipment. Power electronics thermal management research aims to help lower the cost and improve the performance of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL investigates and develops thermal management strategies for power electronics systems that use wide-bandgap technology, which enables the development of devices that are smaller than those based on other materials, demonstrating

  14. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), the Netherlands; and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa (CONACyT), Mexico. Operation of the ALS is supported by BES....

  15. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    der Materie (FOM), the Netherlands; and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa (CONACyT), Mexico. Operation of the ALS is supported by BES. Publication about this research:...

  16. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Bruno, D.; Binello, S.; Costanzo, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D. M.; Hock, J.; Hock, K.; Harvey, M.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Mi, C.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; Pikin, A. I.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Samms, T.; Shrey, T. C.; Schoefer, V.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; White, S. M.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  17. Gas mass transfer for stratified flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1995-06-01

    We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh{sub t} = (2/{radical}{pi})Sc{sup 1/2}, where Sh{sub t} is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature.

  18. Gas mass transfer for stratified flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1995-07-01

    We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrum integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh{sub t} = (2/{radical}{pi}) Sc{sup 1/2}, where Sh{sub t} is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geophysical and chemical engineering literature.

  19. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  20. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  1. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-12-12

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac is described. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator, or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  2. Power Electronics Block Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The software consists of code that will allow rapid prototyping of advanced power electronics for use in renewable energy systems.

  3. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  4. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  5. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  6. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  7. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's

  8. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  9. ILC Electron Source Gets Help from JLab | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Source Gets Help from JLab ILC Electron Source Gets Help from JLab cathode electrode The cathode electrode is being put to the test in Jefferson Lab's electron gun test stand. This work is part of a research project on the ILC's electron source, which is based in part on JLab's CEBAF accelerator electron source research. With the activation of the LHC, or Large Hadron Collider, some particle physicists are now looking forward to the next big machine. For many, that's the International

  10. Sharp Electronics Europe GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sharp Electronics (Europe) GmbH Place: Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20097 Sector: Solar Product: German-based company Sharp Electronics GmbH...

  11. First Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Nuclear Mass Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Girod, M.; Peru, S.

    2009-06-19

    We present the first Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) model which reproduces nuclear masses with an accuracy comparable with the best mass formulas. In contrast with the Skyrme-HFB nuclear-mass models, an explicit and self-consistent account of all the quadrupole correlation energies are included within the 5D collective Hamiltonian approach. The final rms deviation with respect to the 2149 measured masses is 798 keV. In addition, the new Gogny force is shown to predict nuclear and neutron matter properties in agreement with microscopic calculations based on realistic two- and three-body forces.

  12. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-04

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  13. Mass Spectrometer Laboratory | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometer Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Laboratory A look inside the recently updated Mass Spectrometer Facility managed by Staff Scientish Hao Zhang

  14. Determination of the top-quark pole mass using tt¯ + 1-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7TeV pp collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2015-10-19

    In this study, the normalized differential cross section for top-quark pair production in association with at least one jet is studied as a function of the inverse of the invariant mass of the tt¯ + 1-jet system. This distribution can be used for a precise determination of the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The experimental analysis is based on proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb–1 . The selected events were identified using themore » lepton+jets top-quark-pair decay channel, where lepton refers to either an electron or a muon. The observed distribution is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics using the pole-mass scheme. With this method, the measured value of the top-quark pole mass, mpolet , is: mpolet = 173.7 ± 1.5(stat.) ± 1.4(syst.)+1.0–0.5(theory) GeV.« less

  15. Determination of the top-quark pole mass using tt¯ + 1-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7TeV pp collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ecker, K. M.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. 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K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Rave, T. C.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodrigues, L.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-10-19

    In this study, the normalized differential cross section for top-quark pair production in association with at least one jet is studied as a function of the inverse of the invariant mass of the tt¯ + 1-jet system. This distribution can be used for a precise determination of the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The experimental analysis is based on proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb–1 . The selected events were identified using the lepton+jets top-quark-pair decay channel, where lepton refers to either an electron or a muon. The observed distribution is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics using the pole-mass scheme. With this method, the measured value of the top-quark pole mass, mpolet , is: mpolet = 173.7 ± 1.5(stat.) ± 1.4(syst.)+1.0–0.5(theory) GeV.

  16. Method for analyzing the mass of a sample using a cold cathode ionization source mass filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2003-10-14

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  17. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1983-06-10

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600/sup 0/C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for nonuniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  18. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Pincosy, Philip A.; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600.degree. C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for non-uniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  19. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archubi, C. D.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics and electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenk, A.

    2013-11-07

    Electron beams provide important probes and constraints for nuclear astrophysics. This is especially exciting at energies within the regime of chiral effective field theory (EFT), which provides a systematic expansion for nuclear forces and electroweak operators based on quantum chromodynamics. This talk discusses some recent highlights and future directions based on chiral EFT, including nuclear structure and reactions for astrophysics, the neutron skin and constraints for the properties of neutron-rich matter in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, and the dark matter response of nuclei.

  1. MASS DETERMINATION STUDIES OF 104 LARGE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zielenbach, William

    2011-10-15

    The techniques described in an earlier paper were used to determine masses of 104 asteroids by the method of asteroid-asteroid gravitational interaction. For each of the 104 perturbers, 4 large sets of test particles selected by different criteria were used to calculate 4 mass values from a weighted mean of individual results within each set. The sheer number of test particles and observations ameliorates the effects of random observational errors and the type of systematic errors known to have affected specific observatories at specific times. It also reduces the effect of mismodeled attractions by perturbers other than the one being estimated, because the various test particles are affected to different degrees and in different directions. For most of the perturbers that have been analyzed by others, the results of this study agree reasonably well with values published in the past decade, giving credence to the approach. Thirty-eight of the results appear to be the first published masses for the respective asteroids, and 12 are the first determinations based on asteroid-asteroid interactions. Unrealistic and/or negative masses were obtained for some perturbers. Causes for this phenomenon are discussed and various means to obtain reasonable numbers are evaluated.

  2. Atmosphere to Electrons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow 2 Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented under- standing of how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind. The A2e initiative

  3. Ceramic Electron Multiplier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Comby, G.

    1996-10-01

    The Ceramic Electron Multipliers (CEM) is a compact, robust, linear and fast multi-channel electron multiplier. The Multi Layer Ceramic Technique (MLCT) allows to build metallic dynodes inside a compact ceramic block. The activation of the metallic dynodes enhances their secondary electron emission (SEE). The CEM can be used in multi-channel photomultipliers, multi-channel light intensifiers, ion detection, spectroscopy, analysis of time of flight events, particle detection or Cherenkov imaging detectors. (auth)

  4. Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    43.5 (04/2015) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire INSTRUCTIONS: System owners should work in consultation with their organization's records contacts to ensure the accurate completion of a separate questionnaire for each electronic recordkeeping system. Federal regulations require proper address of recordkeeping requirements and disposition before approving new electronic information systems (EIS) or enhancements to existing EISes. OMB Circular A-130 requires

  5. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  6. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy (ARPES) at ALS Beamline 7.0.1, a team of scientists from the ALS and Germany characterized the electronic band structure and successfully controlled the gap...

  7. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  8. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems 2009 ...

  9. Electronic and spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (QUAMBOs), a first-principles tight binding (TB) scheme based on density functional theory (DFT), combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function. For electronic transport,...

  10. Properties of Inconel 625 Mesh Structures Grown by Electron Beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fabricated using an additive manufacturing technology based on electron beam melting. ... Knowledge of this kind is likely applicable to other metal and alloy systems and is ...

  11. Gemballa Electronics GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gemballa Electronics GmbH Place: Kaltenkirchen, Germany Zip: 24586 Product: Germany-based produces semiconductor and silicon components. The...

  12. Apower Electronics Co Ltd AEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: Guangdong Province - based company which researches, makes and sells Lithium Polymer batteries. References: Apower Electronics Co, Ltd. (AEC)1 This article is a...

  13. Electron Solar Energy Formerly Envigra Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Formerly Envigra Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electron Solar Energy (Formerly Envigra Inc) Place: Miami, Florida Zip: 33137 Sector: Solar Product: US-based...

  14. Zicom Electronic Security Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Security Systems Ltd. Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400093 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Mumbai-based electronic security systems integrator. The firm plans to...

  15. LG Display Everlight Electronics JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: China-based joint venture focused on the production of LED backlight packaging. References: LG Display & Everlight Electronics JV1 This article is a stub. You...

  16. Suntrack P4Q Electronics SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Suntrack (P4Q Electronics SL) Place: Alonsotegi, Spain Zip: 48810 Sector: Solar Product: Spain-based firm that manufactures...

  17. FREE ELECTRON LASERS AND HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.

    2007-08-31

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation of such beams is too feeble to provide significant cooling: even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about thirteen hours. Decrements of traditional electron cooling decrease rapidly as the high power of beam energy, and an effective electron cooling of protons or antiprotons at energies above 100 GeV seems unlikely. Traditional stochastic cooling still cannot catch up with the challenge of cooling high-intensity bunched proton beams--to be effective, its bandwidth must be increased by about two orders-of-magnitude. Two techniques offering the potential to cool high-energy hadron beams are optical stochastic cooling (OSC) and coherent electron cooling (CEC)--the latter is the focus of this paper. In the early 1980s, CEC was suggested as a possibility for using various instabilities in an electron beam to enhance its interaction with hadrons (i.e., cooling them). The capabilities of present-day accelerator technology, Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), and high-gain Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), finally caught up with the idea and provided the all necessary ingredients for realizing such a process. In this paper, we discuss the principles, and the main limitations of the CEC process based on a high-gain FEL driven by an ERL. We also present, and summarize in Table 1, some numerical examples of CEC for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC.

  18. Multispacecraft observations of the electron current sheet, neighboring magnetic islands, and electron acceleration during magnetotail reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Lijen; Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Vaith, Hans; Puhl-Quinn, Pamela; Torbert, Roy; Asnes, Arne; Fazakerley, Andrew; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Daly, Patrick

    2009-05-15

    Open questions concerning structures and dynamics of diffusion regions and electron acceleration in collisionless magnetic reconnection are addressed based on data from the four-spacecraft mission Cluster and particle-in-cell simulations. Using time series of electron distribution functions measured by the four spacecraft, distinct electron regions around a reconnection layer are mapped out to set the framework for studying diffusion regions. A spatially extended electron current sheet (ecs), a series of magnetic islands, and bursts of energetic electrons within islands are identified during magnetotail reconnection with no appreciable guide field. The ecs is collocated with a layer of electron-scale electric fields normal to the ecs and pointing toward the ecs center plane. Both the observed electron and ion densities vary by more than a factor of 2 within one ion skin depth north and south of the ecs, and from the ecs into magnetic islands. Within each of the identified islands, there is a burst of suprathermal electrons whose fluxes peak at density compression sites [L.-J. Chen et al., Nat. Phys. 4, 19 (2008)] and whose energy spectra exhibit power laws with indices ranging from 6 to 7.3. These results indicate that the in-plane electric field normal to the ecs can be of the electron scale at certain phases of reconnection, electrons and ions are highly compressible within the ion diffusion region, and for reconnection involving magnetic islands, primary electron acceleration occurs within the islands.

  19. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  20. Appendix MASS: Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix MASS-2014 Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix MASS Table of Contents MASS-1.0 Introduction MASS-2.0 Summary of Changes in Performance Assessment MASS-2.1 FEPs Assessment MASS-2.2 Monitoring MASS-2.3 Experimental Activities MASS-2.3.1 Steel Corrosion Investigations MASS-2.3.2 Waste Shear Strength Investigations MASS-2.3.3

  1. Measurements of the tau Mass and Mass Difference of the tau^+ and tau^- at BABAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-10-30

    The authors present the result of a precision measurement of the mass of the {tau} lepton, M{sub {tau}}, based on 423 fb{sup -1} of data recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. Using a pseudomass endpoint method, they determine the mass to be 1776.68 {+-} 0.12(stat) {+-} 0.41(syst) MeV. They also measure the mass difference between the {tau}{sup +} and {tau}{sup -}, and obtain (M{sub {tau}{sup +}} - M{sub {tau}{sup -}})/M{sub AVG}{sup {tau}} = (-3.4 {+-} 1.3(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst)) x 10{sup -4}, where M{sub AVG}{sup {tau}} is the average value of M{sub {tau}{sup +}} and M{sub {tau}{sup -}}.

  2. Electronic Mail Analysis Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-08

    Establishes the pilot program to test the Department of Energy (DOE) Electronic Mail Analysis Capability (EMAC), which will be used to monitor and analyze outgoing and incoming electronic mail (e-mail) from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and DOE laboratories that are engaged in nuclear weapons design or work involving special nuclear material. No cancellation.

  3. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  4. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna

    2007-04-04

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  5. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna

    2009-09-01

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  6. Electron: Cluster interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Kresin, V.V.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E {approximately} 0.1 to E {approximately} 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na{sub 8}, Na{sub 20}, Na{sub 40}. The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size.

  7. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  8. Particle analysis using laser ablation mass spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Eric P.; Rosenthal, Stephen E.; Trahan, Michael W.; Wagner, John S.

    2003-09-09

    The present invention provides a method of quickly identifying bioaerosols by class, even if the subject bioaerosol has not been previously encountered. The method begins by collecting laser ablation mass spectra from known particles. The spectra are correlated with the known particles, including the species of particle and the classification (e.g., bacteria). The spectra can then be used to train a neural network, for example using genetic algorithm-based training, to recognize each spectra and to recognize characteristics of the classifications. The spectra can also be used in a multivariate patch algorithm. Laser ablation mass specta from unknown particles can be presented as inputs to the trained neural net for identification as to classification. The description below first describes suitable intelligent algorithms and multivariate patch algorithms, then presents an example of the present invention including results.

  9. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  10. Turbulent electron transport in edge pedestal by electron temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R.; Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 ; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego 92093-0424, California

    2013-11-15

    We present a model for turbulent electron thermal transport at the edge pedestal in high (H)-mode plasmas based on electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. A quasi-linear analysis of electrostatic toroidal ETG modes shows that both turbulent electron thermal diffusivity and hyper-resistivity exhibits the Ohkawa scaling in which the radial correlation length of turbulence becomes the order of electron skin depth. Combination of the Ohkawa scales and the plasma current dependence results in a novel confinement scaling inside the pedestal region. It is also shown that ETG turbulence induces a thermoelectric pinch, which may accelerate the density pedestal formation.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Mass Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment

  12. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, Alexander Alessi, James G. Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  13. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blo, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jttner, G., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Lser, C., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Michaelis, J., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Krajewsky, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de [Kunststoff-Zentrum in Leipzig gGmbH (KuZ), Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  14. JEMMRLA - Electron Model of a Muon RLA with Multi-pass Arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Roblin, Yves R.

    2013-06-01

    We propose a demonstration experiment for a new concept of a 'dogbone' RLA with multi-pass return arcs -- JEMMRLA (Jlab Electron Model of Muon RLA). Such an RLA with linear-field multi-pass arcs was introduced for rapid acceleration of muons for the next generation of Muon Facilities. It allows for efficient use of expensive RF while the multi-pass arc design based on linear combined-function magnets exhibits a number of advantages over separate-arc or pulsed-arc designs. Here we describe a test of this concept by scaling a GeV scale muon design for electrons. Scaling muon momenta by the muon-to-electron mass ratio leads to a scheme, in which a 4.5 MeV electron beam is injected in the middle of a 3 MeV/pass linac with two double-pass return arcs and is accelerated to 18 MeV in 4.5 passes. All spatial dimensions including the orbit distortion are scaled by a factor of 7.5, which arises from scaling the 200 MHz muon RF to a readily available 1.5 GHz. The hardware requirements are not very demanding making it straightforward to implement. Such an RLA may have applications going beyond muon acceleration: in medical isotope production, radiation cancer therapy and homeland security.

  15. Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed In

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operando Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed In Operando Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed In Operando Print Monday, 09 March 2015 16:58 Profound bias- and time-dependent changes in the electronic structure of graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes are demonstrated under operating conditions via a combination of in operando x-ray spectroscopy and ab initio modeling by J.R.I. Lee and co-workers. The evolution in electronic

  16. Aerogels for electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  17. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  18. Electrical and Electronics Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Electrical and Electronics Technical Team’s (EETT's) mission is to enable cost-effective, smaller, lighter, and efficient power electronics and electric motors for electric traction drive systems (ETDSs) while maintaining performance of internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles. The EETT also identifies technology gaps, establishes R&D targets, develops a roadmap to achieve technical targets and goals, and evaluates the R&D progress toward meeting the established R&D targets and goals.

  19. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besley, Nicholas A.

    2014-10-06

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  20. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. [Pleasanton, CA

    1978-08-29

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, .sup.235 UF.sub.6 is separated from a UF.sub.6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into .sup.235 UF.sub.5 - and F.

  1. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-08-29

    Disclosed is a method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, [sup 235]UF[sub 6] is separated from a UF[sub 6] mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into [sup 235]UF[sub 5]- and F. 2 figs.

  2. Effect of neutrino rest mass on ionization equilibrium freeze-out

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-12-23

    We show how small neutrino rest masses can increase the expansion rate near the photon decoupling epoch in the early Universe, causing an earlier, higher temperature freeze-out for ionization equilibrium compared to the massless neutrino case. This yields a larger free-electron fraction, thereby affecting the photon diffusion length differently than the sound horizon at photon decoupling. This neutrino-mass and recombination effect depends strongly on the neutrino rest masses. Ultimately, though below current sensitivity, this effect could be probed by next-generation cosmic microwave background experiments, giving another observational handle on neutrino rest mass.

  3. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  4. Systematic investigation of electronic structure in BEDT-TTF based organic superconductors with Tc above 10 K; [kappa]-(BEDT-TTF)[sub 2]X (X = Cu(NCS)[sub 2], Cu[N(CN)[sub 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Toshikazu; Nobutoki, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Masao; Tsubokura, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Ryota; Takahashi, Toshihiro ); Kanoda, Kazushi ); Saito, Gunzi )

    1994-06-01

    The electronic structure of the title superconductors has been investigated by electrical resistivity, complex susceptibility, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The superconducting properties (pressure dependence of Tc, magnetic penetration depth, upper critical field, and so on) of these three salts are similar to each other, while transport properties in the normal state have shown a large variety in the temperature dependence. In order to clarify the electronic structure in the normal state, the EPR parameters, the spin susceptibility ([Chi][sub spin]), and the linewidth ([Delta]H[sub pp]), are compared. An anomalous temperature dependence of the g-value has been observed below 150 K in the Cu(NCS)[sub 2] and Cu(CN)[N(CN)[sub 2

  5. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    momentum because the electrons are restricted to motion in a two-dimensional plane. The Dirac crossing points are at energy ED. 2D Perfection in a 3D World Graphene, a perfect...

  6. Electron Microscope Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven Lab is home to one of only a few Scanning Transmision Electron Microscope (STEM) machines in the world and one of the few that can image single heavy atoms.

  7. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, ... limit of s &29; 1, RR assumed the electron heat flux to be diffusive, obeying Fourier's ...

  8. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This knowledge is essential to many semiconductor nanoparticle based devices, including photocatalytic waste degradation and dye sensitized solar cells. Authors: Lian, Tianquan ...

  9. Molecular beam mass spectrometry with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid

    2012-01-01

    Tunable soft ionization coupled to mass spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate isolated molecules, complexes and clusters and their spectroscopy and dynamics.[1-4] Fundamental studies of photoionization processes of biomolecules provide information about electronic structure of these systems. Furthermore determinations of ionization energies and other properties of biomolecules in the gas phase are not trivial, and these experiments provide a platform to generate these data. We have developed a thermal vaporization technique coupled with supersonic molecular beams that provides a gentle way to transport these species into the gas phase. Judicious combination of source gas and temperature allows for formation of dimers and higher clusters of the DNA bases. The focus of this particular work is on the effects of non-covalent interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, stacking, and electrostatic interactions, on the ionization energies and proton transfer of individual biomolecules, their complexes and upon micro-hydration by water.[1, 5-9] We have performed experimental and theoretical characterization of the photoionization dynamics of gas-phase uracil and 1,3-methyluracil dimers using molecular beams coupled with synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline[10] located at the Advanced Light Source and the experimental details are visualized here. This allowed us to observe the proton transfer in 1,3-dimethyluracil dimers, a system with pi stacking geometry and with no hydrogen bonds[1]. Molecular beams provide a very convenient and efficient way to isolate the sample of interest from environmental perturbations which in return allows accurate comparison with electronic structure calculations[11, 12]. By tuning the photon energy from the synchrotron, a photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve can be plotted which informs us about the cationic electronic states. These values can then be compared to theoretical models and calculations and in turn, explain in detail the electronic structure and dynamics of the investigated species [1, 3].

  10. Free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    A high gain, single-pass free electron laser formed of a high brilliance electron injector source, a linear accelerator which imparts high energy to the electron beam, and an undulator capable of extremely high magnetic fields, yet with a very short period. The electron injector source is the first stage (gap) of the linear accelerator or a radial line transformer driven by fast circular switch. The linear accelerator is formed of a plurality of accelerating gaps arranged in series. These gaps are energized in sequence by releasing a single pulse of energy which propagates simultaneously along a plurality of transmission lines, each of which feeds the gaps. The transmission lines are graduated in length so that pulse power is present at each gap as the accelerated electrons pass therethrough. The transmission lines for each gap are open circuited at their ends. The undualtor has a structure similar to the accelerator, except that the transmission lines for each gap are substantially short circuited at their ends, thus converting the electric field into magnetic field. A small amount of resistance is retained in order to generate a small electric field for replenishing the electron bunch with the energy lost as it traverses through the undulator structure.

  11. Electron beam enhanced surface modification for making highly resolved structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming high resolution submicron structures on a substrate is provided by direct writing with a submicron electron beam in a partial pressure of a selected gas phase characterized by the ability to dissociate under the beam into a stable gaseous leaving group and a reactant fragment that combines with the substrate material under beam energy to form at least a surface compound. Variations of the method provide semiconductor device regions on doped silicon substrates, interconnect lines between active sites, three dimensional electronic chip structures, electron beam and optical read mass storage devices that may include color differentiated data areas, and resist areas for use with selective etching techniques.

  12. Electron beam enhanced surface modification for making highly resolved structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.

    1984-10-10

    A method for forming high resolution submicron structures on a substrate is provided by direct writing with a submicron electron beam in a partial pressure of a selected gas phase characterized by the ability to dissociate under the beam into a stable gaseous leaving group and a reactant fragment that combines with the substrate material under beam energy to form at least a surface compound. Variations of the method provide semiconductor device regions on doped silicon substrates, interconnect lines between active sites, three dimensional electronic chip structures, electron beam and optical read mass storage devices that may include color differentiated data areas, and resist areas for use with selective etching techniques.

  13. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer ... PDF icon ESPE 2008 Peer Review - ABMAS Battery Management System for USCG Applications ...

  14. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  15. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-03

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  16. Press Pass - Press Release - Higgs mass constraints

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -mass-constraints-20100726-images.html Fermilab experiments narrow allowed mass range for Higgs boson Batavia, Ill.New constraints on the elusive Higgs particle are more...

  17. Hadron physics at the new CW electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkert, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major trends of the physics program related to the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy at the new high current, high duty cycle electron machines are discussed. It is concluded that planned experiments at these machines may have important impact on our understanding of the strong interaction by studying the internal structure and spectroscopy of the nucleon and lower mass hyperon states.

  18. Power Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Integration » Power Electronics Power Electronics PowerElectronics graphic.png Power electronics, critical components in PV systems and the larger electric grid, are used to convert electricity from one form to another and deliver it from generation to end consumption. The objective of the Power Electronics activity area is to develop solutions that leverage transformative power electronics technologies-including wide band gap semiconductors, advanced magnetics, thin film capacitors,

  19. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  20. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  1. Coronal electron confinement by double layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2013-12-01

    In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons. The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and also find a linear scaling with the hot electron temperature. The DL strength obtained from the analytic calculation is comparable to that from the simulations. At the maximum strength, the DL is capable of confining a significant fraction of hot electrons in the source.

  2. Tokyo Electron | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electron Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Electron Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 107-8481 Product: As a leading global supplier of semiconductor production equipment,...

  3. Electronics Stewardship | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics Stewardship Mission The team promotes sustainable management of LM's electronic equipment, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved by LM, as defined in: ...

  4. The Future of Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Haimei

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Haimei Zheng discusses the future of electron microscopy and her breakthrough research into examining liquids using an electron microscope.

  5. Circular free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  6. Tim Kuneli, Electronics Maintenance Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tim Kuneli, Electronics Maintenance Group Print The recent ALS power supply failure was one of the most challenging projects that Electronics Engineer Technical Superintendent Tim...

  7. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  8. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  9. Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.; Stanton, Alan C.

    1991-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

  10. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  11. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  12. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  13. Foil Electron Multiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Baldonado, Juan R.; Dors, Eric E.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Skoug, Ruth M.

    2006-03-28

    An apparatus for electron multiplication by transmission that is designed with at least one foil having a front side for receiving incident particles and a back side for transmitting secondary electrons that are produced from the incident particles transiting through the foil. The foil thickness enables the incident particles to travel through the foil and continue on to an anode or to a next foil in series with the first foil. The foil, or foils, and anode are contained within a supporting structure that is attached within an evacuated enclosure. An electrical power supply is connected to the foil, or foils, and the anode to provide an electrical field gradient effective to accelerate negatively charged incident particles and the generated secondary electrons through the foil, or foils, to the anode for collection.

  14. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  15. Runaway electrons in a fully and partially ionized nonideal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports on a study of electron runaway for a nonideal plasma in an external electric field. Based on pseudopotential models of nonideal fully and partially ionized plasmas, the friction force was derived as a function of electron velocities. Dependences of the electron free path on plasma density and nonideality parameters were obtained. The impact of the relative number of runaway electrons on their velocity and temperature was considered for classical and semiclassical models of a nonideal plasma. It has been shown that for the defined intervals of the coupled plasma parameter, the difference between the relative numbers of runaway electron values is essential for various plasma models.

  16. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruppa, Gary; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Young, Malin M.

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  17. Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8}-cluster-based superconducting compounds Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 12}Se{sub 14} and Rb{sub 4}Mo{sub 18}Se{sub 20}: Evidence for a strongly correlated and anisotropic electron system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brusetti, R.; Laborde, O.; Sulpice, A.; Calemczuk, R.; Potel, M.; Gougeon, P.

    1995-08-01

    We studied the normal and superconducting states of the title compounds by measuring the conductivity and magnetization of single crystals and powder samples. From the upper and lower critical fields we deduced the characteristic lengths and thermodynamical fields. These results are borne out by our specific-heat measurements. We recognize in these compounds many features of the Chevrel-phase superconductors, including very small coherence lengths and strong-coupling-like effects. However, we show that the electron system is much more anisotropic and still less delocalized in these materials where the Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} clusters have condensed in Mo{sub 6{ital n}}Se{sub 6{ital n}+2} finite chains. This condensation is accompanied by an enhancement of the magnetic response whereas the lengthening of the chains leads to a counteracting reduction of the density of carriers. This indicates that superconductivity is built upon highly correlated molecular states. Reviewing the available data on the other Chevrel-cluster-based superconductors confirms this picture and suggests that the small coherence lengths reflect the local character of the electron pairing. This comparison also shows that forming finite chains of Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} clusters makes the electron correlations more repulsive and pushes the electron system near the borderline between superconductivity and magnetism. In this respect these compounds could provide valuable complementary information on issues which are at the center of the research upon high-{ital Y}{sub {ital c}} superconductivity.

  18. The Focusing DIRC with Waveform Digitizing Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, L.L.; Nishimura, K.; Varner, G.S.; Vavra, J.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC

    2012-06-15

    We have tested a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. The prototype's concept is based on the BaBar DIRC with several important improvements: (a) much faster, pixelated photon detectors, (b) a mirror that makes the photon detector smaller and less sensitive to background in future applications, and (c) electronics capable of measuring single photon resolution to {sigma} {approx} 150 ps, which allows for correction due to chromatic error. In this test, the prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. This version of the FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope providing muon tracks with {approx}1 mrad angular resolution and a muon momentum cutoff of {ge} 1.6 GeV/c.

  19. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticle/liquid interface.

  20. ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, J.J. Jr.; Bettis, E.S.; Mann, E.R.

    1957-10-01

    The electronic digital computer is designed to solve systems involving a plurality of simultaneous linear equations. The computer can solve a system which converges rather rapidly when using Von Seidel's method of approximation and performs the summations required for solving for the unknown terms by a method of successive approximations.

  1. Electron beam cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  2. Electron beam cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  3. Self-bunching electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mako, F.; Len, L. K.; Peter, W.

    1999-07-12

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated cold emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold emission process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied this resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm{sup 2}), high charge bunches (up to 100 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally {approx}5% of the rf period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show {approx}40 ps long micro-bunches at {approx}20 A/cm{sup 2} without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 {mu}s-long macro-pulses. About 5.8x10{sup 13} micro-bunches or {approx}62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG{sup {dagger}}, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 {mu}s-long macro-pulse. It produces about 150 A/cm{sup 2}. The third project involves the construction of a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. Analytical work has been carried out on this device, and we are ready to proceed with design, fabrication, and testing.

  4. Electron Model Of A Dogbone RLA With Multi-Pass Arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beard, Kevin B.; Roblin, Yves R.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Bogacz, Slawomir Alex; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2012-09-01

    The design of a dogbone Recirculated Linear Accelerator, RLA, with linear-field multi-pass arcs was earlier developed [1] for accelerating muons in a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider. It allows for efficient use of expensive RF while the multi-pass arc design based on linear combined-function magnets exhibits a number of advantages over separate-arc or pulsed-arc designs. Such an RLA may have applications going beyond muon acceleration. This paper describes a possible straightforward test of this concept by scaling a GeV scale muon design for electrons. Scaling muon momenta by the muon-to-electron mass ratio leads to a scheme, in which a 4.5 MeV electron beam is injected at the middle of a 3 MeV/pass linac with two double-pass return arcs and is accelerated to 18 MeV in 4.5 passes. All spatial dimensions including the orbit distortion are scaled by a factor of 7.5, which arises from scaling the 200 MHz muon RF to the frequency readily available at CEBAF: 1.5 GHz. The footprint of a complete RLA fits in an area of 25 by 7 m. The scheme utilizes only fixed magnetic fields including injection and extraction. The hardware requirements are not very demanding, making it straightforward to implement

  5. SCALED ELECTRON MODEL OF A DOGBONE MUON RLA WITH MULTI-PASS ARCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Beard, Rolland Johnson, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin, Andrew Hutton, Geoffrey Krafft, Slawomir Bogacz

    2012-07-01

    The design of a dogbone RLA with linear-field multi-pass arcs was earlier developed for accelerating muons in a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider. It allows for efficient use of expensive RF while the multi-pass arc design based on linear combined-function magnets exhibits a number of advantages over separate-arc or pulsed-arc designs. Such an RLA may have applications going beyond muon acceleration. This paper describes a possible straightforward test of this concept by scaling a GeV scale muon design for electrons. Scaling muon momenta by the muon-to-electron mass ratio leads to a scheme, in which a 4.5 MeV electron beam is injected at the middle of a 3 MeV/pass linac with two double-pass return arcs and is accelerated to 18 MeV in 4.5 passes. All spatial dimensions including the orbit distortion are scaled by a factor of 7.5, which arises from scaling the 200 MHz muon RF to a readily available at CEBAF 1.5 GHz. The footprint of a complete RLA fits in an area of 25 by 7 m. The scheme utilizes only fixed magnetic fields including injection and extraction. The hardware requirements are not very demanding, making it straightforward to implement. In this report, we have shown first of all that measuring the energy spectrum of the fast neutrons in the liquid scintillators allows one to distinguish the two chemical forms of plutonium. In addition, combining this information with the Feynman 2-neutron and 3-neutron correlations allows one to extract the {alpha}-ratio without explicitly knowing the multiplication. Given the {alpha}-ratio one can then extract the multiplication as well as the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu masses directly from the moment equations.

  6. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  7. Properties of Inconel 625 Mesh Structures Grown by Electron Beam Additive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Manufacturing (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Properties of Inconel 625 Mesh Structures Grown by Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Properties of Inconel 625 Mesh Structures Grown by Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Relationships between electron beam parameters (beam current, beam speed, and beam focus) and physical properties (mass, diameter, elastic modulus, and yield strength) have been investigated for Inconel 625

  8. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  9. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  10. ELECTRONIC PHASE CONTROL CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salisbury, J.D.; Klein, W.W.; Hansen, C.F.

    1959-04-21

    An electronic circuit is described for controlling the phase of radio frequency energy applied to a multicavity linear accelerator. In one application of the circuit two cavities are excited from a single radio frequency source, with one cavity directly coupled to the source and the other cavity coupled through a delay line of special construction. A phase detector provides a bipolar d-c output signal proportional to the difference in phase between the voltage in the two cavities. This d-c signal controls a bias supply which provides a d-c output for varying the capacitnce of voltage sensitive capacitors in the delay line. The over-all operation of the circuit is completely electronic, overcoming the time response limitations of the electromechanical control systems, and the relative phase relationship of the radio frequency voltages in the two caviiies is continuously controlled to effect particle acceleration.

  11. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide.

  12. custom electronic circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    custom electronic circuitry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  13. Via Electronic Submission

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Via Electronic Submission January 22, 2015 Mr. David Henderson U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Mailstop NE-52 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, Maryland 20874-1290 Re: Excess Uranium Management: Effects of DOE Transfers of Excess Uranium on Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion and Enrichment Industries: Request for Information Dear Mr. Henderson: URENCO USA Inc. ("UUSA, Inc.") appreciates the opportunity to submit comments to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in

  14. A predictive standard model for heavy electron systems (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: A predictive standard model for heavy electron systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A predictive standard model for heavy electron systems We propose a predictive standard model for heavy electron systems based on a detailed phenomenological two-fluid description of existing experimental data. It leads to a new phase diagram that replaces the Doniach picture, describes the emergent anomalous scaling behavior of the

  15. Self-bunching electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mako, F.M.; Len, L.K.

    1999-05-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated, in a microwave cavity, self-bunching, cold electron emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied using simulation codes the resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01{endash}5 kA/cm{sup 2}), high charge bunches (up to 500 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1{endash}100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally {approximately}5{percent} of the {ital rf} period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show {approximately}40 ps long micro-bunches at {approximately}20 A/cm{sup 2} without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 {mu}s-long macro-pulses. Approximately 5.8{times}10{sup 13} micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 {mu}s-long macro-pulse. It produces about 45 A in the macro-pulse. The third project is a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. A point design was performed at an {ital rf} output power of 150 MW at 34.2 GHz. The resulting system efficiency is 53{percent} and the gain is 60 dB. The system efficiency includes the input cavity efficiency, input driver efficiency (a 50 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz), output cavity efficiency, and the post-acceleration efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Mass Determination of Two-Proton Radioactive Nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, Krzysztof A

    2012-01-01

    The masses of heavy two-proton emitters (45Fe, 48Ni and 54Zn) are calculated, basing on experimentally measured two-proton decay energies. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and extrapolations.

  17. Mass and Width of the Lowest Resonance in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprini, I.; Colangelo, G.; Leutwyler, H.

    2006-04-07

    We demonstrate that near the threshold, the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude contains a pole with the quantum numbers of the vacuum- commonly referred to as the {sigma} - and determine its mass and width within small uncertainties. Our derivation does not involve models or parametrizations but relies on a straightforward calculation based on the Roy equation for the isoscalar S wave.

  18. Measuring Neutrino Mass with Radioactive Ions in a Storage Ring (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Measuring Neutrino Mass with Radioactive Ions in a Storage Ring Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring Neutrino Mass with Radioactive Ions in a Storage Ring A method to measure the neutrino mass kinematically using beams of ions which undergo beta decay is proposed. The idea is to tune the ion beam momentum so that in most decays, the electron is forward moving with respect to the beam, and only in

  19. Homogenization limit for a multiband effective mass model in heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morandi, O.

    2014-06-15

    We study the homogenization limit of a multiband model that describes the quantum mechanical motion of an electron in a quasi-periodic crystal. In this approach, the distance among the atoms that constitute the material (lattice parameter) is considered a small quantity. Our model include the description of materials with variable chemical composition, intergrowth compounds, and heterostructures. We derive the effective multiband evolution system in the framework of the kp approach. We study the well posedness of the mathematical problem. We compare the effective mass model with the standard kp models for uniform and non-uniforms crystals. We show that in the limit of vanishing lattice parameter, the particle density obtained by the effective mass model, converges to the exact probability density of the particle.

  20. OPERATIONS ELECTRONIC LOGBOOK EXPERIENCE AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SATOGATA,T.; CAMPBELL,I.; MARR,G.; SAMPSON,P.

    2002-06-02

    A web-based system for electronic logbooks, ''elog'', developed at Fermilab (FNAL), has been adopted for use by AGS and RHIC operations and physicists at BNL for the 2001-2 fixed target and collider runs. This paper describes the main functional and technical issues encountered in the first year of electronic logbook use, including security, search and indexing, sequencer integration, archival, and graphics management. We also comment on organizational experience and planned changes for the next facility run starting in September 2002.

  1. Carbon p electron ferromagnetism in silicon carbide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yutian; Liu, Yu; Wang, Gang; Anwand, Wolfgang; Jenkins, Catherine A.; Arenholz, Elke; Munnik, Frans; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Salvan, Georgeta; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; et al

    2015-03-11

    Ferromagnetism can occur in wide-band gap semiconductors as well as in carbon-based materials when specific defects are introduced. It is thus desirable to establish a direct relation between the defects and the resulting ferromagnetism. Here, we contribute to revealing the origin of defect-induced ferromagnetism using SiC as a prototypical example. We show that the long-range ferromagnetic coupling can be attributed to the p electrons of the nearest-neighbor carbon atoms around the VSiVC divacancies. Thus, the ferromagnetism is traced down to its microscopic electronic origin.

  2. THE STARBURST CLUSTER WESTERLUND 1: THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND MASS SEGREGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Jae-Joon; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Bessell, Michael S. E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr

    2013-02-01

    Westerlund 1 is the most important starburst cluster in the Galaxy due to its massive star content. We have performed BVI{sub C} and JK{sub S} photometry to investigate the initial mass function (IMF). By comparing the observed color with the spectral-type-intrinsic-color relation, we obtain the mean interstellar reddening of (E(B - V)) = 4.19 {+-} 0.23 and (E(J - K{sub S} )) = 1.70 {+-} 0.21. Due to the heavy extinction toward the cluster, the zero-age main sequence fitting method based on optical photometry proved to be inappropriate for the distance determination, while the near-infrared photometry gave a reliable distance to the cluster-3.8 kpc from the empirical relation. Using the recent theoretical stellar evolution models with rotation, the age of the cluster is estimated to be 5.0 {+-} 1.0 Myr. We derived the IMF in the massive part and obtained a fairly shallow slope of {Gamma} = -0.8 {+-} 0.1. The integration of the IMF gave a total mass for the cluster in excess of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The IMF shows a clear radial variation indicating the presence of mass segregation. We also discuss the possible star formation history of Westerlund 1 from the presence of red supergiants and relatively low luminosity yellow hypergiants.

  3. ELECTRON COOLING STUDY FOR MEIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhang; Douglas, David R.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  4. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a major merger (> 0.3) in the last 700 Myr and conclude that mergers almost certainly play an important role in delivering baryons and influencing the kinematic properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs).

  5. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  6. Continuous time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2004-10-19

    A continuous time-of-flight mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating an electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the electric field. A source of continuous ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between arrival of a secondary electron out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a first predetermined location and arrival of a sample ion out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a second predetermined location.

  7. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  8. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  9. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (PE) Systems Presentations | Department of Energy Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the DOE Energy Storage and Power Electronics Program (ESPE) was held in Washington DC on Sept. 29-30, 2008. Current and completed program projects were presented and reviewed by a group of industry professionals. The 2008 agenda was composed of 28 projects that

  10. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, Wania Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Tavares, Andre C.

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  11. W Boson Mass Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgore, W.; Kilgore, W.

    2010-06-14

    The W boson mass working group discussed the current status of the W boson mass measurement and the prospects for improving on LEP and Tevatron measurements at the LHC.

  12. Nonuniversal gaugino masses and muong-2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Nasir, Fariha; Shafi, Qaisar; Ün, Cem Salih

    2014-08-11

    We consider two classes of supersymmetric models with nonuniversal gaugino masses at the grand unification scale MGUT in an attempt to resolve the apparent muon g-2 anomaly encountered in the Standard Model. We explore two distinct scenarios, one in which all gaugino masses have the same sign at MGUT, and a second case with opposite sign gaugino masses. The sfermion masses in both cases are assumed to be universal at MGUT. We exploit the nonuniversality among gaugino masses to realize large mass splitting between the colored and noncolored sfermions. Thus, the sleptons can have masses in the few hundred GeVmore » range, whereas the colored sparticles turn out to be an order of magnitude or so heavier. In both models the resolution of the muon g-2 anomaly is compatible, among other things, with a 125–126 GeV Higgs boson mass and the WMAP dark matter bounds.« less

  13. MassBioFuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MassBioFuel Jump to: navigation, search Name: MassBioFuel Address: 271 Milton Street Place: Dedham, Massachusetts Zip: 02026 Region: Greater Boston Area Sector: Biofuels Product:...

  14. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, II, D. G.; Poon, A. W.P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (??(0?)) of the isotope ??Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ??(0?)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ??Ge ??(0?)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolution performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.

  15. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ(0ν)) of the isotope ⁷⁶Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ββ(0ν)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ⁷⁶Ge ββ(0ν)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolutionmore » performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.« less

  16. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  17. VIA ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    39 MacDougal Street, Third Floor * New York, New York 10012 * (212) 992-8932 * www.policyintegrity.org March 21, 2011 VIA ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION Office of the General Counsel US Department of Energy Washington, DC Attention: Regulatory Burden RFI - Docket No. DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001 Subject: Response to Request for Information on "Reducing Regulatory Burden," 76 Fed. Reg. 6123 (Feb. 3, 2011) The Institute for Policy Integrity at New York University School of Law submits the following

  18. Calculation of Electron Trajectories

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-06-01

    EGUN, the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program, computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child''s Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified initial conditions for each ray, and a combination of Child''s Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using arbitrary configuration of coils, or the outputmore » of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields.« less

  19. Electronic Document Master Index

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-05-15

    This is a web-based records index search engine. Through a simple or advanced search, users can find data sources and records of interest.

  20. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  1. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  2. Unified spin gauge model and the top quark mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm, J.S.R.; Farwell, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Spin gauge models use a real Clifford algebraic structure R{sub p,q} associated with a real manifold of dimension p + q to describe the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. This review provides a comparison between those models and the standard model, indicating their similarities and differences. By contrast with the standard model, the spin gauge model based on R{sub 3,8} generates intermediate boson mass terms without the need to use the Higgs-Kibble mechanism and produces a precise prediction for the mass of the top quark. The potential of this model to account for exactly three families of fermions is considered.

  3. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  4. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  5. Rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-11-02

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser are provided which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  6. Forward Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    focussed on optoelectronics, information appliances, consumer electronics and communication. Coordinates: 25.080441, 121.564194 Show Map Loading map......

  7. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  8. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  9. Ultra-short channel GaN high electron mobility transistor-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    based on the velocity-field dependence of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel accounting for the ballistic electron acceleration and the inter-valley transfer. In...

  10. Electronic structure of nanocrystal quantum-dot quantumwells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrier, Joshua; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-06-26

    The electronic states of CdS/CdSe/CdS colloidal nanocrystalquantum-dot quantum wells are studied by large-scale pseudopotentiallocal density approximation (LDA) calculations. Using this approach, wedetermine the effects of CdS core size, CdSe well thickness, and CdSshell thickness on the band-edge wave functions, band-gap, andelectron-hole Coulomb interactions. We find the conduction-band wavefunction to be less confined to the CdSe well layer than predicted by kcdot p effective-mass theory, which accounts for the previous underestimation of the electron g factor.

  11. Correlated electron pseudopotentials for 3d-transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trail, J. R. Needs, R. J.

    2015-02-14

    A recently published correlated electron pseudopotentials (CEPPs) method has been adapted for application to the 3d-transition metals, and to include relativistic effects. New CEPPs are reported for the atoms Sc ? Fe, constructed from atomic quantum chemical calculations that include an accurate description of correlated electrons. Dissociation energies, molecular geometries, and zero-point vibrational energies of small molecules are compared with all electron results, with all quantities evaluated using coupled cluster singles doubles and triples calculations. The CEPPs give better results in the correlated-electron calculations than Hartree-Fock-based pseudopotentials available in the literature.

  12. USB Mass Storage Device Manager

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-17

    The USB probram is designed to give some level of control over the use of USB mass storage devices (MSDs). This program allows you to disable all USB MSDs from working on a machine or to configure specific devices for the machine as an administrator. For complete control over USB MSDs the user of the machine must belong to the 'User' group. If a MSD has already been configured on the machine it will continuemore » to function after using the 'Activate Administrator Control' function. The only way to disable previously configured devices is to use the 'Block' feature to block all MSDs from being used on the machine.« less

  13. A wide bandwidth free-electron laser with mode locking using current modulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kur, E.; Dunning, D. J.; McNeil, B. W. J.; Wurtele, J.; Zholents, A. A. )

    2011-01-20

    A new scheme for mode locking a free-electron laser amplifier is proposed based on electron beam current modulation. It is found that certain properties of the original concept, based on the energy modulation of electrons, are improved including the spectral brightness of the source and the purity of the series of short pulses. Numerical comparisons are made between the new and old schemes and between a mode-locked free-electron laser and self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser. Illustrative examples using a hypothetical mode-locked free-electron laser amplifier are provided. The ability to generate intense coherent radiation with a large bandwidth is demonstrated.

  14. Mass measurements of rare isotopes with SHIPTRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dworschak, M.

    2010-06-01

    The Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP was set up with the aim to perform high-precision mass measurements. Since autumn 2005, the masses of 63 neutron-deficient nuclides in the mass range from A = 80 to A = 254 have been determined with relative uncertainties of down to 10{sup -8}. Nuclides with half-lives down to 580 ms and production rates of less than one atom per minute were investigated. The results are valuable for nuclear structure investigations and nuclear astrophysics. The most remarkable successes were the first direct mass measurements beyond the proton drip line and in the region above Z = 100.

  15. Majorana equations and the rest mass of neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.; Treder, H.

    1985-02-01

    As is well known, the law of parity conservation does not hold in weak interactions. This type of asymmetry created a number of theoretical problems which were solved, first of all, by a new understanding of the features of neutrinos and their role in weak interactions. These solutions were based, however, essentially on the handedness (chirality) of neutrinos which is closely related to their vanishing rest mass. The thesis of neutrinos with nonvanishing rest mass, newly considered in the literature, therefore requires a rediscussion of the early arguments concerning the relation between the neutrino theory and some weak interaction essentials. When one does this, as in the present paper, it is noted that neutrinos with rest mass lead to some difficulties, in particular to a violation of T invariance.

  16. The isobaric multiplet mass equation for A?71 revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, Yi Hua; Blank, Bertram; Smirnova, Nadezda A.; Bueb, Jean Bernard; Antony, Maria Susai

    2013-11-15

    Accurate mass determination of short-lived nuclides by Penning-trap spectrometers and progress in the spectroscopy of proton-rich nuclei have triggered renewed interest in the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME). The energy levels of the members of T=1/2,1,3/2, and 2 multiplets and the coefficients of the IMME are tabulated for A?71. The new compilation is based on the most recent mass evaluation (AME2011) and it includes the experimental results on energies of the states evaluated up to end of 2011. Taking into account the error bars, a significant deviation from the quadratic form of the IMME for the A=9,35 quartets and the A=32 quintet is observed.

  17. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500??100?K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13?000??400?K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM?=?FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10??0.08)??10{sup 21}?m{sup ?3}, the reference reduced mass ?{sub 0} pair of (3.30??0.82 and 1.65??0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900??1800?K.

  18. Advanced Mass Spectrometric Methods for the Rapid and Quantitative Characterization of Proteomes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Richard D.

    2002-01-01

    Progress is reviewedmore » towards the development of a global strategy that aims to extend the sensitivity, dynamic range, comprehensiveness and throughput of proteomic measurements based upon the use of high performance separations and mass spectrometry. The approach uses high accuracy mass measurements from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) to validate peptide ‘accurate mass tags’ (AMTs) produced by global protein enzymatic digestions for a specific organism, tissue or cell type from ‘potential mass tags’ tentatively identified using conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This provides the basis for subsequent measurements without the need for MS/ MS. High resolution capillary liquid chromatography separations combined with high sensitivity, and high resolution accurate FTICR measurements are shown to be capable of characterizing peptide mixtures of more than 10 5 components. The strategy has been initially demonstrated using the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Deinococcus radiodurans. Advantages of the approach include the high confidence of protein identification, its broad proteome coverage, high sensitivity, and the capability for stableisotope labeling methods for precise relative protein abundance measurements. Abbreviations : LC, liquid chromatography; FTICR, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance; AMT, accurate mass tag; PMT, potential mass tag; MMA, mass measurement accuracy; MS, mass spectrometry; MS/MS, tandem mass spectrometry; ppm, parts per million.« less

  19. Multiplexed electronically programmable multimode ionization detector for chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, M.B.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1988-05-19

    Method and apparatus for detecting and differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated in a plurality of multiplexed electronically programmable operating modes to alter the detector response during a single sampling cycle to acquire multiple simultaneous chromatograms corresponding to each of the different operating modes. The cell is held at a constant subatmospheric pressure while the electron collection bias voltage applied to the cell is modulated electronically to allow acquisition of multiple chromatograms for a single sample elution from a chromatograph representing three distinctly different response modes. A system is provided which automatically controls the programmed application of bias pulses at different intervals and/or amplitudes to switch the detector from an ionization mode to the electron capture mode and various degrees therebetween to provide an improved means of tuning an ECD for multimode detection and improved specificity. 6 figs.

  20. Electron spin magnetism of zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Kun Ye, Peide D.

    2014-04-21

    The electron spin states of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) edge play a pivotal role in the applications of graphene nanoribbons. However, the exact arrangements of the electron spins remain unclear to date. In this report, the electronic spin states of the ZGNR edge have been elucidated through a combination of quantum chemical investigation and previous electron spin resonance experiment observations. An alternating α and β spin configuration of the unpaired electrons along the ZGNR edge is established in ambient condition without any external magnetic field, and the origin of the spin magnetism of the ZGNR edge is revealed. It paves a pathway for the understanding and design of graphene based electronic and spintronic devices.

  1. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Fangei; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Harwood, Leigh; Hutton, Andrew; Morozov, Vasiliy; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H; Wienands, Uli

    2015-09-01

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEP-II components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  2. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, F.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Morozov, V. S.; Pilat, F.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, M.; Wang, M-H; Wienands, U.

    2015-07-14

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEPII components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  3. Microelectromechanical dual-mass resonator structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyck, Christopher W.; Allen, James J.; Huber, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A dual-mass microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator structure is disclosed in which a first mass is suspended above a substrate and driven to move along a linear or curved path by a parallel-plate electrostatic actuator. A second mass, which is also suspended and coupled to the first mass by a plurality of springs is driven by motion of the first mass. Various modes of operation of the MEM structure are possible, including resonant and antiresonant modes, and a contacting mode. In each mode of operation, the motion induced in the second mass can be in the range of several microns up to more than 50 .mu.m while the first mass has a much smaller displacement on the order of one micron or less. The MEM structure has applications for forming microsensors that detect strain, acceleration, rotation or movement.

  4. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  5. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, R.B.; Tyree, W.H.

    1982-03-03

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  6. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, Roger B.; Tyree, William H.

    1984-12-18

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  7. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  8. ELECTRONIC MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, R.E.

    1959-08-25

    An electronic multiplier circuit is described in which an output voltage having an amplitude proportional to the product or quotient of the input signals is accomplished in a novel manner which facilitates simplicity of circuit construction and a high degree of accuracy in accomplishing the multiplying and dividing function. The circuit broadly comprises a multiplier tube in which the plate current is proportional to the voltage applied to a first control grid multiplied by the difference between voltage applied to a second control grid and the voltage applied to the first control grid. Means are provided to apply a first signal to be multiplied to the first control grid together with means for applying the sum of the first signal to be multiplied and a second signal to be multiplied to the second control grid whereby the plate current of the multiplier tube is proportional to the product of the first and second signals to be multiplied.

  9. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; Akre, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx{reg_sign} ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  10. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-05-09

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  11. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore »swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  12. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  13. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  14. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  15. Tokyo Electron PV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Electron PV Place: Nirasaki City, Yamanashi, Japan Product: Japanese electronics giants Tokyo Electron and Sharp have announced their...

  16. Nuclear ground-state masses and deformations: FRDM(2012)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moller, P.; Sierk, A. J.; Ichikawa, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2016-03-25

    Here, we tabulate the atomic mass excesses and binding energies, ground-state shell-plus-pairing corrections, ground-state microscopic corrections, and nuclear ground-state deformations of 9318 nuclei ranging from 16O to A=339. The calculations are based on the finite-range droplet macroscopic and the folded-Yukawa single-particle microscopic nuclear-structure models, which are completely specified. Relative to our FRDM(1992) mass table in Möller et al. (1995), the results are obtained in the same model, but with considerably improved treatment of deformation and fewer of the approximations that were necessary earlier, due to limitations in computer power. The more accurate execution of the model and the more extensivemore » and more accurate experimental mass data base now available allow us to determine one additional macroscopic-model parameter, the density-symmetry coefficient LL, which was not varied in the previous calculation, but set to zero. Because we now realize that the FRDM is inaccurate for some highly deformed shapes occurring in fission, because some effects are derived in terms of perturbations around a sphere, we only adjust its macroscopic parameters to ground-state masses.« less

  17. A compact electron gun for time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2015-01-15

    A novel compact time-resolved electron diffractometer has been built with the primary goal of studying the ultrafast molecular dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase molecules. Here, we discuss the design of the electron gun, which is triggered by a Ti:Sapphire laser, before detailing a series of calibration experiments relating to the electron-beam properties. As a further test of the apparatus, initial diffraction patterns have been collected for thin, polycrystalline platinum samples, which have been shown to match theoretical patterns. The data collected demonstrate the focusing effects of the magnetic lens on the electron beam, and how this relates to the spatial resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  18. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can

  19. Electronic Registration Form - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Hanford Site Wide Programs Health & Safety Exposition Electronic Registration Form About Us Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria How to Get to TRAC Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Electronic Registration Form Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size * Fields marked with an asterisk are required. Exhibit

  20. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma