National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mass burn biomass

  1. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  2. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  3. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nińo?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01

    fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

  4. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    laboratory measurements of biomass-burning emissions: 1.tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning, J.Eleuterio (2005), A review of biomass burning emissions part

  5. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  6. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    J. D. Crounse et al. : Biomass burning pollution overChemistry and Physics Biomass burning and urban airprimary anthropogenic and biomass burning organic aerosols

  7. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001â??2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  8. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, CS; Krolewski, AG; Tosca, MG; Randerson, JT

    2012-01-01

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  9. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.J. R. , and Veres, P. : Biomass burning in Siberia andOpen burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical

  10. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Shetter, R. : Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan,for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmosphericC. : Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric

  11. BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL@atm.ox.ac.uk AEROSOL AND GAS PROPERTIESSEASONALITY OF BURNING Biomass burning in the Amazon shows strong seasonal in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and effective radius, linked to biomass burning through detected fires. Use

  12. Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field, Robert

    Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006 Robert D biomass burning C emissions in Indonesia for 1997­2006, obtained from the Global Fire Emissions Database), Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G

  13. Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

  14. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highwood, Ellie

    Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa Steven Met Office C-130 within a distinct biomass burning plume during the Southern AFricAn Regional science, and P. R. Buseck, Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  16. A Multisensor satellite-based assessment of biomass burning aerosol radiative impact over Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    ]. While most of the biomass burning (BB) activities occur in Africa, South America is responsible [Christopher et al., 2000] by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Since biomass burning has a strong projections. Robust observational constraints on the response of a climate model [Stott and Kettleborough

  17. Supplementary material1 Biomass burning impact on PM2.5 over the southeastern2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    1 Supplementary material1 Biomass burning impact on PM2.5 over the southeastern2 U.S. during 2007: Integrating chemically speciated FRM3 filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis4 5 Xiaolu Zhang1, J, A) and Fall (S, O, N).3 Winter Spring Summer Fall Annual Biomass Burning (F1) 29 15 1 8 13

  18. Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strode, S.; Ott, Lesley E.; Pawson, Steven; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2012-05-09

    While atmospheric concentrations of cesium-137 have decreased since the nuclear testing era, resuspension of Cs-137 during biomass burning provides an ongoing emission source. The summer of 2010 was an intense biomass burning season in western Russia, with high levels of particulate matter impacting air quality and visibility. A radionuclide monitoring station in western Russia shows enhanced airborne Cs-137 concentrations during the wildfire period. Since Cs-137 binds to aerosols, satellite observations of aerosols and fire occurrences can provide a global-scale context for Cs-137 emissions and transport during biomass burning events.

  19. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    the Western United States Mountain Ranges Y. H. Mao 1,2 , Q.the Western United States Mountain Ranges applications in USthe Western United States Mountain Ranges biomass burning in

  20. Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Gill-Ran

    The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

  1. Time-dependent inversion estimates of global biomass-burning CO emissions using Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arellano, Avelino F; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Giglio, Louis; van der Werf, Guido R; Randerson, James T; Collatz, G. James

    2006-01-01

    combustion (FFBF), biomass burning (BIOM) and chemical oxidation of biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions (

  2. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  3. Mexico city aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) - Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the non-fossil carbon fraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiken, A.C.; Wang, J.; de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, R.; Fortner, E.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, L. T.; Sosa, G.; Querol, X.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-16

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact factor (FIF) correlates well with the observed BBOA, acetonitrile (CH3CN), levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of {approx}100-150 pptv, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of {approx}160 ng m3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and FLEXPART-predicted FIFs. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA) does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted FIFs or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB), resulting in 13% higher non-fossil carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has {approx}15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 38% of organic carbon (OC) and 28% total carbon (TC) are from non-fossil sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional non-fossil carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA. The ambient BBOA/CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day. Also, there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts. Both facts may explain some apparent disagreements between BB impacts estimated from afternoon aircraft flights vs. those from 24-h ground measurements. We show that by properly accounting for the non-BB sources of K, all of the BB PM estimates from MILAGRO can be reconciled. Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15-23% of the OA and 7-9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2-3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area.

  4. Monitoring biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport from a geostationary satellite perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prins, E.M.; Menzel, W.P.

    1996-12-31

    The topic of this paper is the use of geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES) to monitor trends in biomass burning and aerosol production and transport in South America and through the Western Hemisphere. The GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) was developed to provide diurnal information concerning fires in South America; applications demonstrating the ability to document long-term trends in fire activity are described. Analyses of imagery collected by GOES-8 is described; six biomass burning seasons in South America revealed many examples of large-scale smoke transport extending over several million square kilometers. Four major transport regimes were identified. Case studies throughout South America, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala have successfully demonstrated the improved capability of GOES-8 for fire and smoke monitoring in various ecosystems. Global geostationary fire monitoring will be possible with the launch of new satellites. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyatt Jaeglé

    combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions Lyatt Jaegle´ ,a Linda Steinberger,a Randall V. Martinbc anthropogenic emissions, mostly resulting from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, are superimposed estimates are 25% larger than a priori. A posteriori fuel combustion emissions are aseasonal

  6. Changing boreal methane sources and constant biomass burning during the last termination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    LETTERS Changing boreal methane sources and constant biomass burning during the last termination. Stocker3 Past atmospheric methane concentrations show strong fluctua- tions in parallel to rapid glacial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere1,2 superimposed on a glacial­interglacial doubling of methane

  7. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau J. D. Crounse1 , P. F. De@caltech.edu) Supplementary Material The following figures are MODIS satellite images of Mexico City region during the month more fires on average then TERRA. This supports the idea that fires generally flare up in the afternoon

  8. The relationships between biomass burning, land-cover/use change, and the distribution of carbonaceous aerosols in mainland Southeast Asia: A review and synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Tao

    1 The relationships between biomass burning, land-cover/use change, and the distribution. 793, The Ohio State University March 3, 2007 Biomass burning is a major source of black carbon directly and indirectly. Uncertainty regarding the contribution of biomass burning to the concentration

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1027 Recent acceleration of biomass burning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    34 fires. Combustion of this ground-layer biomass was estimated to35 represent more than 85LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1027 Recent acceleration of biomass of wildfires on carbon4 emissions is also affected by the severity of burning. How5 climate change influences

  10. 7 Plots of Biomass Burning and Dust Plumes This supplementary section shows curtain plots from the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    7 Plots of Biomass Burning and Dust Plumes This supplementary section shows curtain plots from the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for cases of fresh biomass burning plumes and dust: Curtain plots of HSRL backscatter coefficients and intensive properties for transects over fresh biomass

  11. Hydrogen Burning in Low Mass Stars Constrains Alternative Gravity Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Sakstein

    2015-10-30

    The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity, and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass Red Dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories, and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.

  12. Hydrogen Burning in Low Mass Stars Constrains Alternative Gravity Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Sakstein

    2015-10-20

    The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity, and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass Red Dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories, and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.

  13. Hydrogen Burning in Low Mass Stars Constrains Alternative Gravity Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity, and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass Red Dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories, and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.

  14. Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: Impact of wildfires on weather forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grell, G. A.; Freitas, Saulo; Stuefer, Martin; Fast, Jerome D.

    2011-06-06

    A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather forecasts using model resolutions of 10km and 2km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the final emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the intense wildfires of the 2004 fire season in the model simulations, the interaction of the aerosols with the atmospheric radiation led to significant modifications of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in cloud-free areas. On the other hand, when clouds were present, the high concentrations of fine aerosol (PM2.5) and the resulting large numbers of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) had a strong impact on clouds and microphysics, with decreased precipitation coverage and precipitation amounts during the first 12 hours of the integration, but significantly stronger storms during the afternoon hours.

  15. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, Gavin; Sullivan, Amy; Lee, Taehyoung; Kredenweis, Sonia; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ?HCN/?CO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of hours to a day. It was possible to measure the chemical evolution of the plume on four of the fires and significant ozone (O3) formation (?O3/?CO from 10-90%) occurred in all of these plumes. Slower O3 production was observed on a cloudy day with low co-emissions of NOx and the fastest O3 production was observed on a sunny day when the plume almost certainly incorporated significant additional NOx by passing over the Columbia, SC metropolitian area. Due to rapid plume dilution, it was only possible to acquire high quality downwind data for two other species (formaldehyde and methanol) on two of the fires. In all four cases significant increases were observed. This is likely the first direct observation of post-emission methanol production in biomass burning plumes and the precursors likely included terpenes.

  16. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

    2011-06-21

    The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

  17. Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: Organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Antony

    Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: Organic components and their influence Received 11 July 2006; revised 5 April 2007; accepted 19 April 2007; published 9 June 2007. [1] Thermal and pollution plumes identified from trace gas measurements were evaluated for their aerosol physiochemical

  18. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    T. Griffith, Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomassMore generally, emissions from biomass combustion can have aof PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels,

  19. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  20. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-01-01

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  1. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that duringmore »the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.« less

  2. Biomass burning influence on high-latitude tropospheric ozone and reactive nitrogen in summer 2008: a multi-model analysis based on POLMIP simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, S. R.

    We have evaluated tropospheric ozone enhancement in air dominated by biomass burning emissions at high latitudes (> 50° N) in July 2008, using 10 global chemical transport model simulations from the POLMIP multi-model ...

  3. Impact of preindustrial biomass-burning emissions on the oxidation pathways of tropospheric sulfur and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    the onset of the Industrial Revolution due to increases in fossil fuel burning emissions [e.g., Lelieveld et-burning events in North America just prior to the Industrial Revolution significantly impacted the oxidation the Industrial Revolution, particularly when using paleo-oxidant data as a reference for model evaluation. INDEX

  4. 1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    /biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion 3 S. A. Guazzotti,1 D. T. Suess,1,2 K. R. Coffee,1,3 P. K. Quinn,4 T. S with potassium 17 (indicative of combustion sources), and mass concentration of submicrometer non-sea- 18 salt Peninsula, where dominance of fossil fuel combustion is suggested by 30 results from single

  5. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, W.

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire ...

  6. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: Implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thalman, R.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase OH and O? oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O? can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore »O? is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, ?, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O? exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O? exposure. Following exposure to OH, ? of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in ? was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. ? of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1:1 by mass MNC: KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient amount of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide-range of solubilities.« less

  7. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-14

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed tomore »OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, ?, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, ? of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in ? was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. ? of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.« less

  8. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore »O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, ?, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, ? of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in ? was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. ? of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient amount of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide-range of solubilities.« less

  9. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions from the combustioncombustion of biomass is dominated by emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide; EC/TC ratio is proposed as a better surrogate of combustion

  10. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matthew James

    2008-01-01

    The combustion of biomass is a major source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Regional and global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry and climate take estimates for these emissions and arbitrarily "mix" them into ...

  11. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  12. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    and emission factors of 1,3- butadiene are in the range ofkg fuel burned, the 1,3-butadiene emission value is almostPE case is one-third of 1,3-butadiene EF of 117 mg/kg fuel

  13. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    emission factors of 1,3- butadiene are in the range of 2.6 -kg fuel burned, the 1,3-butadiene emission value is almostPE case is one-third of 1,3-butadiene EF of 117 mg/kg fuel

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  15. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  16. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    D. W. T. : Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomassemissions of oxygenated organic species from biomass combustion,

  17. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    a large natural gas power plant, and at the fire source areairport and a natural gas power plant; thus mixing of burn

  18. Controlling Air and Burned Gas Masses of Turbocharged VVT SI Thomas Leroy, Jonathan Chauvin and Nicolas Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controlling Air and Burned Gas Masses of Turbocharged VVT SI Engines Thomas Leroy, Jonathan Chauvin gas masses inside the combustion chambers of turbocharged VVT SI engines. We coordinate ex- isting low and driveability, provided they are equipped with direct injection, turbocharger and Variable Valve Timing (VVT

  19. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  20. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-03-31

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a â??biomass-firedâ?ť boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using â??carbon neutralâ?ť fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary â??functions,â?ť however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

  1. Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, Piotr

    2009-08-15

    This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

  2. Seismic evidence for a weak radial differential rotation in intermediate-mass core helium burning stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deheuvels, S; Beck, P G; Mosser, B; Řstensen, R; García, R A; Goupil, M J

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mixed modes that are split by rotation in Kepler red giants has made it possible to probe the internal rotation profiles of these stars, which brings new constraints on the transport of angular momentum in stars. Mosser et al. (2012) have measured the rotation rates in the central regions of intermediate-mass core helium burning stars (secondary clump stars). Our aim was to exploit& the rotational splittings of mixed modes to estimate the amount of radial differential rotation in the interior of secondary clump stars using Kepler data, in order to place constraints on angular momentum transport in intermediate-mass stars. We selected a subsample of Kepler secondary clump stars with mixed modes that are clearly rotationally split. By applying a thorough statistical analysis, we showed that the splittings of both gravity-dominated modes (trapped in central regions) and p-dominated modes (trapped in the envelope) can be measured. We then used these splittings to estimate the amount of differ...

  3. Brown Carbon Absorption Linked to Organic Mass Tracers in 1 Biomass Burning Particles 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    10-12 molec cm-3s-1) 17 (Atkinson, 1986) and 1,3-Butadiene (66.7 x 10, Relationship of Benzene, Propene and 1,3-Butadiene with Acetonitrile. 2 3 4

  4. Advances and applications of mass spectral techniques for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Lindsay Erighn

    2012-01-01

    and biomass burning. Combustion-related emissions areBiomass burning emissions include similar components as combustion

  5. SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE PULSATIONS IN LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS TRIGGERED BY H-SHELL BURNING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-20

    The detection of pulsations in white dwarfs with low mass offers the possibility of probing their internal structures through asteroseismology and placing constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. In this Letter, we assess the impact of stable H burning on the pulsational stability properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf models resulting from binary star evolutionary calculations. We found that besides a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and p modes driven by the ? mechanism due to the partial ionization of H in the stellar envelope, some unstable g modes with short pulsation periods are also powered by H burning via the ? mechanism of mode driving. This is the first time that ? destabilized modes are found in models representative of cool white dwarf stars. The short periods recently detected in the pulsating low-mass white dwarf SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 could constitute the first evidence of the existence of stable H burning in these stars, in particular in the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs.

  6. Topical Area MFE Title: Burning Plasma Science_____________________________________________ Description Fusion energy is released by burning light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 Topical Area MFE Title: Burning Plasma Science but higher temperatures and better confinement is required. In magnetic fusion, plasmas are heated-sustained purely by its alpha particle heating. The science of burning plasmas consists of: (1) the physics

  7. Molecular beam mass spectrometric characterization of biomass pyrolysis products for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F.; Evans, R.J. [National Renewal Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Converting biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals requires rapid characterization of the wide variety of possible feedstocks. The combination of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-MBMS) and multivariate statistical analysis offers a unique capability for characterizing these feedstocks. Herbaceous and woody biomass feedstocks that were harvested at different periods were used in this study. The pyrolysis mass spectral data were acquired in real time on the MBMS, and multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) was used to analyze and classify Py-MBMS data into compound classes. The effect of harvest times on the thermal conversion of these feedstocks was assessed from these data. Apart from sericea lespedeza, the influence of harvest time on the pyrolysis products of the various feedstocks was insignificant. For sericea lespedeza, samples harvested before plant defoliation were significantly different from those harvested after defoliation. The defoliated plant samples had higher carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis products than the samples obtained from the foliated plant. Additionally, char yields from the defoliated plant samples were lower than those from the foliated plant samples.

  8. 4, 51355200, 2004 A review of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 5135­5200, 2004 A review of biomass burning emissions, part II J. S. Reid et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions A review of biomass burning emissions, part II: Intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles J. S. Reid 1 , R. Koppmann 2 , T. F. Eck 3 , and D. P. Eleuterio 4 1 Marine

  9. 5, 1045510516, 2005 A review of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 10455­10516, 2005 A review of biomass burning emissions, part I R. Koppmann et al. Title and Physics Discussions A review of biomass burning emissions, part I: gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide A review of biomass burning emissions, part I R. Koppmann et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  10. 4, 52015260, 2004 A review of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 5201­5260, 2004 A review of biomass burning emissions part III J. S. Reid et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles J. S. Reid1 , T. F. Eck2 , S. A. Christopher3 , R. Koppmann4 , O. Dubovik3 , D

  11. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer GrapheneW.Help Table(SC)CRADABurning

  12. Proceedings of the 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-142 234 evALUATIoN oF ToTAL AboveGRoUND bIoMASS AND ToTAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAL AboveGRoUND bIoMASS AND ToTAL MeRCHANTAbLe bIoMASS IN MISSoURI Michael e. Goerndt, David R. Larsen, and Charles D. keating1 Abstract.--In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass

  13. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Neutral Biosphere (NB) GFED NEP GFED Uncorrected Biomass2 (1) Best case = best ocean + GFED (NEP+best BB) + fossil2) Takahashi ocean + GFED (NEP+best BB) + fossil fuel (3)

  14. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  15. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 22 FEBRUARY 2009 DOI: 10.1038/NGEO443 Human amplification of drought-induced biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field, Robert

    -induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960 Robert D. Field1 *, Guido R. van der Werf2 and Samuel S. P. Shen3 attributed to variability of emissions from biomass burning1­3 . Under drought condi- tions, burning,4 . Yet our understanding of the frequency, severity and under- lying causes of severe biomass burning

  16. Feature Article Negative pressure dependence of mass burning rates of H2/CO/O2/diluent flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    with predominantly CO, CO2, and H2O) as a fuel itself as synthetic gas or ``syngas" from coal or biomass gasification in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle pro- cesses, including preheated mixtures and other diluents such as N. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) processes involve gasifying a solid hydrocarbon feedstock

  17. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic

  18. OUT Success Stories: Biomass Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-31

    The world's first demonstration of an efficient, low-pressure biomass gasifier capable of producing a high-quality fuel is now operating in Vermont. The gasifier converts 200 tons of solid biomass per day into a clean-burning gas with a high energy content for electricity generation.

  19. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  20. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R; Rogers, B. M; Morton, D. C

    2012-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J.released from peat and forest fires in Indo- nesia duringSpatial patterns of forest fires in Canada, 1980–1999, Int.

  1. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R; Rogers, B. M; Morton, D. C

    2012-01-01

    a savanna region in southern Mali, Africa based on the studysame 0.25 as BA sf . For the Mali comparison, we extractedsavanna ecosystem region in Mali studied by Laris [2005],

  2. Proceedings of the 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-142 251 A PReLIMINARy AboveGRoUND LIve bIoMASS MoDeL FoR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GRoUND LIve bIoMASS MoDeL FoR UNDeRSToRy HARDwooDS FRoM ARkANSAS, LoUISIANA, AND MISSISSIPPI Don C. bragg biomass and fuel loads, but few models are available to directly quantify this component. In part to determine diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), so conventional models (e.g., the National Biomass Estimators

  3. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

  4. THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Peninsula) - Produces excess heat (needs cooling tower) BOILER #10 SAME AMOUNT LOW PRESSURE STEAM TO MILL FOR PAPER TURBINE/ GENERATOR 25 MW MORE ELECTRICITY (currently make about 13MW) HIGH PRESSURE STEAM ADDS 15 levels · OTHER Reprocessed fuel oil - MAY be reduced 13% to 12.4 million gallons per year Waste from

  5. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)ArchiveProject (BBOP) Related Links

  6. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  7. Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Brandon Ray

    2009-05-15

    derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

  8. Biomass pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  9. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  10. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks—From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation

  11. BIomass GasIfIcaTIon Summary of technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    or coal, into a clean gaseous fuel that can be burned in a gas engine to generate electricity-rankfuels,such as mallee and brown coal, into a clean gaseous fuel with very low tar concentration. This has the capacityBIomass GasIfIcaTIon Summary of technology Gasification converts a solid fuel, such as biomass

  12. Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

  13. Planning a Prescribed Burn 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2009-04-01

    , the size of the burn, and its impact on wildlife habitat. If you burned using this plan, you would probably never burn rangeland again on purpose because of the risks taken and the potential for disappointing results. Effective planning well in advance...-leaved herbaceous plants other than grass, may look rank (vigorous) and dense enough to burn, but by midwinter they often have broken down. Woody debris and standing dead trees help little in spreading a fire. The grass fuel also needs to be ready at the right...

  14. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL of biomass feedstocks. BSCL imaging capabilities include: · Confocal microscopy and Raman microscopy

  15. Early Results from VLT-SPHERE: Long-Slit Spectroscopy of 2MASS 0122-2439B, a Young Companion Near the Deuterium Burning Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkley, Sasha; Vigan, Arthur; Aller, Kimberly M; Liu, Michael C; Mawet, Dimitri; Matthews, Elisabeth; Wahhaj, Zahed; Kraus, Stefan; Baraffe, Isabelle; Chabrier, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    We present 0.95-1.80 $\\mu$m spectroscopy of the $\\sim$12-27 $M_{\\rm Jup}$ companion orbiting the faint ($R$$\\sim$13.6), young ($\\sim$120 Myr) M-dwarf 2MASS J01225093--2439505 ("2M0122--2439 B") at 1.5 arcsecond separation (50 AU). Our coronagraphic long-slit spectroscopy was obtained with the new high contrast imaging platform VLT-SPHERE during Science Verification. The unique long-slit capability of SPHERE enables spectral resolution an order of magnitude higher than other extreme AO exoplanet imaging instruments. With a low mass, cool temperature, and very red colors, 2M0122-2439 B occupies a particularly important region of the substellar color-magnitude diagram by bridging the warm directly imaged hot planets with late-M/early-L spectral types (e.g. $\\beta$ Pic b and ROXs 42Bb) and the cooler, dusty objects near the L/T transition (e.g. HR 8799bcde and 2MASS 1207b). We fit BT-Settl atmospheric models to our $R$$\\approx$350 spectrum and find $T_{\\rm eff}$=1600$\\pm$100 K and $\\log(g)$=4.5$\\pm$0.5 dex. Visua...

  16. Biomass Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops, and woody plants. The Bioenergy Technologies Office works in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and other key stakeholders to identify and develop economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable feedstocks for the production of energy, including transportation fuels, electrical power and heat, and other bioproducts. Efforts in this area will ultimately support the development of technologies that can provide a large and sustainable cellulosic biomass feedstock supply of acceptable quality and at a reasonable cost for use by the developing U.S. advanced biofuel industry.

  17. NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News Releases |NRELBiochemical ConversionBiomass

  18. DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISŘ and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISŘ) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

  19. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  20. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  1. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12; · Absorbing Aerosol Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12;Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30

  2. Arctic Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D SFederal8823 Revision 02August 1, Lower TroposphereHaze:

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Biomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012IIIAtlanticMarine Boundary

  4. ARM - News from the Biomass Burn Observation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related Links FacilitiesNewsMedia Contact

  5. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  6. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Contractors' Meeting Biomass Energy Systems Branch Berkeley,The Department of Energy's Biomass Liquefaction Testand energy balances, was not possible. One important question remaining unanswered was whether aqueous biomass

  7. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  8. Original article Biomass of root and shoot systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Biomass of root and shoot systems of Quercus coccifera shrublands in Eastern Spain biomass of kermes oak shrublands (Quercus coccifera L.), an evergreen sclerophyllous species common- mass has been measured on 320 1-m2 plots. Total biomass varies with age and ranges between 0.4 (7

  9. Biomass Analytical Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diversity and performance, The chemical and physical properties of biomass and biomass feedstocks are characterized as they move through the supply chain to various conversion...

  10. Biomass 2012 Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Detailed agenda from the July 10-11, 2012, Biomass conference--Biomass 2012: Confronting Challenges, Creating Opportunities - Sustaining a Commitment to Bioenergy.

  11. Transforming Biomass - main page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transforming Biomass to Bioenergy Feedstocks The DOE Biomass Program has shaped the vision of a national, commodity-scale feedstock supply system. Much progress has been made in...

  12. Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofol Extravasation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rahul; Yoshikawa, Hana; Abisaab, Josyann

    2012-01-01

    IN E MERGENCY M EDICINE Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofolof Emergency Medicine Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofol

  13. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  14. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

  15. Biomass treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  16. Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper objects. Examples include the upward bending seen in burning matches and the crumpling of burning paper

  17. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _LBL-11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

  18. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

  19. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central progression, forest fires, infrared perimeter mapping, northern Rockies 1. Introduction Extreme wildfires Yellowstone Fires (Turner et al 1994), the 1997 Indonesian Forest Fires, and the Australian Black Saturday

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

  1. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  2. Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

  3. AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

  4. Biomass Program Biopower Factsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Generating electricity and thermal energy from biomass has the potential to help meet national goals for renewable energy. The forest products industry has used biomass for power and heat for many decades, yet widespread use of biomass to supply electricity to the U.S. power grid and other applications is relatively recent.

  5. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  6. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  7. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  8. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  9. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  10. Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda bio2010fullagenda.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011...

  11. Hybrid Rocket Burning Rate Enhancement by Nano-Scale Additives in HTPB Fuel Grains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James C

    2014-12-10

    particles. The implementation of commercial aluminum particles at a mass loading of 5% as a burning rate enhancer was assessed on a lab-scale burner. Traditional temporally and spatially averaged techniques were applied to determine the regression rates...

  12. Algal Biomass Valorization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Project Peer Review 1.3.4.300 Algal Biomass Valorization BETO Algae Platform - Peer review Alexandria, VA March 24 th , 2015 Lieve Laurens National Renewable Energy...

  13. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems,...

  14. Overview of biomass technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The biomass overview of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  15. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  16. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  17. Direct-fired biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The direct-fired biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  18. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  19. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  20. Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac Biomass Facility Jump to:Biola,Biomass Facility Jump to:

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

  2. Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damm, Werner

    Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Zaragoza Specialisation Provider: Biomass Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts

  3. Biomass Research Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2013-05-28

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. New Developments in Storage and Handling of Biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bundalli, N.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive research project to derive guidelines for the design of a reliable bin-feeder system for biomass materials has been completed. The new system uses a converging mass flow hopper with a much smaller outlet ...

  5. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY Citation: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2009. Biomass to Energy: Forest

  6. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY study. The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is exploring the ecological and economic consequences

  7. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

  8. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  9. Prescribed burning and mechanical thinning effects on belowground conditions and soil respiration in a mixed-conifer forest, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Prescribed burning and mechanical thinning effects on belowground conditions and soil respiration. Introduction Carbon storage in belowground biomass is twice that of atmospheric carbon (C), and soil; Raich and Potter, 1995; Janssens et al., 2001; Lal, 2008). More specifically, forest soils contain about

  10. Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Shuai; Heller, Marissa; Wu, Peggy A; Nambudiri, Vinod E

    2014-01-01

    Number 1 January 2014 Letter Chemical burn caused by topicalan unusually severe case of chemical burn following garlicirritant contact dermatitis, chemical burn, allium sativum

  11. WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

  12. Assessment of particulate concentrations from domestic biomass combustion in rural Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, M.; Bartlett, K.; Regalado-Pineda, J.; Perez-Padilla, R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that woodsmoke exposure in developed countries is associated with acute and chronic health impacts. Particulate concentrations were measured in rural Mexican kitchens using biomass combustion for cooking. To investigate differences in indoor particle concentrations between kitchens using different fuels and stove types, measurements were made in eight kitchens using only biomass, six using only liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), six using a combination of biomass and LPG, and three using biomass in ventilated stoves. Outdoor samples were collected at the same time as the indoor samples. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} measurements were made with inertial impactors, and particle light scattering was measured continuously with an integrating nephelometer. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations (mean concentrations of 768 and 555 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively) in the kitchens burning only biomass were greater than in all other types (biomass > biomass + LPG > ventilated > LPG > outdoor). A similar trend was evident for the indoor/outdoor concentration ratio. Based on the short-term measurements estimated from the nephelometer data, PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} cooking period average and 5-min peak concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in kitchens using only biomass than in those using LPG, a combination of LPG and biomass, or a ventilated biomass stove. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzel, Michael

    2010-11-18

    stream_size 1487 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name ku_gis_day_2010_schaetzel.pdf.txt stream_source_info ku_gis_day_2010_schaetzel.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Mapping Biomass... Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of the nation’s power o Currently 1% of...

  14. Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac Biomass Facility Jump to:Biola,BiomassBiomass Jump to:

  15. FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for long pulse burning and nuclear technology studies. There is evidently a huge cost saving in going

  16. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options,...

  17. PHYSICS OF BURNING PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;OUTLINE · Introduction · Three Classes of Burning Plasma Physics inaccessable to contemporary tokamak of inaccessable burning plasma physics · Conclusions FIRE Workshop 2 May 2000 #12;INTRODUCTION · A fusion reactorPHYSICS OF BURNING PLASMAS: PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO PRESENT FACILITIES FIRE Physics Workshop May

  18. Port Townsend, Washington biomass genera4on of electricity ini4a4ve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/chp/basic/renewable.html US Dept of Energy: http://www1.eere.energy in Port Townsend www.ptleader.com #12;What about biomass burning to generate electricity? In this case energy content of fossil fuels, which is typically 40 megaJoules (MJ) per kg. We will also be interested

  19. Presented July 16, 2015 12:45 PM Biomass Breakout Session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Award Winner! #12;· o o o o o #12;Project Designer Sega Contractor McCarthy Boiler Supplier B & W #12;Biomass Boiler ­ 150,000 lbs per hour at 950 psig / 850 F Steam from boiler is used in MU's CHP process (9 Supplier ­ Foster Brothers Wood Products #12;#12;Bubbling fluidized bed technology Boiler burns wood wastes

  20. Burn control study using burning plasma simulation experiments in JT-60U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heating power through particle heating. ·Burn control has to be performed under this linkage involvingBurn control study using burning plasma simulation experiments in JT-60U H. Takenaga1), Y. Miura1 various physics. This study provides new approach to the burn control study. The linkage is experimentally

  1. BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

  2. Feedstock System to Deliver Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    Feedstock System to Deliver Biomass Into a Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolyzer Chloë Cullen | Teresa with steam and biomass as inputs. Professor Goldfarb is seeking to control the rate of biomass: The Solution: The Problem: Currently, Professor Goldfarb's lab technicians can only feed about 10 mL of biomass

  3. The ultimate biomass refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bungay, H.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Bits and pieces of refining schemes and both old and new technology have been integrated into a complete biomass harvesting, processing, waste recycle, and marketing complex. These choices are justified with economic estimates and technology assessments.

  4. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act, which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt-h...

  5. Countercurrent Saccharification of Biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derner, John David

    2015-04-21

    Our goal was to research and implement a countercurrent system to run enzymatic saccharification of biomass. The project provided clear results to show that this method is more efficient than the batch process that companies currently employ. Excess...

  6. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, Senior Manager, American Petroleum Institute

  7. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting a Biomass Basics Webinar on August 27, 2015, from 4:00-4:40pm EDT. This webinar will provide high school students and teachers with background...

  8. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  9. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  10. Biomass 2014 Poster Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invites students, researchers, public and private organizations, and members of the general public to submit poster abstracts for consideration for the annual Biomass Conference Poster Session. The Biomass 2014 conference theme focuses on topics that are advancing the growth of the bioeconomy, such as improvements in feedstock logistics; promising, innovative pathways for advanced biofuels; and market-enabling co-products.

  11. LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ENGINEERING UNIT (PEU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ENGINEERINGLBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ENGINEERINGLBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ENGINEERING

  12. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  13. s-Process Nucleosynthesis in Advanced Burning Phases of Massive Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lih-Sin The; Mounib F. El Eid; Bradley S. Meyer

    2006-09-28

    We present a detailed study of s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars of solar-like initial composition and masses 15, 20,25, and 30 Msun. We update our previous results of s-process nucleosynthesis during the core He-burning of these stars and then focus on an analysis of the s-process under the physical conditions encountered during the shell-carbon burning. We show that the recent compilation of the Ne22(alpha,n)Mg25 rate leads to a remarkable reduction of the efficiency of the s-process during core He-burning. In particular, this rate leads to the lowest overproduction factor of Kr80 found to date during core He-burning in massive stars. The s-process yields resulting from shell carbon burning turn out to be very sensitive to the structural evolution of the carbon shell. This structure is influenced by the mass fraction of C12 attained at the end of core helium burning, which in turn is mainly determined by the C12(alpha,gamma)O16 reaction. The still present uncertainty in the rate for this reaction implies that the s-process in massive stars is also subject to this uncertainty. We identify some isotopes like Zn70 and Rb87 as the signatures of the s-process during shell carbon burning in massive stars. In determining the relative contribution of our s-only stellar yields to the solar abundances, we find it is important to take into account the neutron exposure of shell carbon burning. When we analyze our yields with a Salpeter Initial Mass Function, we find that massive stars contribute at least 40% to s-only nuclei with mass A 90, massive stars contribute on average ~7%, except for Gd152, Os187, and Hg198 which are ~14%, \\~13%, and ~11%, respectively.

  14. Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergy FacilitiesInformationTown700testing inBiomass

  15. Biomass Cookstoves Technical Meeting: Summary Report | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Cookstoves Technical Meeting: Summary Report Biomass Cookstoves Technical Meeting: Summary Report In regions where biomass is a traditional fuel for cooking, improved...

  16. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power Process unlikely  that  a  biomass  gasification  power  plant 

  17. Tribal Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Biomass Tribal Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on biomass renewable...

  18. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power involved  in  gasification  of  biomass  to  produce  fuel 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power Process 

  19. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the...

  20. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels, LLC  UCSD Biomass to Power  Economic Feasibility Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power rates..……………………. ……31  UCSD Biomass to Power ? Feasibility 

  1. Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Kiefer Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  2. Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. NREL has six MBMS systems that researchers and industry partners can use to understand thermochemical biomass conversion and biomass composition recalcitrance.

  3. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  4. Overview and Burning Technology Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, J.

    1986-01-01

    solved Waste sewage sludge . or caused by the energy food processing wast~ project not pathological wastes I Social - problems perceived by the public to mitigate against BIBLIOGRAPHY the project. I NIMBY never in my I backyard syndrome. 1... of industrial facilities to biomass e ergy by contributing to specific projects. This program is in its wind-down phase. Remote Communities Demonstration pr!gram (RCDP). This program is designed to a~sist communities, who have access neithe~ to natural gas...

  5. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  6. The hybrid rich-burn/lean burn engine. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.; Podnar, D.; Meyers, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a unique engine technology called Hybrid Rich-Burn/Lean-Burn (HRBLB) that capitalizes on the low production of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) during extremely rich and lean combustion. The HRBLB concept is predicated on simultaneous combustion of extremely rich and lean natural gas-air mixtures in separate cylinders. Rich exhaust products undergo a catalytic water-gas shift reaction to form an intermediate combustible fuel composed of carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. All of the intermediate fuel is added to lean natural gas-air mixtures in other cylinders to enhance ignitability that would otherwise result in misfire. This paper presents results obtained during the development of a stationary, turbocharged, and intercooled, 18-liter HRBLB engine. Results show that NO{sub x} can be reduced by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5 relative to stock engine emissions at equivalent efficiency. The HRBLB engine has demonstrated corrected NO{sub x} (15% O{sub 2}) levels of 23 ppm at rated load with thermal efficiencies of 35%.

  7. Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains in the Rockies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains and removing beetle- killed trees, produce a byproduct called woody biomass. Also known as "slash, woody biomass can be collected, processed and transported SUMMARY Woody biomass could be used

  8. 83USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Woody Root Biomass of 40-to 90-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    83USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Woody Root Biomass of 40- to 90- Year. Bledsoe2 Jerry Tecklin3 Abstract: This research examined biomass of blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook root biomass outside the root ball. Root ball mass ranged from 7 to 184 kg, and estimated total root

  9. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Biomass Feedstock National User Facility Kevin L. Kenney, Director, Biomass Feedstock National User Facility, Idaho National Laboratory

  10. Synfuels from biomass grow slowly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.; Wedlock, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current developments in the manufacture of synfuels are discussed with emphasis on the sources of biomass suitable for synfuels production, processes for converting biomass to synfuels, and the economics of the technology. The sources include wood, nonwood crops, root crops, aquatic biomass, and oils from plants such as soybean, safflower, and peanut. The biomass conversion processes discussed include pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, and aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

  11. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  12. Biomass Scenario Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  13. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  14. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;6-2 #12;APPENDIX 6: Cumulative Watershed Effects Analysis for the Biomass to Energy Project 1. Principal the findings or recommendations of the study. Cumulative watershed effects (CWE) of the Biomass to Energy (B2E

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY not substantively affect the findings or recommendations of the study. 2. Introduction The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is developing a comprehensive forest biomass-to- electricity model to identify and analyze

  16. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;12-2 #12;Appendix 12: Biomass to Energy Project Team, Committee Members and Project Advisors Research Team. Nechodom's background is in biomass energy policy development and public policy research. Peter Stine

  17. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY or recommendations of the study. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Domain Description The study area for the Biomass to Energy (B2 and environmental costs and benefits of using forest biomass to generate electrical power while changing fire

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY as a result of emerging biomass opportunities on private industrial and public multiple-use lands (tracked in the vegetation domain) and the quantity of biomass consumed by the wildfire (tracked

  19. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;5-2 #12;APPENDIX 5: BIOMASS TO ENERGY PROJECT:WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION 1. Authors: Patricia Manley Ross management scenarios. We evaluated the potential effects of biomass removal scenarios on biological diversity

  20. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;10-2 #12;Appendix 10: Power Plant Analysis for Conversion of Forest Remediation Biomass to Renewable Fuels and Electricity 1. Report to the Biomass to Energy Project (B2E) Principal Authors: Dennis Schuetzle, TSS

  1. Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    plant fuel. We examine potential biomass energy demand in the 5-county area, and then review cropBiomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy is thought to have significantly more potential than forest biomass energy (Perlack, Wright et al. 2005). One

  2. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  3. FY12 Biomass Program Congressional Budget Request

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    FY12 budget and funding for the Biomass Program biomass and biorefinery systems research development and deployment.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  5. The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean: Advancing Engines for Renewable Fuels Live Green, Burn Clean: Advancing Engines for Renewable Fuels André Boehman Professor of Fuel Science and Materials College of Earth and Mineral Sciences The Pennsylvania State University André Boehman Professor of Fuel

  6. Clean fractionation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process. This project is designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. Clean fractionation separates a single feedstock into individual components cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

  7. DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements S. P data Cellularity Real residuals Results Future plans High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity temperature 725 K High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements October 27, 2008 Page 3 #12;System

  8. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  9. Models of neutron star atmospheres enriched with nuclear burning ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J E; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars (NS) exhibit thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, which are powered by unstable nuclear burning of helium and/or hydrogen into heavier elements deep in the NS "ocean". In some cases the burning ashes may rise from the burning depths up to the NS photosphere by convection, leading to the appearance of the metal absorption edges in the spectra, which then force the emergent X-ray burst spectra to shift toward lower energies. These effects may have a substantial impact on the color correction factor $f_c$ and the dilution factor $w$, the parameters of the diluted blackbody model $F_E \\approx w B_E(f_c T_{eff})$ that is commonly used to describe the emergent spectra from NSs. The aim of this paper is to quantify how much the metal enrichment can change these factors. We have developed a new NS atmosphere modeling code, which has a few important improvements compared to our previous code required by inclusion of the metals. The opacities and the internal partition func...

  10. Experiments for the Measurement of LNG Mass Burning Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera Gomez, Lady Carolina

    2012-07-16

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a commonly used flammable fuel that has safety concerns associated with vapor dispersion and radiation emitted from pool fires. The main objective of this effort is to advance the knowledge of pool fires and to expand...

  11. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  12. Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1 Scott R. Miles, Donald M. Haskins watershed and facilities damage and to recommend and prescribe Emergency Burn Area Rehabilitation (EBAR

  13. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01

    such lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into ethanol via atools. Different biomass feedstocks have different cell wallmajor lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, except softwoods,

  14. Remotely sensed heat anomalies linked with Amazonian forest biomass declines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toomey, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C.; Goulden, M. L.; McFadden, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    with Amazonian forest biomass declines Michael Toomey, 1 Darof aboveground living biomass (p biomass declines, Geophys. Res.

  15. Evolution of Massive Stars Up to the End of Central Oxygen Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mounib F. El Eid; Bradley S. Meyer; Lih-Sin The

    2004-07-21

    We present a detailed study of the evolution of massive stars of masses 15, 20, 25 and 30 $\\msun$ assuming solar-like initial chemical composition. The stellar sequences were evolved through the advanced burning phases up to the end of core oxygen burning. We present a careful analysis of the physical characteristics of the stellar models. In particular, we investigate the effect of the still unsettled reaction $^{12}$C($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{16}$O on the advanced evolution by using recent compilations of this rate. We find that this rate has a significant impact on the evolution not only during the core helium burning phase, but also during the late burning phases, especially the shell carbon-burning. We have also considered the effect of different treatment of convective instability based on the Ledoux criterion in regions of varying molecular weight gradient during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. We compare our results with other investigations whenever available. Finally, our present study constitutes the basis of analyzing the nucleosynthesis processes in massive stars. In particular we will present a detail analysis of the {\\it s}-process in a forthcoming paper.

  16. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keek, L

    2015-01-01

    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10% of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can...

  17. System and process for biomass treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  18. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  19. Biomass 2013: Breakout Speaker Biographies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document outlines the biographies of the breakout speakers for Biomass 2013, held July 31-August 1 in Washington, D.C.

  20. Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Peer Review WBS 4.2.2.10: Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery Date: March 23, 2015 Technology Area Review: Sustainability Principal Investigator: M. Cristina Negri...

  1. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    monoxide,  methane  and  carbon  dioxide.     Next,  the  fuel  gas  is  burned  in  an  internal  combustion 

  2. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer GrapheneW.HelpReport) |Biomass andBIOGAS

  3. Biomass: Potato Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer GrapheneW.HelpReport) |Biomass andBIOGASPOTATO

  4. Biomass -Feedstock User Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make FuelsBioindustryWBS 1.2.3.3 Biomass -

  5. Sandia Energy - Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSample SULI ProgramPhysical SocietylasersPondBiomass Home

  6. Science Activities in Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcoming ReleaseSecurityPediatric CancerSchedulesItemActivities in Biomass

  7. Sandia Energy - Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni >ScientificAppliedBiofuels Home AnalysisBiomass Home

  8. The U.S. Burning Plasma Program C.M. Greenfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for burning plasma research ­ US Burning Plasma Organization (created 2005): currently 283 registered members

  9. On burning a lump of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ana Alonso-Serrano; Matt Visser

    2015-11-03

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  10. On burning a lump of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  11. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  12. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  13. Clean fractionation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The US DOE Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R&D) that uses green feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. A consortium of five DOE national laboratories has been formed with the objectives of providing industry with a broad range of expertise and helping to lower the risk of new process development through federal cost sharing. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process, designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. The focus of the clean fractionation research is to demonstrate to industry that one technology can successfully separate all types of feedstocks into predictable types of chemical intermediates.

  14. NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemical and Catalyst

  15. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  16. NREL: Learning - Student Resources on Biomass Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial ToolkitElectricityPlug-InBiomass

  17. ELMs and the Performance of Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Institute of Tech., Pathumthani 12121, Thailand 3SAIC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation 4-5 July 2005 #12;Predictive Modeling of Burning Plasmas IEA of burning plasma experiments using static and dynamic pedestal models IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics

  18. 10/9/2003 1 Export of biomass from Russia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    + Blending pellets with coal Energy pellet factory Woodchips Power Plants Power Plants Power Plants Power terminal Rotterdam #12;3 200202PP-007 Rotterdam St. Petersburg/ Leningrad Oblast Dry Bulk/Coal stevedore Plants Bulkcarrier containers Bulkcarrier + containers on deck Delivery of BioMass from forests Saw mills

  19. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  20. BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2012-01-01

    icat ion Preheat zone Biomass liquefaction Tubular reactor (design is shown in Figure 7, C I Biomass ua efaction Fic LBL Process BiOMASS t NON-REVERS lNG CYCLONE CONDENSER (

  1. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  2. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  3. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    likely take precedence over biomass for hydrogen production. Thus, the price of biomass feedstocks for hydrogen, in the absence of major federal policy changes, will presumably...

  4. BSCL Use Plan: Solving Biomass Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01

    Technical report describing NREL's new Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL). The BSCL was constructed to provide the most modern commercial surface characterization equipment for studying biomass surfaces.

  5. Biomass 2013: Presentations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Presentations Biomass 2013: Presentations This page displays the links to available presentations from Day One and Day Two of the Bioenergy Technologies Office's (BETO) Biomass...

  6. Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass The building blocks to supply high-quality raw biomass start with harvesting and collection practices, product storage and recommendations of...

  7. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening...

  8. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S. 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY BIOMASS; BIOFUEL; BSM; SYSTEM DYNAMICS; BIOFUEL INCENTIVES; SCENARIOS; Bioenergy;...

  9. Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks Advanced feedstocks play an important role in economically and efficiently converting biomass into bioenergy products. Advanced...

  10. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  11. Providing the Resource: Biomass Feedstocks & Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    A summary of Biomass Program resource assessment activities, feedstock trials, and harvest, storage, handling, and transport activities to support biomass feedstock development and use.

  12. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  13. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  14. Monitoring the Critical Zone using Time-Lapse Digital Photography. Within the critical zone, important interconnected physical, chemical, and biological processes influence the mass and energy exchange that governs everything from biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papuga, Shirley A.

    , important interconnected physical, chemical, and biological processes influence the mass and energy exchange Focal length: 0.2m to Resolution: 3 MP Power: Solar Panel/Marine Battery Orientation: into main wind; the cost of a traditional snow sensor is about $700 which does not include the price of the datalogger

  15. Reaction Rate and Composition Dependence of the Stability of Thermonuclear Burning on Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keek, L; Heger, A

    2014-01-01

    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a ten times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of triple alpha and the hot-CNO breakout reactions 15O(a,g)19Ne and 18Ne(a,p)21Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor ten decrease of the 15O(a,g)19Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depend...

  16. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  17. Northeast Regional Biomass Program. Final progress report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ``Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste``. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  18. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 �������°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

  19. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Werf, G. R; Randerson, J. T; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J; Kasibhatla, P. S; Arellano, A. F

    2006-01-01

    current/soihtm1.shtml, (NEP) and net biome productionto a source (Fig. 12c). The NEP signal was amplified by IAVbiome production (NBP = NEP – fire emissions) had a larger

  20. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Propane WAS Ethane TOGA WAS Butane TOGA WAS Isopentane R. S.24 Plume 28 n-Hexane i-Pentane n-Pentane 1-Butene n-Butanei-Butane Propene Propane Ethyne Ethene Ethane global scale,

  1. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  2. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nińo?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01

    A view from Sumatra, in: Forest Fires and Regional Haze inreleased from peat and forest fires in Indonesia duringto the 1997 Indonesian forest fire, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,

  3. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Werf, G. R; Randerson, J. T; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J; Kasibhatla, P. S; Arellano, A. F

    2006-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959– 1999, Canadianpattern on interannual forest fire vari- ability in Centralreleased from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during

  4. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    ratio) increases and pyrolysis products such as levoglucosanA. , and Garcia, A. N. : Pyrolysis of polyethylene in aE. W. , and Ettre, L. S. : Pyrolysis-gas chromatography with

  5. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-01-01

    reduces emissions. (iii) Bio-energy Initiatives These wouldThe mitigation options in the bio-energy field will mainlyof such programs in the bio-energy field. The experiences of

  6. Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong Seob

    2006-08-16

    that were observed during this period. The predicted cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were used in a cloud model to determine the impact of the different aerosol types on the expected cloud droplet concentration. RH-dependent aerosol extinction...

  7. Burning biodiversity: Woody biomass use by commercial and subsistence groups in western Uganda's forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    with large endow- ments of fossil fuels like Gabon and Nigeria, woodfuels are a significant energy source, Conservation International, 1919 M St., Washington, DC 20036, USA c Energy and Resources Group, Goldman School Devolution Community-based conservation A B S T R A C T Woodfuels are the most heavily used energy source

  8. Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    the advantage of monitoring of the global atmosphere. The disadvantage is often a poor spacial reso- lution quantity, but a radiation difference in the UV. Its main advantages are its insensitivity to scattering in climate physics today is the effect of aerosols on the global energy budget. The amount and sign

  9. DOE/SC-ARM-13-014 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB Packet HanfordDOE ProjectREMOTE-HANDLED TRU764 The Arctic63

  10. The Luminosity Function of the Globular Cluster NGC 6397 Near the Limit of Hydrogen Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, I R; Cool, A M; Piotto, G; King, Ivan R.; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M.; Piotto, Giampaolo

    1997-01-01

    Second-epoch HST observations of NGC 6397 have led to the measurement of proper motions accurate enough to separate the faintest cluster stars from the field, thus extending the luminosity function of this globular cluster far enough to approach the limit of hydrogen burning on the main sequence. We isolate a sample of 1385 main-sequence stars, from just below the turnoff down to I=24.5 (M_I~12.5), which corresponds to a mass of less than 0.1 solar masses for the metallicity of this cluster. Below I=22 (M_I~10), the main-sequence luminosity function drops rapidly, in a manner similar to that predicted by theoretical models of low-mass stars near the hydrogen-burning limit.

  11. The Luminosity Function of the Globular Cluster NGC 6397 Near the Limit of Hydrogen Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan R. King; Jay Anderson; Adrienne M. Cool; Giampaolo Piotto

    1997-11-03

    Second-epoch HST observations of NGC 6397 have led to the measurement of proper motions accurate enough to separate the faintest cluster stars from the field, thus extending the luminosity function of this globular cluster far enough to approach the limit of hydrogen burning on the main sequence. We isolate a sample of 1385 main-sequence stars, from just below the turnoff down to I=24.5 (M_I~12.5), which corresponds to a mass of less than 0.1 solar masses for the metallicity of this cluster. Below I=22 (M_I~10), the main-sequence luminosity function drops rapidly, in a manner similar to that predicted by theoretical models of low-mass stars near the hydrogen-burning limit.

  12. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL.

  13. Biomass for energy and materials Local technologies -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - holds Industry Agricult. Pretreatment of biomass and waste CO2 Gasification Combustion MicrobialBiomass for energy and materials Local technologies - in a global perspective Erik Steen Jensen Bioenergy and biomass Biosystems Department Risř National Laboratory Denmark #12;Biomass - a local resource

  14. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Thermochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Thermochemical Conversion Platform in 2007.

  15. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    deployment  of  renewable projects.   Southern California Edison (SCE) has one such program for biomass 

  16. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  17. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Direct Costs Utilities Labor:    Labor  costs  constitute  the  largest  Consumables annual  operating  costs  excluding  biomass  Disposal

  18. Global (International) Energy Policy and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overend, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Presentation to the California Biomass Collaboration--First Annual Forum, January 8th 2004, Sacramento, California

  19. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  20. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Other Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biodiesel and Other Technologies Platform in 2007.

  1. November 2011 Competition for biomass among

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    remain high, limiting the development of national or even regional markets for biomass feedstocks. We

  2. Washington State biomass data book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  3. Diesel fuel from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A project to convert various biomass materials to diesel type transportation fuel compatible with current engine designs and the existing distribution system is described. A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction approach is used. The system consists of a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide followed by a catalytic liquefaction step to convert the synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The major emphasis on the project at the present time is to maximize product yield. A level of 60 gals of diesel type fuel per ton of feedstock (dry, ash free basis) is expected. Numerous materials have been processed through the conversion system without any significant change in product quality (essentially C/sub 7/-C/sub 17/ paraffinic hydrocarbons with cetane indicies of 50+). Other tasks in progress include factor studies, process simplification, process control and scale-up to a 10 ton/day Engineering Test Facility. 18 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  6. Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities Biomass energy input basis in the upcoming calendar year? - Please check "yes" or "no." 12. Types of Biomass Fuel Used - Please report the quantity and supplier of the following types of biomass fuel used

  7. Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne lidar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646­655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne biomass and bio-energy feedstocks. The overall goal of this study was to develop a method for assessing aboveground biomass and component biomass for individual trees using airborne lidar data in forest settings

  8. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  9. ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report+ on ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA . in a COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK presented-coil tokamak configurations that would achieve ignition under presently accepted scaling laws. Studies the extent to which these compact tokamak ignition experiments can resolve the technical issue of under

  10. Fusion Power Burn and ..... Steve Cowley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Power Burn and ..... Steve Cowley UK Atomic Energy Authority and Imperial College to the realisation of fusion energy. 2013 #12;Fusion Today ­ questions? · "Fast Track to Fusion" ­ clear message. -- EFDA roadmap ­ clear message · US position ­ unclear, contradicts EU? -- FESAC panels 10 year plan

  11. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities · why a burning plasma experiment? · BP contribution impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode of operation ) #12;···· we know a lot more now than helium ash - induce SOL flow towards divertor - control density · helium exhaust time, i.e. He , limited

  12. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL flow towards

  13. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal if strike points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode pressure for H- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL

  14. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste heat and better documentation of potential of carbon credits, would also improve the economic outlook. Analysis of baseline operational conditions indicated that a reduction in methane emissions and other greenhouse gas savings resulted from implementation of the project. The project results indicate that using anaerobic digestion to produce bio-methane from agricultural biomass is a promising source of electricity, but that significant challenges need to be addressed before dairy-based biomass energy production can be fully integrated into an alternative energy economy. The biomass energy facility was found to be operating undercapacity. Economic analysis indicated a positive economic sustainability, even at the reduced power production levels demonstrated during the baseline period. However, increasing methane generation capacity (via the importation of biomass codigestate) will be critical for increasing electricity output and improving the long-term economic sustainability of the operation. Dairy-based biomass energy plants are operating under strict environmental regulations applicable to both power-production and confined animal facilities and novel approached are being applied to maintain minimal environmental impacts. The use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for nitrous oxide control and a biological hydrogen sulfide control system were tested at this facility. Results from this study suggest that biomass energy systems can be compliant with reasonable scientifically based air and water pollution control regulations. The most significant challenge for the development of biomass energy as a viable component of power production on a regional scale is likely to be the availability of energy-rich organic feedstocks. Additionally, there needs to be further development of regional expertise in digester and power plant operations. At the Fiscalini facility, power production was limited by the availability of biomass for methane generation, not the designed system capacity. During the baseline study period, feedstocks included manure, sudan grass silage, and

  15. Life Satisfaction Over the First Five Years Following Burn Injury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoskins, Jessica Lynne

    2012-10-19

    Individuals with burn injuries increasingly survive their injury, but we know little about their psychological outcomes following the injury. This study examines life satisfaction outcomes for 260 individuals who sustained burn injuries and were...

  16. A Comparative Study Of The Poetry Of Fergusson And Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swick, Lena

    1913-01-01

    brewed a peck o' maut" is a good example of Burns's rollicking drinking songs. Other classes of poetry used by the two authors are rhymed epistles, elegies, satires, epigrams. Burns follows Fergusson's example in the use of the rhymed epistles...

  17. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive NH3 SCR has been demonstrated as a high efficiency and low cost alternative lean NOx...

  18. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascucci, Valerio

    of premixed burners capable of stably burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could

  19. Burning for Improvement of Macartney Rose-Infested Coastal Prairie. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, R.A.; Scifres, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    of Macartney rose to season of burning. Pre vious research emphasized the use of herbicides fol lowed by fIre, and winter was arbitrarily chosen for in stallation of burns (12). Therefore, information was needed relative to season of prescribed burning... Environmental conditions, including relative air temperature at 2 meters above ground temperature at 2.54 centimeters deep, and and direction at 2 meters above ground monitored during each burn. the plots were backfired on the leeward side(s) meters...

  20. Height Replacement of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.T.; Kitchen, L.M.; Scifres, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding CONTENTS ...................................... Summary . - i ,.z;.., s * ' ............................ a ,, Jntroduction.. v ~ ~ ~ z z . . 4 *- e -- .d 5- . ..... ...... .. * 2 $$escription... of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding SUMMARY Woody plant reinvasion of tame pastures and native rangeland is a ' severe problem on the South Texas Plains. Shredding and/or pre- scribed burning may be employed as lowcost methods...

  1. Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS; BIOFUEL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS; BIOFUEL; DEMONSTRATION; DEPLOYMENT; LEARNING; POLICY; SYSTEM DYNAMICS;...

  2. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  3. Biomass One LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac Biomass Facility Jump to:Biola,Biomass Facility Jump

  4. August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast Monthly newsletter for August 2012 from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program....

  5. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August News and updates from the Biomass Program in August 2011. augustnewsblast.pdf More Documents...

  6. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May News and updates from the Biomass Program in May 2011. maynewsblast.pdf More Documents &...

  7. Economic Analysis of a 3MW Biomass Gasification Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert; Lin, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative, Biomass gasification / power generationANALYSIS OF A 3MW BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER PLANT R obert Cbiomass. Figure 1: Biomass Gasification to Power Process

  8. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01

    Report "A survey of Biomass Gasification," Department offor a continuous biomass gasification unit. The selectiona combination biomass liquefaction and gasification process

  9. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01

    the Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Wastes, August 14,Gasification of Biomass," Department of Energy Contract No.of Biomass Gasification," Department of Energy Contract No.

  10. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01

    commercial farm. A biomass energy farm must cover a largeof Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Wastes, Washington,Biomass Yield Energy Content Upwelling

  11. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    with the planting of biomass energy crops Pike Countya regional agricultural biomass energy workshop and relatedrenewable energy,” biomass energy sources are included in

  12. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01

    context of the full biomass energy system. Clearly, biomassa Business from Biomass in Energy, Environment, Chemicals,by far the lowest biomass gasi?cation energy conversion ef?

  13. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    less recalcitrant biomass feedstocks and improved enzymes.of less recalcitrant biomass feedstocks and improvedpotential of improved biomass feedstocks and enzymes for the

  14. Biomass Scenario Model Documentation: Data and References Lin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Documentation: Data and References Lin, Y.; Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.; Stright, D. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS SCENARIO MODEL; BSM; BIOMASS; BIOFUEL; MODEL; DATA; REFERENCES;...

  15. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01

    on the Steam Gasification of Biomass," Department of EnergyCatalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass, 11 April 28, 1978.Report "A survey of Biomass Gasification," Department of

  16. Economic Analysis of a 3MW Biomass Gasification Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert; Lin, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative, Biomass gasification / power generationANALYSIS OF A 3MW BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER PLANT R obert Cinvolved in the gasification of biomass to produce gas are

  17. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity Feedstock Supply and Logistics:Biomass as a Commodity...

  18. Suite of Cellulase Enzyme Technologies for Biomass Conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Suite of Cellulase Enzyme Technologies for Biomass Conversion National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  19. LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ENGINEERING UNIT (PEU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    0092 UC-61 ORNIA LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSLBL~l0092 LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSof Energy LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS

  20. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

  1. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01

    Design Parameters Marine Biomass Production Sea Farmof Various Types of Biomass . Biomethanation Parameters.Proceedings, Fuels from Biomass Symposium. University of

  2. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01

    Making a Business from Biomass in Energy, Environment,2004. An assessment of biomass resources in California.methanol and hydrogen from biomass. Journal of Power Sources

  3. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods for producing and using densified biomass...

  4. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News Releases |NRELBiochemical

  5. NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemical and Catalyst ScienceData

  6. NREL: Biomass Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemical and CatalystMicroalgalNews

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemical and

  8. NREL: Biomass Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemical andPublications NREL

  9. NREL: Biomass Research - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemicalPilot and Users Facility

  10. Biomass energy: State of the technology present obstacles and future potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, L.

    1993-06-23

    The prevailing image of wood and waste burning as dirty and environmentally harmful is no longer valid. The use of biomass combustion for energy can solve many of our nation`s problems. Wood and other biomass residues that are now causing expensive disposal problems can be burned as cleanly and efficiently as natural gas, and at a fraction of the cost. New breakthroughs in integrated waste-to-energy systems, from fuel handling, combustion technology and control systems to heat transfer and power generation, have dramatically improved system costs, efficiencies, cleanliness of emissions, maintenance-free operation, and end-use applications. Increasing costs for fossil fuels and for waste disposal strict environmental regulations and changing political priorities have changed the economics and rules of the energy game. This report will describe the new rules, new playing fields and key players, in the hope that those who make our nation`s energy policy and those who play in the energy field will take biomass seriously and promote its use.

  11. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09

    photoperiod-sensitive (PS) hybrids within the Ma1/Ma5/Ma6 hybrid production system. High-biomass sorghums are PS and the Ma1/Ma5/Ma6 hybrid production system produces PS hybrids with PI parents by manipulating alleles at the Ma1, Ma5 and Ma6 sorghum maturity...

  12. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  13. The rp Process Ashes from Stable Nuclear Burning on an Accreting Neutron Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrik Schatz; Lars Bildsten; Andrew Cumming; Michael Wiescher

    1999-05-20

    We calculate the nucleosynthesis during stable nuclear burning on an accreting neutron star. This is appropriate for weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting at near-Eddington rates in low mass X-ray binaries, and for most accreting X-ray pulsars. We show that the nuclear burning proceeds via the rapid proton capture process (rp process), and makes nuclei far beyond the iron group. The final mixture of nuclei consists of elements with a range of masses between approximately A=60 and A=100. The average nuclear mass of the ashes is set by the extent of helium burning via (alpha,p) reactions, and depends on the local accretion rate. Our results imply that the crust of these accreting neutron stars is made from a complex mixture of heavy nuclei, with important implications for its thermal, electrical and structural properties. A crustal lattice as impure as our results suggest will have a conductivity set mostly by impurity scattering, allowing more rapid Ohmic diffusion of magnetic fields than previously estimated.

  14. Biomass 2013: Welcome | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass 2013: Welcome Biomass 2013: Welcome Welcome and Introductory Keynotes Valerie Reed, Acting Director, BETO, U.S. Department of Energy b13reedday1-welcome.pdf More...

  15. Biomass Webinar Text Version | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Text Version Biomass Webinar Text Version Dowload the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on biomass. DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational...

  16. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.

  17. Conversion of Waste Biomass into Useful Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, M.

    1998-01-01

    Waste biomass includes municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal sewage sludge (SS), industrial biosludge, manure, and agricultural residues. When treated with lime, biomass is highly digestible by a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms. Lime...

  18. Biomass Oil Analysis: Research Needs and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-06-01

    Report analyzing the use of biomass oils to help meet Office of the Biomass Program goals of establishing a commercial biorefinery by 2010 and commercilizing at least four biobased products.

  19. Biomass Boiler | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Boiler Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 24 June, 2015 - 07:08 Biomass Boiler Market is Projected to Reach USD 8,907.0 Million by 2022...

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. ); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. ); Cabral, J.A. )

    1999-07-15

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 76, 035802 (2007) Implications of low-energy fusion hindrance on stellar burning and nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 76, 035802 (2007) Implications of low-energy fusion hindrance on stellar burning prediction of strongly reduced low-energy astrophysical S-factors for carbon and oxygen fusion reactions [4] to measurements of the fusion cross section above 2.4 MeV (center-of-mass energy) for the 12 C+12

  3. Forest Biomass Supply for BioForest Biomass Supply for Bio--productionproduction in the Southeastern United Statesin the Southeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Forest Biomass Supply for BioForest Biomass Supply for BioBio--production and biomass utilizationsproduction and biomass utilizations Industrial sector: for heat and steam Utility sector: for electricity Forest biomass: Agricultural biomass: Transportation sector: for biofuels

  4. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Patrick; Sink, Charles

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to accommodate hot water from the proposed wood-burning GARN Boiler, once installed, and rely on the existing fuel oil-fired hot water heating equipment for backup. The boiler would use an estimated 125 bone dry tons, equivalent to 100 cords, woody biomass feedstock obtained from local lands per year. Project would use local labor as described in the Port Graham Biomass Project, report completed by Chena Power, Inc. and Winters and Associates as part of the in-kind support to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) project for work on a project for State of Alaska’s Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). NVPG will likely initiate operations of the biomass boiler system even though several operational variations were studied. Obtaining the fuel source could be done by contractors, PGVC employees, or NVPG employees. Feeding the system would likely be done by NVPG employees. A majority of the buildings heated would be owned by NVPG. The PGVC office would be heated as well as the Old Fire Hall used as a workshop and storage area for North Pacific Rim Housing Authority. One methodology studied to charge for cost of utilizing the community building biomass system would use a percentage of use of hot water generated by the biomass hot water system based on past heating oil usage in relation to all buildings heated by biomass hot water. The method is better described in the Port Graham Biomass Project report. Fuel source agreements have been drafted to enter into agreements with area landowners. One Native allotment owner has asked Chugachmiut Forestry to begin a timber sale process to sell timber off her lands, specifically wind thrown timber that was determined to be of sufficient quantity to supply to the proposed biomass heating system for approximately 5-years. On NVPG’s behalf, Chugachmiut has presented to PGVC three different documents, attached, that could lead to a sale of woody biomass fuel for the project for up to 25-years, the expected life of the project. PGVC has signed a letter of intent to negotiate a sale of woody biomass material April 30, 2015. Chugachmiut Forestry

  5. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  6. Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas) Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor...

  7. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  8. Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (BCCL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  9. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (BCAL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  10. Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    strategic energy development forums, this Tribal Leader Forum will focus on biomass development opportunities, technology updates, resource assessment, the unique...

  11. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-01

    Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy. This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses.

  12. Ris Energy Report 5 Biomass biomass is one of few non-fluctuating renewable energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : combustion and thermal gasification. Thermal conversion Combustion and co-combustion biomass conversionRisř Energy Report 5 Biomass 6.2 biomass is one of few non-fluctuating renewable energy resources- tem. Alongside stored hydro and geothermal, this sets biomass apart from most other renewables

  13. A Simple Biomass-Based Length-Cohort Analysis for Estimating Biomass and Fishing Mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Simple Biomass-Based Length-Cohort Analysis for Estimating Biomass and Fishing Mortality CHANG IK, Washington 98115, USA Abstract.--A biomass-based length-cohort analysis (LCA) was examined for its performance in estimating total stock biomass and fishing mortality (F) for a population in equilibrium. We

  14. Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    9th Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 ­ published by Elsevier 1 BIOMASS ENERGY disturbance of the natural global carbon cycle. The "carbon-neutral" renewable energy carrier biomass seems of biomass for energy purposes. The CEBM comprises a biospheric part being based on the "Osnabrück Biosphere

  15. Biomass Program Recovery Act Factsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program has awarded about $718 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) funds. The projects the Program is supporting are intended to: Accelerate advanced biofuels research, development, and demonstration; Speed the deployment and commercialization of advanced biofuels and bioproducts; Further the U.S. bioindustry through market transformation and creating or saving a range of jobs.

  16. Biomass Program Partners Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-10-27

    Meeting ambitious national targets for biofuels requires a radically accelerated level of technology research and infrastructure development. To expedite progress, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Biomass Program is forging collaborative partnerships with industry, academia, state governments, and diverse stakeholder groups.

  17. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  18. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

  19. Also inside this issue: Bioengineering Better Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Also inside this issue: Bioengineering Better Biomass DOE JGI/EMSL Collaborative Science Projects and degrade carbon. This is an image of the Mn(II)-oxidizing fungus Stilbella aciculosa ­ the fungal biomass Better Biomass Feedstock Science Highlights 15 Clouds up Close Improving Catalysts Pore Challenge

  20. 4, 707745, 2007 Proxies of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 707­745, 2007 Proxies of biomass for primary production Y. Huot et al. Title Page Abstract the best index of phytoplankton biomass for primary productivity studies? Y. Huot 1,2 , M. Babin 1,2 , F of biomass for primary production Y. Huot et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE dollars. Costs for a pioneer plant [a 1st plant with a capacity of 500 dry ton per day (dtpd) biomass

  2. Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass Tad W. Patzek 1 and David Pimentel 2 1 Department #12;3 Biomass from Tropical Tree Plantations 14 3.1 Scope of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 Environmental Impacts of Industrial Biomass Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3

  3. Integrated assessment of the sustainability of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Integrated assessment of the sustainability of biomass supply chains Dr. Floor van der Hilst · Previous work on sustainable biomass supply chains: ­ Land use change modeling ­ Dynamic Cost supply chains ­ Future work and potential collaboration #12;Rationale · The total demand for biomass for energy

  4. Biomass Gasification at The Evergreen State College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Gasification at The Evergreen State College Written by Students of the Winter 2011 Program "Applied Research: Biomass, Energy, and Environmental Justice" At The Evergreen State College, Olympia://blogs.evergreen.edu/appliedresearch/ #12; i Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Biomass at the Evergreen State College by Dani

  5. Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) for the Cowlitz River, 2014; in particular the Cowlitz River #12;Technique: Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB): Calculation of SSB for eulachon in the Cowlitz River was accomplished via the following equation: B = P/(F*R) Eq. 1 where: B = Biomass: total

  6. Biomass for Bioenergy: an overview of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Biomass for Bioenergy: an overview of research at ORNL Environmental Science Division Climate. Kline (presenter) Virginia Dale, Laurence Eaton, Matt Langholtz, and others, ORNL #12;Biomass&TChemical and molecular science Plasma and fusion energy science Biomass #12;Lighter weight vehicles Bioenergy research

  7. Biomass from Logging Residue and Mill Residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass from Logging Residue and Mill Residue in East Texas, 2008 by Curtis L. VanderSchaaf, Forest Resource Analyst October 2009 #12;N Introduction The abundance of woody biomass from East Texas forests. This report represents the most current data on the availability of woody biomass in the form of logging

  8. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01

    hydrogen from dry biomass feedstocks (i.e. straws, stovers,be produced from the wet biomass feedstocks (manures, urban

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Integrated Biorefineries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Integrated Biorefineries 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Integrated Biorefineries "This document summarizes the...

  10. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  11. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis S. Lau

    2003-09-01

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

  12. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-12-31

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier.

  13. COMPACTING BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES TO FORM AND UPGRADED FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Liu; Yadong Li

    2000-11-01

    Biomass waste materials exist in large quantity in every city and in numerous industrial plants such as wood processing plants and waste paper collection centers. Through minimum processing, such waste materials can be turned into a solid fuel for combustion at existing coal-fired power plants. Use of such biomass fuel reduces the amount of coal used, and hence reduces the greenhouse effect and global warming, while at the same time it reduces the use of land for landfill and the associated problems. The carbon-dioxide resulting from burning biomass fuel is recycled through plant growth and hence does not contribute to global warming. Biomass fuel also contains little sulfur and hence does not contribute to acid rain problems. Notwithstanding the environmental desirability of using biomass waste materials, not much of them are used currently due to the need to densify the waste materials and the high cost of conventional methods of densification such as pelletizing and briquetting. The purpose of this project was to test a unique new method of biomass densification developed from recent research in coal log pipeline (CLP). The new method can produce large agglomerates of biomass materials called ''biomass logs'' which are more than 100 times larger and 30% denser than conventional ''pellets'' or ''briquettes''. The Phase I project was to perform extensive laboratory tests and an economic analysis to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the biomass log fuel (BLF). A variety of biomass waste materials, including wood processing residues such as sawdust, mulch and chips of various types of wood, combustibles that are found in municipal solid waste stream such as paper, plastics and textiles, energy crops including willows and switch grass, and yard waste including tree trimmings, fallen leaves, and lawn grass, were tested by using this new compaction technology developed at Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC), University of Missouri-Columbia (MU). The compaction conditions, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size and shape, piston and mold geometry and roughness, and binder for the materials were studied and optimized. The properties of the compacted products--biomass logs--were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. An economic analysis of this technology for anticipated future commercial operations was performed. It was found that the compaction pressure and the moisture content of the biomass materials are critical for producing high-quality biomass logs. For most biomass materials, dense and strong logs can be produced under room temperature without binder and at a pressure of 70 MPa (10,000 psi), approximately. A few types of the materials tested such as sawdust and grass need a minimum pressure of 100 MPa (15,000 psi) in order to produce good logs. The appropriate moisture range for compacting waste paper into good logs is 5-20%, and the optimum moisture is in the neighborhood of 13%. For the woody materials and yard waste, the appropriate moisture range is narrower: 5-13%, and the optimum is 8-9%. The compacted logs have a dry density of 0.8 to 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a wet density of 0.9 to 1.1 g/cm{sup 3}, approximately. The logs have high strength and high resistance to impact and abrasion, but are feeble to water and hence need to be protected from water or rain. They also have good long-term performance under normal environmental conditions, and can be stored for a long time without significant deterioration. Such high-density and high-strength logs not only facilitate handling, transportation, and storage, but also increase the energy content of biomass per unit volume. After being transported to power plants and crushed, the biomass logs can be co-fired with coal to generate electricity.

  14. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  15. BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS -POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS - POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS Senior scientist - "Towards Hydrogen Society" ·biomass resources - potentials, limits ·biomass carbon cycle ·biomass for hydrogen - as compared to other H2- sources and to other biomass paths #12;BIOMASS - THE CARBON CYCLE

  16. ADVANCED BURNING STAGES AND FATE OF 8-10 M{sub Sun} STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Hirschi, R.; Nomoto, K.; Fischer, T.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Timmes, F. X.; Herwig, F.; Paxton, B.; Toki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Lam, Y. H.; Bertolli, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The stellar mass range 8 {approx}< M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 12 corresponds to the most massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and the most numerous massive stars. It is host to a variety of supernova (SN) progenitors and is therefore very important for galactic chemical evolution and stellar population studies. In this paper, we study the transition from super-AGB (SAGB) star to massive star and find that a propagating neon-oxygen-burning shell is common to both the most massive electron capture supernova (EC-SN) progenitors and the lowest mass iron-core-collapse supernova (FeCCSN) progenitors. Of the models that ignite neon-burning off-center, the 9.5 M{sub Sun} star would evolve to an FeCCSN after the neon-burning shell propagates to the center, as in previous studies. The neon-burning shell in the 8.8 M{sub Sun} model, however, fails to reach the center as the URCA process and an extended (0.6 M{sub Sun }) region of low Y{sub e} (0.48) in the outer part of the core begin to dominate the late evolution; the model evolves to an EC-SN. This is the first study to follow the most massive EC-SN progenitors to collapse, representing an evolutionary path to EC-SN in addition to that from SAGB stars undergoing thermal pulses (TPs). We also present models of an 8.75 M{sub Sun} SAGB star through its entire TP phase until electron captures on {sup 20}Ne begin at its center and of a 12 M{sub Sun} star up to the iron core collapse. We discuss key uncertainties and how the different pathways to collapse affect the pre-SN structure. Finally, we compare our results to the observed neutron star mass distribution.

  17. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 73897400 Fire and biofuel contributions to annual mean aerosol mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 7389­7400 Fire and biofuel contributions to annual mean aerosol estimate the contributions from biomass burning (summer wildfires, other fires, residential biofuel, and industrial biofuel) to seasonal and annual aerosol concentrations in the United States. Our approach

  18. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  19. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  20. High-Speed Biomass Recalcitrance Pipeline Speeds Up Bio-Mass Analysis -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOF ResearchEnergy Innovation

  1. Color--Magnitude Diagram and Luminosity Function of M4 Near the Hydrogen-Burning Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedin, L R; King, I R; Piotto, G; Bedin, Luigi R.; Anderson, Jay; King, Ivan R.; Piotto, Giampaolo

    2001-01-01

    A proper-motion separation of M4 members from field stars, using deep HST observations separated by a time base-line of 5 years, allows us to study a pure sample of cluster main-sequence stars almost to the minimum mass for hydrogen burning. High-precision photometry shows how badly current theoretical models fail to reproduce the color-magnitude diagram of low-mass stars of moderate metallicity ([M/H] ~ -1). This inability of theory to reproduce the luminosity-radius relation casts doubt on the theoretical mass-luminosity relation, which is needed to convert the observed luminosity function (LF) into a mass function (MF), as well as to convert our locally determined LF into a global MF. To the extent that we trust theoretical M-L relations for such transformations, we obtain a flat MF from the LF, and some indication that theoretical masses might be too low at a given luminosity, near the H-burning limit.

  2. Color--Magnitude Diagram and Luminosity Function of M4 Near the Hydrogen-Burning Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi R. Bedin; Jay Anderson; Ivan R. King; Giampaolo Piotto

    2001-09-05

    A proper-motion separation of M4 members from field stars, using deep HST observations separated by a time base-line of 5 years, allows us to study a pure sample of cluster main-sequence stars almost to the minimum mass for hydrogen burning. High-precision photometry shows how badly current theoretical models fail to reproduce the color-magnitude diagram of low-mass stars of moderate metallicity ([M/H] ~ -1). This inability of theory to reproduce the luminosity-radius relation casts doubt on the theoretical mass-luminosity relation, which is needed to convert the observed luminosity function (LF) into a mass function (MF), as well as to convert our locally determined LF into a global MF. To the extent that we trust theoretical M-L relations for such transformations, we obtain a flat MF from the LF, and some indication that theoretical masses might be too low at a given luminosity, near the H-burning limit.

  3. IntelliBurn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimenMakingBiofuels Jump to: navigation,IntegrysIntelliBurn

  4. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustria GeothermalInformation BKNStateMountainBoiseBurns

  5. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) Jump to:New York:ClayBurn Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation,

  6. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy014771°,North Dakota:BonnBoulder,Burns, OR

  7. Exposing the Nuclear Burning Ashes of Radius Expansion Type I X-ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten; Hendrik Schatz

    2005-11-09

    We solve for the evolution of the vertical extent of the convective region of a neutron star atmosphere during a Type I X-ray burst. The convective region is well-mixed with ashes of nuclear burning and its extent determines the rise time of the burst light curve. Using a full nuclear reaction network, we show that the maximum vertical extent of the convective region during photospheric radius expansion (RE) bursts can be sufficiently great that: (1) some ashes of burning are ejected by the radiation driven wind during the RE phase and, (2) some ashes of burning are exposed at the neutron star surface following the RE phase. We find that ashes with mass number A ~ 30 - 60 are mixed in with the ejected material. We calculate the expected column density of ejected and surface ashes in hydrogen-like states and determine the equivalent widths of the resulting photoionization edges from both the wind and neutron star surface. We find that these can exceed 100 eV and are potentially detectable. A detection would probe the nuclear burning processes and might enable a measurement of the neutron star gravitational redshift. In addition, we find that in bursts with pure helium burning layers, protons from (alpha, p) reactions cause a rapid onset of the 12C(p, gamma)13N(alpha, p)16O reaction sequence. The sequence bypasses the relatively slow 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction and leads to a sudden surge in energy production that is directly observable as a rapid (~ ms) increase in flux during burst rise.

  8. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1030 Geochemistry: Geochemical cycles (0330); KEYWORDS: combustion, experimental

  9. Russell Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan:Roxbury,Rush County, Indiana:Ruskin, Florida:Biomass

  10. Star Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jump to:SpillDavid,EnergybyBiomass Jump to: navigation,

  11. Biomass Program News Blast: September

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers Announcementand FuelBiomass

  12. On the burning of his library, and On medical travel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholin, Thomas

    1961-01-01

    , and ordered his books to be burned by the aediles. According to [the elder] Seneca, Suasoria, ch. 7, Cicero deliberated whether or not to burn his writings, on the promise of Anthony that if he did so he would remain unharmed; for Anthony, inflamed... selves if in the past they spent some hours reading my books. According to Seneca, when by decree of the senate the books of Labienus were burned, Cassius Severus, his close associate, remarked: "Now I who know them by heart must be burned alive/' One...

  13. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    regions of skin, burns, psoriasis, basal cell carcinomas andinto diseased states like psoriasis, eczema, basal celland cancer, conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis,

  14. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI and European certified lean-burn GDI vehicles operating on ethanol blends

  15. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  16. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the convective pass into the hot recirculated fluidizing medium and adding an insulating layer to superh

  17. ON THE EFFECT OF EXPLOSIVE THERMONUCLEAR BURNING ON THE ACCRETED ENVELOPES OF WHITE DWARFS IN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sion, Edward M. [Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Sparks, Warren, E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu, E-mail: warrensparks@comcast.net [Los Alamos National Laboratory, 701 Meadow Lane, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The detection of heavy elements at suprasolar abundances in the atmospheres of some accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables (CVs), coupled with the high temperatures needed to produce these elements, requires explosive thermonuclear burning. The central temperatures of any formerly more massive secondary stars in CVs undergoing hydrostatic CNO burning are far too low to produce these elements. Evidence is presented that at least some CVs contain donor secondaries that have been contaminated by white dwarf remnant burning during the common envelope phase and are transferring this material back to the white dwarf. This scenario does not exclude the channel in which formerly more massive donor stars underwent CNO processing in systems with thermal timescale mass transfer. Implications for the progenitors of CVs are discussed and a new scenario for the white dwarf's accretion-nova-outburst is given.

  18. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  19. Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

    2012-03-06

    The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a �¢����Therminator�¢��� to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700���°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

  20. Biomass Energy Data Book, 2011, Edition 4

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wright, L.; Boundy, B.; Diegel, S. W.; Davis, S. C.

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability.

  1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boundy, Robert Gary; Diegel, Susan W; Wright, Lynn L; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Perlack, Robert D; Davis, Stacy Cagle; Saulsbury, Bo

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  3. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Badger, Philip C; Perlack, Robert D; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  4. Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona:Oregon:Lowell Point,Massachusetts:Kansas: EnergyLLC Biomass

  5. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2009-01-01

    mercury emissions during biomass combustion: Controllingin biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions1997), Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomass

  6. Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Xiadi

    2013-01-01

    Biomass feedstocks .Materials and Methods Biomass feedstocks Two kinds ofthe screening of biomass feedstocks. In this study, a one-

  7. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

  8. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  9. Presented at UFA Burning Plasma Science Workshop II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for a Next Step Experiment in Magnetic Fusion · Compact High Field Approach - General Parameters · Burning for Resolving the Critical Fusion Plasma Science Issues for an Attractive MFE Reactor Burning Plasma Experiment 1, 2001 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion for the FIRE Team

  10. Stellar Burning Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herwig, Falk

    ]. In these objects, a thermonuclear runaway of the helium shell on top of an electron-degenerate core (a young White implications for the production of neutron- rich elements. log Tlog Teffeff Figure 1-- A thermonuclear runaway stellar conditions. We will include a stellar equation of state as well as thermonuclear burning (TN burn

  11. Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

  12. Analysis of Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    to manage global warming (Wiedinmyer, 2010) As land managers consider increased burning, air quality our understanding of pollutant emission rates associated with prescribed forest burns. Methods Site tracer and pollutant dispersion patterns. Modeling The WindTrax stochastic particle dispersion model

  13. Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban Area S A N G I L L E E , * , , H Y November 30, 2007. An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission- based models) to assess

  14. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  15. Biomass power and state renewable energy policies under electric industry restructuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan

    2000-01-01

    solar, geothermal, and biomass energy resources in Nevadamay make it difficult for biomass energy companies to accessmay be an opportunity for biomass energy crops and biomass

  16. Burning and graphitization of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, A T M A; Kim, M S; Bose, S; Morley, G W; Barker, P F

    2015-01-01

    A nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) center in a nanodiamond, levitated in high vacuum, has recently been proposed as a probe for demonstrating mesoscopic center-of-mass superpositions \\cite{Scala2013, Zhang2013} and for testing quantum gravity \\cite{Albrecht2014}. Here, we study the behavior of optically levitated nanodiamonds containing NV$^-$ centers at sub-atmospheric pressures and show that while they burn in air, this can be prevented by replacing the air with nitrogen. However, in nitrogen the nanodiamonds graphitize below $\\approx 10$ mB. Exploiting the Brownian motion of a levitated nanodiamond, we extract its internal temperature ($T_i$) and find that it would be detrimental to the NV$^-$ center's spin coherence time \\cite{Toyli2012}. These values of $T_i$ make it clear that the diamond is not melting, contradicting a recent suggestion \\cite{Neukirch2015}. Additionally, using the measured damping rate of a levitated nanoparticle at a given pressure, we propose a new way of determining its size.

  17. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  18. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power process will utilize  gasification technology provided by is  pioneering the gasification technology that has been 

  19. November 2011 Model documentation for biomass,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    and conventional electricity, natural gas and coal markets FAPRIMU Report #1211 Providing of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;3 Contents Biomass .....................................................................................................................15 Electricity market

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman,...

  1. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

  2. Biomass 2014: Additional Speaker Biographies | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    document outlines the biographies of the additional speakers for Biomass 2014, held July 29-July 30 in Washington, D.C. additionalspeakerbiographiesbiomass2014 More Documents &...

  3. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; John P. Hurley; Ted R. Aulich; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Joshua R. Strege; Nikhil Patel; Richard E. Shockey

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization (CBU�®) 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  4. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Haldor Topsoe, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Haldor Topsoe, Inc. will integrate the Carbona Gasification and the Haldor Topsoe TIGAS (Topsoe Integrated Gasoline Synthesis) proprietary processes to produce renewable gasoline from woody biomass.

  5. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategy Workshop: Summary Report Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies...

  6. Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass-derived Fuels: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Catalysts for...

  7. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  8. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  9. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: International Biomass Energy Technology Review Report, January 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China, the U.S., and Europe.

  10. NREL: Learning - Biomass Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12Working withPhoto of theSolar SponsorsBiomass

  11. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  12. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI...

  13. Determination of the Burning Characteristics of a Slick of Oil on Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L; Olenick, Stephen M; Garo, Jean P; Vantelon, Jean P

    2003-01-01

    The burning rate of a slick of oil on a water bed is characterized by three distinct processes, ignition, flame spread and burning rate. Although all three processes are important, ignition and burning rate are critical. ...

  14. Ac#vi#es of the US Burning Plasma Organiza#on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Goals of the USBPO · Coordinate and advocate US burning plasma (BP) research=ons · USBPO ­ Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scien=fic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science community to support burning plasma

  15. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  16. The optimum substrate to biomass ratio to reduce net biomass yields and inert compounds in biological leachate treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    The optimum substrate to biomass ratio to reduce net biomass yields and inert compounds that microorganisms must satisfy their maintenance energy requirements prior to synthesizing new biomass, a set on the excess biomass production. Decreasing the supply of substrate per unit biomass resulted in gradual

  17. The influence of burning on nitrogen dynamics of a Pan American balsamscale community 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greene, Thomas Alexander

    1983-01-01

    (Jorgensen and Wells 1971). Crude protein and P content (Old 1969), in vitro digestible organic matter, and ash content (Kucera and Ehrenreich 1962) of regrowth following burning may exceed that found in plants on unburned areas. Christensen (1977) found... phosphate fire retardant. Thus, six treatments (unburned, burned 1980, burned 1981, burned 1982, burned 1980 and 1982, and burned 1981 and 1982) were installed, each with four replications. Each block was fenced. to exclude cattle. Because of delays of 2...

  18. Vegetation response to burning thicketized live oak savannah on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, David Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    were more produc- tive than unburned areas based on evaluations for two growing seasons after the fires. Species diversity was increased by burning. Areas burned in the fall supported more diverse grass populations than either unburned areas... or areas burned in the spring. Forage, especially grasses, was apparently more available to grazing animals on burned than unburned areas. Forb production on uplands burned in the fall was five times that of unburned areas and twice that of areas burned...

  19. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  20. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  1. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  2. Investigation of the characteristics of a coal burning Rijke type pulsating combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance characteristics of a coal burning Rijke type pulsating combustor was studied. The combustor consists of an open ended vertical tube with a coal burning bed located in the middle of its lower half. The liberation of heat by the combustion process at this location results in spontaneous excitation of the fundamental, longitudinal, acoustic mode of the tube and the acoustic oscillations lead to significant intensification of the combustion process. An 108 inch long 5.5 inch internal diameter combustor was constructed and instrumented for this investigation. The measurements performed during a series of experiments conducted at various air/fuel ratios and coal feed rates include: dB level of pulsations at the mid section of the combustor, frequency of oscillations, temperature at different locations inside the combustor, mass emission rates of generated particulates, and CO, CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and SP/sub 2/ concentrations in the exhaust products of the combustor. The study demonstrated that the developed pulsating combustor can burn coal stably and continuously under a variety of air/fuel ratios and that maximum amplitudes of acoustic pressure occur when operation is conducted near stoichiometric conditions. It was also verified that the presence of pulsations resulted in a very efficient and intense combustion process. The measured CO and CO/sub 2/ concentrations were used to determine the combustion efficiencies of the combustor which were higher than 95%.

  3. Modified Yeast Ferments Biomass Xylose - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission MissionModeling distributedBiofuelsFerments Biomass

  4. Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in Castanea sativa coppice stands November 1995) Summary - Aboveground biomass and nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return) and Catania (Italy). Best regression equations for the aboveground biomass were obtained by applying the allo

  5. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01

    MARINE BIOMASS A marine energy farm is one of the fewTompkins, A. N. , 1978, "Energy from Marine Biomass Project-1978 "A Review of the Energy from Marine Biomass Program",

  6. High Biomass Low Export Regimes in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.

    2006-01-01

    of enhanced carbon biomass and export at 55 degrees S duringHigh Biomass Low Export Regimes in the Southern Ocean PhoebeSurface waters with high biomass levels and high proportion

  7. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    2.3. Effects of low pH on biomass solids……………………………. ………………of effects of low pH on biomass……………………………. ….25 2.4. Low pHof low pH biomass reactions………………………. ……………..46

  8. Hydrogen from Biomass Catalytic Reforming of Pyrolysis Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kg H2/day) with catalyst attrition rates Biomass Feedstocks 6 CO2 +6 H2O C6 waste Issues: Biomass Availability and Costs Georgia Biomass Feedstock Supply 0 3 6 9 12 2000 2010 2020

  9. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  10. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Report Introduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides the introduction to the 2007 Program Accomplishments Report.

  11. SEE ALSO SIDEBARS: RECOURCES SOLARRESOURCES BIOMASS & BIOFUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    373 SEE ALSO SIDEBARS: RECOURCES · SOLARRESOURCES · BIOMASS & BIOFUELS Engineered and Artificial, and the production of liquid biofuels for transportation is growing rapidly. However, both traditional biomass energy and crop-based biofuels technologies have negative environmental and social impacts. The overall research

  12. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  13. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuels from coal and biomass have potential to supply 2-3 MBPD of oil equivalent fuels with significantly and a carbon price, and on accelerated federal investment in essential technologies #12;BIOMASS SUPPLY by Milbrandt (2005) and Perlack et al. (2005). · Hay and wheat straws--Yield increase over time = historic

  14. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  15. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  16. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Full Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides Program accomplishments for 2007.

  17. THE IMPACT OF HELIUM-BURNING REACTION RATES ON MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Austin, Sam M., E-mail: west0482@umn.edu, E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu, E-mail: austin@nscl.msu.edu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O and 3{alpha} reaction rates, denoted R{sub {alpha},12} and R{sub 3{alpha}}, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A = 16-40) and the s-only isotopes along the weak s-process path ({sup 70}Ge, {sup 76}Se, {sup 80}Kr, {sup 82}Kr, {sup 86}Sr, and {sup 87}Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R{sub 3{alpha}} and R{sub {alpha},12} of {+-}25%; the s-only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R{sub 3{alpha}} than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R{sub 3{alpha}}(R{sub {alpha},12}) is approximately {+-}10%({+-}25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  18. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  20. BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McDaniel

    2002-05-01

    Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

  1. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  2. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for de-watering biomass materials in a compression drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haygreen, John G. (Roseville, MN)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for more effectively squeezing moisture from wood chips and/or other "green" biomass materials. A press comprising a generally closed chamber having a laterally movable base at the lower end thereof, and a piston or ram conforming in shape to the cross-section of the chamber is adapted to periodically receive a charge of biomass material to be dehydrated. The ram is forced against the biomass material with suffcient force to compress the biomass and to crush the matrix in which moisture is contained within the material with the face of the ram being configured to cause a preferential flow of moisture from the center of the mass outwardly to the grooved walls of the chamber. Thus, the moisture is effectively squeezed from the biomass and flows through the grooves formed in the walls of the chamber to a collecting receptacle and is not drawn back into the mass by capillary action when the force is removed from the ram.

  4. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-10-01

    Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

  5. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  6. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  7. Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project October 22, 2012 - 3:44pm Addthis Crow Nation...

  8. Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy...

  9. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Amyris, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amyris, Inc. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Amyris, Inc. Demonstrating the conversion of sweet sorgum biomass to hydrocarbon fuel and chemicals. ibrarraamyris.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at...

  11. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

  12. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure on the Steam Gasification of Biomass," Departmentof Energy, Catalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass, 11 AprilII. DISCUSSION III. GASIFICATION/LIQUEFACTION DESIGN BASIS

  13. Quarterly Biomass Program/Clean Cities State Web Conference:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation from May 6, 2010 Biomass ProgramClean Cities State Web Conference. stateconference05062010feraci.pdf More Documents & Publications Quarterly Biomass ProgramClean...

  14. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01

    Harvesting biomass causes emissions through the combustionEmission factors Diesel combustion Electricity use Fertilizer use a Table 5 Optimal biomass

  15. High-Speed Pipeline Revs Up Biomass Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed a new biomass evaluation process that opens up research avenues into understanding and manipulating biomass recalcitrance.

  16. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006 (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS biomass, biodiesel, carbon dioxide, feedstocks Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size N...

  17. State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology Research Centre Jump to: navigation, search Name: State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering...

  18. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

  19. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technology. Photos: AGCO, Auburn University (top); INL (bottom) Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity Providing biomass for conversion into high-quality biofuels,...

  20. Biomass Power Generation Market - Global & U.S. Industry Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    biomass fuels for transportation can provide a low-carbon and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. According to current estimates, woody biomass is the single largest...

  1. Quarterly Biomass Program/Clean Cities States Web Conference...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Quarterly Biomass ProgramClean Cities States Web Conference: January 21, 2010 Quarterly Biomass ProgramClean Cities States Web Conference: January 21, 2010 Presentation from the...

  2. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01

    and lignin in biomass. NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedure.2008;NREL/TP-510-42618. DeMartini JD, Wyman CE. Changes inof Lignocellulosic Biomass. NREL Laboratory Analytical

  3. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOMASS PROGRAM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop 10 | Biomass Program eere.energy.gov * The Biomass Program uses a baseline algal production scenario with model-based quantitative metrics to inform strategic planning *...

  4. 2014 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive Project Review 2014 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive Project Review Plenary I:...

  5. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that...

  6. USDA and DOE Biomass Research And Development Technical Advisory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biomass Research And Development Technical Advisory Committee Members USDA and DOE Biomass Research And Development Technical Advisory Committee Members January 15, 2008 - 10:23am...

  7. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by...

  8. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

  9. USDA, DOE Announce $18 Million Solicitation for Biomass Research...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    USDA, DOE Announce 18 Million Solicitation for Biomass Research and Development USDA, DOE Announce 18 Million Solicitation for Biomass Research and Development June 11, 2007 -...

  10. Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for Fuel Cells Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for Fuel Cells Biomass resources overview and perspectives...

  11. SEP Success Story: Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste SEP Success Story: Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste December 6, 2011 -...

  12. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment...

  13. Biomass Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on Feedstocks Costs Biomass Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on Feedstocks Costs Breakout Session 1A: Biomass...

  14. Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass-to-fuel Process Improved Los Alamos improves biomass-to-fuel process Los Alamos scientists and collaborators published an article in the scientific journal Nature Chemistry...

  15. Evaluate Feasibility of Sustainable and Economical Utilization of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Deming

    Evaluate Feasibility of Sustainable and Economical Utilization of Biomass Gasification Byproducts.istc.illinois.edu #12;TR-057 Evaluate Feasibility of Sustainable and Economical Utilization of Biomass Gasification

  16. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar

  17. Economic contribution of lignins to ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Parker, S.K.; Feinberg, D.A.; Wright, J.D.; Rice, P.A.; Sinclair, S.A.; Glasser, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    Lignin, one of the three major polymeric components of biomass (16% to 33% by weight in wood), has the highest specific heat content. Therefore, it can be burned for process fuel. Compared to coal, its fuel value is 2.2 cents/lb. This report investigates markets for lignin utilization of higher value. After lignin isolation from the process, purchase of replacement fuel (coal was analyzed), lignin sale for the manufacture of solid materials or higher value octane enhancers was evaluated. Polymeric applications evaluated were: surfactants, asphalt, carbon black, adhesives, and lignin plastics; agricultural applications were briefly reviewed. These lignins would generate coproduct credits of 25 cents to 150 cents/gallon of ethanol respectively for 7.5 cents to 60 cents/lb lignin value (isolation and eventual modification costs were taken into account). Overall markets for these polymeric applications were projected at 11 billion lb/year by the year 2000. These projections are intensities of demand and not actual shipments of lignins. In addition, this report investigates the possibility of converting lignins into mixtures of methyls aryl ethers and methyl substituted-aryl ethers which are high value octane enhancers, fully compatible with gasoline. The report intends to show that if fuel ethanol production in the billions of gallons scale occurs lignin markets would not be saturated. 10 refs., 14 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Improvements of biomass deconstruction enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sale, K. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and DSM Innovation, Inc. collaborated on the investigation of the structure and function of cellulases from thermophilic fungi. Sandia's role was to use its expertise in protein structure determination and X-ray crystallography to solve the structure of these enzymes in their native state and in their substrate and product bound states. Sandia was also tasked to work with DSM to use the newly solved structure to, using computational approaches, analyze enzyme interactions with both bound substrate and bound product; the goal being to develop approaches for rationally designing improved cellulases for biomass deconstruction. We solved the structures of five cellulases from thermophilic fungi. Several of these were also solved with bound substrate/product, which allowed us to predict mutations that might enhance activity and stability.

  19. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David; Lincoln, E. N.; Sams, Robert L.; Cameron, Melanie; Veres, Patrick; Yokelson, Robert J.; Urbanski, Shawn; Profeta, Luisa T.; Williams, S.; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, W. C.; Akagi, Sheryl; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Mendoza, Albert; Wold, Cyle E.; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost A.; Burling, Ian R.; Reardon, James; Schneider, Matthew D.; Griffith, David WT; Roberts, James M.

    2013-12-17

    Objectives: Project RC-1649, “Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns” was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for “(1) improving characterization of fuel consumption” and “(2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases.” The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new species and actual field quantification of several new species such as nitrous acid, glycolaldehyde, ?-/?-pinene and D-limonene. The new reference data also permit calculation of the global warming potential (GWP) of the greenhouse gases by enabling 1) detection of their ambient concentrations, and 2) quantifying their ability to absorb IR radiation.

  20. "Trojan Horse" strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomson, James; Whalen, Maureen; Thilmony, Roger; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sapra, Rajat

    2008-08-01

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multi-agency national priority. Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive and cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology; they propose to engineer plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes targeted to the apoplast for cleaving the linkages between lignin and cellulosic fibers; the genes encoding the degradation enzymes, also known as cellulases, are obtained from extremophilic organisms that grow at high temperatures (60-100 C) and acidic pH levels (<5). These enzymes will remain inactive during the life cycle of the plant but become active during hydrothermal pretreatment i.e., elevated temperatures. Deconstruction can be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The proposed disruptive technologies address biomass deconstruction processes by developing transgenic plants encoding a suite of enzymes used in cellulosic deconstruction. The unique aspects of this technology are the rationally engineered, highly productive extremophilic enzymes, targeted to specific cellular locations (apoplast) and their dormancy during normal plant proliferation, which become Trojan horses during pretreatment conditions. They have been leveraging established Sandia's enzyme-engineering and imaging capabilities. Their technical approach not only targets the recalcitrance and mass-transfer problem during biomass degradation but also eliminates the costs associated with industrial-scale production of microbial enzymes added during processing.