National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for marketplace constraints limit

  1. Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace May 1, 2015 To reduce its historical footprint, Los Alamos National Laboratory recently completed a...

  2. Renewables Marketplace | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marketplace Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewables Marketplace Place: Palm Desert, California Zip: 92211 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: The Renewables Marketplace is a...

  3. Marketplace Maturity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs Marketplace Maturity Marketplace Maturity Photo of houses with solar panels on the roof. DOE supports advances in the solar market through innovation as well as ...

  4. Transitioning Los Alamos technology into the marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    All Issues submit Transitioning Los Alamos technology into the marketplace A personal message from Duncan McBranch, Chief Technology Officer, Los Alamos National...

  5. Geothermal Direct Use Technology and Marketplace Workshop | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology and Marketplace Workshop Geothermal Direct Use Technology and Marketplace Workshop Geothermal energy applications are emerging across a much wider spectrum of cascaded ...

  6. Moving an Idea to the Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving an Idea to the Marketplace Moving an Idea to the Marketplace Los Alamos chemists Andrew Sutton and Mylan Sykora were asked what they've learned from their experiences with DisrupTECH and Innovate NM. August 1, 2016 Los Alamos chemists Los Alamos chemists Andrew Sutton and Mylan Sykora had a chance to present their innovation to investors. Contact Mariann Johnston Los Alamos National Laboratory Email Recently Andrew Sutton and Mylan Sykora, Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists in the

  7. Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

  8. INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A QUARTERLY UPDATE OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A QUARTERLY UPDATE OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR INDUSTRY Sandia's July 2015 * Vol 2, Issue 2 CONTACT US Welcome to Sandia National Laboratories' ...

  9. Competition, antitrust, and the marketplace for electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szymanski, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    As the electric industry continues its unprecedented restructuring, state public utility regulators must determine which rules and analytical tools will best enable the industry`s participants to compete to provide electricity and its functional components. Even in the early stages of transformation, elements of a competitive marketplace are pervasive: generation markets are battlegrounds for increasingly diverse, numerous, and zealous participants; boundaries delineating traditional service territories are becoming blurred; associations of similarly-situated participants are forming to promote their interests; increased concentration through mergers and joint ventures looms as a possibility; vertically integrated utilities are considering or are being challenged to consider reconfiguration into a more horizontal structure; and generally, the industry`s end-users, its retail customers, are demanding choice. Large industrial customers, groups of residential customers, or entire municipalities are seeking to obtain electric service outside their native electric utilities service territories. These demands for increased consumer choice threaten the legislatively defined franchise rules, which grant monopolies to utilities in exchange for a system of regulation which includes an obligation to serve customers in the service territories both reliably and at reasonable cost. These events foreshadow an industry-wide transition to a customer-driven, competitive system for the provision of electric service in which the price for the service is determined by market-based signals. It would be unrealistic if state utility regulators did not expect commensurate change in the issues they confront and the existing methods of analysis.

  10. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Workshop Worksheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a worksheet by Adam Cohen, fellow for the SunShot Initiative, for the 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Peer Review Workshop, "New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace: Program Pilots and Embedded Experiments."

  11. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Workshop Preread

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This is the preread memo by Adam Cohen for the 2014 SunShot Summit Grand Challenge and Peer Review Workshop, New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace: Program Pilots and Embedded Experiments.

  12. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Workshop Panel Presentations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Download the speaker presentations from the 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Peer Review Workshop, "New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace: Program Pilots and Embedded Experiments."

  13. DOE Success Stories: The Energy Mission in the Marketplace

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1995-05-01

    Many outputs of Department of Energy research and development have had substantial economic success in the marketplace and have proven to be fundamentally important in technical areas, positioning U.S. industry at the forefront of global competition.

  14. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is the agenda for the 2014 SunShot Summit Grand Challenge and Peer Review Workshop, New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace: Program Pilots and Embedded Experiments.

  15. NCAI Annual Convention & Marketplace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NCAI Annual Convention & Marketplace NCAI Annual Convention & Marketplace October 9, 2016 8:00AM MST to October 14, 2016 5:00PM MST Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix Convention Center 100 N. 3rd St. Phoenix, AZ 85004 The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is hosting its annual convention featuring networking events, breakout sessions on resiliency and workforce development, and guest speakers. This year's theme is "Prosperity through Sovereignty."

  16. GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing GE will lead an effort to create an online community for manufacturing collaboration and data analysis The open source project will build the

  17. PPPL's MINDS Technology Takes Nuclear Detection to the Marketplace |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PPPL's MINDS Technology Takes Nuclear Detection to the Marketplace PPPL's MINDS Technology Takes Nuclear Detection to the Marketplace October 20, 2011 - 5:25pm Addthis Charles Gentile (center) and other members of the MINDS team, including Ken Silber (right) and Bill Davis (left) work on new techniques to identify radionuclides. | Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Office of Communications Charles Gentile (center) and other members of the MINDS

  18. Taking Smart Grid Technology Out of the Lab and Into the Marketplace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Taking Smart Grid Technology Out of the Lab and Into the Marketplace Taking Smart Grid Technology Out of the Lab and Into the Marketplace April 15, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Andrew ...

  19. Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace The Lab is performing a ...

  20. THE ROCHE LIMIT FOR CLOSE-ORBITING PLANETS: MINIMUM DENSITY, COMPOSITION CONSTRAINTS, AND APPLICATION TO THE 4.2 hr PLANET KOI 1843.03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappaport, Saul; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Rogers, Leslie A.; Levine, Alan E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: larogers@caltech.edu

    2013-08-10

    The requirement that a planet must orbit outside of its Roche limit gives a lower limit on the planet's mean density. The minimum density depends almost entirely on the orbital period and is immune to systematic errors in the stellar properties. We consider the implications of this density constraint for the newly identified class of small planets with periods shorter than half a day. When the planet's radius is accurately known, this lower limit to the density can be used to restrict the possible combinations of iron and rock within the planet. Applied to KOI 1843.03, a 0.6 R{sub Circled-Plus} planet with the shortest known orbital period of 4.245 hr, the planet's mean density must be {approx}> 7 g cm{sup -3}. By modeling the planetary interior subject to this constraint, we find that the composition of the planet must be mostly iron, with at most a modest fraction of silicates ({approx}< 30% by mass)

  1. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  2. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  3. License Agreement Moves Promising Technology Into the Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    License Agreement Moves Promising Technology Into the Marketplace For information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., February 13, 1998 — A new pretreatment process may give cities better options in dealing with a persistent environmental problem: disposing the tons of sludge biosolids generated every day by sewage treatment plants. The pretreatment process was developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which recently issued a

  4. NREL: Wind Research - One Step Closer to the Marketplace for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain Photo of two men in hard hats engaging in a discussion and standing in front of the 2.5-megawatt dynamometer. NREL researchers are completing testing of a next-generation drivetrain, shown here undergoing rigorous tests at the NWTC's 2.5-megawatt dynamometer. NREL's testing validates the technology prior to commercialization. Shown here are NREL senior engineer and project

  5. The Art of the Start: Moving Science from the Lab to the Marketplace

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Larry Bock

    2010-01-08

    April 25, 2009 Berkeley Lab Nano*High lecture: The Art of the Start: Moving Science from the Lab to the Marketplace

  6. Sandia'S INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A Quarterly Update of Available Technologies for Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Vol 3, Issue 3 Sandia'S INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A Quarterly Update of Available Technologies for Industry SPECIAL ISSUE: Advanced Geothermal Well Construction Technologies CONTACT US Welcome to Sandia National Laboratories' Intellectual Property Magazine Sandia's Innovation Marketplace is a quarterly magazine published by Sandia National Laboratories. This publication highlights exceptional opportunities for licensing Sandia's intellectual property, including patents, copyrights (generally

  7. Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace The Lab is performing a high-angle canyon-side cleanup on U.S. Department of Energy property just south of the new Smith's Marketplace. May 1, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory To complete cleanup activities at one of the few remaining legacy sites along Los Alamos Canyon, crews are using a specialized spider excavator to remove a small

  8. Increasing Importance of Natural Gas Imports on the U.S. Marketplace

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    The growing importance of imported natural gas supplies in the U.S. marketplace, especially the northeast, is reflected in the two-fold increase in Canadian and overall net imports since 1990.

  9. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Workshop Presentation, Adam Cohen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is the presentation by Adam Cohen, fellow for the SunShot Initiative, for the 2014 SunShot Summit Grand Challenge and Peer Review Workshop, "New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace: Program Pilots and Embedded Experiments."

  10. LD Diesels in U.S. Marketplace - Technical Progress Will Lead to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective Business Cases | Department of Energy LD Diesels in U.S. Marketplace - Technical Progress Will Lead to Cost-Effective Business Cases LD Diesels in U.S. Marketplace - Technical Progress Will Lead to Cost-Effective Business Cases 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_gray.pdf (790.46 KB) More Documents & Publications Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in a

  11. Taking Smart Grid Technology Out of the Lab and Into the Marketplace |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Smart Grid Technology Out of the Lab and Into the Marketplace Taking Smart Grid Technology Out of the Lab and Into the Marketplace April 15, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Andrew Gumbiner Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy. What does this mean for me? The ARPA-E, Duke Energy and EPRI partnership will take early stage technologies out of the lab and test them to see if they can revolutionize the way we use and store electricity. These technologies are aimed at

  12. 2014 SunShot Summit Workshop: New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 2014 SunShot Summit Workshop: New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace 2014 SunShot Summit Workshop: New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace This workshop took place at the 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Peer Review in Anaheim, CA. Workshop Description Solar installers, utilities, non-profit groups, and policymakers are charged with creating on-the-ground solar programs. A new set of tools, developed by social scientists and strengthened with the

  13. Helping Small Businesses Bring Their Clean Energy Ideas to the Marketplace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Small Businesses Bring Their Clean Energy Ideas to the Marketplace Helping Small Businesses Bring Their Clean Energy Ideas to the Marketplace July 22, 2010 - 2:39pm Addthis Dr. Kristina Johnson Dr. Kristina Johnson Founder & CEO, Cube Hydro Partners Small businesses play a large role in shaping the American economy and the clean energy revolution. They're an engine of job growth -- creating around two out of every three new jobs in this country -- and they are

  14. New Online Marketplace for Small Business Contracting Launched...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    contracts from federal agencies. The new program allows the government to source low-cost, high-impact solutions from innovative tech companies. A limited number of low-dollar...

  15. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.

    2010-05-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.

  16. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Artikov, A.; Budagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Glagolev, V.; Golovanov, G.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Malyshev, V. L.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Semenov, A.; Simonenko, A.; Sisakyan, A.

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} in pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% confidence level upper limit on {sigma}(gg{yields}H)xB(H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H}=120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H}=165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H}=200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% confidence level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 GeV.

  17. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  18. Secretary Moniz Announces Clean Energy Technologies are Accelerating in the U.S. Marketplace According to New Revolution…Now Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Moniz Announces Clean Energy Technologies are Accelerating in the U.S. Marketplace According to New Revolution…Now Report

  19. From Mind to Marketplace: SunShot Incubator's Latest Protégés Get to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Work | Department of Energy From Mind to Marketplace: SunShot Incubator's Latest Protégés Get to Work From Mind to Marketplace: SunShot Incubator's Latest Protégés Get to Work October 22, 2013 - 1:00pm Addthis Workers from Clean Power Research review a software platform that aims to lower the costs associated with connecting distributed solar electricity generation to the grid. The platform is one of several projects funded through the Energy Department’s SunShot Incubator Program,

  20. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  1. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  2. Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on $gg\\to H\\to W^+W^-$ and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, Doug; /Tufts U.

    2011-08-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the processes gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and gg {yields} H {yields} ZZ in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. With 8.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 8.1 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.01 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.40 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.47 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 124 and 286 GeV.

  3. Determining physical constraints in transcriptional initiationcomplexes using DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2007-07-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is often under the control ofcooperatively acting transcription factors whose binding is limited bystructural constraints. By determining these structural constraints, wecan understand the "rules" that define functional cooperativity.Conversely, by understanding the rules of binding, we can inferstructural characteristics. We have developed an information theory basedmethod for approximating the physical limitations of cooperativeinteractions by comparing sequence analysis to microarray expressiondata. When applied to the coordinated binding of the sulfur amino acidregulatory protein Met4 by Cbf1 and Met31, we were able to create acombinatorial model that can correctly identify Met4 regulatedgenes.

  4. Press Pass - Press Release - Higgs mass constraints

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -mass-constraints-20100726-images.html Fermilab experiments narrow allowed mass range for Higgs boson Batavia, Ill.New constraints on the elusive Higgs particle are more...

  5. Closed Crawl Space Performance: Proof of Concept in the Production Builder Marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkin-Weber, Melissa; Dastur, Cyrus; Mauceri, Maria; Hannas, Benjamin

    2008-10-30

    This overview is intended to be a very concise, limited summary of the key project activities discussed in the detailed report that follows. Due to the large scope of this project, the detailed report is broken into three individually titled sections. Each section repeats key background information, with the goal that the sections will eventually stand alone as complete reports on the major activities of the project. The information presented herein comes from ongoing research, so please note that all observations, findings and recommendations presented are preliminary and subject to change in the future. We invite and welcome your comments and suggestions for improving the project. Advanced Energy completed its first jointly-funded crawl space research project with the Department of Energy in 2005. That project, funded under award number DE-FC26-00NT40995 and titled 'A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South' demonstrated the substantial energy efficiency and moisture management benefits that result from using properly closed crawl space foundations for residential construction instead of traditional wall vented crawl space foundations. Two activities of this first project included (1) an assessment of ten existing homes to document commonly observed energy and moisture failures associated with wall-vented crawl space foundations and (2) a detailed literature review that documented both the history of closed crawl space research and the historical lack of scientific justification for building code requirements for crawl space ventilation. The most valuable activity of the 2005 project proved to be the field demonstration of various closed crawl space techniques, which were implemented in a set of twelve small (1040 square feet), simply designed homes in eastern North Carolina. These homes had matched envelope, mechanical and architectural designs, and comparable performance

  6. Transportation and the marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soeoet, S.

    1996-12-31

    In the Chicago six-county metropolitan area, the number of registered vehicles grew by over 800,000 vehicles in the 1980s; by contrast the population increased by just over 150,000 during the same time. This ratio of growth in automobiles versus population (five to one) has contributed to overall increases in travel, congestion and energy use. The objective of this report is to examine how and why this has occurred and what we might expect in the near future to address the growing traffic problems and energy use. Specifically, the focus is on energy use by household vehicles and other forms of passenger travel. Data on population trends, gasoline prices, commuting and transit use, and transportation energy use are presented and interpreted. Intelligent transportation systems and decreased single vehicle emissions are briefly described as methods to decrease congestion and pollution. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysts may develop scenarios of the deployment of new vehicle technologies for a variety of reasons, ranging from pure thought exercises for hypothesizing about the future, to careful examinations of the possible outcomes of future policies or trends in technology, to examination of the feasibility of broad goals of reducing greenhouse gases and/or oil use. To establish a scenario's plausibility, analysts will seek to make their underlying assumptions clear and to "reality check" the story they tell about technology development and deployment in the marketplace. This report examines two aspects of "reality checking"—(1) whether the timing of the vehicle deployment envisioned by the scenarios corresponds to recognized limits to technology development and market penetration and (2) whether the investments that must be made for the scenario to unfold seem viable from the perspective of the investment community.

  8. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyer, James M.; Erdman, Bill; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  9. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  10. Dose Limits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dose Limits ERAD (Question Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Who do you define as a member of the public for the onsite MEI? This question implies that there may be more than one maximally exposed individual (MEI), one on-site and one off-site, when demonstrating compliance with the Public Dose Limit of DOE Order 458.1. Although all potential MEIs should be considered and documented, as well as the calculated doses and pathways considered, the intent of DOE Order 458.1 is in fact to ultimately identify only one MEI, a theoretical individual who could be either on-site or off-site.

  11. Current Observational Constraints on Cosmic Doomsday (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Current Observational Constraints on Cosmic Doomsday In a broad class of dark energy models, the universe may collapse within a finite ...

  12. Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to the Industrialization of Thermoelectric Devices Market pricing of thermoelectric raw materials and processing, cost of ...

  13. Constraints on Gluon Sivers Distribution from RHIC Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anselmino, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.

    2007-06-13

    We consider the recent RHIC data on the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) AN, measured in p{up_arrow}p {yields} {pi}0X processes at mid-rapidity by the PHENIX collaboration. We analyze this experimental information within a hard scattering approach based on a generalized QCD factorization scheme, with unintegrated, transverse momentum dependent (TMD), parton distribution and fragmentation functions. In this kinematical region, only the gluon Sivers effect could give a large contribution to AN; its vanishing value is thus used to give approximate upper limits on the gluon Sivers function (GSF). Additional constraints from the Burkardt sum rule for the Sivers distributions are also discussed.

  14. A complexity analysis of space-bounded learning algorithms for the constraint satisfaction problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayardo, R.J. Jr.; Miranker, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Learning during backtrack search is a space-intensive process that records information (such as additional constraints) in order to avoid redundant work. In this paper, we analyze the effects of polynomial-space-bounded learning on runtime complexity of backtrack search. One space-bounded learning scheme records only those constraints with limited size, and another records arbitrarily large constraints but deletes those that become irrelevant to the portion of the search space being explored. We find that relevance-bounded learning allows better runtime bounds than size-bounded learning on structurally restricted constraint satisfaction problems. Even when restricted to linear space, our relevance-bounded learning algorithm has runtime complexity near that of unrestricted (exponential space-consuming) learning schemes.

  15. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang ...

  16. Microsoft Word - 20140415 Infrastructure Constraints in New England...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Re: Infrastructure Constraints in New England 1. Introduction On January 9, 2014, ... infrastructure constraints in New England and regional approaches to addressing them. ...

  17. Searching for quantum optimal controls under severe constraints...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Searching for quantum optimal controls under severe constraints Prev Next Title: Searching for quantum optimal controls under severe constraints Authors: Riviello, Gregory ; ...

  18. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  19. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequencesmore » of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.« less

  20. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard; Piris, Mario

    2014-12-21

    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of ?S-^{sup 2}?, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall ?S{sup ^2}? values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, ?S{sup ^2}?.

  1. Inference-based constraint satisfaction supports explanation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sqalli, M.H.; Freuder, E.C.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction problems are typically solved using search, augmented by general purpose consistency inference methods. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in which inference is used as the primary problem solving method, and attention is focused on special purpose, domain specific inference methods. While we expect this approach to have computational advantages, we emphasize here the advantages of a solution method that is more congenial to human thought processes. Specifically we use inference-based constraint satisfaction to support explanations of the problem solving behavior that are considerably more meaningful than a trace of a search process would be. Logic puzzles are used as a case study. Inference-based constraint satisfaction proves surprisingly powerful and easily extensible in this domain. Problems drawn from commercial logic puzzle booklets are used for evaluation. Explanations are produced that compare well with the explanations provided by these booklets.

  2. Health Insurance Marketplace Notice New Health Insurance Marketplace...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Eligible dependents are: SpouseSame Sex Domestic Partner Children (including; Natural, Step, Adopted child, Same-sex domestic partner's child) We do not offer coverage. x If ...

  3. Infrastructure Constraints in New England Background Memo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Monday, April 21, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acting in its capacity as the Secretariat for the QER Task Force, will convene a two-part public meeting to examine energy infrastructure constraints in New England and regional approaches to addressing them.

  4. Constraint analysis for variational discrete systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Hhn, Philipp A.; Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Utrecht, Leuvenlaan 4, NL-3584 CE Utrecht

    2013-09-15

    A canonical formalism and constraint analysis for discrete systems subject to a variational action principle are devised. The formalism is equivalent to the covariant formulation, encompasses global and local discrete time evolution moves and naturally incorporates both constant and evolving phase spaces, the latter of which is necessary for a time varying discretization. The different roles of constraints in the discrete and the conditions under which they are first or second class and/or symmetry generators are clarified. The (non-) preservation of constraints and the symplectic structure is discussed; on evolving phase spaces the number of constraints at a fixed time step depends on the initial and final time step of evolution. Moreover, the definition of observables and a reduced phase space is provided; again, on evolving phase spaces the notion of an observable as a propagating degree of freedom requires specification of an initial and final step and crucially depends on this choice, in contrast to the continuum. However, upon restriction to translation invariant systems, one regains the usual time step independence of canonical concepts. This analysis applies, e.g., to discrete mechanics, lattice field theory, quantum gravity models, and numerical analysis.

  5. NCAI Annual Convention and Marketplace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is hosting their annual convention featuring networking events, breakout sessions on resiliency and workforce development, and guest speakers. Pre...

  6. Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattingly, David M.; Maccione, Luca; Galaverni, Matteo; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter E-mail: luca.maccione@desy.de E-mail: liberati@sissa.it

    2010-02-01

    We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}M{sub Pl}{sup 2}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter η{sub ν}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19}eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17}eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as η{sub ν}∼<10{sup −4} on the neutrino LV parameter, depending on how LV is distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on η{sub ν} < 0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector.

  7. Decoupling Coupled Constraints Through Utility Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, N; Marden, JR

    2014-08-01

    Several multiagent systems exemplify the need for establishing distributed control laws that ensure the resulting agents' collective behavior satisfies a given coupled constraint. This technical note focuses on the design of such control laws through a game-theoretic framework. In particular, this technical note provides two systematic methodologies for the design of local agent objective functions that guarantee all resulting Nash equilibria optimize the system level objective while also satisfying a given coupled constraint. Furthermore, the designed local agent objective functions fit into the framework of state based potential games. Consequently, one can appeal to existing results in game-theoretic learning to derive a distributed process that guarantees the agents will reach such an equilibrium.

  8. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  9. Physics-based constraints in the forward modeling analysis of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Physics-based constraints in the forward modeling analysis of time-correlated image data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physics-based constraints in the ...

  10. Title 10 USC 2684a Agreements to Limit Encroachments and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    10 USC 2684a Agreements to Limit Encroachments and Other Constraints on Military Training, Testing, and Operations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  11. A Framework for Parallel Nonlinear Optimization by Partitioning Localized Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, You; Chen, Yixin

    2008-06-28

    We present a novel parallel framework for solving large-scale continuous nonlinear optimization problems based on constraint partitioning. The framework distributes constraints and variables to parallel processors and uses an existing solver to handle the partitioned subproblems. In contrast to most previous decomposition methods that require either separability or convexity of constraints, our approach is based on a new constraint partitioning theory and can handle nonconvex problems with inseparable global constraints. We also propose a hypergraph partitioning method to recognize the problem structure. Experimental results show that the proposed parallel algorithm can efficiently solve some difficult test cases.

  12. Constraints on decaying dark matter from Fermi observations of nearby galaxies and clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Leanna; Profumo, Stefano; Jeltema, Tesla E. E-mail: tesla@ucolick.org

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the impact of Fermi gamma-ray observations (primarily non-detections) of selected nearby galaxies, including dwarf spheroidals, and of clusters of galaxies on decaying dark matter models. We show that the fact that galaxy clusters do not shine in gamma rays puts the most stringent limits available to-date on the lifetime of dark matter particles for a wide range of particle masses and decay final states. In particular, our results put strong constraints on the possibility of ascribing to decaying dark matter both the increasing positron fraction reported by PAMELA and the high-energy feature in the electron-positron spectrum measured by Fermi. Observations of nearby dwarf galaxies and of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) do not provide as strong limits as those from galaxy clusters, while still improving on previous constraints in some cases.

  13. Constraints on Covariant Horava-Lifshitz Gravity from frame-dragging experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radicella, Ninfa; Lambiase, Gaetano; Parisi, Luca; Vilasi, Gaetano E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it E-mail: vilasi@sa.infn.it

    2014-12-01

    The effects of Horava-Lifshitz corrections to the gravito-magnetic field are analyzed. Solutions in the weak field, slow motion limit, referring to the motion of a satellite around the Earth are considered. The post-newtonian paradigm is used to evaluate constraints on the Horava-Lifshitz parameter space from current satellite and terrestrial experiments data. In particular, we focus on GRAVITY PROBE B, LAGEOS and the more recent LARES mission, as well as a forthcoming terrestrial project, GINGER.

  14. Emergent Constraints for Cloud Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex

    2015-10-26

    Emergent constraints are physically explainable empirical relationships between characteristics of the current climate and long-term climate prediction that emerge in collections of climate model simulations. With the prospect of constraining long-term climate prediction, scientists have recently uncovered several emergent constraints related to long-term cloud feedbacks. We review these proposed emergent constraints, many of which involve the behavior of low-level clouds, and discuss criteria to assess their credibility. With further research, some of the cases we review may eventually become confirmed emergent constraints, provided they are accompanied by credible physical explanations. Because confirmed emergent constraints identify a source of model errormore » that projects onto climate predictions, they deserve extra attention from those developing climate models and climate observations. While a systematic bias cannot be ruled out, it is noteworthy that the promising emergent constraints suggest larger cloud feedback and hence climate sensitivity.« less

  15. Emergent Constraints for Cloud Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex

    2015-10-26

    Emergent constraints are physically explainable empirical relationships between characteristics of the current climate and long-term climate prediction that emerge in collections of climate model simulations. With the prospect of constraining long-term climate prediction, scientists have recently uncovered several emergent constraints related to long-term cloud feedbacks. We review these proposed emergent constraints, many of which involve the behavior of low-level clouds, and discuss criteria to assess their credibility. With further research, some of the cases we review may eventually become confirmed emergent constraints, provided they are accompanied by credible physical explanations. Because confirmed emergent constraints identify a source of model error that projects onto climate predictions, they deserve extra attention from those developing climate models and climate observations. While a systematic bias cannot be ruled out, it is noteworthy that the promising emergent constraints suggest larger cloud feedback and hence climate sensitivity.

  16. Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) Report RF 10-13: Application of Los Alamos National...

  17. Mass Transfer Constraints On The Chemical Evolution Of An Active...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    component required to maintain observed calcite saturation and high Pco2 pressures was carbon presumably derived from underlying Paleozoic limestones. Phase rule constraints...

  18. Observational Constraints on the Nature of the Dark Energy: First...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observational Constraints on the Nature of the Dark Energy: First Cosmological Results From the ESSENCE Supernova Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observational...

  19. Frequency domain quantum optimal control under multiple constraints...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Frequency domain quantum optimal control under multiple constraints Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  20. Physics-Based Constraints in the Forward Modeling Analysis of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Image Data, (Long Version) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physics-Based Constraints in the Forward Modeling Analysis of Time-Correlated Image Data, (Long Version) ...

  1. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  2. OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, which is now available for downloading, is a compilation of...

  3. Limited Test Ban Treaty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Detection System (USNDS), which monitors compliance with the international Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). The LTBT, signed by 108 countries, prohibits nuclear testing in the...

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is

  5. Dark Matter Constraints from a Cosmic Index of Refraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2009-04-01

    The dark-matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects: the real part yields dispersive effects in propagation, and the imaginary part yields such in attenuation. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts to limit the charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter to |{var_epsilon}|/M < 1.8 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup -1} at 95% CL.

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A. E-mail: sjzhu@umd.edu; and others

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ?70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ?71 ks (?20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  7. New constraints on cosmic polarization rotation from B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping E-mail: weitou@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations (??{sup 2}), since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint (??{sup 2}){sup 1/2} < 27.3 mrad (1.56), with r = 0.194 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.

  8. Curvature constraints from the causal entropic principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozek, Brandon; Albrecht, Andreas; Phillips, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Current cosmological observations indicate a preference for a cosmological constant that is drastically smaller than what can be explained by conventional particle physics. The causal entropic principle (Bousso et al.) provides an alternative approach to anthropic attempts to predict our observed value of the cosmological constant by calculating the entropy created within a causal diamond. We have extended this work to use the causal entropic principle to predict the preferred curvature within the 'multiverse'. We have found that values larger than {rho}{sub k}=40{rho}{sub m} are disfavored by more than 99.99% peak value at {rho}{sub {lambda}}=7.9x10{sup -123} and {rho}{sub k}=4.3{rho}{sub m} for open universes. For universes that allow only positive curvature or both positive and negative curvature, we find a correlation between curvature and dark energy that leads to an extended region of preferred values. Our universe is found to be disfavored to an extent depending on the priors on curvature. We also provide a comparison to previous anthropic constraints on open universes and discuss future directions for this work.

  9. Cosmological constraints on extended Galileon models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, Antonio De; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2012-03-01

    The extended Galileon models possess tracker solutions with de Sitter attractors along which the dark energy equation of state is constant during the matter-dominated epoch, i.e. w{sub DE} = ?1?s, where s is a positive constant. Even with this phantom equation of state there are viable parameter spaces in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent. Using the observational data of the supernovae type Ia, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and baryon acoustic oscillations, we place constraints on the tracker solutions at the background level and find that the parameter s is constrained to be s = 0.034{sub ?0.034}{sup +0.327} (95 % CL) in the flat Universe. In order to break the degeneracy between the models we also study the evolution of cosmological density perturbations relevant to the large-scale structure (LSS) and the Integrated-Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect in CMB. We show that, depending on the model parameters, the LSS and the ISW effect is either positively or negatively correlated. It is then possible to constrain viable parameter spaces further from the observational data of the ISW-LSS cross-correlation as well as from the matter power spectrum.

  10. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T.J.; Bruel, P. E-mail: profumo@scipp.ucsc.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS and others

    2010-05-01

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than ∼ 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of ∼ 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming.

  11. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  12. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  13. Constraint effects observed in crack initiation stretch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.M.; Ernst, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    The current paper characterizes constraint in fracture: J-modified resistance (Jr) curves were developed for two tough structural materials, 6061-T651 (aluminum) and IN718-STA1 (nickel-base superalloy). A wide variety of configurations was tested to consider load configurations from bending to tension including three specimen types (compact tension, center-crack tension, and single-edge notched tension), and a range of ligament lengths and thicknesses, as well as side-grooved and smooth-sided ligaments. The Jr curves exhibited an inflection point after some crack extension, and the data were excluded beyond the inflection. Qualified Jr curves for the two materials showed similar behavior, but R-curves were identical for equal ligament length-to-thickness ratio (RL), for the aluminum alloy, with increasing slope for increasing RL, while for the nickel, the resistance curves aligned for equal ligament thickness, B, and the slope increased for decreasing B. Displacements at the original crack tip (CToD) were recorded throughout the test for several specimens. CToD-versus-crack extension curves were developed, and data were excluded beyond the inflection point (as with the Jr curves). The data collapsed into two distinct curves, thought to represent the surface, plane stress effect and the central, plane strain effect. This was observed for both materials. A technique called profiling is presented for the aluminum alloy only, where the crack face displacements are recorded at the final point of the test as a function of the position throughout the crack cavity, along with an effort to extract the observations in a usable form. Displacements were consistent throughout the cross-section at and behind the original crack tip. In the region where the crack grew, this displacement was developed by a combination of stretch and crack growth. The stretch required to initiate crack extension was a function of the depth beneath the surface into the cross-section.

  14. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  15. Nuclear Fuels: Promise and Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold F. McFarlane

    2012-03-01

    From 1950 through 1980, scientists, engineers and national leaders confidently predicted an early twenty-first century where fast breeder reactors and commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing were commonplace. Such a scenario seemed necessary for a world with the more than 1000 GWe of nuclear energy needed to meet such an ever-increasing thirst for energy. Thirty years later uranium reserves are increasing on pace with consumption, the growth of nuclear power has been slowed, commercial breeder reactors have yet to enter the marketplace, and less than a handful of commercial reprocessing plants operate. As Nobel Laureate Niels Bohr famously said, Prediction is very difficult, especially if its about the future. The programme for IChemEs 2012 conference on the nuclear fuel cycle features a graphic of an idealized nuclear fuel cycle that symbolizes the quest for a closed nuclear fuel cycle featuring careful husbanding of precious resources while minimizing the waste footprint. Progress toward achieving this ideal has been disrupted by technology innovations in the mining and petrochemical industries, as well as within the nuclear industry.

  16. Glass Composition Constraint Recommendations for Use in Life-Cycle Mission Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-05-03

    The component concentration limits that most influence the predicted Hanford life-cycle HLW glass volume by HTWOS were re-evaluated. It was assumed that additional research and development work in glass formulation and melter testing would be performed to improve the understanding of component effects on the processability and product quality of these HLW glasses. Recommendations were made to better estimate the potential component concentration limits that could be applied today while technology development is underway to best estimate the volume of HLW glass that will eventually be produced at Hanford. The limits for concentrations of P2O5, Bi2O3, and SO3 were evaluated along with the constraint used to avoid nepheline formation in glass. Recommended concentration limits were made based on the current HLW glass property models being used by HTWOS (Vienna et al. 2009). These revised limits are: 1) The current ND should be augmented by the OB limit of OB ≤ 0.575 so that either the normalized silica (NSi) is less that the 62% limit or the OB is below the 0.575 limit. 2) The mass fraction of P2O5 limit should be revised to allow for up to 4.5 wt%, depending on CaO concentrations. 3) A Bi2O3 concentration limit of 7 wt% should be used. 4) The salt accumulation limit of 0.5 wt% SO3 may be increased to 0.6 wt%. Again, these revised limits do not obviate the need for further testing, but make it possible to more accurately predict the impact of that testing on ultimate HLW glass volumes.

  17. Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-01-30

    Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.

  18. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  19. Dynamically limiting energy consumed by cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-05-26

    Cooling apparatuses and methods are provided which include one or more coolant-cooled structures associated with an electronics rack, a coolant loop coupled in fluid communication with one or more passages of the coolant-cooled structure(s), one or more heat exchange units coupled to facilitate heat transfer from coolant within the coolant loop, and N controllable components associated with the coolant loop or the heat exchange unit(s), wherein N.gtoreq.1. The N controllable components facilitate circulation of coolant through the coolant loop or transfer of heat from the coolant via the heat exchange unit(s). A controller is coupled to the N controllable components, and dynamically adjusts operation of the N controllable components, based on Z input parameters and one or more specified constraints, to provide a specified cooling to the coolant-cooled structure(s), while limiting energy consumed by the N controllable components, wherein Z.gtoreq.1.

  20. Dynamically limiting energy consumed by cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-06-09

    Cooling methods are provided which include providing: one or more coolant-cooled structures associated with an electronics rack, a coolant loop coupled in fluid communication with one or more passages of the coolant-cooled structure(s), one or more heat exchange units coupled to facilitate heat transfer from coolant within the coolant loop, and N controllable components associated with the coolant loop or the heat exchange unit(s), wherein N.gtoreq.1. The N controllable components facilitate circulation of coolant through the coolant loop or transfer of heat from the coolant via the heat exchange unit(s). A controller is also provided to dynamically adjust operation of the N controllable components, based on Z input parameters and one or more specified constraints, and provide a specified cooling to the coolant-cooled structure(s), while limiting energy consumed by the N controllable components, wherein Z.gtoreq.1.

  1. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  2. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic...

  3. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of ...

  4. Physics-Based Constraints in the Forward Modeling Analysis of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Physics-Based Constraints in the Forward Modeling Analysis of Time-Correlated Image Data, (Long Version) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physics-Based ...

  5. Geologic and thermochronologic constraints on the initial orientation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and thermochronologic constraints on the initial orientation of the Raft River detachment and footwall shear zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  6. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan

  7. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created of a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and

  8. An Asymptotic Study of Discretized Transport Equations in the Fokker-Planck Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pautz, Shawn D.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2002-01-15

    Recent analyses have shown that the Fokker-Planck equation is an asymptotic limit of the transport equation given a forward-peaked scattering kernel satisfying certain constraints. Discretized transport equations in the same limit are studied, both by asymptotic analysis and by numerical testing. It is shown that spatially discretized discrete ordinates transport solutions can be accurate in this limit if and only if the scattering operator is handled in a certain nonstandard way.

  9. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Portmann, Greg; /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-06-18

    } reduction, i.e., small {chi}{sup 2} reduction with large changes of {Delta}K. Under effects of random noise, the fitting solution tends to crawl toward these patterns and ends up with unrealistically large {Delta}K. Such a solution is not very useful in optics correction because after the solution is dialed in, the quadrupoles will not respond as predicted by the lattice model due to magnet hysteresis. We will show that adding constraints to the fitting parameters is an effective way to combat this problem of LOCO. In fact, it improves optics calibration precision even for machines that don't show severe degeneracy behavior. LOCO fitting is essentially to solve a nonlinear least square problem with an iterative approach. The linear least square technique is applied in each iteration to move the solution toward the minimum. This approach is commonly referred to as the Gauss-Newton method. By using singular value decomposition (SVD) to invert the Jacobian matrix, this method has generally been very successful for LOCO. However, this method is based on a linear expansion of the residual vector over the fitting parameters which is valid only when the starting solution is sufficiently close to the real minimum. The fitting algorithm can have difficulties to converge when the initial guess is too far off. For example, it's possible for the {chi}{sup 2} merit function to increase after an iteration instead of decrease. This situation can be improved by using more robust nonlinear least square fitting algorithms, such as the Levenberg-Marquardt method. We will discuss the degeneracy problem in section 2 and then show how the constrained fitting can help in section 3. The application of Levenberg-Marquadt method to LOCO is shown in section 4. A summary is given in section 5.

  10. Searching game trees under memory constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Bagchi, A.

    1996-12-31

    The best-first game-tree search algorithm SSS* has greater pruning power than the depth-first algorithm Alpha-Beta. Yet it is seldom used in practice because it is slow in execution and requires substantial memory. Variants of SSS* have been proposed in recent years that overcome some, but not all, of its limitations. The recursive controlled-memory best-first search scheme MemSSS* described here is a new derivative of SSS* that compares favourably with Alpha-Beta in respect of all three major performance measures, namely, pruning power, running time and memory needs. MemSSS* improves upon an earlier controlled-memory algorithm IterSSS* which has most of the desired properties but is slow in execution.

  11. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  12. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2014-04-20

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10{sup 3} pc cm{sup 3}. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ?5.6 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.

  13. Electric steelmaking: recent trends and future constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides a very brief description of steelmaking, and an overview of comparative data, primarily related to the use of energy and materials for each of the major steelmaking processes. This is followed by a discussion of possible limitations on the use of scrap - the current raw material for electric steel - and possible technological routes for overcoming them. The economics of electric-steel production in general, and of electric minimills in particular, seem clearly established. Electric steel-making is viable in its own right. The trend toward electric steelmaking provides significant economic and competitive advantages for producers and important overall economic, environmental and energy advantages for the US at large. Conversion to electric steelmaking offers a 4 to 1 advantage in terms of the overall energy used to produce a ton of steel, and a 2 to 1 savings in energy cost for the producer. The amount of energy saved, to produce the same amount of steel in 1967 and 1980, was equivalent to 25 million tons of coal. Furthermore, the amount of old scrap used to produce a ton of steel has doubled since 1967 because of the use of electric furnaces. Using the existing scrap to produce steel would save the energy equivalent of two billion barrels of oil. 44 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart; Newmark, Robin; Martinez, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick; Tidwell, Vince

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  15. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  16. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  17. Cosmological and astrophysical constraints on superconducting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on superconducting cosmic strings (SCSs). SCS loops emit strong bursts of electromagnetic waves, which might affect various cosmological and astrophysical observations. We take into account the effect on the CMB anisotropy, CMB blackbody spectrum, BBN, observational implications on radio wave burst and X-ray or ?-ray events, and stochastic gravitational wave background measured by pulsar timing experiments. We then derive constraints on the parameters of SCS from current observations and estimate prospects for detecting SCS signatures in on-going observations. As a result, we find that these constraints exclude broad parameter regions, and also that on-going radio wave observations can probe large parameter space.

  18. Density functional with full exact exchange, balanced nonlocality of correlations, and constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P; Staroverov, Viktor N; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2008-01-01

    We construct a nonlocal density functional approximation with full exact exchange, while preserving the constraint-satisfaction approach and justified error cancellations of simpler semilocal functionals. This is achieved by interpolating between different approximations suitable for two extreme regions of the electron density. In a 'normal' region, the exact exchange-correlation hole density around an electron is semilocal because its spatial range is reduced by correlation and because it integrates over a narrow range to -1. These regions are well described by popular semilocal approximations (many of which have been constructed nonempirically), because of proper accuracy for a slowly-varying density or because of error cancellation between exchange and correlation. 'Abnormal' regions, where non locality is unveiled, include those in which exchange can dominate correlation (one-electron, nonuniform high-density, and rapidly-varying limits), and those open subsystems of fluctuating electron number over which the exact exchange-correlation hole integrates to a value greater than -1. Regions between these extremes are described by a hybrid functional mixing exact and semi local exchange energy densities locally (i.e., with a mixing fraction that is a function of position r and a functional of the density). Because our mixing fraction tends to 1 in the high-density limit, we employ full exact exchange according to the rigorous definition of the exchange component of any exchange-correlation energy functional. Use of full exact exchange permits the satisfaction of many exact constraints, but the nonlocality of exchange also requires balanced nonlocality of correlation. We find that this nonlocality can demand at least five empirical parameters (corresponding roughly to the four kinds of abnormal regions). Our local hybrid functional is perhaps the first accurate size-consistent density functional with full exact exchange. It satisfies other known exact constraints

  19. Timminco Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Timminco Limited Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada Zip: M5H 1J9 Product: Canadian manufacturer of magnesium and silicon; operates its...

  20. Constraints on the progenitor system of the type Ia supernova 2014J from pre-explosion Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Shen, Ken J.; Zheng, WeiKang; Graham, Melissa L.; Tucker, Brad E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Schaefer, Gail

    2014-07-20

    We constrain the properties of the progenitor system of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2014J in Messier 82 (M82; d ? 3.5 Mpc). We determine the supernova (SN) location using Keck-II K-band adaptive optics images, and we find no evidence for flux from a progenitor system in pre-explosion near-ultraviolet through near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Our upper limits exclude systems having a bright red giant companion, including symbiotic novae with luminosities comparable to that of RS Ophiuchi. While the flux constraints are also inconsistent with predictions for comparatively cool He-donor systems (T ? 35,000 K), we cannot preclude a system similar to V445 Puppis. The progenitor constraints are robust across a wide range of R{sub V} and A{sub V} values, but significantly greater values than those inferred from the SN light curve and spectrum would yield proportionally brighter luminosity limits. The comparatively faint flux expected from a binary progenitor system consisting of white dwarf stars would not have been detected in the pre-explosion HST imaging. Infrared HST exposures yield more stringent constraints on the luminosities of very cool (T < 3000 K) companion stars than was possible in the case of SN Ia 2011fe.

  1. Carbon constraint conference: dealing with the climate change conundrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville, A.

    2008-07-15

    A report on the carbon constraint conference is given. Papers discussed the US national cap-and-trade program that is on the horizon, managing greenhouse gases, the value of corporate sustainability reporting, balancing the generation portfolio and the use of offsets. 1 fig.

  2. QER Public Meeting: New England Regional Infrastructure Constraints Part II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy will convene a public meeting to discuss and receive comments on issues related to the Quadrennial Energy Review. The purpose of the meeting is to examine energy infrastructure constraints in New England and regional approaches to addressing them

  3. QER Public Meeting: New England Regional Infrastructure Constraints Part I

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy will convene a public meeting to discuss and receive comments on issues related to the Quadrennial Energy Review. The purpose of the meeting is to examine energy infrastructure constraints in New England and regional approaches to addressing them

  4. Hierarchical clustering using correlation metric and spatial continuity constraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stork, Christopher L.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2012-10-02

    Large data sets are analyzed by hierarchical clustering using correlation as a similarity measure. This provides results that are superior to those obtained using a Euclidean distance similarity measure. A spatial continuity constraint may be applied in hierarchical clustering analysis of images.

  5. Confidence limits and their errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendran Raja

    2002-03-22

    Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.

  6. URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

    2006-04-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

  7. Deep thermal infrared imaging of HR 8799 bcde: new atmospheric constraints and limits on a fifth planet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Burrows, Adam; Girard, Julien H.; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc; Kenyon, Scott J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-11-10

    We present new L' (3.8 ?m) and Br? (4.05 ?m) data and reprocessed archival L' data for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo, and Subaru/IRCS. We detect all four HR 8799 planets in each data set at a moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ? 6-15). We fail to identify a fifth planet, 'HR 8799 f', at r < 15 AU at a 5? confidence level: one suggestive, marginally significant residual at 0.''2 is most likely a point-spread function artifact. Assuming companion ages of 30 Myr and the Baraffe planet cooling models, we rule out an HR 8799 f with a mass of 5 M{sub J} (7 M{sub J} ), 7 M{sub J} (10 M{sub J} ), or 12 M{sub J} (13 M{sub J} ) at r {sub proj} ? 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L' [4.05] colors, suggesting that their spectral energy distributions peak in between the L' and M' broadband filters. We find no statistically significant difference in HR 8799 cde's color. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 b and c's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 d and e's photometry is weaker. Future, deep-IR spectroscopy/spectrophotometry with the Gemini Planet Imager, SCExAO/CHARIS, and other facilities may clarify whether the planets are chemically similar or heterogeneous.

  8. NCAI Mid-Year Conference and Marketplace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is hosting its mid-year conference in late June. The conference will feature breakout sessions and committee meetings.

  9. GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing | GE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing Commons" - a global ecosystem for manufacturing businesses The Commons ... The project aims to build an expansive manufacturing ecosystem, with the goal of having ...

  10. 2015 Energy, Technology & Education Festival Innovation Marketplace...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9:00AM to 6:00PM EDT Washington Convention Center, 801 Mount Vernon Place Northwest, Washington, DC 20001 Find out more here: Contact Kimberly Chappell: Kimberly.Chappell@Hq.Doe.Go...

  11. National policy in a deregulated marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It briefly discusses government policy issues regarding electric utility deregulation. Three major questions are examined: (1) policies and institutions required to ensure a free market, (2) allocation of stranded assets and ensuring that consumers benefit from restructuring, and (3) continuation of collateral utility activities such as low income program investments, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. Types of policy options under consideration are reviewed, and potential state and federal roles are described.

  12. Green academy helps researchers enter the marketplace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Before wading into the green energy sector, there are crucial things every budding entrepreneur should know:  think like an investor, know your customer, and prove your research is going to solve a problem.   To the business-savvy this advice may seem obvious, but for the academic-minded attending the Green Technology Entrepreneurship Academy, these nuggets are priceless. “We give scientists the language of commercialization,” says Andrew Hargadon, a founder of the academy and faculty director at the Center for Entrepreneurship at the University of California, Davis. “We help them translate their own research into commercial terms, and - at the same time - give them a network of investors, entrepreneurs, utilities, and other major companies to work with.”

  13. Geothermal Direct Use Technology & Marketplace Workshop Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... has the potential for reducing our dependence on the ... fuel sources applied to CO2 factors August 17, 2015 ... Reduction Rules for Coal-Fired Power Plants Thermal (GHP) ...

  14. Geothermal Direct Use Technology and Marketplace Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Geothermal energy applications are emerging across a much wider spectrum of cascaded uses, from lower temperature geothermal energy production to direct heating and cooling, to agricultural uses. The Energy Department is at the forefront of this discussion, the workshop report addresses applications for the Eastern United States.

  15. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NEUTRON STAR-BLACK HOLE MERGER RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauswein, A. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ardevol Pulpillo, R.; Janka, H.-T. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Goriely, S., E-mail: bauswein@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-01

    We derive constraints on the time-averaged event rate of neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers by using estimates of the population-integrated production of heavy rapid neutron-capture (r-process) elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140 by such events in comparison to the Galactic repository of these chemical species. Our estimates are based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations convolved with theoretical predictions of the binary population. This allows us to determine a strict upper limit of the average NS-BH merger rate of ?6 10{sup 5} per year. We quantify the uncertainties of this estimate to be within factors of a few mostly because of the unknown BH spin distribution of such systems, the uncertain equation of state of NS matter, and possible errors in the Galactic content of r-process material. Our approach implies a correlation between the merger rates of NS-BH binaries and of double NS systems. Predictions of the detection rate of gravitational-wave signals from such compact object binaries by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo on the optimistic side are incompatible with the constraints set by our analysis.

  16. Constraints on Extragalactic Background Light from Cherenkov telescopes: status and perspectives for the next 5 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazin, Daniel

    2009-04-08

    Very high energy (VHE, E>30 GeV){gamma}-rays are absorbed via interaction with low-energy photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL) if the involved photon energies are above the threshold for electron-positron pair creation. The VHE {gamma}-ray absorption, which is energy dependent and increases strongly with redshift, distorts the VHE energy spectra observed from distant objects. The observed energy spectra of the AGNs carry therefore an imprint of the EBL. Recent detections of hard spectra of distant blazars (z = 0.11-0.54) by H.E.S.S. and MAGIC put strong constraints on the EBL density in the optical to near infrared waveband. It is, however, not yet possible to distinguish between an intrinsic softening of blazar spectra and a softening caused by the interaction with low energy EBL photons. In this paper, we give an overview of the EBL constraints, their limitations and perspectives for the joint efforts of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space telescope and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  17. Limitations of the planning organ at risk volume (PRV) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroom, Joep C. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.stroom@nki.nl; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Previously, we determined a planning target volume (PTV) margin recipe for geometrical errors in radiotherapy equal to M{sub T} = 2{sigma} + 0.7{sigma}, with {sigma} and {sigma} standard deviations describing systematic and random errors, respectively. In this paper, we investigated margins for organs at risk (OAR), yielding the so-called planning organ at risk volume (PRV). Methods and Materials: For critical organs with a maximum dose (D{sub max}) constraint, we calculated margins such that D{sub max} in the PRV is equal to the motion averaged D{sub max} in the (moving) clinical target volume (CTV). We studied margins for the spinal cord in 10 head-and-neck cases and 10 lung cases, each with two different clinical plans. For critical organs with a dose-volume constraint, we also investigated whether a margin recipe was feasible. Results: For the 20 spinal cords considered, the average margin recipe found was: M{sub R} = 1.6{sigma} + 0.2{sigma} with variations for systematic and random errors of 1.2{sigma} to 1.8{sigma} and -0.2{sigma} to 0.6{sigma}, respectively. The variations were due to differences in shape and position of the dose distributions with respect to the cords. The recipe also depended significantly on the volume definition of D{sub max}. For critical organs with a dose-volume constraint, the PRV concept appears even less useful because a margin around, e.g., the rectum changes the volume in such a manner that dose-volume constraints stop making sense. Conclusion: The concept of PRV for planning of radiotherapy is of limited use. Therefore, alternative ways should be developed to include geometric uncertainties of OARs in radiotherapy planning.

  18. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  19. Constraints on the inner edge of neutron star crusts from relativistic nuclear energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2010-06-15

    The transition density n{sub t} and pressure P{sub t} at the inner edge between the liquid core and the solid crust of a neutron star are analyzed using the thermodynamical method and the framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals. Starting from a functional that has been carefully adjusted to experimental binding energies of finite nuclei, and varying the density dependence of the corresponding symmetry energy within the limits determined by isovector properties of finite nuclei, we estimate the constraints on the core-crust transition density and pressure of neutron stars: 0.086 fm{sup -3}<=n{sub t}<0.090 fm{sup -3} and 0.3 MeV fm{sup -3}

  20. GPS measurements of regional deformation in southern California - Some constraints on performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, T.; Blewitt, G.; Larson, K.; Agnew, D.; Hager, B.; Kroger, P.; Krumega, L.; Strange, W. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA MIT, Cambridge, MA National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, MD )

    1990-08-01

    Results from the first major survey of southern California with GPS equipment are presented along with some limited results from late experiments assessing GPS performance by analysis of day-to-day and longer-term repeatability, as well as comparisons with VLBI. GPS performance on longer (50-500 km or longer) baselines, a length range useful for measurement of regional deformation and fault block velocities, is emphasized. The implications of this level of performance for meeting longer-term scientific objectives is addressed. It is concluded that GPS techniques and yield results comparable to those achieved with mobile VLBI techniques in California, assuming that appropriate network design and analysis techniques are used. GPS can thus provide important constraints on regional deformation in California with five yrs or less of measurements. 30 refs.

  1. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-11

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2007 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and width and the mass of the top quark.

  2. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration, ALEPH; Collaboration, CDF; Collaboration, D0; Collaboration, DELPHI; Collaboration, L3; Collaboration, OPAL; Collaboration, SLD; Group, LEP Electroweak Working; Group, Tevatron Electroweak Working; groups, SLD electroweak heavy flavour

    2009-11-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2008 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and the mass of the top quark.

  3. Russian Doll Search for solving Constraint Optimization problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verfaillie, G.; Lemaitre, M.

    1996-12-31

    If the Constraint Satisfaction framework has been extended to deal with Constraint Optimization problems, it appears that optimization is far more complex than satisfaction. One of the causes of the inefficiency of complete tree search methods, like Depth First Branch and Bound, lies in the poor quality of the lower bound on the global valuation of a partial assignment, even when using Forward Checking techniques. In this paper, we introduce the Russian Doll Search algorithm which replaces one search by n successive searches on nested subproblems (n being the number of problem variables), records the results of each search and uses them later, when solving larger subproblems, in order to improve the lower bound on the global valuation of any partial assignment. On small random problems and on large real scheduling problems, this algorithm yields surprisingly good results, which greatly improve as the problems get more constrained and the bandwidth of the used variable ordering diminishes.

  4. Planning for environmental constraints on the PJM system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-15

    This chapter provides a snapshot of the existing PJM system and identifies the environmental constraints that form the parameters for the regional approaches analyzed in this study. The chapter begins with a description of the PJM system and the costs and emissions levels of the pollutants under study associated with the reference case (the PJM system configured to meet only Clean Air Act Amendment Phase I SO{sub 2} requirements and the March 1994 NO{sub x} requirements affecting Phase I units){sup 3}. Next, the pollution-reduction scenario assumed for the purpose of the study, which covers the period 1995--2010, is described. Finally, the impacts of this pollution reduction scenario -- emissions that would need to be avoided on the reference case PJM system -- are identified. Modeling methods are described alongside the study`s results. Other chapters discuss: environmental constraints, alternate plans to achieve environmental goals, and comparison of alternate plans.

  5. Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudelius, Tom

    2015-09-08

    We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and ‘anti-alignment’ of C{sub 4} axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the ‘generalized’ weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C{sub 4} axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.

  6. Global constraints on vector-like WIMP effective interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blennow, Mattias; Coloma, Pilar; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Zaldivar, Bryan

    2016-04-07

    In this work we combine information from relic abundance, direct detection, cosmic microwave background, positron fraction, gamma rays, and colliders to explore the existing constraints on couplings between Dark Matter and Standard Model constituents when no underlying model or correlation is assumed. For definiteness, we include independent vector-like effective interactions for each Standard Model fermion. Our results show that low Dark Matter masses below 20 GeV are disfavoured at the 3 σ  level with respect to higher masses, due to the tension between the relic abundance requirement and upper constraints on the Dark Matter couplings. Lastly, large couplings are typically onlymore » allowed in combinations which avoid effective couplings to the nuclei used in direct detection experiments.« less

  7. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  8. Observational constraints on gauge field production in axion inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meerburg, P.D.; Pajer, E. E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2013-02-01

    Models of axion inflation are particularly interesting since they provide a natural justification for the flatness of the potential over a super-Planckian distance, namely the approximate shift-symmetry of the inflaton. In addition, most of the observational consequences are directly related to this symmetry and hence are correlated. Large tensor modes can be accompanied by the observable effects of a the shift-symmetric coupling φF F-tilde to a gauge field. During inflation this coupling leads to a copious production of gauge quanta and consequently a very distinct modification of the primordial curvature perturbations. In this work we compare these predictions with observations. We find that the leading constraint on the model comes from the CMB power spectrum when considering both WMAP 7-year and ACT data. The bispectrum generated by the non-Gaussian inverse-decay of the gauge field leads to a comparable but slightly weaker constraint. There is also a constraint from μ-distortion using TRIS plus COBE/FIRAS data, but it is much weaker. Finally we comment on a generalization of the model to massive gauge fields. When the mass is generated by some light Higgs field, observably large local non-Gaussianity can be produced.

  9. Effects of constraint on upper shelf fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, J.A.; Link, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The upper shelf fracture toughness and tearing resistance of two structural steels, HY-100 and ASTM A533, Gr. B, were determined over a wide range of applied constraint. The constraint conditions were varied by changes in specimen geometry and loading mode. Bend specimens with shallow and deep cracks, compact specimens, and single and double edge notched tension specimens were used in this study. A rotation correction was developed for the single edge notch tension specimen which greatly improved the behavior of the J-R curves determined using this specimen. The experimental results were used to investigate the applicability of the Q and T stress parameters to the correlation of upper shelf initiation toughness, J{sub Ic}, and tearing resistance, T{sub mat}. The J-Q and J-T stress loci, and corresponding plots of material tearing resistance plotted against Q and T, were developed and compared with the expectations of the O`Dowd and Shih and the Betegon and Hancock analyses. The principle conclusions of this work are that J{sub Ic} does not appear to be dependent on T stress or Q while the material tearing resistance, T{sub mat}, is dependent on T stress and Q, with the tearing modulus increasing as constraint decreases.

  10. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012 (January 2014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document is a compilation of publicly-available data on transmission constraints and congestion for the period 2009 through 2012.

  11. Constraints on rhobar, etabar from B to K*pi (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Constraints on rhobar, etabar from B to K*pi Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on rhobar, etabar from B to K*pi You are accessing a document from the ...

  12. Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Improved Dark Energy Constraints From 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ...

  13. Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha In charmless ...

  14. Constraints on rhobar, etabar from B to K*pi (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Constraints on rhobar, etabar from B to K*pi Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on rhobar, etabar from B to K*pi A linear CKM relation, bar ...

  15. Global limits and interference patterns in dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo; Gondolo, Paolo

    2015-08-13

    We compare the general effective theory of one-body dark matter nucleon interactions to current direct detection experiments in a global multidimensional statistical analysis. We derive exclusion limits on the 28 isoscalar and isovector coupling constants of the theory, and show that current data place interesting constraints on dark matter-nucleon interaction operators usually neglected in this context. We characterize the interference patterns that can arise in dark matter direct detection from pairs of dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, or from isoscalar and isovector components of the same operator. We find that commonly neglected destructive interference effects weaken standard direct detection exclusion limits by up to one order of magnitude in the coupling constants.

  16. PURAC Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technology and project management company in the environment sector and specialising in water, wastewater and municpal waste treatment. References: PURAC Limited1 This article...

  17. Lysanda Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CM8 3GA Product: US-based vehicle engineering consultancy with a technology capable of playing a role in vehicle emissions management. References: Lysanda Limited1 This...

  18. Solfex Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solfex Limited Address: Energy Arena Bannister Hall Works Off Shop Lane, Higher Walton Preston, Lancashire PR5 4DZ Place: Preston, United...

  19. Constraints on particle dark matter from cosmic-ray antiprotons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Maccione, L. E-mail: luca.maccione@lmu.de

    2014-04-01

    Cosmic-ray antiprotons represent an important channel for dark matter indirect-detection studies. Current measurements of the antiproton flux at the top of the atmosphere and theoretical determinations of the secondary antiproton production in the Galaxy are in good agreement, with no manifest deviation which could point to an exotic contribution in this channel. Therefore, antiprotons can be used as a powerful tool for constraining particle dark matter properties. By using the spectrum of PAMELA data from 50 MV to 180 GV in rigidity, we derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section (or decay rate, for decaying dark matter) for the whole spectrum of dark matter annihilation (decay) channels and under different hypotheses of cosmic-rays transport in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. For typical models of galactic propagation, the constraints are strong, setting a lower bound on the dark matter mass of a ''thermal'' relic at about 40–80 GeV for hadronic annihilation channels. These bounds are enhanced to about 150 GeV on the dark matter mass, when large cosmic-rays confinement volumes in the Galaxy are considered, and are reduced to 3–4 GeV for annihilation to light quarks (no bound for heavy-quark production) when the confinement volume is small. Bounds for dark matter lighter than few tens of GeV are due to the low energy part of the PAMELA spectrum, an energy region where solar modulation is relevant: to this aim, we have implemented a detailed solution of the transport equation in the heliosphere, which allowed us not only to extend bounds to light dark matter, but also to determine the uncertainty on the constraints arising from solar modulation modelling. Finally, we estimate the impact of soon-to-come AMS-02 data on the antiproton constraints.

  20. Physics constraints on double-pulse LIA engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.

    2015-05-20

    The options for advanced-radiography double-pulse linear induction accelerators (LIA) under consideration naturally fall into three categories that differ by the number of cells required. Since the two major physics issues, beam breakup (BBU) and corkscrew, are also dependent on the number of cells, it may be useful for the decision process to review the engineering consequences of beam physics constraints for each class. The LIAs can be categorized three different ways, and this report compares the different categories based upon the physics of their beams.

  1. Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A. E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com

    2014-05-01

    We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant ?R{sup 2}+?R{sub ??}R{sup ??} can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.

  2. Specifying structural constraints of architectural patterns in the ARCHERY language

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Barbosa, Luis S.; Riesco, Daniel

    2015-03-10

    ARCHERY is an architectural description language for modelling and reasoning about distributed, heterogeneous and dynamically reconfigurable systems in terms of architectural patterns. The language supports the specification of architectures and their reconfiguration. This paper introduces a language extension for precisely describing the structural design decisions that pattern instances must respect in their (re)configurations. The extension is a propositional modal logic with recursion and nominals referencing components, i.e., a hybrid µ-calculus. Its expressiveness allows specifying safety and liveness constraints, as well as paths and cycles over structures. Refinements of classic architectural patterns are specified.

  3. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  4. Fermi-LAT constraints on dark matter annihilation cross section from observations of the Fornax cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Nagai, Daisuke E-mail: daisuke.nagai@yale.edu

    2012-07-01

    We analyze 2.8-yr data of 1–100 GeV photons for clusters of galaxies, collected with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite. By analyzing 49 nearby massive clusters located at high Galactic latitudes, we find no excess gamma-ray emission towards directions of the galaxy clusters. Using flux upper limits, we show that the Fornax cluster provides the most stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. Stacking a large sample of nearby clusters does not help improve the limit for most dark matter models. This suggests that a detailed modeling of the Fornax cluster is important for setting robust limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section based on clusters. We therefore perform the detailed mass modeling and predict the expected dark matter annihilation signals from the Fornax cluster, by taking into account effects of dark matter contraction and substructures. By modeling the mass distribution of baryons (stars and gas) around a central bright elliptical galaxy, NGC 1399, and using a modified contraction model motivated by numerical simulations, we show that the dark matter contraction boosts the annihilation signatures by a factor of 4. For dark matter masses around 10 GeV, the upper limit obtained on the annihilation cross section times relative velocity is (σν)∼<(2–3) × 10{sup −25} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which is within a factor of 10 from the value required to explain the dark matter relic density. This effect is more robust than the annihilation boost due to substructure, and it is more important unless the mass of the smallest subhalos is much smaller than that of the Sun.

  5. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.

  6. Impact Limiter Tests of Four Commonly Used Materials And Limiter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of four impact limiter materials was tested at four different load rates, quasi-statically, 44 feet per second (ftjs), (a 9 meter drop test per lOCF71), 33 fts and 22 fts. ...

  7. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaksa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at LHD. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide pro#12;file measurements of the local emissivity, temperature and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modifi#12;ed Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  8. Constraints on dark matter annihilations from diffuse gamma-ray emission in the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavakoli, Maryam; Evoli, Carmelo; Cholis, Ilias; Ullio, Piero E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov E-mail: ullio@sissa.it

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in γ-ray cosmic ray, infrared and radio astronomy have allowed us to develop a significantly better understanding of the galactic medium properties in the last few years. In this work using the DRAGON code, that numerically solves the CR propagation equation and calculating γ-ray emissivities in a 2-dimensional grid enclosing the Galaxy, we study in a self consistent manner models for the galactic diffuse γ-ray emission. Our models are cross-checked to both the available CR and γ-ray data. We address the extend to which dark matter annihilations in the Galaxy can contribute to the diffuse γ-ray flux towards different directions on the sky. Moreover we discuss the impact that astrophysical uncertainties of non DM nature, have on the derived γ-ray limits. Such uncertainties are related to the diffusion properties on the Galaxy, the interstellar gas and the interstellar radiation field energy densities. Light ∼ 10 GeV dark matter annihilating dominantly to hadrons is more strongly constrained by γ-ray observations towards the inner parts of the Galaxy and influenced the most by assumptions of the gas distribution; while TeV scale DM annihilating dominantly to leptons has its tightest constraints from observations towards the galactic center avoiding the galactic disk plane, with the main astrophysical uncertainty being the radiation field energy density. In addition, we present a method of deriving constraints on the dark matter distribution profile from the diffuse γ-ray spectra. These results critically depend on the assumed mass of the dark matter particles and the type of its end annihilation products.

  9. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaksa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-08-08

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at LHD. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICSmore » can provide pro file measurements of the local emissivity, temperature and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modifi ed Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.« less

  10. A taste of dark matter: Flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Kahlhoefer, Felix; McCabe, Christopher; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2015-03-31

    Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordialmore » nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation.« less

  11. A taste of dark matter: Flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Kahlhoefer, Felix; McCabe, Christopher; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2015-03-31

    Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation.

  12. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-12

    One of the frontiers of today?s nuclear science is the ?journey to the limits? of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  13. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  14. Plaxica Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: UK-based technology company developing a new generation of polymers derived from sustainable resources. References: Plaxica Limited1 This article is a...

  15. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  16. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  17. SN1987A Constraints on Large Compact Dimensions (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dimensions of space, which are accessible to gravity but not to Standard Model particles. ... GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTIONS; GRAVITONS; STANDARD MODEL; SUPERNOVAE; LIMITING VALUES Word ...

  18. Health Insurance Marketplace Notice New Health Insurance Marketplace Coverage Options and Your Health Coverage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health Effects Health Effects The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers research programs and monitoring activities, both domestic and international, that support the protection and promotion of the health of DOE workers, their families, and residents of neighboring communities near DOE sites, affected by exposure to hazardous materials from DOE sites or a result of nuclear weapons testing, use or accident. Domestic health activities include studies of historical workplace exposures,

  19. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON COMPANIONS AND DUST WITHIN A FEW AU OF VEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Martin, S. R.; Liewer, K.; Mawet, D.; Hanot, C.

    2011-07-20

    We report on high contrast near-infrared ({approx}2.2 {mu}m) observations of Vega obtained with the Palomar Fiber Nuller, a dual sub-aperture rotating coronagraph installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. The data show consistent astrophysical null depth measurements at the {approx_equal} 10{sup -3} level or below for three different baseline orientations spanning 60 deg in azimuth, with individual 1{sigma} uncertainties {<=}7 x 10{sup -4}. These high cancellation and accuracy levels translate into a dynamic range greater than 1000:1 inside the diffraction limit of the 5 m telescope beam. Such high contrast performance is unprecedented in the near-infrared and provides improved constraints on Vega's immediate ({approx_equal}20 to 250 mas, or {approx_equal}0.15 to 2 AU) environment. In particular, our measurements rule out any potential companion in the [0.25-1 AU] region contributing more than 1% of the overall near-infrared stellar flux, with limits as low as 0.2% near 0.6 AU. These are the best upper limits established so far by direct detection for a companion to Vega in this inner region. We also conclude that any dust population contributing a significant ({>=}1%) near-infrared thermal excess can arise only within 0.2 AU of the star, and that it must consist of much smaller grains than in the solar zodiacal cloud. Dust emission from farther than {approx_equal}2 AU is also not ruled out by our observations, but would have to originate in strong scattering, pointing again to very small grains.

  20. Constraints on the atmospheric circulation and variability of the eccentric hot Jupiter XO-3b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-10-20

    We report secondary eclipse photometry of the hot Jupiter XO-3b in the 4.5 μm band taken with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure individual eclipse depths and center of eclipse times for a total of 12 secondary eclipses. We fit these data simultaneously with two transits observed in the same band in order to obtain a global best-fit secondary eclipse depth of 0.1580% ± 0.0036% and a center of eclipse phase of 0.67004 ± 0.00013. We assess the relative magnitude of variations in the dayside brightness of the planet by measuring the size of the residuals during ingress and egress from fitting the combined eclipse light curve with a uniform disk model and place an upper limit of 0.05%. The new secondary eclipse observations extend the total baseline from one and a half years to nearly three years, allowing us to place an upper limit on the periastron precession rate of 2.9 × 10{sup –3} deg day{sup –1}— the tightest constraint to date on the periastron precession rate of a hot Jupiter. We use the new transit observations to calculate improved estimates for the system properties, including an updated orbital ephemeris. We also use the large number of secondary eclipses to obtain the most stringent limits to date on the orbit-to-orbit variability of an eccentric hot Jupiter and demonstrate the consistency of multiple-epoch Spitzer observations.

  1. Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.

    2015-04-23

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of ourmore » probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.« less

  2. Combining local search and backtracking techniques for constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao

    1996-12-31

    Backtracking techniques are well-known traditional methods for solving many constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) including the satisfiability (SAT) problem in the propositional logic. In recent years, it has been reported that local search techniques are very effective in solving some large-scale instances of the SAT problem. In this research, we combine the backtracking and local search techniques into a single method for solving SAT and CSPs. When setting a parameter of the method to either of its two extreme values, we obtain the ordinary backtracking procedure or the local search procedure. For some problems, if the parameter takes values in the middle of the two extremes, the new method is much more effective than either backtracking or local search. We tested the method with classical problems like the n-Queens and random SAT instances, as well as some difficult problems from finite mathematics. In particular, using the new method, we solved four open problems in design theory.

  3. Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.

    2015-04-23

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.

  4. Constraints on elastic parameters and implications for lithology on VTI media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berge, P.A.

    1995-06-02

    Energy considerations provide constraints on elastic stiffnesses in media exhibiting transverse isotropy with a vertical axis of symmetry. If the anisotropy is due to thin layers, additional constraints hold. The constraints can be used to provide insight into the mechanisms causing the anisotropy, which in turn gives information about the lithology. These ideas are illustrated by some examples of anisotropic sedimentary rocks and sediments from the literature.

  5. OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" | Department of Energy Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" February 4, 2014 - 5:14pm Addthis The "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, which is now available for downloading,

  6. V Fuels Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biodiesel producers. References: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited1...

  7. Belize Electricity Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belize Electricity Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Belize Electricity Limited Name: Belize Electricity Limited Abbreviation: BEL Address: PO Box 327 Place: Belize City,...

  8. NuSTAR Observations of the Bullet Cluster: Constraints on Inverse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Bullet Cluster: Constraints on Inverse Compton Emission Wik, Daniel R.; NASA, Goddard Johns Hopkins U.; Hornstrup, A.; Denmark, Tech. U.; Molendi, S.; IASF,...

  9. Constraints on the Cosmic-Ray Density Gradient Beyond the Solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Constraints on the Cosmic-Ray Density Gradient Beyond the Solar Circle From Fermi Gamma-Ray Observations of the Third Galactic Quadrant Citation Details...

  10. Improved Method for CKM Constraints in Charmless Three-body B...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Method for CKM Constraints in ... This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and ...

  11. Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to the Industrialization of Thermoelectric Devices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Market pricing of thermoelectric raw materials and processing, cost of manufacture of devices and systems constraints on the viability of a mass market thermoelectric product are discussed

  12. NuSTAR Observations of the Bullet Cluster: Constraints on Inverse...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Bullet Cluster: Constraints on Inverse Compton Emission Authors: Wik, Daniel R. ; NASA, Goddard Johns Hopkins U. ; Hornstrup, A. ; Denmark, Tech. U. ; Molendi, S. ; IASF,...

  13. Understanding the Effects of Compression and Constraints on Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Brian L.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION MODEL OF THE 'NAKED-EYE BURST' GRB 080319B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Granot, J.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; and others

    2012-07-10

    On 2008 March 19, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever recorded was detected by several ground- and space-based instruments spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays. With a peak visual magnitude of 5.3, GRB 080319B was dubbed the 'naked-eye' GRB, as an observer under dark skies could have seen the burst without the aid of an instrument. Presented here are results from observations of the prompt phase of GRB 080319B taken with the Milagro TeV observatory. The burst was observed at an elevation angle of 47 Degree-Sign . Analysis of the data is performed using both the standard air shower method and the scaler or single-particle technique, which results in a sensitive energy range that extends from {approx}5 GeV to >20 TeV. These observations provide the only direct constraints on the properties of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080319B at these energies. No evidence for emission is found in the Milagro data, and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux above 10 GeV are derived. The limits on emission between {approx}25 and 200 GeV are incompatible with the synchrotron self-Compton model of gamma-ray production and disfavor a corresponding range (2 eV-16 eV) of assumed synchrotron peak energies. This indicates that the optical photons and soft ({approx}650 keV) gamma rays may not be produced by the same electron population.

  15. Institutional constraints on alternative water for energy: a guidebook for regional assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Basic information is presented about the legal, political, and social constraints faced by energy developers in the acquisition of water from underground, irrigation return flow, municipal waste, and saline sources. It is a guide to those institutional constraints which are general and pronounced enough to be important for regional assessments. First, attention was focused on the acquisition phase of the water use cycle. Second, constraints were analyzed primarily from a regional, rather than state-by-state, perspective. Emphasis was placed generally on the West - particularly the synfuel-rich Rocky Mountain states, the East, and Mid-West, in that order. Alaska and Hawaii were not surveyed. Third, the study focuses on the constraints associated with groundwater, municipal waste, irrigation return flow, and sea water, in that order. The phrase, institutional constraints, as used in the study, means legal, social, economic, and political restrictions, requirements, circumstances, or conditions that must be anticipated or responded to in order to acquire water for energy development. The study focuses primarily on legal constraints and secondarily on political constraints, because they tend to encompass or reflect other forms of institutional constraints.

  16. Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Detection Methods and Limitations Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 2014 Tom Voss, Northern New Mexico DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING FOR TRITIUM FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy, Radiological Control Programs for Special Tritium Compounds, DOE-STD- draft, Washington, D.C.

  17. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  18. Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, S.J.; Abdel-Fattah, A.I.; Murrell, M.T.; Dobson, P.F.; Norman, D.E.; Amato, R.S.; Nunn, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ({approx}10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.005-0.48 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.006-113. {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U mass ratios for the saturated zone are <2 x 10{sup -14}, and Pu mobility in the saturated zone is >1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order {sup 238}U{approx}{sup 226}Ra > {sup 230}Th{approx}{sup 239}Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

  19. Observational constraints on holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M.R. E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn

    2010-03-01

    We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and observational Hubble data (OHD), and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to constrain the cosmological scenario of holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant. We consider both flat and non-flat background geometry, and we present the corresponding constraints and contour-plots of the model parameters. We conclude that the scenario is compatible with observations. In 1? we find ?{sub ?0} = 0.72{sup +0.03}{sub ?0.03}, ?{sub k0} = ?0.0013{sup +0.0130}{sub ?0.0040}, c = 0.80{sup +0.19}{sub ?0.14} and ?{sub G}?G'/G = ?0.0025{sup +0.0080}{sub ?0.0050}, while for the present value of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter we obtain w{sub 0} = ?1.04{sup +0.15}{sub ?0.20}.

  20. Precision tip-tilt-piston actuator that provides exact constraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.

    1999-01-01

    A precision device which can precisely actuate three degrees of freedom of an optic mount, commonly referred to as tip, tilt, and piston. The device consists of three identical flexure mechanisms, an optic mount to be supported and positioned, a structure that supports the flexure mechanisms, and three commercially available linear actuators. The advantages of the precision device is in the arrangement of the constraints offered by the flexure mechanism and not in the particular design of the flexure mechanisms, as other types of mechanisms could be substituted. Each flexure mechanism constrains two degrees of freedom in the plane of the mechanisms and one direction is actuated. All other degrees of freedom are free to move within the range of flexure mechanisms. Typically, three flexure mechanisms are equally spaced in angle about to optic mount and arranged so that each actuated degree of freedom is perpendicular to the plane formed by the optic mount. This arrangement exactly constrains the optic mount and allows arbitrary actuated movement of the plane within the range of the flexure mechanisms. Each flexure mechanism provides a mechanical advantage, typically on the order of 5:1, between the commercially available actuator and the functional point on the optic mount. This improves resolution by the same ratio and stiffness by the square of the ratio.

  1. MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON PULSAR POPULATIONS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, R. S.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Deneva, J. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-07-10

    The detection of radio pulsars within the central few parsecs of the Galaxy would provide a unique probe of the gravitational and magneto-ionic environments in the Galactic center (GC) and, if close enough to Sgr A*, precise tests of general relativity in the strong-field regime. While it is difficult to find pulsars at radio wavelengths because of interstellar scattering, the payoff from detailed timing of pulsars in the GC warrants a concerted effort. To motivate pulsar surveys and help define search parameters for them, we constrain the pulsar number and spatial distribution using a wide range of multiwavelength measurements. These include the five known radio pulsars within 15' of Sgr A*, non-detections in high-frequency pulsar surveys of the central parsec, radio and gamma-ray measurements of diffuse emission, a catalog of radio point sources from an imaging survey, infrared observations of massive star populations in the central few parsecs, candidate pulsar wind nebulae in the inner 20 pc, and estimates of the core-collapse supernova rate based on X-ray measurements. We find that under current observational constraints, the inner parsec of the Galaxy could harbor as many as {approx}10{sup 3} active radio pulsars that are beamed toward Earth. Such a large population would distort the low-frequency measurements of both the intrinsic spectrum of Sgr A* and the free-free absorption along the line of sight of Sgr A*.

  2. Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perdew, John P.; Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 ; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei; Burke, Kieron

    2014-05-14

    Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGA’s. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

  3. Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Transportation Activity and Potential Distribution Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of fuel ethanol transportation activity and potential distribution constraints if the total 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022 is mandated by EPA under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Ethanol transport by domestic truck, marine, and rail distribution systems from ethanol refineries to blending terminals is estimated using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) North American Infrastructure Network Model. Most supply and demand data provided by EPA were geo-coded and using available commercial sources the transportation infrastructure network was updated. The percentage increases in ton-mile movements by rail, waterways, and highways in 2022 are estimated to be 2.8%, 0.6%, and 0.13%, respectively, compared to the corresponding 2005 total domestic flows by various modes. Overall, a significantly higher level of future ethanol demand would have minimal impacts on transportation infrastructure. However, there will be spatial impacts and a significant level of investment required because of a considerable increase in rail traffic from refineries to ethanol distribution terminals.

  4. Characterization of evolutionary rates and constraints in three mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Gregory M.; Brudno, Michael; Stone, Eric A.; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim; Sidow, Arend

    2004-02-15

    We present an analysis of rates and patterns of microevolutionary phenomena that have shaped the human, mouse, and rat genomes since their last common ancestor. We find evidence for a shift in the mutational spectrum between the mouse and rat lineages, with the net effect being a relative increase in GC content in the rat genome. Our estimate for the neutral point substitution rate separating the two rodents is 0.196 substitutions per site, and 0.65 substitutions per site for the tree relating all three mammals. Small insertions and deletions of 1-10 bp in length (''microindels'') occur at approximately 5 percent of the point substitution rate. Inferred regional correlations in evolutionary rates between lineages and between types of sites support the idea that rates of evolution are influenced by local genomic or cell biological context. No substantial correlations between rates of point substitutions and rates of microindels are found, however, implying that the influences that affect these processes are distinct. Finally, we have identified those regions in the human genome that are evolving slowly, which are likely to include functional elements important to human biology. At least 5 percent of the human genome is under substantial constraint, most of which is noncoding.

  5. Optimization-based mesh correction with volume and convexity constraints

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    D'Elia, Marta; Ridzal, Denis; Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2016-02-24

    Here, we consider the problem of finding a mesh such that 1) it is the closest, with respect to a suitable metric, to a given source mesh having the same connectivity, and 2) the volumes of its cells match a set of prescribed positive values that are not necessarily equal to the cell volumes in the source mesh. Also, this volume correction problem arises in important simulation contexts, such as satisfying a discrete geometric conservation law and solving transport equations by incremental remapping or similar semi-Lagrangian transport schemes. In this paper we formulate volume correction as a constrained optimization problemmore » in which the distance to the source mesh defines an optimization objective, while the prescribed cell volumes, mesh validity and/or cell convexity specify the constraints. We solve this problem numerically using a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method whose performance scales with the mesh size. To achieve scalable performance we develop a specialized multigrid-based preconditioner for optimality systems that arise in the application of the SQP method to the volume correction problem. Numerical examples illustrate the importance of volume correction, and showcase the accuracy, robustness and scalability of our approach.« less

  6. Constraint propagation of C{sup 2}-adjusted formulation: Another recipe for robust ADM evolution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Yoneda, Gen; Shinkai, Hisa-aki [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Waseda University, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0196 (Japan) and Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C{sup 2}. One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is predetermined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.

  7. Implications of current constraints on parton charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. Londergan; A. W. Thomas

    2005-11-01

    For the first time, charge symmetry breaking terms in parton distribution functions have been included in a global fit to high energy data. We review the results obtained for both valence and sea quark charge symmetry violation and compare these results with the most stringent experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation for parton distribution functions, as well as with theoretical estimates of charge symmetry violation. The limits allowed in the global fit would tolerate a rather large violation of charge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this for various observables, including extraction of the Weinberg angle in neutrino DIS and the Gottfried and Adler sum rules.

  8. Modeling node bandwidth limits and their effects on vector combining algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Littlefield, R.J.

    1992-01-13

    Each node in a message-passing multicomputer typically has several communication links. However, the maximum aggregate communication speed of a node is often less than the sum of its individual link speeds. Such computers are called node bandwidth limited (NBL). The NBL constraint is important when choosing algorithms because it can change the relative performance of different algorithms that accomplish the same task. This paper introduces a model of communication performance for NBL computers and uses the model to analyze the overall performance of three algorithms for vector combining (global sum) on the Intel Touchstone DELTA computer. Each of the three algorithms is found to be at least 33% faster than the other two for some combinations of machine size and vector length. The NBL constraint is shown to significantly affect the conditions under which each algorithm is fastest.

  9. COMPLEXITY & APPROXIMABILITY OF QUANTIFIED & STOCHASTIC CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. B. HUNT; M. V. MARATHE; R. E. STEARNS

    2001-06-01

    Let D be an arbitrary (not necessarily finite) nonempty set, let C be a finite set of constant symbols denoting arbitrary elements of D, and let S and T be an arbitrary finite set of finite-arity relations on D. We denote the problem of determining the satisfiability of finite conjunctions of relations in S applied to variables (to variables and symbols in C) by SAT(S) (by SATc(S).) Here, we study simultaneously the complexity of decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. We present simple yet general techniques to characterize simultaneously, the complexity or efficient approximability of a number of versions/variants of the problems SAT(S), Q-SAT(S), S-SAT(S),MAX-Q-SAT(S) etc., for many different such D,C,S,T. These versions/variants include decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. Our unified approach is based on the following two basic concepts: (i) strongly-local replacements/reductions and (ii) relational/algebraic representability. Some of the results extend the earlier results in [Pa85,LMP99,CF+93,CF+94] Our techniques and results reported here also provide significant steps towards obtaining dichotomy theorems, for a number of the problems above, including the problems MAX-Q-SAT(S), and MAX-S-SAT(S). The discovery of such dichotomy theorems, for unquantified formulas, has received significant recent attention in the literature [CF+93, CF+94, Cr95, KSW97]. Keywords: NP-hardness; Approximation Algorithms; PSPACE-hardness; Quantified and Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

  10. CONSTRAINTS FROM ASYMMETRIC HEATING: INVESTIGATING THE EPSILON AURIGAE DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Richard L. III; Stencel, Robert E. E-mail: robert.stencel@du.edu

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long-period eclipsing binary that likely contains an F0Ia star and a circumstellar disk enshrouding a hidden companion, assumed to be a main-sequence B star. High uncertainty in its parallax has kept the evolutionary status of the system in question and, hence, the true nature of each component. This unknown, as well as the absence of solid state spectral features in the infrared, requires an investigation of a wide parameter space by means of both analytic and Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) methods. The first MCRT models of epsilon Aurigae that include all three system components are presented here. We seek additional system parameter constraints by melding analytic approximations with MCRT outputs (e.g., dust temperatures) on a first-order level. The MCRT models investigate the effects of various parameters on the disk-edge temperatures; these include two distances, three particle size distributions, three compositions, and two disk masses, resulting in 36 independent models. Specifically, the MCRT temperatures permit analytic calculations of effective heating and cooling curves along the disk edge. These are used to calculate representative observed fluxes and corresponding temperatures. This novel application of thermal properties provides the basis for utilization of other binary systems containing disks. We find degeneracies in the model fits for the various parameter sets. However, the results show a preference for a carbon disk with particle size distributions ≥10 μm. Additionally, a linear correlation between the MCRT noon and basal temperatures serves as a tool for effectively eliminating portions of the parameter space.

  11. Individualized Radical Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Normal Tissue Dose Constraints: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baardwijk, Angela van Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Wanders, Stofferinus; Dekker, Andre; Dingemans, Anne Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Geraedts, Wiel; Pitz, Cordula; Simons, Jean; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a major problem after (chemo-)radiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that for each individual patient, the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, delivered within 5 weeks. We report first results of a prospective feasibility trial. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with medically inoperable or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, World Health Organization performance score of 0-1, and reasonable lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 50%) were analyzed. All patients underwent irradiation using an individualized prescribed TTD based on normal tissue dose constraints (mean lung dose, 19 Gy; maximal spinal cord dose, 54 Gy) up to a maximal TTD of 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions twice daily. No concurrent chemoradiation was administered. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria. An {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed to evaluate (metabolic) response 3 months after treatment. Results: Mean delivered dose was 63.0 {+-} 9.8 Gy. The TTD was most often limited by the mean lung dose (32.1%) or spinal cord (28.6%). Acute toxicity generally was mild; only 1 patient experienced Grade 3 cough and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 dysphagia. One patient (3.6%) died of pneumonitis. For late toxicity, 2 patients (7.7%) had Grade 3 cough or dyspnea; none had severe dysphagia. Complete metabolic response was obtained in 44% (11 of 26 patients). With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall survival was 19.6 months, with a 1-year survival rate of 57.1%. Conclusions: Individualized maximal tolerable dose irradiation based on normal tissue dose constraints is feasible, and initial results are promising.

  12. Constraints on the binary properties of mid- to late T dwarfs from Hubble space telescope WFC3 observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aberasturi, M.; Solano, E.; Burgasser, A. J.; Mora, A.; Martín, E. L.; Reid, I. N.; Looper, D.

    2014-12-01

    We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of a sample of 26 nearby (≤20 pc) mid- to late T dwarfs to search for cooler companions and measure the multiplicity statistics of brown dwarfs (BDs). Tightly separated companions were searched for using a double point-spread-function-fitting algorithm. We also compared our detection limits based on simulations to other prior T5+ BD binary programs. No new wide or tight companions were identified, which is consistent with the number of known T5+ binary systems and the resolution limits of WFC3. We use our results to add new constraints to the binary fraction (BF) of T-type BDs. Modeling selection effects and adopting previously derived separation and mass ratio distributions, we find an upper limit total BF of <16% and <25% assuming power law and flat mass ratio distributions, respectively, which are consistent with previous results. We also characterize a handful of targets around the L/T transition.

  13. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  14. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  15. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  16. {gamma} parameter and Solar System constraint in chameleon-Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saaidi, Kh.; Mohammadi, A.; Sheikhahmadi, H.

    2011-05-15

    The post Newtonian parameter is considered in the chameleon-Brans-Dicke model. In the first step, the general form of this parameter and also effective gravitational constant is obtained. An arbitrary function for f({Phi}), which indicates the coupling between matter and scalar field, is introduced to investigate validity of solar system constraint. It is shown that the chameleon-Brans-Dicke model can satisfy the solar system constraint and gives us an {omega} parameter of order 10{sup 4}, which is in comparable to the constraint which has been indicated in [19].

  17. Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Curves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the

  18. Post-Newtonian parameters and constraints on Einstein-aether theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-03-15

    We analyze the observational and theoretical constraints on ''Einstein-aether theory,'' a generally covariant theory of gravity coupled to a dynamical, unit, timelike vector field that breaks local Lorentz symmetry. The results of a computation of the remaining post-Newtonian parameters are reported. These are combined with other results to determine the joint post-Newtonian, vacuum-Cerenkov, nucleosynthesis, stability, and positive-energy constraints. All of these constraints are satisfied by parameters in a large two-dimensional region in the four-dimensional parameter space defining the theory.

  19. Nufcor International Limited Nufcor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited (Nufcor) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services Product: UK-based uranium marketing services company. References: Nufcor International Limited (Nufcor)1 This article...

  20. Mauktika Energy Limited MEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mauktika Energy Limited MEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mauktika Energy Limited (MEL) Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500033 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  1. Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.wavegen.co.uk This...

  2. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cape Systems Limited Place: Rock Sound, Bahamas Sector: Services Product: Offers installation and site surveying services for clean...

  3. SRSL Ethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SRSL Ethanol Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: SRSL Ethanol Limited Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Product: Mumbai-based ethanol subsidiary of Shree Renuka Sugars...

  4. Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Universal Carbon Credits Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Carbon Credits Limited Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC3A6DF Sector: Carbon Product:...

  5. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2A 2AZ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Trust Enterprises...

  6. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

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    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  7. Clipper Windpower Europe Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 7TJ Sector: Wind energy...

  8. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Rix Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rix Biodiesel Limited Place: Hull, United Kingdom Zip: HU8 7JR Product: Manufacture, blends and resells biodiesel....

  9. Tidal Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tidal Energy Limited (TEL) Place: Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom Zip: CF23 8RS Product: Tidal stream device developer. Coordinates:...

  10. Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited Place: Mumbai, India Zip: 400 021 Sector: Biomass Product: Indian cement company. the company...

  11. Transmission Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Transmission Capital Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Transmission Capital Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2V 7HR Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product:...

  12. Impact Capital Partners Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Capital Partners Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Impact Capital Partners Limited Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: CA 90067-1509 Product: Los Angeles-based, investment...

  13. Power Projects Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Projects Limited Address: PO Box 25456 Panama Street Place: Wellington Zip: 6146 Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  14. Catamount Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Catamount Energy Limited Place: United Kingdom Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind power project developer working on projects in Scotland....

  15. Central Electronics Limited CEL | Open Energy Information

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    Electronics Limited CEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Electronics Limited (CEL) Place: Sahibabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201010 Sector: Solar Product: String...

  16. United Biofuels Private Limited | Open Energy Information

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    United Biofuels Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Biofuels Private Limited Place: Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Biomass Product: India-based owner and operator...

  17. Renewable Fuels Limited RFL | Open Energy Information

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    Limited RFL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Fuels Limited (RFL) Place: York, United Kingdom Zip: YO19 6ET Sector: Biomass Product: Supplies various biomass fuels and...

  18. BFC Solutions Limited | Open Energy Information

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    BFC Solutions Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: BFC Solutions Limited Place: Taunton, England, United Kingdom Zip: TA1 PEJ Sector: Carbon Product: Somerset-based...

  19. China Innovation Investment Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Innovation Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Innovation Investment Limited Place: Hong Kong Sector: Solar Product: Hong Kong-listed alternative energy...

  20. Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: (617) 495-5560 Website: www.energyandfaciliti...

  1. Greenergy Biofuels Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Biofuels Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greenergy Biofuels Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: WC1V 7BD Sector: Biofuels Product: Imports, blends...

  2. United Group Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Group Limited Place: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Zip: 6001 Product: The United Group Resources (UGL) division is an EPC and...

  3. WaikatoLink Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaikatoLink Limited Place: New Zealand Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Individual Angel network )...

  4. CAST constraints on the axion-electron coupling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None, None

    2013-05-09

    In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axio- recombination, the “BCA processes.” Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling gae and axion-photon interaction strength gaγ using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For ma ≲ 10 meV/c2 we find gaγ gae < 8.1 × 10–23 GeV–1 at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellarmore » energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.« less

  5. Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, Yuval; Hocker, Andreas; Ligeti, Zoltan; Pirjol, Dan

    2005-07-07

    In charmless nonleptonic B decays to {pi}{pi} or {rho}{rho}, the ''color allowed'' and ''color suppressed'' tree amplitudes can be studied in a systematic expansion in {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub b}) and {Lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b}. At leading order in this expansion their relative strong phase vanishes. The implications of this prediction are obscured by penguin contributions. They propose to use this prediction to test the relative importance of the various penguin amplitudes using experimental data. The present B {yields} {pi}{pi} data suggest that there are large corrections to the heavy quark limit, which can be due to power corrections to the tree amplitudes, large up-penguin amplitude, or enhanced weak annihilation. Because the penguin contributions are smaller, the heavy quark limit is more consistent with the B {yields} {rho}{rho} data, and its implications may become important for the extraction of {alpha} from this mode in the future.

  6. Solar constraints on hidden photons re-visited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redondo, Javier; Raffelt, Georg E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2013-08-01

    We re-examine solar emission of hidden photons ?' (mass m) caused by kinetic ??' mixing. We calculate the emission rate with thermal field theory methods and with a kinetic equation that includes ??' ''flavor oscillations'' and ? absorption and emission by the thermal medium. In the resonant case both methods yield identical emission rates which, in the longitudinal channel, are enhanced by a factor ?{sub P}{sup 2}/m{sup 2} (plasma frequency ?{sub P}) in agreement with An, Pospelov and Pradler (2013). The Sun must not emit more energy in a ''dark channel'' than allowed by solar neutrino measurements, i.e., not more than 10% of its photon luminosity. Together with the revised emission rate, this conservative requirement implies ? < 4 10{sup ?12}(eV/m) for the kinetic mixing parameter. This is the most restrictive stellar limit below m ? 3eV, whereas for larger masses the transverse channel dominates together with limits from other stars. A recent analysis of XENON10 data marginally improves the solar limit, leaving open the opportunity to detect solar hidden photons with future large-scale dark matter experiments. Detecting low-mass hidden photons with the ALPS-II photon-regeneration experiment also remains possible.

  7. Constraints on Randall-Sundrum model from the events of dijet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Constraints on Randall-Sundrum model from the events of dijet production with QCD next-to-leading order accuracy at the LHC Authors: Li, Shi Ang ; Li, Chong Sheng ; Li, Hai ...

  8. Heat Flow in VC-2A and VC-2B, and Constraints on the Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Heat Flow in VC-2A and VC-2B, and Constraints on the Thermal Regime of the Valles Caldera, New...

  9. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 2013 Prepared by ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY Argonne, IL 60439 managed by U Chicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract

  11. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 January 2014 U.S. Department of Energy | January 2014 Note to Reader This document provides a summary of publicly available information regarding transmission constraints and congestion from 2009-2012. This is not the Department's third National Electric Transmission Congestion Study, which will be released separately. Providing relevant

  12. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Skorski, Daniel C.; Matyas, Josef

    2013-07-31

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  13. Improved Limit on the Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of {sup 199}Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, W. C.; Swallows, M. D.; Loftus, T. H.; Romalis, M. V.; Heckel, B. R.; Fortson, E. N.

    2009-03-13

    We report the results of a new experimental search for a permanent electric dipole moment of {sup 199}Hg utilizing a stack of four vapor cells. We find d({sup 199}Hg)=(0.49{+-}1.29{sub stat}{+-}0.76{sub syst})x10{sup -29} e cm, and interpret this as a new upper bound, |d({sup 199}Hg)|<3.1x10{sup -29} e cm (95% C.L.). This result improves our previous {sup 199}Hg limit by a factor of 7, and can be used to set new constraints on CP violation in physics beyond the standard model.

  14. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The limits are derived from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. These constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginos with a lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. The method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.

  15. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The limits are derived from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. These constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginos withmorea lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. The method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.less

  16. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. We derived the limits from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in proton–proton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. Furthermore, these constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginos with a lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. Furthermore, the method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.

  17. Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Product: London-based company focused on trading of biodiesel....

  18. GenDrive Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GenDrive Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: GenDrive Limited Place: Cambridge, United Kingdom Zip: CB23 3GY Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Developing...

  19. Mistral Invest Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mistral Invest Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mistral Invest Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1U 7DW Sector: Wind energy Product: Private Equity Fund aiming...

  20. Zebec Biogas Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zebec Biogas Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zebec Biogas Limited Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G12 9JD Product: Sotland-based biogas company. The firm is...

  1. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  2. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  3. EU Energy Wind Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: EU Energy (Wind) Limited Place: Central Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Zip: K9 1LH Sector: Wind energy Product: The company will be...

  4. Lead Hero Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hero Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lead Hero Limited Place: China Product: China-based company that holds a 100% interest in XiAn Lv Jing and a 15.05% interest in...

  5. IT Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IT Power Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: IT Power Limited Place: Basingstoke, England, United Kingdom Zip: RG24 8AG Sector: Renewable Energy Product: IT Power is a...

  6. Exorka International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exorka International Limited is a specialist developer of low-temperature geothermal electricity generation, incorporated in England. References: Exorka International...

  7. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email Time limits The length of participation in the undergraduate program is limited to a maximum of six years for students pursuing a bachelor's degree and three years for students pursuing an

  8. Limited English Proficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Limited English Proficiency Limited English Proficiency On August 11, 2000, President Clinton signed Executive Order 13166, "Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency." The Executive Order requires federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to examine the programs and services they provide, to determine whether there is a need for language assistance for persons with Limited English proficiency (LEP) related to their programs and services, and

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  10. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  11. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  12. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  13. Properties of galactic dark matter: Constraints from astronomical observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, B.; Cowsik, R.

    2013-12-10

    The distributions of normal matter and of dark matter in the Galaxy are coupled to each other as they both move in the common gravitational potential. In order to fully exploit this interplay and to derive the various properties of dark matter relevant to their direct and indirect detection, we have comprehensively reviewed the astronomical observations of the spatial and velocity distributions of the components of normal matter. We then postulate that the phase-space distribution of dark matter follows a lowered-isothermal form and self-consistently solve Poisson's equation to construct several models for the spatial and velocity distributions of dark matter. In this paper, we compute the total gravitational potential of the normal and dark matter components and investigate their consistency with current observations of the rotation curve of the Galaxy and of the spatial and velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. Even with this demand of consistency, a large number of models with a range of parameters characterizing the dark matter distribution remain. We find that the best choice of parameters, within the range of allowed values for the surface density of the disk 55 M {sub ?} pc{sup 2}, are the following: the dark matter density at the Galactic center ?{sub DM,} {sub c} ? 100-250 GeV cm{sup 3}, the local dark matter density ?{sub DM}(R {sub 0}) ? 0.56-0.72 GeV cm{sup 3}, and the rms speed of dark matter particles ?v{sub DM}{sup 2}(R{sub 0})?{sup 1/2}?490??550 km s{sup 1}. We also discuss possible astronomical observations that may further limit the range of the allowed models. The predictions of the allowed models for direct and indirect detection will be discussed separately in a companion paper.

  14. Constraints on the hadronic content of gamma ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yacobi, Lee; Guetta, Dafne; Behar, Ehud [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2014-09-20

    The IceCube High-energy Neutrino Telescope has been collecting data since 2006. Conversely, hundreds of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected by the GRB Monitor on board Fermi since its launch in 2008. So far no neutrino event has been associated with a GRB, despite many models predicting the generation of high-energy neutrinos through GRB photon interaction with PeV protons in the GRB jet. We use the non-detection of neutrinos to constrain the hadronic content of GRB jets independent of jet model parameters. Assuming a generic particle spectrum of E {sup ?} with ? = 2, we find that the ratio of the energy carried by pions to that in electrons has to be small f {sub ?}/f{sub e} ? 0.24 at 95% confidence level. A distribution of spectral slopes can lower f {sub ?}/f{sub e} by orders of magnitude. Another limit, independent of neutrinos, is obtained if one ascribes the measured Fermi/Large Area Telescope GeV gamma-ray emission to pair-photon cascades of high-energy photons resulting from (the same photon-hadronic interactions and subsequent) neutral pion decays. Based on the generally observed MeV-to-GeV GRB fluence ratio of ?10, we show that f {sub ?}/f{sub e} ? 0.3. In some bursts, this ratio is as low as unity, f {sub ?}/f{sub e} ? 0.03. These findings add to mounting doubts regarding the presence of PeV protons in GRB jets.

  15. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON METHANOL PRODUCTION IN INTERSTELLAR AND PREPLANETARY ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Cook, A. M.; Herbst, Eric; Chiar, J. E.; Shenoy, S. S.

    2011-11-20

    Methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) is thought to be an important link in the chain of chemical evolution that leads from simple diatomic interstellar molecules to complex organic species in protoplanetary disks that may be delivered to the surfaces of Earthlike planets. Previous research has shown that CH{sub 3}OH forms in the interstellar medium predominantly on the surfaces of dust grains. To enhance our understanding of the conditions that lead to its efficient production, we assemble a homogenized catalog of published detections and limiting values in interstellar and preplanetary ices for both CH{sub 3}OH and the other commonly observed C- and O-bearing species, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}. We use this catalog to investigate the abundance of ice-phase CH{sub 3}OH in environments ranging from dense molecular clouds to circumstellar envelopes around newly born stars of low and high mass. Results show that CH{sub 3}OH production arises during the CO freezeout phase of ice-mantle growth in the clouds, after an ice layer rich in H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} is already in place on the dust, in agreement with current astrochemical models. The abundance of solid-phase CH{sub 3}OH in this environment is sufficient to account for observed gas-phase abundances when the ices are subsequently desorbed in the vicinity of embedded stars. CH{sub 3}OH concentrations in the ices toward embedded stars show order-of-magnitude object-to-object variations, even in a sample restricted to stars of low mass associated with ices lacking evidence of thermal processing. We hypothesize that the efficiency of CH{sub 3}OH production in dense cores and protostellar envelopes is mediated by the degree of prior CO depletion.

  16. Dynamical consequences of a constraint on the Langevin thermostat in molecular cluster simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinson, Jake L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Ford, Ian J.

    2014-11-17

    We investigate some unusual behaviour observed while performing molecular dynamics simulations with the DL_POLY_4.03 code. Under the standard Langevin thermostat, atoms appear to be thermalised to different temperatures, depending on their mass and on the total number of particles in the system. We find that an imposed constraint whereby no thermal noise acts on the centre of mass of the system is the cause of the unexpected behaviour. This is demonstrated by solving the stochastic dynamics for the constrained thermostat and comparing the results with simulation data. The effect of the constraint can be considerable for small systems with disparate masses. By removing the constraint the Langevin thermostat may be restored to its intended behaviour and this has been implemented as an option in DL_POLY_4.05. SMK was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  17. Gamma-ray constraints on hadronic and leptonic activities of decaying dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chuan-Ren; Mandal, Sourav K.; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: sourav.mandal@berkeley.edu

    2010-01-01

    While the excess in cosmic-ray electrons and positrons reported by PAMELA and Fermi may be explained by dark matter decaying primarily into charged leptons, this does not necessarily mean that dark matter should not have any hadronic decay modes. In order to quantify the allowed hadronic activities, we derive constraints on the decay rates of dark matter into WW, ZZ, hh, q q-bar and gg using the Fermi and HESS gamma-ray data. We also derive gamma-ray constraints on the leptonic e{sup +}e{sup −}, μ{sup +}μ{sup −} and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} final states. We find that dark matter must decay primarily into μ{sup +}μ{sup −} or τ{sup +}τ{sup −} in order to simultaneously explain the reported excess and meet all gamma-ray constraints.

  18. New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mallakh, R

    1980-01-01

    Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraints on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)

  19. Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Feldman; Amanda Slough; Gary Garrett

    2008-06-01

    There is a myriad of uses to which our country's freshwater supply is currently committed. Together with increasing quantities of consumption, there are growing constraints on water availability. In our future there will be two elements of consumption at the forefront of concern: availability and efficiency. Availability of freshwater is the most important of these and is the subject of this report. To use water efficiently, we must first have it. Efficiency is key to ensuring availability for future needs. As population grows and economic and technology demands increase - especially for thermoelectric power - needs for freshwater will also increase. Thus, using our limited supplies of freshwater must be done as efficiently as possible. Thermoelectric generating industry is the largest user of our nation's water resources, including fresh, surface, ground, and saline water. Saline water use accounts for approximately 30% of thermoelectric use, while the remaining 70% is from freshwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that thermoelectric generation accounts for roughly 136,000 million gallons per day (MGD), or 39% of freshwater withdrawals. This ranks slightly behind agricultural irrigation as the top source of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. in 2000. For Americans to preserve their standard of living and maintain a thriving economy it is essential that greater attention be paid to freshwater availability in efforts to meet energy demands - particularly for electric power. According to projections by the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO 2006) anticipated growth of thermoelectric generating capacity will be 22% between 2005 and 2030. In the 2007 Report, EIA estimates that capacity to grow from approximately 709 GW in 2005 to 862 GW in 20303. These large increases in generating capacity will result in increased water demands by thermoelectric power plants and greater competition over water between the

  20. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  1. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email Time Limits The length of participation in the graduate program is limited as follows: With a bachelor's pursuing a master's degree: 4 years With a bachelor's pursuing a PhD: 7 years With a master's

  2. Interim Guidance Regarding Limitations on CERCLA Liability |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Inner-Office Memorandum: Interim Guidance Regarding Limitations on CERCLA LiabilityPermitting...

  3. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation- Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells Preprint Michael L. Bolen, Sachit Grover, Charles W. Teplin, Howard M. Branz, and Paul Stradins National...

  4. Wedotebary Nigeria Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Wedotebary Nigeria Limited Place: Bukuru, Nigeria Product: Nigeria-based manufacturing conglomerate. Coordinates: 9.79017, 8.85481 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Local Generation Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK-based biomass firm developing anaerobic digestion plants. References: Local Generation Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  6. CarbonPlan Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as a consultant advising on renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, & corporate social responsibility. References: CarbonPlan Limited1 This article is a stub. You can...

  7. Amperex Technology Limited ATL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Limited (ATL) Place: N.T., Hong Kong Product: Designer and manufacturer of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) battery cells and batteries for OEM customers making cell phones,...

  8. Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited MAHAGENCO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited (MAHAGENCO) Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400051 Product: Power generating firm planning to set up a...

  9. Hebei Hydroelectric Company Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China Zip: 50011 Sector: Hydro Product: China-based small hydro project developer. References: Hebei Hydroelectric Company Limited1 This...

  10. Proactive Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Product: Scotland-based renewable energy company that is developing a 5MW biogas plant in South Lanarkshire. References: Proactive Energy Limited1 This article is a...

  11. Colony Mills Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Lahore, Pakistan Sector: Solar Product: Yarn manufacturer, plans to set up solar thermal plant. References: Colony Mills Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  12. Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes Increasing the areal capacity or electrode thickness in lithium ion batteries is ...

  13. Vihaan Networks Limited VNL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Vihaan Networks Limited (VNL) Place: Gurgaon, Haryana, India Zip: 122015 Sector: Solar Product: Developer of solar-powered GSM system for rural...

  14. Cumbria Wind Farms Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: SY16 2LW Sector: Services Product: Provides operational and maintenance services in Cumbria, Cornwall and Wales. References: Cumbria Wind Farms Limited1...

  15. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P. 08 HYDROGEN; 14...

  16. Royal Energy Limited REL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (REL) Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400 016 Product: Mumbai-based ethanol and biodiesel producer. References: Royal Energy Limited (REL)1 This article is a stub. You...

  17. EVO Electric Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: GU21 5JY Product: EVO Electric Limited develops electrical motors and generators for use in gensets, powertrains, and traction motors in...

  18. Green Heat Solutions Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Green Heat Solutions Limited Region: Scotland Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  19. Acquasol Infrastructure Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Acquasol Infrastructure Limited Place: Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Zip: 5000 Sector: Solar Product: Adelaide based solar thermal project and...

  20. Carnegie Wave Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Address: 1 124 Stirling Highway Place: North Fremantle Zip: 6159 Region: Australia Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Year Founded: 1993 Website: www.carnegiewave.com...

  1. Power Paper Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Paper Limited Place: Kiryat Arye, Petah Tikva, Israel Zip: 49130 Product: Power Paper is a developer of next-generation, printable...

  2. 12 Voltz Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Place: Cumbria, United Kingdom Zip: LA8 9NH Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Selling and delivering broad range of advanced energy generating...

  3. Caldyne Automatics Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage product manufacturer; also makes lighting systems based on solar, wind and solar wind hybrid systems. References: Caldyne Automatics Limited1 This article is a stub....

  4. Bharat Renewable Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Limited Place: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Product: Uttar Pradesh-based joint venture company for the production, procurement, cultivation and plantation of crops...

  5. PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Electric Company, Limited to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Canadian border.

  6. EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Centre Land Trading Limited EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited Order Authorizing Centre Land Trading Limited to export electric energy to Canada EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited ...

  7. Quantifying the impact of future Sandage-Loeb test data on dark energy constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    The Sandage-Loeb (SL) test is a unique method to probe dark energy in the ''redshift desert'' of 2∼constraints. To avoid the potential inconsistency in data, we use the best-fitting model based on the other geometric measurements as the fiducial model to produce 30 mock SL test data. The 10-yr, 20-yr, and 30-yr observations of SL test are analyzed and compared in detail. We show that compared to the current combined data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble constant, the 30-yr observation of SL test could improve the constraint on Ω{sub m} by about 80% and the constraint on w by about 25%. Furthermore, the SL test can also improve the measurement of the possible direct interaction between dark energy and dark matter. We show that the SL test 30-yr data could improve the constraint on γ by about 30% and 10% for the Q = γHρ{sub c} and Q = γHρ{sub de} models, respectively.

  8. Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio for non-power-law models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hobson, M.P. E-mail: mb435@mrao.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mph@mrao.cam.ac.uk

    2013-08-01

    Recent cosmological observations hint at a deviation from the simple power-law form of the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations. In this paper we show that in the presence of a tensor component, a turn-over in the initial spectrum is preferred by current observations, and hence non-power-law models ought to be considered. For instance, for a power-law parameterisation with both a tensor component and running parameter, current data show a preference for a negative running at more than 2.5σ C.L. As a consequence of this deviation from a power-law, constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r are slightly broader. We also present constraints on the inflationary parameters for a model-independent reconstruction and the Lasenby and Doran (LD) model. In particular, the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the LD model are: r{sub LD} = 0.11±0.024. In addition to current data, we show expected constraints from Planck-like and CMB-Pol sensitivity experiments by using Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo sampling chains. For all the models, we have included the Bayesian Evidence to perform a model selection analysis. The Bayes factor, using current observations, shows a strong preference for the LD model over the standard power-law parameterisation, and provides an insight into the accuracy of differentiating models through future surveys.

  9. Constraints within major histocompatibility complex class I restricted peptides: Presentation and consequences for T-cell recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodossis, Alex; Guillonneau, Carole; Welland, Andrew; Ely, Lauren K.; Clements, Craig S.; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Webb, Andrew I.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Mulder, Roger J.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Doherty, Peter C.; McCluskey, James; Purcell, Anthony W.; Turner, Stephen J.; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2010-03-24

    Residues within processed protein fragments bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) glycoproteins have been considered to function as a series of 'independent pegs' that either anchor the peptide (p) to the MHC-I and/or interact with the spectrum of {alpha}{beta}-T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for the pMHC-I epitope in question. Mining of the extensive pMHC-I structural database established that many self- and viral peptides show extensive and direct interresidue interactions, an unexpected finding that has led us to the idea of 'constrained' peptides. Mutational analysis of two constrained peptides (the HLA B44 restricted self-peptide (B44DP{alpha}-EEFGRAFSF)) and an H2-D{sup b} restricted influenza peptide (D{sup b}PA, SSLENFRAYV) demonstrated that the conformation of the prominently exposed arginine in both peptides was governed by interactions with MHC-I-orientated flanking residues from the peptide itself. Using reverse genetics in a murine influenza model, we revealed that mutation of an MHC-I-orientated residue (SSLENFRAYV {yields} SSLENARAYV) within the constrained PA peptide resulted in a diminished cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and the recruitment of a limited pMHC-I specific TCR repertoire. Interactions between individual peptide positions can thus impose fine control on the conformation of pMHC-I epitopes, whereas the perturbation of such constraints can lead to a previously unappreciated mechanism of viral escape.

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT COMET P/2013 R3 FROM ITS BREAKUP EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Snchez, Diego Paul; Gabriel, Travis; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-07-01

    Jewitt etal. recently reported that main belt comet P/2013 R3 experienced a breakup, probably due to rotational disruption, with its components separating on mutually hyperbolic orbits. We propose a technique for constraining physical properties of the proto-body, especially the initial spin period and cohesive strength, as a function of the body's estimated size and density. The breakup conditions are developed by combining mutual orbit dynamics of the smaller components and the failure condition of the proto-body. Given a proto-body with a bulk density ranging from 1000kgm{sup 3} to 1500kgm{sup 3} (a typical range of the bulk density of C-type asteroids), we obtain possible values of the cohesive strength (40-210Pa) and the initial spin state (0.48-1.9hr). From this result, we conclude that although the proto-body could have been a rubble pile, it was likely spinning beyond its gravitational binding limit and would have needed cohesive strength to hold itself together. Additional observations of P/2013 R3 will enable stronger constraints on this event, and the present technique will be able to give more precise estimates of its internal structure.

  11. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  12. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON THE HIGH-l POWER SPECTRUM OF MILLIMETER-WAVE ANISOTROPIES FROM APEX-SZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichardt, C. L.; Zahn, O.; Ferrusca, D.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Johnson, B. R.; Lee, A. T.; Lueker, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Lanting, T.; Basu, K.; Chon, G.; Kneissl, R.; Bender, A. N.; Halverson, N. W.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Dobbs, M.; Kennedy, J.; Horellou, C.; Johansson, D.

    2009-08-20

    We present measurements of the angular power spectrum of millimeter wave anisotropies with the APEX-SZ instrument. APEX-SZ has mapped 0.8 deg{sup 2} of sky at a frequency of 150 GHz with an angular resolution of 1'. These new measurements significantly improve the constraints on anisotropy power at 150 GHz over the range of angular multipoles 3000 < l < 10, 000, limiting the total astronomical signal in a flat band power to be less than 105 {mu}K{sup 2} at 95% CL. We expect both submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies and to a lesser extent secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) to significantly contribute to the observed power. Subtracting the SZE power spectrum expected for {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.8 and masking bright sources, the best-fit value for the remaining power is C {sub l} = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} x 10{sup -5} {mu}K{sup 2} (1.7{sup +1.4} {sub -1.3} Jy{sup 2} sr{sup -1}). This agrees well with model predictions for power due to submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies. Comparing this power to the power detected by BLAST at 600 GHz, we find the frequency dependence of the source fluxes to be S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 2.6+0.4}{sub -0.2}} if both experiments measure the same population of sources. Simultaneously fitting for the amplitude of the SZE power spectrum and a Poisson-distributed point source population, we place an upper limit on the matter fluctuation amplitude of {sigma}{sub 8} < 1.18 at 95% confidence.

  14. Constraints on the Low-Energy Cutoff in the Electron Distributionof the PKS 0637--752 Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-26

    We re-analyze the Chandra X-ray spectrum of the kpc-scale jet in PKS 0637-752 to investigate the possible low energy cutoff in the relativistic electron spectrum producing the non-thermal radiation in the scenario of inverse Compton emission off the cosmic microwave background. This was among the first objects targeted by the Chandra Observatory and gives a unique opportunity to study the low energy X-ray emission free of contamination. As previously noted, the spectrum can be fit by a power law, with the slope predicted by the radio spectrum, modified by low energy absorption through the Galaxy as determined from the spectrum of the quasar core and by HI 21 cm observations. We report evidence for a broad excess of emission below 1 keV, but are unable to constrain the shape very well. If we assume that this soft excess is unrelated to the electron population responsible for the power law emission, and that the electron spectrum cuts off at an energy of {gamma}{sub min}m{sub e}c{sup 2}, then we must have {gamma}{sub min} ({Lambda}/10) {approx}< 75 due to the absence of any low energy turn-over in the X-ray spectrum. This predicts that the observed radio spectrum should extend unbroken down below 2 MHz for the estimated jet restframe magnetic field B = 10 {micro} G. In addition, the observed optical flux can be used to place a lower limit on {gamma}{sub min}; the constraint is not very strong, but does suggest that {gamma}{sub min} must be higher than 1 to avoid overproducing the optical emission. The implication of these limits on the jet luminosity is discussed. An alternative phenomenological description of the soft excess is offered where the low-energy end of the electron spectrum is modified to account for the excess.

  15. Workshop on Direct Use Technology in the Marketplace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lower temperature geothermal technologies can supply a cascade of applications from the same heat resource, from geothermal energy to direct heat and agricultural uses.

  16. Homeostatic control: the utility/customer marketplace for electric power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweppe, F.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Kirtley, J.L.

    1981-09-01

    A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the customer and the utility and on customer independence. The utility has no control beyond the customer's meter. Computers located at the customer's site are continuously fed data on weather conditions, utility generating costs, and demand requirements for space conditioning, lighting, and appliances. The customer then directs the computer to schedule and control the power allotted for these functions. On-site generation by the customer can be incorporated in the system. It is argued that homeostatic control is technically feasible, that the level of control equipment sophistication can be adapted to the benefits received by the customer, that such a system would encourage the use of customer-site energy storage and energy conservation equipment, and that it represents a realistic method for allowing the customer to decide how he will use electric power during an era of increasing costs for power generation. (LCL)

  17. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Program Pilots and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    start small, fail fast, and scale up success. These sessions, facilitated by experts in solar market transformation, will set the stage for the next wave of solar deployment...

  18. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Program Pilots and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    real-time, data- driven experiments to answer foundational and practical questions about solar market transformation Create a five- to ten-minute pitch that captures: the...

  19. New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace Program Pilots and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to make solar energy economical. AMERICA'S SOLAR DIFFUSION LABORATORIES The U.S. solar market is seeing tremendous growth, with cumulative installations doubling every 2.5...

  20. Public problems: Still waiting on the marketplace for solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gover, J.; Carayannis, E.; Huray, P.

    1997-10-01

    This report addresses the need for government sponsored R and D to address real public problems. The motivation is that a public benefit of the money spent must be demonstrated. The areas identified as not having appropriate attention resulting in unmet public needs include healthcare cost, cost and benefits of regulations, infrastructure problems, defense spending misaligned with foreign policy objectives, the crime problem, energy impact on the environment, the education problem, low productivity growth industry sectors, the income distribution problem, the aging problem, the propagation of disease and policy changes needed to address the solution of these problems.

  1. Geothermal Direct Use Technology & Marketplace Workshop Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GEOTHERMAL DIRECT USE TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................ 1 WORKSHOP SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 2 GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES .............................................................. 3 GEOTHERMAL DEEP DIRECT USE TECHNOLOGY

  2. INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A QUARTERLY UPDATE OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    birth dates and credit card numbers. Hackers have access to millions of identities by hacking into one server. By creating a physically unclonable digital id, Sandian innovators...

  3. Sandia'S INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A Quarterly Update of Available...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... bimorph as a spring support for a sense mass as well ... Contact us about our Ready To Sign License 10 Innovation ... applications on a virtual network prior to introducing them ...

  4. INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A QUARTERLY UPDATE OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR INDUSTRY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy INL's Move to Google Apps Enables Flexibility, Scalability INL's Move to Google Apps Enables Flexibility, Scalability December 7, 2011 - 1:42pm Addthis Brent Stacey, Chief Information Officer and Information Management Director at Energy's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently stated, "INL is moving to what we call a high performance workplace." How is INL doing this, you may ask? First INL (with lab-wide participation) has identified 10 improvement themes over 5 years.

  5. There's More Than One Route to the Marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Christy M.

    2008-03-01

    PNNL software takes unconventional commercialization path with serial entrepreneur With thousands of researchers working in national laboratories across the country, innovations happen almost every day. Yet many of these innovations never see the light of day. Luckily, when it came to commercializing the much lauded Starlight™ software, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a solution almost as innovative as the technology itself.

  6. Workshop: New Ideas for Seeding Your Solar Marketplace: Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data-driven, low-cost, real-time embedded evaluation is solving some of the nation's largest energy challenges, from changing consumer behavior to ramping up adoption of new ...

  7. Technology for distributed generation in a global marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, J.D.; Barich, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    During the last 20 years, great strides have been made in the development and demonstration of distributed generation technologies. Wind, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems are now competitive in selected niche markets. Other technologies such as MTG, higher temperature fuel cells, and fuel cell hybrids are expected to become competitive in selected applications in the next few years. As the electric utility industry moves toward restructuring and increasing demand in emerging countries, one can expect even greater demand for environmentally friendly distributed generation technologies.

  8. MILLISECOND PULSAR AGES: IMPLICATIONS OF BINARY EVOLUTION AND A MAXIMUM SPIN LIMIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiziltan, Buelent; Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bulent@astro.ucsc.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    In the absence of constraints from the binary companion or supernova remnant, the standard method for estimating pulsar ages is to infer an age from the rate of spin-down. While the generic spin-down age may give realistic estimates for normal pulsars, it can fail for pulsars with very short periods. Details of the spin-up process during the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase pose additional constraints on the period (P) and spin-down rates ( P-dot ) that may consequently affect the age estimate. Here, we propose a new recipe to estimate millisecond pulsar (MSP) ages that parametrically incorporates constraints arising from binary evolution and limiting physics. We show that the standard method can be improved by this approach to achieve age estimates closer to the true age while the standard spin-down age may overestimate or underestimate the age of the pulsar by more than a factor of {approx}10 in the millisecond regime. We use this approach to analyze the population on a broader scale. For instance, in order to understand the dominant energy loss mechanism after the onset of radio emission, we test for a range of plausible braking indices. We find that a braking index of n = 3 is consistent with the observed MSP population. We demonstrate the existence and quantify the potential contributions of two main sources of age corruption: the previously known 'age bias' due to secular acceleration and 'age contamination' driven by sub-Eddington progenitor accretion rates. We explicitly show that descendants of LMXBs that have accreted at very low rates ( m-dot << M-dot{sub Edd}) will exhibit ages that appear older than the age of the Galaxy. We further elaborate on this technique, the implications and potential solutions it offers regarding MSP evolution, the underlying age distribution, and the post-accretion energy loss mechanism.

  9. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  10. Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, A A

    2008-02-28

    An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  11. Eclectic Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Limited Place: Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom Zip: NG21 9PR Sector: Wind energy Product: Design, manufacture D400, StealthGen micro wind, DuoGen wind and water...

  12. Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Manfred S.

    1976-01-01

    A beam limiter circumscribes the interior surface of a vacuum vessel to inhibit collisions of contained plasma and the vessel walls. The cross section of the material making up the limiter has a flatsided or slightly concave portion of increased width towards the plasma and portions of decreased width towards the interior surface of the vessel. This configuration is designed to prevent a major fraction of the material sputtered, vaporized and blistered from the limiter from reaching the plasma. It also allows adequate heat transfer from the wider to the narrower portions. The preferred materials for the beam limiter are solids of sintered, particulate materials of low atomic number with low vapor pressure and low sputtering and blistering yields.

  13. A2Wind Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Startup with strong capability in carbon fibre design targeting the wind turbine blade space. References: A2Wind Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  14. Greenrock Energy Services Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: EH2 2JG Product: Scotland-based company installing ground source heat pump systems. References: Greenrock Energy Services Limited1 This article is a stub. You...

  15. EarthEnergy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cornwall, United Kingdom Product: EarthEnergy Systems specialises in ground source heat pump systems. References: EarthEnergy Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  16. Crionaig Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    government approval for a 140MW, 39-turbine wind farm at Eisgein on the Isle of Lewis. References: Crionaig Power Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  17. Principle Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Principle Energy Limited Place: Isle of Man, United Kingdom Zip: 1M1 1LB Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A UK-based renewable energy company focusing on bioethanol projects in...

  18. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs.

  19. A first class constraint generates not a gauge transformation, but a bad physical change: The case of electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2014-12-15

    In DiracBergmann constrained dynamics, a first-class constraint typically does not alone generate a gauge transformation. By direct calculation it is found that each first-class constraint in Maxwells theory generates a change in the electric field E{sup ?} by an arbitrary gradient, spoiling Gausss law. The secondary first-class constraint p{sup i},{sub i}=0 still holds, but being a function of derivatives of momenta (mere auxiliary fields), it is not directly about the observable electric field (a function of derivatives of A{sub ?}), which couples to charge. Only a special combination of the two first-class constraints, the AndersonBergmannCastellani gauge generator G, leaves E{sup ?} unchanged. Likewise only that combination leaves the canonical action invariantan argument independent of observables. If one uses a first-class constraint to generate instead a canonical transformation, one partly strips the canonical coordinates of physical meaning as electromagnetic potentials, vindicating the AndersonBergmann Lagrangian orientation of interesting canonical transformations. The need to keep gauge-invariant the relation q-dot ?(?H)/(?p) =?E{sub i}?p{sup i}=0 supports using the gauge generator and primary Hamiltonian rather than the separate first-class constraints and the extended Hamiltonian. Partly paralleling Ponss criticism, it is shown that Diracs proof that a first-class primary constraint generates a gauge transformation, by comparing evolutions from identical initial data, cancels out and hence fails to detect the alterations made to the initial state. It also neglects the arbitrary coordinates multiplying the secondary constraints inside the canonical Hamiltonian. Thus the gauge-generating property has been ascribed to the primaries alone, not the primarysecondary team G. Hence the Dirac conjecture about secondary first-class constraints as generating gauge transformations rests upon a false presupposition about primary first-class constraints

  20. A coupling strategy for nonlocal and local diffusion models with mixed volume constraints and boundary conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    D'Elia, Marta; Perego, Mauro; Bochev, Pavel B.; Littlewood, David John

    2015-12-21

    We develop and analyze an optimization-based method for the coupling of nonlocal and local diffusion problems with mixed volume constraints and boundary conditions. The approach formulates the coupling as a control problem where the states are the solutions of the nonlocal and local equations, the objective is to minimize their mismatch on the overlap of the nonlocal and local domains, and the controls are virtual volume constraints and boundary conditions. When some assumptions on the kernel functions hold, we prove that the resulting optimization problem is well-posed and discuss its implementation using Sandia’s agile software components toolkit. As a result,more » the latter provides the groundwork for the development of engineering analysis tools, while numerical results for nonlocal diffusion in three-dimensions illustrate key properties of the optimization-based coupling method.« less

  1. Higher order statistics of curvature perturbations in IFF model and its Planck constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: shu@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    We compute the power spectrum P{sub ζ} and non-linear parameters f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} of the curvature perturbation induced during inflation by the electromagnetic fields in the kinetic coupling model (IFF model). By using the observational result of P{sub ζ},f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} reported by the Planck collaboration, we study the constraint on the model comprehensively. Interestingly, if the single slow-rolling inflaton is responsible for the observed P{sub ζ}, the constraint from τ{sub NL} is most stringent. We also find a general relationship between f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} generated in this model. Even if f{sub NL} ∼ O(1), a detectable τ{sub NL} can be produced.

  2. Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet

    2012-07-01

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

  3. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector: an improved analysis of anomalous threshold constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Mattingly, David M. E-mail: liberati@sissa.it

    2013-03-01

    Recently there has been a renewed activity in the physics of violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector. Flavor dependent Lorentz violation, which generically changes the pattern of neutrino oscillations, is extremely tightly constrained by oscillation experiments. Flavor independent Lorentz violation, which does not introduce new oscillation phenomena, is much more weakly constrained with constraints coming from time of flight and anomalous threshold analyses. We use a simplified rotationally invariant model to investigate the effects of finite baselines and energy dependent dispersion on anomalous reaction rates in long baseline experiments and show numerically that anomalous reactions do not necessarily cut off the spectrum quite as sharply as currently assumed. We also present a revised analysis of how anomalous reactions can be used to cast constraints from the observed atmospheric high energy neutrinos and the expected cosmogenic ones.

  4. A coupling strategy for nonlocal and local diffusion models with mixed volume constraints and boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Elia, Marta; Perego, Mauro; Bochev, Pavel B.; Littlewood, David John

    2015-12-21

    We develop and analyze an optimization-based method for the coupling of nonlocal and local diffusion problems with mixed volume constraints and boundary conditions. The approach formulates the coupling as a control problem where the states are the solutions of the nonlocal and local equations, the objective is to minimize their mismatch on the overlap of the nonlocal and local domains, and the controls are virtual volume constraints and boundary conditions. When some assumptions on the kernel functions hold, we prove that the resulting optimization problem is well-posed and discuss its implementation using Sandia’s agile software components toolkit. As a result, the latter provides the groundwork for the development of engineering analysis tools, while numerical results for nonlocal diffusion in three-dimensions illustrate key properties of the optimization-based coupling method.

  5. Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcrcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2014-04-15

    We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.

  6. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakasuji, Mamoru

    2013-08-15

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ?m were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  7. Direct constraints on minimal supersymmetry from Fermi-LAT observations of the dwarf galaxy Segue 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Pat; Conrad, Jan; Edsj, Joakim; Bergstrm, Lars; Akrami, Yashar; Farnier, Christian E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se E-mail: lbe@fysik.su.se E-mail: yashar@fysik.su.se

    2010-01-01

    The dwarf galaxy Segue 1 is one of the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter. Here we examine what constraints 9 months of Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations of Segue 1 place upon the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), with the lightest neutralino as the dark matter particle. We use nested sampling to explore the CMSSM parameter space, simultaneously fitting other relevant constraints from accelerator bounds, the relic density, electroweak precision observables, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and B-physics. We include spectral and spatial fits to the Fermi observations, a full treatment of the instrumental response and its related uncertainty, and detailed background models. We also perform an extrapolation to 5 years of observations, assuming no signal is observed from Segue 1 in that time. Results marginally disfavour models with low neutralino masses and high annihilation cross-sections. Virtually all of these models are however already disfavoured by existing experimental or relic density constraints.

  8. Defining coiled tubing limits -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, K.R.; Sathuvalli, U.B.; Stone, L.R.; Wolhart, S.

    1996-12-31

    The burst, collapse and axial load operating limits for Coiled Tubing (CT) are currently established using the Von Mises incipient yield criterion. This criterion has historically been used to calculate the limits for oil country tubular goods (OCTG). The limits according to this criterion are based on the point at which the pipe material reaches a load state in which it begins to yield. Because of the bending that occurs when the CT is spooled on and off the reel, and when it is bent over the guide arch, the CT is already far beyond the yield point before it enters a well. Thus, this criterion does not really apply to CT. This paper describes a research project currently in progress. The purpose of this project is to define a new set of CT limits based on criteria other than incipient yield. This new approach to setting CT operating limits takes into account the internal residual stresses in the CT which are a consequence of repeated bending cycles and the accompanying change in material properties.

  9. PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership Presidential permit authorizing Frontera Generation Limited Partnership to construct,...

  10. Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data ...

  11. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonovi?, Marko E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q{sup 2}) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  12. Photon-axion conversion as a mechanism for supernova dimming: Limits from CMB spectral distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2005-07-15

    Axion-photon conversion induced by intergalactic magnetic fields has been proposed as an explanation for the dimming of distant supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) without cosmic acceleration. The effect depends on the intergalactic electron density n{sub e} as well as the B-field strength and domain size. We show that for n{sub e} < or approx. 10{sup -9} cm{sup -3} the same mechanism would cause excessive spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This small-n{sub e} parameter region had been left open by the most restrictive previous constraints based on the dispersion of quasar (QSO) spectra. The combination of CMB and QSO limits suggests that the photon-axion conversion mechanism can only play a subleading role for SN Ia dimming. A combined analysis of all the observables affected by the photon-axion oscillations would be required to give a final verdict on the viability of this model.

  13. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  14. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  15. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shea, John Joseph; Djordjevic, Miomir B.; Hanna, William Kingston

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  16. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  17. Antenna factorization in strongly ordered limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosower, David A.

    2005-02-15

    When energies or angles of gluons emitted in a gauge-theory process are small and strongly ordered, the emission factorizes in a simple way to all orders in perturbation theory. I show how to unify the various strongly ordered soft, mixed soft-collinear, and collinear limits using antenna factorization amplitudes, which are generalizations of the Catani-Seymour dipole factorization function.

  18. Constraint satisfaction using a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that performs opportunistic arc and path revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, J.; Dozier, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that quickly solves (Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs)). This hybrid uses opportunistic arc and path revision in an interleaved fashion to reduce the size of the search space and to realize when to quit if a CSP is based on an inconsistent constraint network. This hybrid outperforms a well known hill-climbing algorithm, the Iterative Descent Method, on a test suite of 750 randomly generated CSPs.

  19. On the use of genetic algorithm to optimize industrial assets lifecycle management under safety and budget constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonchampt, J.; Fessart, K.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method and tool dedicated to optimize investments planning for industrial assets. These investments may either be preventive maintenance tasks, asset enhancements or logistic investments such as spare parts purchases. The two methodological points to investigate in such an issue are: 1. The measure of the profitability of a portfolio of investments 2. The selection and planning of an optimal set of investments 3. The measure of the risk of a portfolio of investments The measure of the profitability of a set of investments in the IPOP tool is synthesised in the Net Present Value indicator. The NPV is the sum of the differences of discounted cash flows (direct costs, forced outages...) between the situations with and without a given investment. These cash flows are calculated through a pseudo-Markov reliability model representing independently the components of the industrial asset and the spare parts inventories. The component model has been widely discussed over the years but the spare part model is a new one based on some approximations that will be discussed. This model, referred as the NPV function, takes for input an investments portfolio and gives its NPV. The second issue is to optimize the NPV. If all investments were independent, this optimization would be an easy calculation, unfortunately there are two sources of dependency. The first one is introduced by the spare part model, as if components are indeed independent in their reliability model, the fact that several components use the same inventory induces a dependency. The second dependency comes from economic, technical or logistic constraints, such as a global maintenance budget limit or a safety requirement limiting the residual risk of failure of a component or group of component, making the aggregation of individual optimum not necessary feasible. The algorithm used to solve such a difficult optimization problem is a genetic algorithm. After a description

  20. Constraints on standard and non-standard early universe models from CMB B-mode polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Brown, Michael L.; Zhao, Wen E-mail: Wen.Zhao@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the observational signatures of three models of the early Universe in the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In addition to the standard single field inflationary model, we also consider the constraints obtainable on the loop quantum cosmology model (from Loop Quantum Gravity) and on cosmic strings, expected to be copiously produced during the latter stages of Brane inflation. We first examine the observational features of the three models, and then use current B-mode polarization data from the BICEP and QUaD experiments to constrain their parameters. We also examine the detectability of the primordial B-mode signal predicted by these models and forecast the parameter constraints achievable with future CMB polarization experiments. We find that: (a) since B-mode polarization measurements are mostly unaffected by parameter degeneracies, they provide the cleanest probe of these early Universe models; (b) using the BICEP and QUaD data we obtain the following parameter constraints: r = 0.02{sup +0.31}{sub −0.26} (1σ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in the single field inflationary model); m < 1.36 × 10{sup −8}M{sub pl} and k{sub *} < 2.43 × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −1} (1σ for the mass and scale parameters in the loop quantum cosmology model); and Gμ < 5.77 × 10{sup −7} (1σ for the cosmic string tension); (c) future CMB observations (both satellite missions and forthcoming sub-orbital experiments) will provide much more rigorous tests of these early Universe models.

  1. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  2. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  3. Approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit: General assessment of the main limiting mechanisms in photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vossier, Alexis Gualdi, Federico; Dollet, Alain; Ares, Richard; Aimez, Vincent

    2015-01-07

    In principle, the upper efficiency limit of any solar cell technology can be determined using the detailed-balance limit formalism. However, “real” solar cells show efficiencies which are always below this theoretical value due to several limiting mechanisms. We study the ability of a solar cell architecture to approach its own theoretical limit, using a novel index introduced in this work, and the amplitude with which the different limiting mechanisms affect the cell efficiency is scrutinized as a function of the electronic gap and the illumination level to which the cell is submitted. The implications for future generations of solar cells aiming at an improved conversion of the solar spectrum are also addressed.

  4. Electric dipole response of {sup 208}Pb and constraints on the symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamii, A.

    2014-05-02

    The electric dipole (E1) response of {sup 208}Pb has been precisely determined by measuring polarized proton inelastic scattering at very forward angles including zero degrees. The electric dipole polarizability, that is defined as the inverse energy-weighted sum rule of the E1 reduced transition strength, has been extracted as ?{sub D} = 20.1 0.6 fm{sup 3}. A constraint band has been extracted in the plane of the symmetry energy (J) and its slope parameter (L) at the saturation density.

  5. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  6. Geothermal energy and the land resource: conflicts and constraints in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Hall, C.

    1980-07-14

    This study of potential land-related impacts of geothermal power development in The Geysers region focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. First, the land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems. Based on those factors, the potential land-use conflicts and constraints that geothermal development may encounter in the region are identified and the availability and relative suitability of land for such development is determined. A brief review of laws and powers germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  7. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  8. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  9. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  10. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  11. The low noise limit in gene expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.; Razooky, Brandon S.

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiency can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.

  12. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  13. Combined SM Higgs Limits at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumnack, N.

    2009-10-01

    We combine results from CDF and D{sup 0} on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels WH {yields} {tau}{nu}b{bar b}, VH {yields} {tau}{tau}b{bar b}/jj{tau}{tau}, VH {yields} jjb{bar b}, t{bar t}H {yields} t{bar t}b{bar b} have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb{sup -1} at D{sup 0}, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  15. Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon

    2014-02-18

    A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, β, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.

  16. The low noise limit in gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.; Razooky, Brandon S.

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiencymore » can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.« less

  17. Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Plugging America Into the Future of Power: Superconducting & Solid-state Power Equipment What are Fault Current Limiters Why do we need Fault Current Limiters What are the benefits to utilities Fault Current Limiter projects Fault Current Limiters (926.42 KB) More Documents & Publications An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements Superconductivity Program Overview Superconductivity for

  18. Analyticity constraints on the Landshoff-Donnachie fit to total cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, M. M.; Halzen, F.

    2006-12-01

    Landshoff and Donnachie [A. Donnachie and P. V. Landshoff, Phys. Lett. B 296, 227 (1992).; P. V. Landshoff, hep-ph/0509240] parametrize the energy behavior of pp and pp scattering cross sections with five parameters, using: {sigma}{sup +}=56.08s{sup -0.4525}+21.70s{sup 0.0808} for pp, {sigma}{sup -}=98.39s{sup -0.4525}+21.70s{sup 0.0808} for pp. Using the four analyticity constraints of Block and Halzen [M. M. Block and F. Halzen, Phys. Rev. D 72, 036006 (2005).], we simultaneously fit the Landshoff-Donnachie form to the same sieved set of pp and pp cross section and {rho} data that Block and Halzen used for a very good fit to a ln{sup 2}s parametrization. We show that the satisfaction of the analyticity constraints will require modification of the Landshoff-Donnachie parametrization for lower energies, thus altering its inherent appeal of simplicity and universality.

  19. Neutrinos and dark energy after Planck and BICEP2: data consistency tests and cosmological parameter constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jing-Fei; Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Xin E-mail: gengjiajia163@163.com

    2014-10-01

    The detection of the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by the BICEP2 experiment implies that the tensor-to-scalar ratio r should be involved in the base standard cosmology. In this paper, we extend the ΛCDM r+neutrino/dark radiation models by replacing the cosmological constant with the dynamical dark energy with constant w. Four neutrino plus dark energy models are considered, i.e., the wCDM r ∑ m{sub ν}, wCDM r N{sub eff}, wCDM r ∑ m{sub ν} N{sub eff}, and wCDM r N{sub eff} m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} models. The current observational data considered in this paper include the Planck temperature data, the WMAP 9-year polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement data, the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts data, the Planck CMB lensing data, the cosmic shear data, and the BICEP2 polarization data. We test the data consistency in the four cosmological models, and then combine the consistent data sets to perform joint constraints on the models. We focus on the constraints on the parameters w, ∑ m{sub ν}, N{sub eff}, and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff}.

  20. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a

  1. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Philip G.; Underwood, Daniel E.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  2. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Philip G.; Underwood, Daniel E.

    1989-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  3. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. We derived the limits from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in proton–proton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. Furthermore, these constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginosmore » with a lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. Furthermore, the method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.« less

  4. Chapter_2_Limited_Areas_Vault-Type_Rooms_and_Temporary_Limited_Areas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Limited Areas, VTRs, and Temporary Limited Areas Chapter 2 describes the security procedures adopted by DOE HQ to implement the requirements of the following DOE directives: * DOE Order 473.3, Protection Program Operations * DOE Order 471.6, Change 1, Information Security * DOE Order 475.2A, Identifying Classified Information * Classification Bulletin TNP-32, Classification Guidance for Classified Meeting Locations at DOE/NNSA or DOE/NNSA Contractor Sites or Facilities, dated May 27, 2010 DOE

  5. Microtearing turbulence: Magnetic braiding and disruption limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firpo, Marie-Christine

    2015-12-15

    A realistic reduced model involving a large poloidal spectrum of microtearing modes is used to probe the existence of some stochasticity of magnetic field lines. Stochasticity is shown to occur even for the low values of the magnetic perturbation δB/B devoted to magnetic turbulence that have been experimentally measured. Because the diffusion coefficient may strongly depend on the radial (or magnetic-flux) coordinate, being very low near some resonant surfaces, and because its evaluation implicitly makes a normal diffusion hypothesis, one turns to another indicator appropriate to diagnose the confinement: the mean residence time of magnetic field lines. Their computation in the microturbulence frame points to the existence of a disruption limit, namely of a critical order of magnitude of δB/B above which stochasticity is no longer benign yet, leads to a macroscopic loss of confinement in some tens to hundred of electron toroidal excursions. Since the level of magnetic turbulence δB/B has been measured to grow with the plasma electron density, this would also be a density limit.

  6. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less

  7. Constraining the sensitivity of iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry to multifunctional organic molecules using the collision limit and thermodynamic stability of iodide ion adducts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddarth; Mohr, Claudia; Lee, Ben H.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Kurtén, Theo; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-04-06

    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion–molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion–molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion–molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidatesmore » the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. We describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.« less

  8. Constraining the sensitivity of iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry to multifunctional organic molecules using the collision limit and thermodynamic stability of iodide ion adducts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddarth; Mohr, Claudia; Lee, Ben H.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Kurten, Theo; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-04-06

    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion–molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion–molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion–molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidatesmore » the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. Lastly, we describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.« less

  9. Improved limits on scattering of weakly interacting massive particles from reanalysis of 2013 LUX data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Akerib, D. S.

    2016-04-20

    Here, we present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 × 104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signalmore » only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c–2, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c–2 WIMP mass.« less

  10. SunDwel Solar Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SunDwel Solar Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: SunDwel Solar Limited Name: SunDwel Solar Limited Address: 1 Tower Road Place: Washington, United Kingdom Sector: Solar...

  11. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. 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H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the 2mZ and 2mW thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the ZZ→4ℓ, ZZ→2ℓ2ν and WW→eνμν final states. The result is based on pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1 at a collision energy of √s=8 TeV. Using the CLs method, the observed 95 %% confidence level (CL) upper limit on the off-shell signal strength is in the range 5.1–8.6, with an expected range of 6.7–11.0. In each case the range is determined by varying the unknown gg→ZZ and gg→WW background K-factor from higher-order quantum chromodynamics corrections between half and twice the value of the known signal K-factor. Assuming the relevant Higgs boson couplings are independent of the energy scale of the Higgs boson production, a combination with the on-shell measurements yields an observed (expected) 95 % CL upper limit on ΓH/ΓSMH in the range 4.5–7.5 (6.5–11.2) using the same variations of the background K-factor. Assuming that the unknown gg→VV background K-factor is equal to the signal K-factor, this translates into an observed (expected) 95 % CL upper limit on the Higgs boson total width of 22.7 (33.0) MeV.

  12. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  13. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  14. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  15. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Department of Physics, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas 78155 ; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; TriAlpha Energy, Inc., Foothill Ranch, California 92610 ; Reynolds, E.

    2013-11-15

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability.

  16. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Simon , Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    U-shaped limiter tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners secured to a wall have two rods which engage L-shaped slots in the runners. The short receiving legs of the L-shaped slots are perpendicular to the wall and open away from the wall, while long retaining legs are parallel to and adjacent the wall. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the runners. Resilient contact strips between the parallel arms of the U-shaped tiles and the wall assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall.

  17. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  18. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating ...

  19. Birmingham Research and Development Limited BRDL | Open Energy...

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    Birmingham Research and Development Limited BRDL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Birmingham Research and Development Limited (BRDL) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services...

  20. BP Energy India Private Limited BPEIPL | Open Energy Information

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    India Private Limited BPEIPL Jump to: navigation, search Name: BP Energy India Private Limited (BPEIPL) Place: India Sector: Wind energy Product: India-based, subsidiary of Green...

  1. The Department of Energy's Limited English Proficiency Plan ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Department of Energy's Limited English Proficiency Plan The Department of Energy's Limited English Proficiency Plan The identification of reasonable steps to provide oral and ...

  2. First National Battery PTY Limited FNB Australia | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PTY Limited FNB Australia Jump to: navigation, search Name: First National Battery (PTY) Limited (FNB Australia) Place: Australia Product: Distributes motive power batteries and...

  3. Huadian Inner Mongolia Kailu Wind Power Company Limited | Open...

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    Inner Mongolia Kailu Wind Power Company Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huadian Inner Mongolia Kailu Wind Power Company Limited Place: Jinan, Inner Mongolia Autonomous...

  4. Ecotality Inc formerly Alchemy Enterprises Limited | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc formerly Alchemy Enterprises Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ecotality Inc (formerly Alchemy Enterprises Limited) Place: Scottsdale, Arizona Zip: 85251 Sector:...

  5. Nahar Industrial Enterprises Limited NIEL | Open Energy Information

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    Industrial Enterprises Limited NIEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nahar Industrial Enterprises Limited (NIEL) Place: Punjab, India Zip: 140506 Sector: Biomass Product:...

  6. Carbon Compliance Acquisition 16 Limited | Open Energy Information

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    Compliance Acquisition 16 Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Compliance Acquisition 16 Limited Place: United Kingdom Zip: LS12DS Product: Security broking and fund...

  7. Jilin Taihe Wind Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taihe Wind Power Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jilin Taihe Wind Power Limited Place: Zhenlai, Jilin Province, China Sector: Wind energy Product: Top Well and Tianjin DH...

  8. Tongliao Taihe Wind Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taihe Wind Power Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tongliao Taihe Wind Power Limited Place: Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  9. Huaneng Shouguang Wind Power Company Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huaneng Shouguang Wind Power Company Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huaneng Shouguang Wind Power Company Limited Place: Shouguang, Shandong Province, China Sector: Wind...

  10. TurboTech Precision Engineering Private Limited | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TurboTech Precision Engineering Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: TurboTech Precision Engineering Private Limited Place: Bangalore, India Zip: 560 044 Sector:...

  11. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation ...

  12. EnviTec Biogas India Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: EnviTec Biogas India Private Limited Place: India Product: Manufacturer of anaerobic digesters. References: EnviTec Biogas India...

  13. Notice of Emergency Action - Emergency Order To Resume Limited...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emergency Action - Emergency Order To Resume Limited Operation at the Potomac River ... Notice of Emergency Action - Emergency Order To Resume Limited Operation at the Potomac ...

  14. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm acceleratin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of ...

  15. Southwest Wind Farm Private Limited ESS ARR Group | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southwest Wind Farm Private Limited ESS ARR Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southwest Wind Farm Private Limited (ESS ARR Group) Place: Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Zip:...

  16. Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement Core: ... Title: Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement ...

  17. Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels The phenomenon ...

  18. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip:...

  19. Sri Sai Manasa Nature Tech Pvt Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sai Manasa Nature Tech Pvt Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sri Sai Manasa Nature Tech Pvt Limited Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500072 Sector: Services...

  20. Fujian Jinzaoqiao Hydro Power Limited Corporation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jinzaoqiao Hydro Power Limited Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fujian Jinzaoqiao Hydro Power Limited Corporation Place: Ningde, Fujian Province, China Sector: Hydro...

  1. Chiranjjeevi Wind Energy Limited CWEL | Open Energy Information

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    Chiranjjeevi Wind Energy Limited CWEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chiranjjeevi Wind Energy Limited (CWEL) Place: Pollachi, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 642 002 Sector: Wind energy...

  2. Sree Rayalseema Green Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rayalseema Green Energy Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sree Rayalseema Green Energy Limited Place: Gooty, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 515 402 Sector: Biomass Product: A...

  3. The Green Renewable Energy Company Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Company Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Green Renewable Energy Company Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: Company to...

  4. Solar Power Company Limited SPC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Company Limited SPC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Power Company Limited (SPC) Place: Thailand Sector: Solar Product: Thailand-based company that designs,...

  5. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited IREDA | Open...

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    Development Agency Limited IREDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110003...

  6. Allco Renewable Energy Group Limited LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Allco Renewable Energy Group Limited LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Allco Renewable Energy Group Limited, LLC Place: New York, New York Zip: 10005 Sector: Biomass, Solar,...

  7. Free Stream Capital Partners Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Partners Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Free Stream Capital Partners Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1Y 4AA Sector: Wind energy...

  8. Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers Prev Next Title: Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers Authors: Wu, ...

  9. Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Limits of optimal ...

  10. Naranja Sahakari Sakkare Karkhane Limited NSSKL | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sakkare Karkhane Limited (NSSKL) Place: Karnataka, India Product: Karnataka based sugar mill with co-generation activities. References: Naranja Sahakari Sakkare Karkhane Limited...

  11. China Longyuan Power Group Corporation Limited | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Group Corporation Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Longyuan Power Group Corporation Limited Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100034 Sector:...

  12. Tianjin DH Power Investment Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianjin DH Power Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin DH Power Investment Limited Place: Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  13. Genesis Energy Investment Public Limited Company Genesis Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investment Public Limited Company Genesis Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Genesis Energy Investment Public Limited Company (Genesis Solar) Place: Budapest, Hungary Zip:...

  14. Liaoning Shenhua Xiehe Wind Power Investment Limited | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shenhua Xiehe Wind Power Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Liaoning Shenhua Xiehe Wind Power Investment Limited Place: Liaoning Province, China Sector: Wind...

  15. Jilin CWP Milestone Wind Power Investment Limited | Open Energy...

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    Jilin CWP Milestone Wind Power Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jilin CWP-Milestone Wind Power Investment Limited Place: Baicheng, Jilin Province, China Sector:...

  16. Sanraa Media Limited India formerly Sanra Software | Open Energy...

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    Sanraa Media Limited India formerly Sanra Software Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sanraa Media Limited India (formerly Sanra Software) Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip:...

  17. Earls Nook Limited Formerly Biofuels Corporation Plc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Earls Nook Limited Formerly Biofuels Corporation Plc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Earls Nook Limited (Formerly Biofuels Corporation Plc) Place: Teeside, United Kingdom Zip:...

  18. IndianOil CREDA Biofuels Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IndianOil CREDA Biofuels Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: IndianOil-CREDA Biofuels Limited Place: Mumbai, Chhattisgarh, India Zip: 400 051 Sector: Renewable Energy...

  19. Carbon Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited Place: Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2M 2TD Sector: Carbon...

  20. (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC Units: February 11, 2010 (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC ...

  1. Mangalam Bio Energen Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bio Energen Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mangalam Bio-Energen Private Limited Place: Maharashtra, India Sector: Biomass Product: A project developer thats...

  2. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV...

  3. Radius constraints from high-speed photometry of 20 low-mass white dwarf binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermes, J. J.; Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Chote, Paul; Sullivan, D. J.; Winget, D. E.; Bell, Keaton J.; Falcon, R. E.; Winget, K. I.; Harrold, Samuel T.; Montgomery, M. H.; Mason, Paul A.

    2014-09-01

    We carry out high-speed photometry on 20 of the shortest-period, detached white dwarf binaries known and discover systems with eclipses, ellipsoidal variations (due to tidal deformations of the visible white dwarf), and Doppler beaming. All of the binaries contain low-mass white dwarfs with orbital periods of less than four hr. Our observations identify the first eight tidally distorted white dwarfs, four of which are reported for the first time here. We use these observations to place empirical constraints on the mass-radius relationship for extremely low-mass (≤0.30 M {sub ☉}) white dwarfs. We also detect Doppler beaming in several of these binaries, which confirms their high-amplitude radial-velocity variability. All of these systems are strong sources of gravitational radiation, and long-term monitoring of those that display ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect spin-up of the tidal bulge due to orbital decay.

  4. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  5. Constraints on a f(R) gravity dark energy model with early scaling evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr

    2011-09-01

    The modified gravity with f(R) = R{sup 1+?} (? > 0) allows a scaling solution where the energy density of gravity sector follows the energy density of the dominant fluid. We present initial conditions of background and perturbation variables during the scaling evolution regime in the modified gravity. As a possible dark energy model we consider a gravity with a form f(R) = R{sup 1+?}+qR{sup ?n} (?1 < n ? 0) where the second term drives the late-time acceleration. We show that our f(R) gravity parameters are very sensitive to the baryon perturbation growth and baryon density power spectrum, and present observational constraints on the model parameters. We consider full perturbations of f(R) gravity. Our analysis suggests that only the parameter space extremely close to the ?CDM model is allowed with ??<5 10{sup ?6} and n?>?10{sup ?4}.

  6. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  7. Modified gravity a la Galileon: Late time cosmic acceleration and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Amna; Sami, M.; Gannouji, Radouane

    2010-11-15

    In this paper we examine the cosmological consequences of fourth order Galileon gravity. We carry out detailed investigations of the underlying dynamics and demonstrate the stability of one de Sitter phase. The stable de Sitter phase contains a Galileon field {pi} which is an increasing function of time ({pi}>0). Using the required suppression of the fifth force, supernovae, Baryon acoustic oscillations, and CMB data, we constrain parameters of the model. We find that the {pi} matter coupling parameter {beta} is constrained to small numerical values such that {beta}<0.02. We also show that the parameters of the third and fourth order in the action (c{sub 3},c{sub 4}) are not independent and with reasonable assumptions, we obtain constraints on them. We investigate the growth history of the model and find that the subhorizon approximation is not allowed for this model. We demonstrate strong scale dependence of linear perturbations in the fourth order Galileon gravity.

  8. Online Robot Dead Reckoning Localization Using Maximum Relative Entropy Optimization With Model Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urniezius, Renaldas

    2011-03-14

    The principle of Maximum relative Entropy optimization was analyzed for dead reckoning localization of a rigid body when observation data of two attached accelerometers was collected. Model constraints were derived from the relationships between the sensors. The experiment's results confirmed that accelerometers each axis' noise can be successfully filtered utilizing dependency between channels and the dependency between time series data. Dependency between channels was used for a priori calculation, and a posteriori distribution was derived utilizing dependency between time series data. There was revisited data of autocalibration experiment by removing the initial assumption that instantaneous rotation axis of a rigid body was known. Performance results confirmed that such an approach could be used for online dead reckoning localization.

  9. Present constraints on the H-dibaryon at the physical point from Lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beane, S. R.; Chang, E.; Detmold, W.; Joo, B.; Lin, H. -W.; Luu, T. C.; Orginos, K.; Parreno, A.; Savage, M. J.; Torok, A.; et al

    2011-11-10

    The current constraints from Lattice QCD on the existence of the H-dibaryon are discussed. With only two significant Lattice QCD calculations of the H-dibaryon binding energy at approximately the same lattice spacing, the form of the chiral and continuum extrapolations to the physical point are not determined. In this brief report, an extrapolation that is quadratic in the pion mass, motivated by low-energy effective field theory, is considered. An extrapolation that is linear in the pion mass is also considered, a form that has no basis in the effective field theory, but is found to describe the light-quark mass dependencemore » observed in Lattice QCD calculations of the octet baryon masses. In both cases, the extrapolation to the physical pion mass allows for a bound H-dibaryon or a near-threshold scattering state.« less

  10. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Kumar, Suresh; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Xu, Lixin E-mail: sukuyd@gmail.com E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis.

  11. Observational constraints on dark energy with a fast varying equation of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, Antonio De; Nesseris, Savvas

    2012-05-01

    We place observational constraints on models with the late-time cosmic acceleration based on a number of parametrizations allowing fast transitions for the equation of state of dark energy. In addition to the model of Linder and Huterer where the dark energy equation of state w monotonically grows or decreases in time, we propose two new parametrizations in which w has an extremum. We carry out the likelihood analysis with the three parametrizations by using the observational data of supernovae type Ia, cosmic microwave background, and baryon acoustic oscillations. Although the transient cosmic acceleration models with fast transitions can give rise to the total chi square smaller than that in the ?-Cold-Dark-Matter (?CDM) model, these models are not favored over ?CDM when one uses the Akaike information criterion which penalizes the extra degrees of freedom present in the parametrizations.

  12. Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl

    2014-03-01

    An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.

  13. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  14. The limits of the nuclear landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, Witold; Erler, J.; Birge, N.; Kortelainen, E. M.; Olsen, E.; Perhac, A.; Stoitsov, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, 100 new nuclides were discovered1. They joined the approximately 3,000 stable and radioactive nuclides that either occur naturally on Earth or are synthesized in the laboratory2,3. Every atomic nucleus, characterized by a specific number of protons and neutrons, occupies a spot on the chart of nuclides, which is bounded by drip lines indicating the values of neutron and proton number at which nuclear binding ends. The placement of the neutron drip line for the heavier elements is based on theoretical predictions using extreme extrapolations, and so is uncertain. However, it is not known how uncertain it is or how many protons and neutrons can be bound in a nucleus. Here we estimate these limits of the nuclear landscape and provide statistical and systematic uncertainties for our predictions. We use nuclear density functional theory, several Skyrme interactions and high-performance computing, and find that the number of bound nuclides with between 2 and 120 protons is around 7,000. We find that extrapolations for drip-line positions and selected nuclear properties, including neutron separation energies relevant to astrophysical processes, are very consistent between the models used.

  15. The ultimate downscaling limit of FETs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamaluy, Denis; Gao, Xujiao; Tierney, Brian David

    2014-10-01

    We created a highly efficient, universal 3D quant um transport simulator. We demonstrated that the simulator scales linearly - both with the problem size (N) and number of CPUs, which presents an important break-through in the field of computational nanoelectronics. It allowed us, for the first time, to accurately simulate and optim ize a large number of realistic nanodevices in a much shorter time, when compared to other methods/codes such as RGF[~N 2.333 ]/KNIT, KWANT, and QTBM[~N 3 ]/NEMO5. In order to determine the best-in-class for different beyond-CMOS paradigms, we performed rigorous device optimization for high-performance logic devices at 6-, 5- and 4-nm gate lengths. We have discovered that there exists a fundamental down-scaling limit for CMOS technology and other Field-Effect Transistors (FETs). We have found that, at room temperatures, all FETs, irre spective of their channel material, will start experiencing unacceptable level of thermally induced errors around 5-nm gate lengths.

  16. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Sung Ha Kim, Seong Jun Zhou, Haomin

    2015-10-15

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. MASTER Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Canada Limited ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF NEUTRONS SCATTERED FROM GRAPHITE, LIGHT AND HEAVY WATER,ICE,ZIRCONIUM HY0RI0E,1ITHIUM HYORIOE,SOOIUM HYDRIDE AND CHLORIDE BY THE BERYLLIUM DETECTOR METHOD C R N P 9 4 8 b y A . D . B . W O O D S , B . N . B R O C K H O U S E , M. S A K A M O T O A N D R . N . S I N C L A I R P a p e r f o r P r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e I A E A S y m p o s i u m on I n e l a s t i c S c a t t e r i n g o f N e u t r o n s i n S o l i d s a n d L i q u i d s , V i e n n

  18. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  19. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  20. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions.

  1. Dispersal Limitations on Fish Community Recovery Following Long-term Water Quality Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Jett, Robert T.; Ryon, Michael G.; Gregory, Scott M.; Stratton, Sally H.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2016-02-22

    Holistic restoration approaches, such as water quality remediation, are likely to meet conservation objectives because they are typically implemented at watershed scales, as opposed to individual stream reaches. However, habitat fragmentation may impose constraints on the ecological effectiveness of holistic restoration strategies by limiting colonization following remediation. We questioned the importance of dispersal limitations to fish community recovery following long-term water quality remediation and species reintroductions across the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). Long-term (26 years) responses in fish species richness and biomass to water quality remediation were evaluated in light of habitat fragmentation andmore » population isolation from instream barriers, which varied in their passage potential. In addition, ordination techniques were used to determine the relative importance of habitat connectivity and water quality, in explaining variation fish communities relative to environmental fluctuations, i.e. streamflow. Ecological recovery (changes in richness) at each site was negatively related to barrier index, a measure of community isolation by barriers relative to stream distance. Following species reintroductions, dispersal by fish species was consistently in the downstream direction and upstream passage above barriers was non-existent. The importance of barrier index in explaining variation in fish communities was stronger during higher flow conditions, but decreased over time an indication of increasing community stability and loss of seasonal migrants. Compared to habitat fragmentation, existing water quality concerns (i.e., outfalls, point source discharges) were unrelated to ecological recovery, but explained relatively high variation in community dynamics. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation limited the ecological effectiveness of intensive water quality remediation efforts and fish reintroduction

  2. PP-85-3 Boliden Power Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Boliden Power Limited PP-85-3 Boliden Power Limited Presidential Permit authorizing Boliden Power Limited to construct, operate, and maintain transmission facilities at the U.S. - Canada Border. PP 85-3 Boliden Power Limited (868.49 KB) More Documents & Publications PP-85-2 Boliden Westmin (Canada) Limited PP-45-2 Northern States Power Company PP-61-1 Minnkota Power Cooperative (MPC

  3. FAQs for Limited English Proficiency Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FAQs for Limited English Proficiency Program FAQs for Limited English Proficiency Program 1. Q: Who is a Limited English Proficient (LEP) individual? A: Individuals who do not speak English as their primary language and who have a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English can be limited English proficient, or "LEP." These individuals may be entitled language assistance with respect to a particular type of service, benefit, or encounter. 2.Q: What are the relevant

  4. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  5. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  6. Constraints on the spin-parity and anomalous HVV couplings of the Higgs boson in proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-13

    Our study of the spin-parity and tensor structure of the interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson is performed using the H→ZZ,Zγ*,γ*γ*→4ℓ, H→WW→ℓνℓν, and H→γγ decay modes. The full data set recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 is used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 5.1 fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and up to 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV. A wide range of spin-two models is excluded at a 99% confidence level or higher, or at a 99.87% confidence level for the minimal gravitylike couplings, regardless of whether assumptions are made on the production mechanism. Any mixed-parity spin-one state is excluded in the ZZ and WW modes at a greater than 99.999% confidence level. Under the hypothesis that the resonance is a spin-zero boson, the tensor structure of the interactions of the Higgs boson with two vector bosons ZZ, Zγ, γγ, and WW is investigated and limits on eleven anomalous contributions are set. Furthermore, the tighter constraints on anomalous HVV interactions are obtained by combining the HZZand HWW measurements. All observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson with the quantum numbers JPC=0++.

  7. Constraints on the spin-parity and anomalous HVV couplings of the Higgs boson in proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-13

    Our study of the spin-parity and tensor structure of the interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson is performed using the H→ZZ,Zγ*,γ*γ*→4ℓ, H→WW→ℓνℓν, and H→γγ decay modes. The full data set recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 is used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 5.1 fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and up to 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV. A wide range of spin-two models is excluded at a 99% confidence level or higher, or at a 99.87% confidence level for the minimal gravitylike couplings, regardless of whether assumptions are mademore » on the production mechanism. Any mixed-parity spin-one state is excluded in the ZZ and WW modes at a greater than 99.999% confidence level. Under the hypothesis that the resonance is a spin-zero boson, the tensor structure of the interactions of the Higgs boson with two vector bosons ZZ, Zγ, γγ, and WW is investigated and limits on eleven anomalous contributions are set. Furthermore, the tighter constraints on anomalous HVV interactions are obtained by combining the HZZand HWW measurements. All observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson with the quantum numbers JPC=0++.« less

  8. Constraint-Based Modeling of Carbon Fixation and the Energetics of Electron Transfer in Geobacter metallireducens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feist, AM; Nagarajan, H; Rotaru, AE; Tremblay, PL; Zhang, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR; Zengler, K

    2014-04-24

    Geobacter species are of great interest for environmental and biotechnology applications as they can carry out direct electron transfer to insoluble metals or other microorganisms and have the ability to assimilate inorganic carbon. Here, we report on the capability and key enabling metabolic machinery of Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 to carry out CO2 fixation and direct electron transfer to iron. An updated metabolic reconstruction was generated, growth screens on targeted conditions of interest were performed, and constraint-based analysis was utilized to characterize and evaluate critical pathways and reactions in G. metallireducens. The novel capability of G. metallireducens to grow autotrophically with formate and Fe(III) was predicted and subsequently validated in vivo. Additionally, the energetic cost of transferring electrons to an external electron acceptor was determined through analysis of growth experiments carried out using three different electron acceptors (Fe(III), nitrate, and fumarate) by systematically isolating and examining different parts of the electron transport chain. The updated reconstruction will serve as a knowledgebase for understanding and engineering Geobacter and similar species. Author Summary The ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons directly with their environment has large implications for our knowledge of industrial and environmental processes. For decades, it has been known that microbes can use electrodes as electron acceptors in microbial fuel cell settings. Geobacter metallireducens has been one of the model organisms for characterizing microbe-electrode interactions as well as environmental processes such as bioremediation. Here, we significantly expand the knowledge of metabolism and energetics of this model organism by employing constraint-based metabolic modeling. Through this analysis, we build the metabolic pathways necessary for carbon fixation, a desirable property for industrial chemical production. We

  9. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  10. The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for thecosmic infrared background. I. Limits and detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot,G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-01-06

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mu m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 mu m(nu l nu<64 nW m-2 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level) and at 240 mu m (nu l nu < 28 nW m-1 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 mum data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 mu m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 mu m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of nu l nu = 25 +- 7 and 14 +- 3 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 and 240 mu m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 mu m, 10.3 nW m-2sr-1, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter.

  11. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  12. CONSTRAINTS ON DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES FROM DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Emma; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano; Rudnick, Lawrence

    2013-05-10

    Annihilation of dark matter can result in the production of stable Standard Model particles including electrons and positrons that, in the presence of magnetic fields, lose energy via synchrotron radiation, observable as radio emission. Galaxy clusters are excellent targets to search for or to constrain the rate of dark matter annihilation, as they are both massive and dark matter dominated. In this study, we place limits on dark matter annihilation in a sample of nearby clusters using upper limits on the diffuse radio emission, low levels of observed diffuse emission, or detections of radio mini-halos. We find that the strongest limits on the annihilation cross section are better than limits derived from the non-detection of clusters in the gamma-ray band by a factor of {approx}3 or more when the same annihilation channel and substructure model, but different best-case clusters, are compared. The limits on the cross section depend on the assumed amount of substructure, varying by as much as two orders of magnitude for increasingly optimistic substructure models as compared to a smooth Navarro-Frenk-White profile. In our most optimistic case, using the results of the Phoenix Project, we find that the derived limits reach below the thermal relic cross section of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for dark matter masses as large as 400 GeV, for the b b-bar annihilation channel. We discuss uncertainties due to the limited available data on the magnetic field structure of individual clusters. We also report the discovery of diffuse radio emission from the central 30-40 kpc regions of the groups M49 and NGC 4636.

  13. Constraint on the polarization of electric dipole emission from spinning dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoang, Thiem; Martin, P. G.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-12-20

    Planck results have revealed that the electric dipole emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the most reliable explanation for the anomalous microwave emission that interferes with cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation experiments. The emerging question is to what extent this emission component contaminates the polarized CMB radiation. We present constraints on polarized dust emission for the model of grain-size distribution and grain alignment that best fits the observed extinction and polarization curves. Two stars with a prominent polarization feature at ? = 2175 ŗHD 197770 and HD 147933-4are chosen for our study. For HD 197770, we find that the model with aligned silicate grains plus weakly aligned PAHs can successfully reproduce the 2175 polarization feature; in contrast, for HD 147933-4, we find that the alignment of only silicate grains can account for that feature. The alignment function of PAHs for the best-fit model to the HD 197770 data is used to constrain polarized spinning dust emission. We find that the degree of polarization of spinning dust emission is about 1.6% at frequency ? ? 3 GHz and declines to below 0.9% for ? > 20 GHz. We also predict the degree of polarization of thermal dust emission at 353 GHz to be P {sub em} ? 11% and 14% for the lines of sight to the HD 197770 and HD 147933-4 stars, respectively.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, Steve; Stephens, Thomas; McManus, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Three-dimensional CTOA and constraint effects during stable tearing in a thin-sheet material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawicke, D.S.; Newman, J.C. Jr.; Bigelow, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    A small strain theory, three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis was used to simulate fracture in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy in the T-L orientation. Both straight and tunneled cracks were modeled. The tunneled crack front shapes as a function of applied stress were obtained from the fracture surface of tested specimens. The stable crack growth behavior was measured at the specimen surface as a function of applied stress. The fracture simulation modeled the crack tunneling and extension as a function of applied stress. The results indicated that the global constrain factor, {alpha}{sub g}, initially dropped during stable crack growth. After peak applied stress was achieved, {alpha}{sub g}, initially dropped during stable crack growth. After peak applied stress was achieved, {alpha}{sub g}, began to increase slightly. The effect of crack front shape on {alpha}{sub g} was small, but the crack front shape did greatly influence the local constraint and through-thickness crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) behavior. The surface values of CTOA for the tunneled crack front model agreed well with experimental measurements, showing the same initial decrease from high values during the initial 3 mm of crack growth at the specimen`s surface. At the same time, the interior CTOA values increased from low angles. After the initial stable tearing region, the CTOA was constant through the thickness. The three-dimensional analysis appears to confirm the potential of CTOA as a two-dimensional fracture criterion.

  17. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Tectonic control of the sedimentary record: Constraints from quantitative basin modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Van Balen, R.T.; Zoetemeijer, B.P. )

    1993-09-01

    The incorporation of finite strength of the lithosphere during rifting in models for extensional basin formation in conjunction with temporal changes in tectonic stress levels leads to the prediction of rapid vertical motions in these basins with a rate and magnitude comparable to second- and third-order changes in relative sea level. We present results of modeling simulations, incorporating the interplay of flank uplift and erosion for rifted basins in the northern Atlantic/North Sea area. The incorporation of the mechanical properties of the lithosphere in forward stratigraphic modeling appears also to be of key importance for an accurate prediction of the record of vertical motions in foreland fold and thrust belts. Models invoking the mechanical coupling between plate flexure and near-surface brittle tectonics are capable of producing onlap/offlap patterns in syntectonic basins sometimes strikingly similar to the basin-fill signatures attributed to third-order glacio-eustatic signals. The full incorporation of structural geological constraints in forward modeling of basin stratigraphy proves to be a powerful instrument in linking different temporal and spatial scales in the sedimentary record. This approach also leads to a quantification of the tectonic control of the sedimentary record in frequency bands hitherto primarily attributed to external forcing functions.

  19. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  20. The Higgs boson in the Standard Model theoretical constraints and a direct search in the wh channel at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huske, Nils Kristian; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2010-09-01

    We have presented results in two different yet strongly linked aspects of Higgs boson physics. We have learned about the importance of the Higgs boson for the fate of the Standard Model, being either only a theory limited to explaining phenomena at the electroweak scale or, if the Higgs boson lies within a mass range of 130 < m{sub H} < 160 GeV the SM would remain a self consistent theory up to highest energy scales O(m{sub Pl}). This could have direct implications on theories of cosmological inflation using the Higgs boson as the particle giving rise to inflation in the very early Universe, if it couples non-minimally to gravity, an effect that would only become significant at very high energies. After understanding the immense meaning of proving whether the Higgs boson exists and if so, at which mass, we have presented a direct search for a Higgs boson in associated production with a W boson in a mass range 100 < m{sub H} < 150 GeV. A light Higgs boson is favored regarding constraints from electroweak precision measurements. As a single analysis is not yet sensitive for an observation of the Higgs boson using 5.3 fb{sup -1} of Tevatron data, we set limits on the production cross section times branching ratio. At the Tevatron, however, we are able to combine the sensitivity of our analyses not only across channels or analyses at a single experiment but also across both experiments, namely CDF and D0. This yields to the so-called Tevatron Higgs combination which, in total, combines 129 analyses from both experiments with luminosities of up to 6.7 fb{sup -1}. The results of a previous Tevatron combination led to the first exclusion of possible Higgs boson masses since the LEP exclusion in 2001. The latest Tevatron combination from July 2010 can be seen in Fig. 111 and limits compared to the Standard Model expectation are listed in Table 23. It excludes a SM Higgs boson in the regions of 100 < m{sub H} < 109 GeV as well as 158 < m{sub H} < 175 GeV based on the

  1. Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filters and NO2 Emission Limits Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits EPAs New air quality standards for NO2 will impact future DPF designs deer09ibrahim.pdf (1.05 ...

  2. Dong Energy London Array Limited Formerly known as CORE Ltd ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited is a UK Joint Venture between Farm energy and Energi E2, involved in offshore wind farms in the outer Thames Estuary. References: Dong Energy London Array Limited...

  3. CO2e Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e Capital Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2e Capital Limited Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10022 Product: New York based merchant bank focused on reducing global...

  4. EA-365-A Centre Lane Trading Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Centre Lane Trading Limited EA-365-A Centre Lane Trading Limited Order authorizing CLT to export electric energy to Canada. EA-365-A Centre Lane (CN).pdf (1.06 MB) More ...

  5. SENSITIVITY OF HELIOSEISMIC TRAVEL TIMES TO THE IMPOSITION OF A LORENTZ FORCE LIMITER IN COMPUTATIONAL HELIOSEISMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Hamed; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-02-20

    The rapid exponential increase in the Alfvn wave speed with height above the solar surface presents a serious challenge to physical modeling of the effects of magnetic fields on solar oscillations, as it introduces a significant Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time-step constraint for explicit numerical codes. A common approach adopted in computational helioseismology, where long simulations in excess of 10 hr (hundreds of wave periods) are often required, is to cap the Alfvn wave speed by artificially modifying the momentum equation when the ratio between the Lorentz and hydrodynamic forces becomes too large. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Alfvn wave speed plays a critical role in the MHD mode conversion process, particularly in determining the reflection height of the upwardly propagating helioseismic fast wave. Using numerical simulations of helioseismic wave propagation in constant inclined (relative to the vertical) magnetic fields we demonstrate that the imposition of such artificial limiters significantly affects time-distance travel times unless the Alfvn wave-speed cap is chosen comfortably in excess of the horizontal phase speeds under investigation.

  6. Limited_Burn_CX_10-26-09.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limited English Proficiency Limited English Proficiency On August 11, 2000, President Clinton signed Executive Order 13166, "Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency." The Executive Order requires federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to examine the programs and services they provide, to determine whether there is a need for language assistance for persons with Limited English proficiency (LEP) related to their programs and services, and

  7. PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership Presidential permit authorizing Frontera Generation Limited Partnership to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Mexican border. PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership (19.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-403 Frontera Marketing, LLC PP-174 Imperial Irrigation District PP-53 Rio Grande Electric

  8. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  9. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency | Department of Energy Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #11 Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency (October 2007) (228.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Check

  10. Limited Test Ban Treaty Signed | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Limited Test Ban Treaty Signed Limited Test Ban Treaty Signed Washington, DC The United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibiting underwater, atmospheric, and outer space nuclear tests. Nuclear testing continues underground

  11. The effect of dimension limits on the performance indices of Stirling engine MAC-02

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abenavoli, R.I.; Carlini, M.; Kormanski, H.; Rudzinska, K.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a comparative study of different Stirling engine MAC-02 specifications. The MAC-02 is the engine of beta configuration with heater and cooler tubes drilled inside the cylinder wall and connected by an annular regenerator of wire mesh type, surrounding the cylinder. Piston and displacer are driven by Ericsson linkage, which brings some advantages with respect to other conventional drives, however, for its complexity it has not been considered yet in published Stirling engine optimization codes. The most difficult aspects in designing such an engine configuration is the strong interdependence among constructional parameters particularly drive rod angularity, rod, cylinder, piston and heat exchanger dimensions. For this reason a special method for the optimal engine synthesis was elaborated and presented in Impero Abenavoli, R., et al. (1993). The corresponding computer code SE-OPT was used to obtain results discussed in this paper. A number of the engine design specifications were calculated and compared one to another. Each of the cases under consideration was determined as the optimal solution of non-linear programming problem defined with different engine dimension boundaries. The maximum of indicated power was chosen as the objective function. Although several tens of constraints were included into the optimization problems, only the limits imposed on the total engine length and cylinder diameter are analyzed in this paper. The two parameters were considered as variables dependent on the other ones (free and fixed parameters). The effect of these main engine dimension limits on selected performance indices (indicated power and efficiency) and the optimal values of other ensure parameters such as heat exchanger dimensions, linkage parameters and piston phrase angles were investigated.

  12. Constraints on the gluon Sivers distribution via transverse single spin asymmetries at midrapidity in p{sup {up_arrow}}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}X processes at BNL RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anselmino, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the recent RHIC data on the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) A{sub N}, measured in p{sup {up_arrow}}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}X processes at midrapidity by the PHENIX Collaboration. The measurement is consistent with a vanishing SSA. We analyze this experimental information within a hard scattering approach based on a generalized QCD factorization scheme, with unintegrated, transverse momentum dependent (TMD), parton distribution and fragmentation functions. It turns out that, in the kinematical region of the data, only the gluon Sivers effect could give a large contribution to A{sub N}; its vanishing value is thus an indication about the possible size of the gluon Sivers function (GSF). Approximate upper limits on its magnitude are derived. Additional constraints obtained combining available parameterizations of the quark Sivers function and the Burkardt sum rule (BSR) for the Sivers distributions are also discussed.

  13. X-RAY CONSTRAINTS ON THE LOCAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OCCUPATION FRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Baldassare, Vivienne; Greene, Jenny E.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-01-20

    Distinct seed formation mechanisms are imprinted upon the fraction of dwarf galaxies currently containing a central supermassive black hole. Seeding by Population III remnants is expected to produce a higher occupation fraction than is generated with direct gas collapse precursors. Chandra observations of nearby early-type galaxies can directly detect even low-level supermassive black hole activity, and the active fraction immediately provides a firm lower limit to the occupation fraction. Here, we use the volume-limited AMUSE surveys of ?200 optically selected early-type galaxies to characterize simultaneously, for the first time, the occupation fraction and the scaling of L {sub X} with M {sub star}, accounting for intrinsic scatter, measurement uncertainties, and X-ray limits. For early-type galaxies with M {sub star} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, we obtain a lower limit to the occupation fraction of >20% (at 95% confidence), but full occupation cannot be excluded. The preferred dependence of log L {sub X} upon log M {sub star} has a slope of ?0.7-0.8, consistent with the ''downsizing'' trend previously identified from the AMUSE data set, and a uniform Eddington efficiency is disfavored at ?2?. We provide guidelines for the future precision with which these parameters may be refined with larger or more sensitive samples.

  14. An alternative approach to achieving water quality-based limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C.M.; Graeser, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Since May 1982, members of the Iron and Steel Industry have been required to meet effluent limits based on Best Available Technology (BAT) for a process water discharge to receiving stream. US Steel Clairton Works has been successful in meeting these limits in the last three years; however, the current regulatory thrust is toward more stringent limits based on water quality. In cases of smaller streams such as the receiving stream for Clairton Works` process outfall, these limits can be very rigid. This paper will discuss the alternative approaches investigated to meet the new more stringent limits including the solution chosen.

  15. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (III): constraints on particle dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regis, Marco; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; De Blok, W.J.G.; Massardi, Marcella; Richter, Laura E-mail: sergio.colafrancesco@wits.ac.za E-mail: blok@astron.nl E-mail: laura@ska.ac.za

    2014-10-01

    We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity better than 0.05 mJy/beam in each field. In this work, we first discuss the uncertainties associated with the modeling of the expected signal, such as the shape of the dark matter (DM) profile and the dSph magnetic properties. We then investigate the possibility that point-sources detected in the proximity of the dSph optical center might be due to the emission from a DM cuspy profile. No evidence for an extended emission over a size of few arcmin (which is the DM halo size) has been detected. We present the associated bounds on the WIMP parameter space for different annihilation/decay final states and for different astrophysical assumptions. If the confinement of electrons and positrons in the dSph is such that the majority of their power is radiated within the dSph region, we obtain constraints on the WIMP annihilation rate which are well below the thermal value for masses up to few TeV. On the other hand, for conservative assumptions on the dSph magnetic properties, the bounds can be dramatically relaxed. We show however that, within the next 10 years and regardless of the astrophysical assumptions, it will be possible to progressively close in on the full parameter space of WIMPs by searching for radio signals in dSphs with SKA and its precursors.

  16. Clouds on the hot Jupiter HD189733b: Constraints from the reflection spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barstow, J. K.; Aigrain, S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Hackler, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lee, J. M.; Gibson, N. P.

    2014-05-10

    The hot Jupiter HD 189733b is probably the best studied of the known extrasolar planets, with published transit and eclipse spectra covering the near UV to mid-IR range. Recent work on the transmission spectrum has shown clear evidence for the presence of clouds in its atmosphere, which significantly increases the model atmosphere parameter space that must be explored in order to fully characterize this planet. In this work, we apply the NEMESIS atmospheric retrieval code to the recently published HST/STIS reflection spectrum, and also to the dayside thermal emission spectrum in light of new Spitzer/IRAC measurements, as well as our own re-analysis of the HST/NICMOS data. We first use the STIS data to place some constraints on the nature of clouds on HD 189733b and explore solution degeneracy between different cloud properties and the abundance of Na in the atmosphere; as already noted in previous work, absorption due to Na plays a significant role in determining the shape of the reflection spectrum. We then perform a new retrieval of the temperature profile and abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} from the dayside thermal emission spectrum. Finally, we investigate the effect of including cloud in the model on this retrieval process. We find that the current quality of data does not warrant the extra complexity introduced by including cloud in the model; however, future data are likely to be of sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise that a more complete model, including scattering particles, will be required.

  17. Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-10

    We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicatorscepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masersoperate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f {sub R0} above 5 10{sup 7} are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.

  18. SN 2009ip: CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGENITOR MASS-LOSS RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, E. O.; Lin, L.; Goegues, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Some supernovae (SNe) show evidence for mass-loss events taking place prior to their explosions. Measuring their pre-outburst mass-loss rates provides essential information regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for these events. Here we present XMM-Newton and Swift X-ray observations taken after the latest, and presumably the final, outburst of SN 2009ip. We use these observations as well as new near-infrared and visible-light spectra and published radio and visible-light observations to put six independent order-of-magnitude constraints on the mass-loss rate of the SN progenitor prior to the explosion. Our methods utilize the X-ray luminosity, the bound-free absorption, the H{alpha} luminosity, the SN rise time, free-free absorption, and the bolometric luminosity of the outburst detected prior to the explosion. Assuming spherical mass loss with a wind-density profile, we estimate that the effective mass-loss rate from the progenitor was between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, over a few years prior to the explosion, with a velocity of {approx}10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}. This mass-loss rate corresponds to a total circumstellar matter (CSM) mass of {approx}0.04 M{sub Sun }, within 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm of the SN. We note that the mass-loss rate estimate based on the H{alpha} luminosity is higher by an order of magnitude. This can be explained if the narrow-line H{alpha} component is generated at radii larger than the shock radius, or if the CSM has an aspherical geometry. We discuss simple geometries which are consistent with our results.

  19. The ? Andromedae system: new constraints on the companion mass, system age, and further multiplicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkley, Sasha; David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Veicht, Aaron; Nilsson, Ricky; Mamajek, Eric E.; Kraus, Adam L.; Rice, Emily L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian R.; Beichman, Charles; Dekany, Richard; and others

    2013-12-20

    ? Andromedae is a B9IVn star at 52 pc for which a faint substellar companion separated by 55 2 AU was recently announced. In this work, we present the first spectrum of the companion, '? And B,' using the Project 1640 high-contrast imaging platform. Comparison of our low-resolution YJH-band spectra to empirical brown dwarf spectra suggests an early-L spectral type. Fitting synthetic spectra from PHOENIX model atmospheres to our observed spectrum allows us to constrain the effective temperature to ?2000 K as well as place constraints on the companion surface gravity. Further, we use previously reported log(g) and T {sub eff} measurements of the host star to argue that the ? And system has an isochronal age of 220 100 Myr, older than the 30 Myr age reported previously. This interpretation of an older age is corroborated by the photometric properties of ? And B, which appear to be marginally inconsistent with other 10-100 Myr low-gravity L-dwarfs for the spectral type range we derive. In addition, we use Keck aperture masking interferometry combined with published radial velocity measurements to rule out the existence of any tight stellar companions to ? And A that might be responsible for the system's overluminosity. Further, we show that luminosity enhancements due to a nearly 'pole-on' viewing angle coupled with extremely rapid rotation is unlikely. ? And A is thus consistent with its slightly evolved luminosity class (IV), and we propose here that ? And, with a revised age of 220 100 Myr, is an interloper to the 30 Myr Columba association with which it was previously associated. The photometric and spectroscopic evidence for ? And B combined with our reassessment of the system age implies a substellar companion mass of 50{sub ?13}{sup +16} M {sub Jup}, consistent with a brown dwarf rather than a planetary-mass companion.

  20. Constraints on the progenitor system and the environs of SN 2014J from deep radio observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca, Glorieta de las Astronoma, s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Lundqvist, P.; Bjrnsson, C. I.; Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Beswick, R. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Argo, M. K. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paragi, Z. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Ryder, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Marcaide, J. M.; Ros, E.; Guirado, J. C. [Departamento de Astronoma i Astrofsica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Mart-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    We report deep EVN and eMERLIN observations of the Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Our observations represent, together with JVLA observations of SNe 2011fe and 2014J, the most sensitive radio studies of Type Ia SNe ever. By combining data and a proper modeling of the radio emission, we constrain the mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of SN 2014J to M-dot ?7.010{sup ?10} M{sub ?} yr{sup ?1} (for a wind speed of 100 km s{sup 1}). If the medium around the supernova is uniform, then n {sub ISM} ? 1.3 cm{sup 3}, which is the most stringent limit for the (uniform) density around a Type Ia SN. Our deep upper limits favor a double-degenerate (DD) scenarioinvolving two WD starsfor the progenitor system of SN 2014J, as such systems have less circumstellar gas than our upper limits. By contrast, most single-degenerate (SD) scenarios, i.e., the wide family of progenitor systems where a red giant, main-sequence, or sub-giant star donates mass to an exploding WD, are ruled out by our observations. (While completing our work, we noticed that a paper by Margutti et al. was submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. From a non-detection of X-ray emission from SN 2014J, the authors obtain limits of M-dot ?1.210{sup ?9} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} (for a wind speed of 100 km s{sup 1}) and n {sub ISM} ? 3.5 cm{sup 3}, for the ??r {sup 2} wind and constant density cases, respectively. As these limits are less constraining than ours, the findings by Margutti et al. do not alter our conclusions. The X-ray results are, however, important to rule out free-free and synchrotron self-absorption as a reason for the radio non-detections.) Our estimates on the limits on the gas density surrounding SN2011fe, using the flux density limits from Chomiuk et al., agree well with their results. Although we discuss the possibilities of an SD scenario passing observational tests, as well as uncertainties in the modeling of the radio emission, the evidence from SNe 2011fe and 2014J