National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for market penetration rates

  1. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

  2. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  3. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  4. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  5. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  6. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K.

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  7. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G. P.

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  8. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while...

  9. Appendix M - GPRA06 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into green power markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model. The term "green power" is used to define power generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and various forms of biomass. The Green Power market is an increasingly important element of the national renewable energy contribution, with changes in the regulatory and legislative environment and the recent dramatic changes in natural gas prices slowly altering the size of this opportunity.

  10. Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

  11. Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing Green'' Building in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

  12. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  13. Approach to market-penetration analysis for advanced electric-power-generation technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamontagne, J.; Love, P.; Queirolo, A.

    1980-12-01

    If commercialization of new technologies is the primary objective of the Department of Energy's Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programs, the ultimate measure of benefit from RD and D programs is the extent of commercial acceptance of the developed technologies. Uncertainty about barriers to commercialization - government policy, fuel supply, etc. - make the task of estimating this acceptance very difficult. However, given that decisions must be made regarding allocation of RD and D funds, the best information available, with due regard for uncertainty, should serve as input to these decisions. An approach is presented for quantifying the range of market potential for new technologies (specifically in the utility sector) based on historical information and known plans for the future.

  14. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  15. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This study presents BPA's market price forecasts for the Final Proposal, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's power rates. AURORA was used as the primary tool for (a) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP Settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009, (b) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments and IOU REP Settlements benefits, (c) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (d) providing a price input used for the risk analysis. For information about the calculation of the secondary revenues, uncertainty regarding the IOU REP Settlement benefits and DSI payment uncertainty, and the risk run, see Risk Analysis Study WP-07-FS-BPA-04.

  16. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)approx(t-T){sup -O}MEGA, with OMEGA positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n{sup '}(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  17. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating: Market Research and Program Direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Na; Taylor, Cody; McCabe, Molly J.

    2012-08-12

    This paper presents the development of a voluntary energy asset rating system, to evaluate the physical characteristics and as-built energy efficiency of new and existing commercial buildings. The energy asset rating system is intended to enable commercial building stakeholders to directly compare expected as-built energy performance among similar buildings and to analyze the potential for capital improvements to increase energy efficiency cost-effectively. Market research has been performed to understand the market demand and how to communicate energy and cost savings to owners, investors, financiers, and others to overcome market barriers and motivate capital investment in building energy efficiency. The paper discusses the findings of the market research. Building owners are concerned about redundancy, conflicting requirements, and cost. They also pointed out a data gap and desire a rating program that identifies improvement opportunities. A meaningful linkage between the energy asset rating and other rating systems is essential. Based on the findings, criteria for a successful energy asset rating program have been developed to direct the program design, including validity of ratings, actionable, cost effective recommendations, effective quality control, integration with other rating systems, and necessary training and education. In addition to the rating system, an asset rating tool is being developed to reduce cost and increase standardization, allowing for consistent and reliable comparisons among and between buildings. The asset rating tool is the first step in the process by which owners can enter information about their building structure and receive information on the building’s modeled performance and recommended efficiency measures.

  18. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Home: Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Efficient Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

  20. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition.

  1. Electric rate that shifts hourly may foretell spot-market kWh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, N.

    1985-11-25

    Four California industrial plants have cut their electricity bills up to 16% by shifting from the traditional time-of-use rates to an experimental real-time program (RTP) that varies prices hourly. The users receive a price schedule reflecting changing generating costs one day in advance to encourage them to increase power consumption during the cheapest time periods. Savings during the pilot program range between $11,000 and $32,000 per customer. The hourly cost breakdown encourages consumption during the night and early morning. The signalling system could be expanded to cogenerators and independent small power producers. If an electricity spot market develops, forecasters think a place on the stock exchanges for future-delivery contracts could develop in the future.

  2. Encouraging PV Adoption in New Market-Rate ResidentialConstruction: A Critical Review of Program Experiences to Date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-24

    In this paper, we review experiences with programs to support the deployment of photovoltaics (PV) in new, market-rate homes, drawing upon interviews with program managers around the country, project data, and publicly-available documentation on program design, impacts, and experiences. We focus on state clean energy funds, which have been established in 14 U.S. states to build markets for clean energy resources, as well as a select number of other state or local organizations whose activities are particularly noteworthy. We describe the types of programs implemented and their impacts to date, and discuss key issues and lessons learned for initiatives aimed at growing the new home market for PV.

  3. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. high renewable energy penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high renewable energy penetration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  5. Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Strategy 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 TOTAL NUMBER OF HFVs A. Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Legend: ...

  6. Deploying High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M. H.; Baca, D.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system capacity penetration, or simply 'penetration,' is often defined as the rated power output of the aggregate PV systems on a distribution circuit segment divided by the peak load of that circuit segment. Industry experts agree that a single value defining high penetration is not universally applicable. However, it is generally agreed that a conservative value to designate high penetration is the condition when the ratio of aggregate PV systems ratings to peak load exceeds 15%. This case study illustrates the case of a distribution feeder which is able to accommodate a traditional capacity penetration level of 47%, and perhaps more. New maximum penetration levels need to be defined and verified and enhanced definitions for penetration on a distribution circuit need to be developed. The new penetration definitions and studies will help utility engineers, system developers, and regulatory agencies better agree what levels of PV deployment can be attained without jeopardizing the reliability and power quality of a circuit.

  7. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market ...

  8. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  9. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  10. Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Achieving aggressive energy efficiency targets requires tight coordination and clear communication among owners, designers, builders, and subcontractors. For this townhome project, MassDevelopment, the quasi-governmental agency owner, selected Metric Development of Boston, teaming with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) and Cambridge Seven Architects, to build very high performing market-rate homes. Fort Devens is part of a decommissioned army base in working-class Harvard, Massachusetts, approximately one hour northwest of Boston. The team proposed 12 net zero energy-ready townhomes, meaning that the application of renewable energy systems would result in annual net zero energy use in the homes. The homes were also designed to achieve a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index Score of 41 before adding renewables. For this project, CARB drew on its experience working with Rural Development Inc. on a series of affordable townhomes in northern Massachusetts. The team carefully planned the site to maximize solar access, daylighting, and efficient building forms. The basic strategy was to design a very efficient thermal enclosure while minimizing incremental cost increases compared with standard construction. Using BEopt modeling software, the team established the requirements of the enclosure and investigated multiple assembly options. They settled on double-wall construction with dense-pack cellulose fill. High performance vinyl windows (U-0.24, solar heat gain coefficient [SHGC]-0.22), a vented R-59 attic, and exceptional air sealing completed the package.

  11. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  12. Benchmarking ESCO Projects in Public Sector Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for 2.8B of ESCO revenues Project Objectives: - Track industry performance and evolution over time - Examine trends in savings, investment levels, market penetration of EE ...

  13. Market Allocation (MARKAL) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MARket ALlocation (MARKAL) Model (International Energy Agency) Objectives Integrates hydrogen production, delivery and vehicle components for cost-benefit analysis and policy analysis and determines a market equilibrium solution. Key Attributes & Strengths Analysis is conducted in the context of overall U.S. energy supply and demand. The model incorporates learning curves and scale economies for cost analysis, and identifies major barriers to the market penetration of alternative vehicle

  14. Penetration in GTA welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The size and shape of the weld bead produced in GTA welding depends on the magnitude and distribution of the energy incident on the workpiece surfaces as well as the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece. The input energy is largely controllable through the welding parameters selected, however the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece is less subject to control. Changes in energy dissipation can produce large changes in weld shape or penetration. Heat transport away from the weld pool is almost entirely by conduction, but heat transport in the weld pool is more complicated. Heat conduction through the liquid is an important component, but heat transport by convection (mass transport) is often the dominant mechanism. Convective heat transport is directional and changes the weld pool shape from that produced by conduction alone. Surface tension gradients are often the dominant forces driving fluid flow in GTA weld pools. These gradients are sensitive functions of weld pool chemistry and the energy input distribution to the weld. Experimental and theoretical work conducted primarily in the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of weld pool fluid flow, the forces which drive it, and its effects on weld pool shape. This work is reviewed here. While less common, changes in energy dissipation through the unmelted portion of the workpiece can also affect fusion zone shape or penetration. These effects are also described. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickerson, Jr., James P. (Cedar Crest, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM); Baldwin, Michael D. (Albuquerque, NM); Maguire, Michael C. (Worcester, MA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  16. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  17. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  18. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells. PDF icon 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report More Documents & Publications 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2009 Fuel Cell Market

  19. Funding Opportunity Announcement: SunShot Technology to Market...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    program will enable the widespread market penetration of highly impactful solar energy technologies and solutions through technology research, development, and demonstration to...

  20. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, NaĂŻm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer adoption of PV (from -14% to -61%, depending on the design). Moving towards time-varying rates, on the other hand, may accelerate near- and medium-term deployment (through 2030), but is found to slow adoption in the longer term (-22% in 2050).

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Achieving aggressive energy efficiency targets requires tight coordination and clear communication among owners, designers, builders, and subcontractors. For this townhome project, MassDevelopment, the quasi-governmental agency owner, selected Metric Development of Boston, teaming with Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) and Cambridge Seven Architects, to build very high performing market-rate homes. Fort Devens is part of a decommissioned army base in working-class Harvard, Massachusetts, approximately one hour northwest of Boston. The team proposed 12 net zero energy-ready townhomes that were also designed to achieve a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index Score of 41 before adding renewables. The team carefully planned the site to maximize solar access, daylighting, and efficient building forms.

  3. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  4. Supporting Photovoltaics in Market-Rate Residential NewConstruction: A Summary of Programmatic Experience to Date and LessonsLearned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-02-10

    As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their tax-deductible home mortgage and, with rebates and other financial incentives, potentially achieve an immediate net-positive cash flow from the investment. New homes are amenable to building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are less susceptible to aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems. The performance of PV systems can be optimized on new homes by taking roof orientation and shading into account when designing the home. Perhaps most importantly, subdivisions with PV systems installed on a large number of homes offer potential cost savings from volume purchases of modules and inverters and from scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability of builders to install PV as a standard feature on multiple homes in new subdivisions offers an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and information-related market barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a decision about installing PV. Builders may benefit in several ways from incorporating PV into new homes. Builders may gain greater market differentiation, enhanced media exposure, and less community or political opposition to development projects. Additionally, if homebuyers place a high value on PV, builders may be able to earn additional profits, just as they would on granite countertops or other high-value home features. Although the impact of PV on the original sale price of new homes has not yet been rigorously examined, some limited empirical evidence does suggest that PV and energy efficient features may have a positive effect on resale value. Along with its unique advantages, residential new construction also faces unique barriers to PV adoption. Most fundamentally, perhaps, is the general aversion to technology risk within the building industry, particularly in ''hot'' housing markets where builders face little difficulty selling homes. Builders may also be concerned about the up-front cost of PV and its impact on new home prices and profits. The potential for project delays associated with PV module availability, installation scheduling, utility interconnection agreements, building inspections, permit processing, or other factors, may also be of great concern. Finally, many builders may believe that most homebuyers are not particularly interested in PV, given its cost, and that some may even be opposed based on concerns about aesthetics, maintenance, or reliability. In this paper, prepared on behalf of the Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), we describe early efforts by state clean energy funds to support the deployment of PV in new, market-rate homes. (Other recent reports prepared for CESA describe experiences with programs targeting affordable housing.) We focus on the activities of clean energy funds in nine states that have funded specific projects and/or have offered targeted programs for PV in market-rate residential new construction. We also include in our review several other state or local organizations whose efforts are particularly noteworthy or have some direct bearing on the efforts of clean energy funds in the same state--however, we do not attempt to comprehensively review the activities of entities other than state clean energy funds.

  5. Plug-in electric vehicle market penetration and incentives: a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Book Title Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change Volume 20 Publisher Springer Keywords global vehicle sales, government incentive policies, plug-in electric...

  6. Design study of fiber-composite penetrator cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.; Groves, S.E.; Lyon, R.E.

    1993-10-22

    A design study was conducted to demonstrate the viability of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composites as structural case materials for penetrating warheads. The objective was to conduct well-instrumented experimental studies of composite-body penetrators perforating mild steel plates and quantitatively model these plate penetrations using two- and three-dimensional finite element codes over a wide range of velocities and impact conditions in order to develop predictive capability for composite design and for use in tradeoff studies with existing case materials. Understanding of the failure of composite-body penetrators would be demonstrated by a rational design iteration which significantly improved performance. Initial studies utilized existing 1-degree tapered cylindrical carbon fiber/epoxy composite cases fabricated by wet-filament winding. These sharp-tipped, steel-nose, composite penetrators were strain-gaged, piggy-backed with 57 kilograms, and impacted into steel plates in a velocity-boosted droptower at impact velocities ranging from 3 to 18 meters per second. Load, time, and position data were recorded during the impact event as well as the axial and hoop strains in the composite case. Monolithic 4340 hardened steel penetrators with both sharp- and flat-tip 3-caliber ogive noses were also impacted into mild steel plates. Data from the composite-case and steel penetrators were used to calibrate a multiaxial, rate-dependent, flow and failure model for the mild steel plates in NIKE2D. The authors were then able to successfully predict survival and failure of the composite-case penetrators in normal-incidence droptower tests for different target thickness and velocity combinations.

  7. TRANS4: a computer code calculation of solid fuel penetration of a concrete barrier. [LMFBR; GCFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, C. M.; Kumar, R.; Fink, J. K.

    1980-07-01

    The computer code, TRANS4, models the melting and penetration of a solid barrier by a solid disc of fuel following a core disruptive accident. This computer code has been used to model fuel debris penetration of basalt, limestone concrete, basaltic concrete, and magnetite concrete. Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the importance of various properties on the rate of penetration. Comparisons were made with results from the GROWS II code.

  8. Session 3: Impact on U.S. Ancillary Services Markets from Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2013-05-01

    The presentation provides an overview of how increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy on the electricity grid are impacting ancillary services markets in the United States.

  9. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

  10. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry K.; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  11. Electricity Market Manipulation: How Behavioral Modeling Can Help Market Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-12-18

    The question of how to best design electricity markets to integrate variable and uncertain renewable energy resources is becoming increasingly important as more renewable energy is added to electric power systems. Current markets were designed based on a set of assumptions that are not always valid in scenarios of high penetrations of renewables. In a future where renewables might have a larger impact on market mechanisms as well as financial outcomes, there is a need for modeling tools and power system modeling software that can provide policy makers and industry actors with more realistic representations of wholesale markets. One option includes using agent-based modeling frameworks. This paper discusses how key elements of current and future wholesale power markets can be modeled using an agent-based approach and how this approach may become a useful paradigm that researchers can employ when studying and planning for power systems of the future.

  12. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly ...

  13. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, kK.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical.

  14. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly designed...

  15. higher penetration of renewable energy sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    higher penetration of renewable energy sources - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy ...

  16. Customer-Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Impact of High Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings with Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. There is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. This article uses a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under a reference scenario and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, the article develops retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV are estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. The article finds that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  17. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago ...

  18. Marketing Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expand Utility Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Marketing Resources Marketing Portal Reports, Publications, and Research Utility Toolkit...

  19. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  20. Missing Money--Will the Current Electricity Market Structure Support High (~50%) Wind/Solar?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael

    2015-05-15

    This presentation summarizes the missing money problem and whether the current electricity market structure will support high penetration levels of wind and solar.

  1. NREL: Energy Analysis - Technology and Program Market Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology and Program Market Data This Web page provides market data for renewable energy technologies and programs. The data, presented in individual reports for each area, include data regarding market penetration; industry trends; cost, price, and performance trends; and policy and market drivers. Most of the reports include an outlook for the future. NREL led an effort that was initiated by the Strategic Planning and Analysis group of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  2. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase DER adoption, and thus, shift building energy consumption to a more efficient alternative.

  3. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  4. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications.

  5. Modeling the U.S. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2010-09-01

    Global rooftop PV markets are growing rapidly, fueled by a combination of declining PV prices and several policy-based incentives. The future growth, and size, of the rooftop market is highly dependent on continued PV cost reductions, financing options, net metering policy, carbon prices and future incentives. Several PV market penetration models, sharing a similar structure and methodology, have been developed over the last decade to quantify the impacts of these factors on market growth. This study uses a geospatially rich, bottom-up, PV market penetration model--the Solar Deployment Systems (SolarDS) model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory--to explore key market and policy-based drivers for residential and commercial rooftop PV markets. The identified drivers include a range of options from traditional incentives, to attractive customer financing options, to net metering and carbon policy.

  6. The Use Of Phosphates To Reduce Slag Penetration In Cr203-Based Refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  7. Use of phosphates to reduce slag penetration in Cr2O3-based refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  8. Use of Phosphates to Reduce Slag Penetration in CR203-Based Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorus oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  9. Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration You are accessing a...

  10. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  11. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EARTH PENETRATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, W.M.

    1963-12-24

    A nuclear reactor apparatus for penetrating into the earth's crust is described. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical nuclear core operating at a temperature that is higher than the melting temperature of rock. A high-density ballast member is coupled to the nuclear core such that the overall density of the core-ballast assembly is greater than the density of molten rock. The nuclear core is thermally insulated so that its heat output is constrained to flow axially, with radial heat flow being minimized. In operation, the apparatus is placed in contact with the earth's crust at the point desired to be penetrated. The heat output of the reactor melts the underlying rock, and the apparatus sinks through the resulting magma. The fuel loading of the reactor core determines the ultimate depth of crust penetration. (AEC)

  12. Sunshot Initiative High Penetration Solar Portal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the installed cost of solar energy systems by about 75% will drive widespread large-scale adoption of this renewable energy and restore U.S. leadership in the global clean energy race. The High Penetration Solar Portal was created as a resource to aggregate the most relevant and timely information related to high penetration solar scenarios and integrating solar into the grid. The site is designed so that utilities, grant awardees, regulators, researchers, and other solar professionals can easily share data, case studies, lessons learned, and demonstration project findings. [from https://solarhighpen.energy.gov/about_the_high_penetration_solar_portal

  13. Explosive shaped charge penetration into tuff rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    Analysis and data for the use of Explosive Shaped Charges (ESC) to generate holes in tuff rock formation is presented. The ESCs evaluated include Conical Shaped Charges (CSC) and Explosive Formed Projectiles (EFP). The CSCs vary in size from 0.158 to 9.1 inches inside cone diameter. The EFPs were 5.0 inches in diameter. Data for projectile impact angles of 30 and 90 degrees are presented. Analytically predicted depth of penetration data generally compared favorably with experimental data. Predicted depth of penetration versus ESC standoff data and hole profile dimensions in tuff are also presented. 24 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  15. The effect of welding parameters on penetration in GTA welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirali, A.A. ); Mills, K.C. )

    1993-07-01

    The effect of various welding parameters on the penetration of GTA welds has been investigated. Increases in welding speed were found to reduce penetration; however, increases in welding current were observed to increase the penetration in high sulfur (HS) casts and decrease penetration in low sulfur (LS) steels. Plots of penetration as a function of increasing linear energy (the heat supplied per unit length of weld) revealed a similar trend with increased penetration in HS casts, but the penetration in LS casts was unaffected by increases in linear energy. These results support the Burgardt-Heiple proposition that changes in welding parameters on penetration can be explained in terms of their effect, sequentially, on the temperature gradient and the Marangoni forces operating in the weld pool. Increases in arc length were found to decrease weld penetration regardless of the sulfur concentration of the steel, and the effects of electrode geometry and welding position on weld penetration were also investigated.

  16. Preliminary Market Assessment for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen; Khowailed, Gannate; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-09-01

    Cold climate heat pump (HP) technology is relevant to a substantial portion of the U.S. population, especially with more than one-third of U.S. housing stock concentrated in colder regions of the country and another 31% in the mixed-humid climate region. Specifically, it is estimated that in 2010 almost 1.37 million heating equipment units were shipped to the cold/very cold climate regions and that 1.41 million were shipped to the nation s mixed-humid region. On a national level, the trend in the last decade has indicated that shipments of gas furnaces have grown at a slower rate than HPs. This indicates a potential opportunity for the cold climate HP, a technology that may be initially slow to penetrate its potential market because of the less expensive operating and first costs of gas furnaces. Anticipated implementation of regional standards could also negatively affect gas furnace shipments, especially with the higher initial cost for more efficient gas furnaces. However, as of 2011, the fact that there are more than 500 gas furnace product models that already achieve the expected efficiency standard indicates that satisfying the regional standard will be a challenge but not an obstacle. A look at the heating fuel and equipment currently being used in the housing stock provides an insight into the competing equipment that cold climate HPs hope to replace. The primary target market for the cold climate HP is the 2.6 million U.S. homes using electric furnaces and HPs in the cold/very cold region. It is estimated that 4.75% of these homeowners either replace or buy new heating equipment in a given year. Accordingly, the project team could infer that the cold climate HP primary market is composed of 123,500 replacements of electric furnaces and conventional air-to-air HPs annually. A secondary housing market for the cold climate HP comprises homes in the mixed-humid region of the country that are using electric furnaces. Homes using gas furnaces across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions represent another secondary market for the cold climate HP. The cold climate HP could also target as a secondary market homes across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions that use propane and fuel oil as their primary heating fuel. The combined total of homes in these three secondary markets is 46 million, and we can also infer that about 2.2 million of these systems are replaced annually. When comparing heating equipment stock in 2001, 2005, and 2009 in the cold/very cold region of the country, it appears that gas furnaces are slowly losing market share and that electric furnaces and HPs are making gains. The fact that electricity-dependent heating equipment is rising in preference among homeowners in the colder regions of the country shows that future penetration of the cold climate HP holds promise. Accordingly, cold climate HP technology could achieve an attractive position, given certain favorable market conditions such as reaching a competitive cost point, strong federal incentives, a consistent level of reliable performance, and a product rollout by a credible market leader. The project team relied on payback analysis to estimate the potential market penetration for the cold climate HP in each of its primary and secondary markets. In this analysis, we assumed a $250 price premium for the cold climate HP over the baseline HP. Electricity and gas prices and emissions were based on the 2010 Buildings Energy Data Book. The average heating load was calculated as 25.2 MMBTU per year in the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions of the United States. Typical installed costs were obtained from the technical document supporting the U.S. Department of Energy rulemaking. The analysis showed that the cold climate HP will have a 2.2 year payback period when replacing an existing electric HP in the colder regions of the nation. The cold climate HP will have a 6 year payback period when replacing gas furnaces in the same climate regions. Accordingly, we estimated that the cold climate HP will have a penetration ratio ranging between 5% and 35% in its potential primary and secondary markets, resulting in a total annual estimated shipment of 298,000 units to both targeted regions of the nation. Once the cold climate HP technology meets its potential market penetration, it would contribute to annual site energy savings of 3,664,405 MMBTU and a CO2 emission reduction of 470,000 Ton.

  17. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-15

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  18. Market Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market acceleration subprogram.

  19. Energy Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    will show a lower growth trajectory Source: EIA, International Energy Outlook 2013 carbon dioxide emissions billion metric tons 6 CSIS | Energy Markets Outlook November 16,...

  20. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  1. 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability & Markets Peer Review 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review The Transmission Reliability R&D Reliability & Markets Peer Review included 11 presentations over 2 days on August 7 - 8, 2012 at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. Presentations and summaries are available through the links and the agenda is included below. Summaries | Full Presentations Day 1: August 7 Transmission Investment Assessment Under Uncertainty About Fuel Prices, Technology, Renewables Penetration

  2. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market Transformation Presentation More Documents & Publications Marketing and Market Transformation Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  3. Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area Power Administration Locations Phoenix, Arizona Announcement Number ... Southwest Region, Power Marketing, Rates and Alternative Financing, Phoenix, AZ (G6100). ...

  4. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are ...

  5. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, J.F.; Sale, K. ); Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C. )

    1991-06-10

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry. 18 refs.

  6. Market Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page contains links to lighting market characterization studies published by the U.S. Department of Energy, plus information on current studies under way. These studies are intended to present...

  7. Energy Markets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets November 16, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 biofuels geothermal solar wind waste hydroelectric wood 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010...

  8. Energy Markets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets October 22, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 biofuels geothermal solar wind waste hydroelectric wood 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010...

  9. Energy Markets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets October 29, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 biofuels geothermal solar wind waste hydroelectric wood 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010...

  10. High-Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High-Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems High-Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems va tech logo2.jpg -- This project is inactive -- Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT) is evaluating the impacts of high photovoltaic (PV) penetration and methods to manage any impacts with improved power conditioning equipment. APPROACH The team's combined approach is to verify and demonstrate existing and new high-penetration level PV

  11. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  12. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  13. Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics: May 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.; Little, R.; Lloyd, K.; Malikov, G.; Passolt, G.; Arent, D.; Swezey, B.; Mosey, G.

    2007-08-01

    This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effects of fiscal policies and were evaluated using available data. The modifications were made based on research and classification of current mathematical models used for predicting market penetration. An analysis of the results was carried out, based on available data. MATLAB versions of existing and new models were developed for research and policy analysis.

  14. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  15. Petroleum Marketing Annual Archives

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petrolem Reports Petroleum Marketing Annual Archives The Petroleum Marketing Annual was discontinued in 2010. Choose the year from the archive Petroleum Marketing Annual you wish...

  16. Energy Imbalance Market Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in CAISO Market Jim Price, Senior Advisor, Market Development & Analysis California ISO CAISO Public Market minimizes bid costs, while accounting for multiple transmission...

  17. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  18. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  19. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, Michael B.; Gardner, Duane; Patrick, Douglas; Lewallen, Tricia A.; Nammath, Sharyn R.; Painter, Kelly D.; Vadnais, Kenneth G.

    1996-01-01

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  20. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  1. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as ... Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  2. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential Kauai, Hawaii: ... This study looks at the technical feasibility of generating power with PV arrays. PDF icon ...

  3. NREL: Wind Research - New Study Reveals Potential 30% Penetration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Study Reveals Potential 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar for the Eastern Interconnection An illustrated map of the U.S. northeast and midwest showing transmission lines...

  4. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integratio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    penetrations of variable renewable electricity. China is actively contributing to this body of experience given the rapid growth in renewable electricity deployment there, while...

  5. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu In 2008, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) set a ... to understand the impact on the entire electric power system. ...

  6. Penetration equations Young, C.W. [Applied Research Associates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; EARTH PENETRATORS; EQUATIONS; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; SOILS; ICE; ROCKS; CONCRETES; PERMAFROST; SCALING LAWS In 1967, Sandia...

  7. New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penetration of Wind and Solar September 16, 2015 - 6:36pm ... (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found ... impacts on other generation sources such as thermal plants. ...

  8. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration Jordan Macknick and Stuart Cohen National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-63011 September...

  9. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics through the Optimization of Sub-Transmission Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics through ...

  10. Penetration of gas delivery systems in the United States: A state-level data analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guldmann, J.M. . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div. Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH )

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the degree to which the gas delivery infrastructure penetrates US regions and states and to pinpoint those areas in which the lack of a sufficient infrastructure impedes the expansion of the natural gas market. Regions and states are ranked according to several indicators developed with data published by the American Gas Association, the US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration, and the US Bureau of the Census. These include the numbers of gas customers and gas deliveries by sector, mileages of distribution and transmission pipelines, underground storage capacities and operating characteristics, heating degree-days, populations and numbers of households, and areal measures of states and metropolitan areas. The market penetration of gas distribution systems is measured by two indicators: (1) the ratio of the number of residential gas customers to the number of households in 1985 and (2) the distribution pipeline density, measured by the ratio of the 1985 distribution mileage divided by the number of households, while accounting for the effect of urban population density (using earlier econometric results). 11 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs.

  11. Ground-Source Heat Pumps. Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Lisle, Heather; Burgos, Javier

    2009-02-03

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  12. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  13. Taking technology to market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.; Ryan, C.

    1981-03-01

    For many years, the concept of the product life cycle has helped managers maximize their return on product sales. But according to the authors of this article, using a technology solely in product sales is no longer enough. Today, companies face high R and D costs, competitive pressures from low-cost producers, capacity limitations, antitrust laws, financial difficulties, and foreign trade barriers. This means that they must improve the rate of return on their technology investments by marketing their technology as completely as possible during all phases of its life cycle. The technology life cycle - derived from the product life cycle - pinpoints the changing decisions companies face in selling their know-how. The authors also discuss both the competitive dangers of transferring technology to low-cost foreign producers and the growing role of intermediaries in technology sales. They stress the importance of having a highly specialized staff to plan a company's technology marketing, a responsibility that should be assigned neither to the part-time attention of top management nor simply to marketers or strategic planners.

  14. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  15. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  16. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization and Representation for Market Penetration Model Input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) tasked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with conducting the annual geothermal supply curve update. This report documents the approach taken to identify geothermal resources, determine the electrical producing potential of these resources, and estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs from these geothermal resources at present and future timeframes under various GTP funding levels. Finally, this report discusses the resulting supply curve representation and how improvements can be made to future supply curve updates.

  17. Modeling the Long-Term Market Penetration of Wind in the United...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CP-620-34469 W. Short, N. Blair, D. Heimiller, and V. Singh Presented at the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) WindPower 2003 Conference Austin, Texas May 21, 2003...

  18. The Penetrant System Monitoring (PSM) panel: Its use and limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.J. [Sherwin Inc., South Gate, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the last several years, the Penetrant System Monitoring (PSM) panel has been increasingly used for purposes for which it was never intended. Intended originally for use by penetrant system operators, the PSM panel is increasingly being used by material control departments and by process engineering departments. This paper`s purpose is to describe and give guidance concerning the proper use and maintenance of PSM panels. It recounts the evolution of penetrant system test panels, and compares how the different types of panels are made. It discusses the limitations of the PSM panel as used by the material control department, the process engineering department, and the production line.

  19. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  20. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 30 May 2016 Table 18. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 31 May 2016 Table 18. ...

  1. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 86 May 2016 Table 43. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 87 May 2016 Table 43. ...

  2. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 16 May 2016 Table 7. ... Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 17 May 2016

  3. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 100 May 2016 Table ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 101 May 2016 Table ...

  4. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 20 May 2016 Table 9. ... Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 21 May 2016

  5. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 6 May 2016 Table 3. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 8 May 2016 Table 4. ...

  6. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 104 May 2016 Table ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 105 May 2016 Table ...

  7. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 53 May 2016 Table 33. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 54 May 2016 Table 33. ...

  8. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 24 May 2016 Table 11. ... Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 25 May 2016

  9. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Volume of Petroleum Products U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 58 May 2016 Table 39. ...

  10. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 49 May 2016 Table 32. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 50 May 2016 Table 32. ...

  11. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 18 May 2016 Table 8. ... Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 19 May 2016

  12. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 78 May 2016 Table 41. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 79 May 2016 Table 41. ...

  13. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 58 May 2016 Table 39. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 59 May 2016 Table 39. ...

  14. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly vii May 2016 Table ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly viii May 2016 Figure ...

  15. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices of Petroleum Products U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 45 May 2016 Table 31. ...

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 66 May 2016 Table 40. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 67 May 2016 Table 40. ...

  17. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 14 May 2016 Table 6. ... Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 15 May 2016

  18. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly Table 45. Prime supplier sales ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 92 May 2016 Table 45. ...

  19. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 82 May 2016 Table 42. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 83 May 2016 Table 42. ...

  20. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 45 May 2016 Table 31. ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 46 May 2016 Table 31. ...

  1. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 22 May 2016 Table 10. ... Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 23 May 2016

  2. Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009 Released: August 6, 2010 Next Release Date: Discontinued find annual data in Petroleum Marketing Monthly Monthly price and volume statistics on...

  3. Market Transformation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Market Transformation strategies and activities, which are aimed at accelerating early market adoption and advancing pre-competitive technologies.

  4. Northwest Energy Market Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Northwest Energy Market Assessment Pages Northwest-Energy-Market-Assessment Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects &...

  5. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    PDF 1.2MB . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . Highlights . Petroleum Marketing Annual Highlights PDF . . Summary Statistics ...

  6. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PDF 2.9MB . . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Contacts, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . . Highlights . Petroleum Marketing Annual Highlights PDF . . ...

  7. Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    PDF 1.2MB . . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Contacts, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . . Highlights . Petroleum Marketing Annual Highlights PDF . . ...

  8. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  9. Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NREL project team will utilize field verification to improve the ability to model and understand the impacts of high-penetration PV on electric utility systems and develop solutions to ease...

  10. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  11. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Distribution Engineers Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of variable solar

  12. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - NREL Releases High-Penetration PV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Handbook for Distribution Engineers Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of

  13. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways funding opportunity announcement (FOA) seeks to support regional, state, tribal, and locally-driven efforts to develop multi-year solar deployment plans that will help provide business certainty and establish a clear path for the next five to ten years of solar deployment. Specifically, this FOA is intended to enable replicable multi-year strategies that spur significant solar deployment, drive down solar soft costs, support local economic development efforts, and address the potential challenges arising from increased solar penetration on the electrical grid.

  14. Transparency Market Research | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 30 June, 2015 - 03:49 Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely to grow at a rate of 6.46%, owing to increased natural...

  15. Fiber optic penetrator for offshore oil well exploration and production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.C.; Warner, C.P.; Henkener, J.A.; Glauser, R.

    1986-07-01

    A fiber optic penetrator arrangement is described for an undersea wall structure of offshore oil well production apparatus, comprising: a. a generally cylindrical housing; b. a cofferdam associated with the undersea production apparatus and defining a generally cylindrical entrance port into which the penetrator is designed to be inserted and mounted; c. a sealing means for sealing the penetrator relative to the entrance port after insertion of the penetrator therein; d. an external bulkhead; e. a second bulkhead positioned internally of the external bulkead; f. a compression spring normally retaining the second bulkhead in a sealed position with the penetrator, the compressing spring being compressed between the second bulkhead and the external bulkhead; g. a breakaway connection affixed to the external bulkhead for coupling an optical fiber transmission cable to the external bulkhead, such that if the transmission cable is snagged or pulled, the external bulkhead will sever along with the breakaway connection so that the penetrator is not pulled from the cofferdam entrance port, the second bulkhead being held in position by ambient water pressure to become the primary bulkhead after the external bulkhead is severed.

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude oil prices U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 3 February 2016...

  17. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  18. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  19. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  20. Evaluating Future Standards and Codes with a Focus on High Penetration Photovoltaic (HPPV) System Deployment (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Poster displaying solutions for evaluating future standards and codes for high penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) systems.

  1. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  2. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. <em>Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430</em> The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430 To complement energy efficiency targets in Hawai'i, the state developed requirements for generating 40% of its

  3. Clean Markets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Markets Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zip: 19118 Sector: Services Product: Philadelphia-based provider of market development...

  4. NREL: Energy Analysis - dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The dGen model builds on and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model. The dGen model can help develop deployment forecasts for distributed resources,

  5. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  6. U.S. Solar Market Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Sherwood

    2007-07-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic installations grew by 60% in 2006. California and New Jersey have the largest markets and installations more than doubled in New Jersey, Nevada, Colorado, Connecticut, and many other states with smaller markets. The off-grid growth has been steady, but significantly lower. For the first time in more than a decade, a solar thermal electric plant was installed in 2006. More than 350 MW installed in the 1990's still generates electricity today. Solar water heating and solar space heating installations grew in 2006 after years offlat installation numbers. Hawaii dominates this market, with nearly half of the market. Solar pool heating accounts for the largest number of installations and has grown at an average rate of 10% since 1998. However, installations decreased by 7% in 2006. Installations in California and Florida together are 73% of the pool heating market.

  7. World Bio Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, the 10th anniversary World Bio Markets convened from March 1– 4, 2015.

  8. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  9. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  10. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal storage is found to drop considerably (by more than \\$70/MWh) as the penetration of solar increases toward 30\\percent on an energy basis. This is due primarily to a steep drop in capacity value followed by a decrease in energy value. In contrast, the value of CSP with thermal storage drops much less dramatically as penetration increases. As a result, at solar penetration levels above 10\\percent, CSP with thermal storage is found to be considerably more valuable relative to PV and CSP without thermal storage. The marginal economic value of wind is found to be largely driven by energy value, and is lower than solar at low penetration. The marginal economic value of wind drops at a relatively slower rate with penetration, however. As a result, at high penetration, the value of wind can exceed the value of PV and CSP without thermal storage. Though some of these findings may be somewhat unique to the specific case study presented here, the results: (1) highlight the importance of an analysis framework that addresses long-term investment decisions as well as short-term dispatch and operational constraints, (2) can help inform long-term decisions about renewable energy procurement and supporting infrastructure, and (3) point to areas where further research is warranted.

  11. Market review - Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. In this reporting period, there were four transactions in the natural uranium market, no activity in the spot UF6 market, no activity in the spot conversion market, and only a single activity in the enrichment services market. Spot uranium volume dropped sharply, and active uranium supply rose. The rise in demand, however, more than offset this increase. Unrestricted exchange prices rose slightly, as did the unrestricted UF6 value. All other prices remained steady.

  12. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  13. Analysis of the cracking behavior of Alloy 600 RVH penetrations. Part 1: Stress analysis and K computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandari, S.; Vagner, J.; Garriga-Majo, D.; Amzallag, C.; Faidy, C.

    1996-12-01

    The study presented here concerns the analysis of crack propagation behavior in the Alloy 600 RVH penetrations used in the French 900 and 1300 MWe PWR series. The damage mechanism identified is clearly the SCC in primary water environment. Consequently the analysis presented here is based on: (1) the stress analysis carried out on the RVH penetrations, (2) the SCC model developed in primary water environment and at the operating temperatures, and (3) the fracture mechanics concepts. The different steps involved in the study are: (1) Evaluation of the stress state for the case of the peripheral configuration of RVH penetrations; the case retained here is that of a conic tube with stress analysis conducted using multi-pass welding. (2) Computation of the influence functions (IF) for a polynomial stress distribution in case of a tube of Ri/t ratio (internal diameter/thickness) corresponding to that of an RVH penetration. (3) Establishment of a propagation law based on study and review of data available in the literature. (4) Conduction of a parametric study of crack propagation using several initial defects. (5) Analysis of crack propagation of defects observed in various reactors and comparison with measured propagation rates. This paper (Part 1) deals with the first two steps namely Stress Analysis and K Computation.

  14. High Penetration PV: How High Can We Go?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Brochure highlighting NREL's partnership with SolarCity and Hawaiian Electric (HECO) to increase the penetration of solar photovoltaics on the electricity grid. To better understand the potential impact of transient overvoltages due to load rejection, NREL collaborated with SolarCity and HECO to run a series of tests measuring the magnitude and duration of load rejection overvoltage events and demonstrating the ability of advanced PV inverters to mitigate their impacts.

  15. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers Rich Seguin, Jeremy Woyak, David Costyk, and Josh Hambrick Electrical Distribution Design Barry Mather National

  16. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  17. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  18. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Donald E.; Parker, DeRay; Boren, Paul R.

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  19. World Bio Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The World Bio Markets meeting will held from March 14-17, 2016 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The meeting will gather experts in the bioenergy industry from all over the world. Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Market Transformation Program Manager Jim Spaeth will be giving a presentation entitled, “Policy updates and outlooks from key biofuel markets,” and will discuss technical, policy and investment developments, and success stories.

  20. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with ...

  1. Agricultural Marketing Toolkit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agricultural-Marketing-Toolkit Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  2. BPA Marketing Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA-Marketing-Portal Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology &...

  3. Commercial Marketing Toolkit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial-Marketing-Toolkit Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology...

  4. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 27 May 2016

  5. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Refi ner retail petroleum product volumes U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 9 May 2016

  6. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 6 May 2016

  7. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 10 May 2016

  8. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    on Administra on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 90

  9. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 12 May 2016

  10. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Refi ner retail petroleum product prices U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 7 May 2016

  11. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 8 May 2016

  12. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... on Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 26 May 2016

  13. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Refi ner wholesale petroleum product volumes U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 13 May 20

  14. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tration, Form EIA-782A, "Refi ners'Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 28 May 2016

  15. Market Transformation Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adoption of fuel cells in emerging markets expands the growth of green jobs, with new opportunities in manufacturing, fuel cell maintenance and support systems, and domestic ...

  16. One Market Plaza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 1.5 MW CHP system at One Market Plaza in San Francisco, California.

  17. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic propane prices will not fully delink from oil prices, and competition against electricity and natural gas in traditional propane markets will remain very challenging....

  18. Market Acceleration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market acceleration subprogram.

  19. Navigant Market Report 2014

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2014 Annual Market Assessment Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Client Contact Michael Hahn, Patrick Gilman Award Number DE-EE0005360 Navigant Consulting, Inc. 77 Bedford Street Suite 400 Burlington, MA 01803-5154 781.270.8314 www.navigant.com September 8, 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Page ii Document Number DE-EE0005360 U.S. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis 2014 Annual Market Assessment Document Number DE-EE0005360 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy

  20. Market Drivers for Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, entitled "Market Drivers for Biofuels," was given at the Third Annual MSW to Biofuels Summit in February, 2013, by Brian Duff.

  1. Funding Opportunity Announcement: SunShot Technology to Market “Incubator 10, SolarMat 3, and SUNPATH 2”

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is pleased to release the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) entitled SunShot Technology to Market “SunShot Incubator 10, SolarMat 3, SUNPATH 2.” This funding program will enable the widespread market penetration of highly impactful solar energy technologies and solutions through technology research, development, and demonstration to overcome technical, institutional and market challenges.

  2. Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum This presentation provides information on the results of the second High Penetration Solar Forum that convened in February, including an overview of DOE's and CPUC's grid integration awards as well as future efforts. PDF icon sunshot_webinar_20130515.pdf More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of Electric Power Research Institute 1 Final Report- High Penetration Solar

  3. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  4. Phenomenon analysis of stress corrosion cracking in the vessel head penetrations of French PWR`s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichon, C.; Buisine, D.; Faidy, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1995-12-31

    During a hydrotest in 1991, a leak was detected on,a reactor vessel head (RVH) penetration of a French PWR. This leak was due to a phenomenon of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) affecting these penetrations in Alloy 600. The destructive and non-destructive examinations undertaken during the following months highlighted the generic nature of the degradations. In order to well understand this phenomenon and implement the most suitable maintenance policy, a large scale scientific program was decided and performed jointly by Electricite de France and FRAMATOME. The paper will present all the results obtained in this program concerning the parameters governing the PWSCC. In particular the following fields will be developed: (1) the material, its microstructure in line with the manufacturing and its susceptibility to PWSCC; (2) the stresses and their evaluations by measurements, mock up corrosion tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA); (3) the effect of surface finish on crack initiation; and (4) the crack growth rate. This phenomenon analysis will be useful for evaluating the risk of PWSCC on other Alloy 600 areas in PWR`s primary system.

  5. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  6. 200 Market Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Portland, Oregon The 200 Market Building is a high-rise built in 1973 and located in downtown Portland, Oregon. It was purchased in 1988 by its current owner, 200 Market Associates, primarily because of its optimal location in Portland's central business district. Since 1989 the building has undergone continuous improvements in multiple phases.

  7. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  8. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  9. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  10. Intense x-ray machine for penetrating radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, R.A.; Eckhouse, S.

    1989-01-01

    Penetrating radiography has been used for many years in the nuclear weapons research programs. In frequently penetrating radiography has been used in conventional weapons research programs. For example the Los Alamos PHERMEX machine was used to view uranium rods penetrating steel for the GAU-8 program, and the Ector machine was used to see low-density regions in forming metal jets. The armor/anti-armor program at Los Alamos has created a need for an intense flash x-ray machine that can be dedicated to conventional weapons research. The Balanced Technology Initiative, through DARPA, has funded the design and construction of such a machine at Los Alamos. It will be an 8- to 10-MeV diode machine capable of delivering a dose of 500 R at 1 m with a spot size of less than 5 mm. The machine used an 87.5-stage low-inductance Marx generator that charges up a 7.4-/Omega/, 32-ns water line. The water line is discharged through a self-breakdown oil switch into a 12.4-/Omega/ water line that rings up the voltage into the high-impendance x-ray diode. A long (233-cm) vacuum drift tube is used to separate the large-diameter oil-insulated diode region from the x-ray source area that may be exposed to high overpressures by the explosive experiments. The electron beam is self-focused at the target area using a low-pressure background gas. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Sandia Energy - Past Market Transformation Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Past Market Transformation Activities Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Past Market Transformation...

  12. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9) Globally, about 13 GW of CSP was announced or proposed through 2015, based on forecasts made in mid-2009. Regional market shares for the 13 GW are about 51% in the United States, 33% in Spain, 8% in the Middle East and North Africa, and 8% in Australasia, Europe, and South Africa. Of the 6.5-GW project pipeline in the United States, 4.3 GW have power purchase agreements (PPAs). The PPAs comprise 41% parabolic trough, 40% power tower, and 19% dish-engine systems.

  13. Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H. H.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, X. Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configurations is numerically investigated by using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in slab geometry. To explore different dynamic processes in locked modes, three equilibrium states are adopted. Stable, marginal, and unstable current profiles for double tearing modes are designed by varying the current intensity between two resonant surfaces separated by a certain distance. Further, the dynamic characteristics of locked modes in the three RMS states are identified, and the relevant physics mechanisms are elucidated. The scaling behavior of critical perturbation value with initial plasma velocity is numerically obtained, which obeys previously established relevant analytical theory in the viscoresistive regime.

  14. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  15. Interaction Between Carbon Markets and Renewable Energy Markets (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, G. L.; Milford, J.; Bird, L.

    2006-10-03

    This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 in Boulder, Colorado, discusses the interaction between carbon markets and renewable energy markets.

  16. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Transportation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","DC","Power Marketer",1,148128,930... "Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","MD","Power Marketer",2,113058,660...

  17. Creating Market Pathways for Laboratory Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eere/technology-to-market/lab-corps

  18. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. biomass resource can be used several ways that provide domestic, renewable energy to users. Understanding the capacity of the biomass resource, its potential in energy markets, and the most economic utilization of biomass is important in policy development and project selection. This study analyzed the potential for biomass within markets and the competition between them. The study found that biomass has the potential to compete well in the jet fuel and gasoline markets, penetration of biomass in markets is likely to be limited by the size of the resource, and that biomass is most cost effectively used for fuels instead of power in mature markets unless carbon capture and sequestration is available and the cost of carbon is around $80/metric ton CO2e.

  19. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  20. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shackelford, M.H.; Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report concludes a preliminary report prepared by ANL for Sandia, published as NUREG/CR-3855, in June 1984. The preliminary report, NUREG/CR-3855, presented the results of a survey of nuclear reactor containment penetrations, covering the number of plants surveyed at that time (22 total). Since that time, an additional 26 plants have been included in the survey. This final report serves two purposes: (1) to add the summary data sheets and penetration details for the additional plants now included in the survey; and (2) to confirm, revise, or add to analyses and discussions presented in the first report which, of course, were based solely on the earlier sample of 22 plants. This final report follows the outline and format of the preliminary survey report. In general, changes and additions to the preliminary report are implied, rather than stated as such to avoid repeated reference to that report. If no changes have been made in a section the title of the section of the previous report is simply repeated followed by ''No Changes''. Some repetition is used for continuity and clarity.

  1. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentino, L.; Valenzuela, V.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Conzelmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of welded Alloy 600 penetration mockups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarver, J.M.; Pathania, R.S.; Stuckey, K.; Fyfitch, S.; Gelpi, A.; Foucault, M.; Hunt, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 in components other than steam generators is a problem of increasing concern for nuclear power plants. Of greatest concern at the present time is the PWSCC of Alloy 600 vessel head penetrations. The common elements of these components are threefold: (1) the Alloy 600 material has a susceptible microstructure, (2) the Alloy 600 material is either a thick-walled tube or a bar which has been machined into a thick-walled tube, and (3) the Alloy 600 material has been welded into a structure such that high residual welding stresses exist in the postwelded Alloy 600 material. The objectives of the present program were to evaluate the PWSCC behavior of various configurations of welded Alloy 600 penetrations, and possible remedial measures which would prevent or retard PWSCC in these components. Mockups were instrumented to permit instantaneous remote sensing of through-wall cracking and were autoclave tested along with control C-rings in a doped steam environment. Following the test exposures, the mockups were split and examined to characterize the cracking morphology and the material microstructure. A Weibull distribution was used to analyze the time-to-failure results, and the observed cracking locations were compared to residual stress levels predicted by an elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the mockups.

  3. Deloitte MarketPoint.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Deloitte MarketPoint. Analysis of Economic Impact of LNG Exports from the United States i Contents Executive summary 1 Overview of Deloitte MarketPoint Reference Case 5 Potential impact of LNG exports 10 Comparison of results to other studies 18 Appendix A: Price Impact Charts for other Export Cases 20 Appendix B: DMP's World Gas Model and data 24 Executive summary 1 Executive summary Deloitte MarketPoint LLC ("DMP") has been engaged by Excelerate Energy L.P. ("Excelerate")

  4. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 thousand ...

  5. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  6. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Deliveries 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Purchases of ...

  7. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Delivery year Total purchased (weighted- average price) ...

  8. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Purchases Weighted- average price Purchases Weighted- ...

  9. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  10. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 ""Uranium Marketing Annual Survey"" (2015)." " U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 15

  11. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 ""Uranium Marketing Annual Survey"" (2015)." " U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 25

  12. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  13. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  14. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  15. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Origin of ...

  16. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  17. 2015 Uranium Market Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Purchase ...

  18. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 thousand ...

  19. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 ""Uranium Marketing Annual Survey"" (2013-15)." " U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 33

  20. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 ...

  1. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  2. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Number of purchasers Quantity with reported price ...

  3. 2015 Uranium Market Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 ""Uranium Marketing Annual Survey"" (2015)." "16 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

  4. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Minimum ...

  5. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  6. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  7. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  8. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 ""Uranium Marketing Annual Survey"" (2013-15)." " U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 1

  9. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 ""Uranium Marketing Annual Survey"" (2013-15)." "14 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

  10. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the status of the U.S. wind energy industry market in 2011; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  11. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2011-06-01

    This report describes the status of the U.S. wind energy industry market in 2010; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  12. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the status of the U.S. wind energy industry market in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  13. 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Barbose, G.; Darghouth, N.; Hoen, B.; Mills, A.; Weaver, S.; Porter, K.; Buckley, M.; Fink, S.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.

    2013-08-01

    This report describes the status of the U.S. wind energy industry market in 2012; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  14. Energy Management and Marketing Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration, Upper Great Plains Region (UGP), Power Marketing, Energy Management and Marketing...

  15. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind market in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  16. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prommapan, Plegchart

    2011-08-15

    A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

  17. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Technologies Market Report 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report A photo of the cover of the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report. According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of

  18. Energy Market Outlook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation covers the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Energy Market Outlook: Helping Customers Meet Their Diverse Energy Goals, held on May 22-23, 2013 in San Francisco, California.

  19. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on, Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisi on Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 37 ...

  20. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on, Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisi on Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 38 ...

  1. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... nal. Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on, Form EIA-182, "Domes c Crude Oil First Purchase Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 33

  2. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on, Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisi on Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 40 ...

  3. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisi on Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 36 ...

  4. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on, Form EIA-182, "Domes c Crude Oil First Purchase Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 34 May ...

  5. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on, Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisi on Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 39 ...

  6. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: U.S. Energy Informa on Administra on Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisi on Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly 35 ...

  7. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Entire . The entire report as a single file. PDF 1.2MB . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . Highlights . Petroleum...

  8. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Entire . The entire report as a single file. PDF 2.9MB . . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Contacts, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . . Highlights ....

  9. Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    cents per gallon to dollars per gallon later this year for the 2010 data. Petroleum Marketing Annual --- Full report in PDF (1.2 MB) Summary Statistics Summary Statistics Tables...

  10. Petroleum Marketing Annual 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Released: August 27, 2009 Petroleum Marketing Annual --- Full report in PDF (1.2 MB) Summary Statistics Summary Statistics Tables PDF 1 Crude Oil Prices PDF TXT 1A Refiner...

  11. Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Entire . The entire report as a single file. PDF 1.2MB . . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Contacts, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . . Highlights ....

  12. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Entire . The entire report as a single file. PDF 2.9MB . . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Contacts, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . . Highlights ....

  13. Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Released: August 29, 2008 Petroleum Marketing Annual --- Full report in PDF (1.2 MB) Summary Statistics Summary Statistics Tables PDF 1 Crude Oil Prices PDF TXT 1A Refiner...

  14. Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Entire . The entire report as a single file. PDF 1.2MB . Front Matter . Petroleum Marketing Annual Cover Page, Preface, and Table of Contents PDF . Highlights . Petroleum...

  15. MARKET BASED APPROACHES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... fuel availability have been studied in CNG context but not well proven in the free market. ... technology development * Initial very low volume sales regime cannot be modeled except in ...

  16. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  17. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of...

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  19. Delineating coal market regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, B.D.; Pyrdol, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    This study addresses the delineation of US coal market regions and their evolution since the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Dichotomizing into compliance (low sulfur) and high sulfur coal deliveries, market regions are generated for 1973, 1977, and 1983. Focus is restricted to steam coal shipments to electric utilities, which currently account for over 80% of the total domestic market. A two-stage method is used. First, cluster analyses are performed on the origin-destination shipments data to generate baseline regions. This is followed by multiple regression analyses on CIF delivered price data for 1983. Sensitivity analysis on the configuration of the regions is also conducted, and some thoughts on the behavior of coal markets conclude the paper. 37 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  20. 2012 CERTS Reliability & Markets Peer Review - Agenda

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    R&M Review August 7-8, 2012 Cornell University Statler Hotel 130 Statler Drive | Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 257-2500 Day 1: August 7, 2011 The meeting will be held in the Statler Hotel (Yale/Princeton conference rooms) 8:30 Continental Breakfast (Conference Foyer 2) 9:00 Introductions and overview - Bob Thomas 9:15 DOE Vision/Priorities/Future Directions - Phil Overholt 9:30 #1: Transmission Investment Assessment under Uncertainty About Fuel Prices, Technology, Renewables Penetration and Market

  1. Market review - market values summary/February market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This article is the February 1996 uranium market report. As reflected by the rising demand and decreasing supply of uranium, prices for UF6 and U3O8 increased. Separation services and conversion services prices remained constant. Data is presented for the recent trades, blocks or uranium for sale or loan, inquiries to purchase or borrow uranium, SWUs available and inquiries to purchase SWUs, and market values of U3O8 and UF6 expressed in selected currencies.

  2. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  3. Reinventing cell penetrating peptides using glycosylated methionine sulfonium ion sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Mayle, Kristine M.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Wong, Gerard C.L.; Deming, Timothy J.

    2015-04-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess low cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.

  4. Reinventing cell penetrating peptides using glycosylated methionine sulfonium ion sequences

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Mayle, Kristine M.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Wong, Gerard C.L.; Deming, Timothy J.

    2015-04-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess lowmore » cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.« less

  5. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects ofmore » pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.« less

  6. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  7. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects of pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.

  8. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seguin, Rich; Woyak, Jeremy; Costyk, David; Hambrick, Josh; Mather, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  9. Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The low targets (two air changes per hour at 50 pascals 2.0 ACH50) required a full ... All floor framing is open-web trusses to accommodate mechanicals. For more Information, ...

  10. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Neely, Jason C.; Rashkin, Lee J.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  11. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  12. Market Analyses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat & Power Deployment » Market Analyses Market Analyses Need information on the market potential for combined heat and power (CHP) in the U.S.? These assessments and analyses cover a wide range of markets including commercial and institutional buildings and facilities, district energy, and industrial sites. The market potential for CHP at federal sites and in selected states/regions is also examined. Commercial CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment

  13. World NGL markets continue rapid expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-06-08

    The international LPG industry has expanded rapidly during the 1990s and undergone significant changes. LPG consumption has expanded at nearly twice the rate of world petroleum demand. In particular, LPG use in residential and commercial markets has more than doubled in many developing countries. Markets for LPG and other petroleum products have been opened in many countries, accelerating demand growth and creating investment opportunities in all downstream segments. This has led to an overall strengthening of global LPG pricing and the development of many new export gas-processing projects. The paper discusses world LPG demand in residential and commercial markets and in petrochemicals, world LPG supply, regional increases, international trade, the US situation in natural gas, NGL supply, and NGL demand.

  14. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Maximum anticipated uranium market requirements of owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2015-24, as of December 31, 2014 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Year Maximum Under Purchase Contracts Unfilled Market Requirements Maximum Anticipated Market Requirements Enrichment Feed Deliveries 2015 42,999 3,496 46,494 48,206 2016 39,544 7,384 46,929 46,529 2017 31,257 10,351 41,608 49,924 2018 26,001 18,468 44,469 51,169 2019 19,096 29,929 49,025 46,184 2020 13,308 33,521

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  19. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  20. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  2. Physical Market Conditions, Paper Market Activity,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly Table 18. Domes c crude oil fi rst purchase prices dollars per barrel Year month U.S. Average PAD District 1 PAD District 2 U.S. Average Less AK North Slope Average NY PA WV Average IL IN KS KY MI NE 1990 20.03 21.57 22.06 23.32 23.00 22.16 22.88 23.36 23.46 23.21 23.20 22.92 21.94 1991 16.54 18.16 19.01 19.67 19.48 W 19.58 20.19 20.20 19.84 19.84 19.88 18.78 1992 15.99 17.38 18.52 19.05 19.01 18.09 18.63 19.26 19.27

  3. Wind Energy Markets, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the global market for wind energy, including a concise look at wind energy development in key markets including installations, government incentives, and market trends. Topics covered include: an overview of wind energy including the history of wind energy production and the current market for wind energy; key business drivers of the wind energy market; barriers to the growth of wind energy; key wind energy trends and recent developments; the economics of wind energy, including cost, revenue, and government subsidy components; regional and national analyses of major wind energy markets; and, profiles of key wind turbine manufacturers.

  4. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

  5. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties.

  6. Solar Market Pathways Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties.

  7. Improved Modeling Tools Development for High Penetration Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washom, Byron

    2014-12-11

    One of the significant objectives of the High Penetration solar research is to help the DOE understand, anticipate, and minimize grid operation impacts as more solar resources are added to the electric power system. For Task 2.2, an effective, reliable approach to predicting solar energy availability for energy generation forecasts using the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager technology has been demonstrated. Granular cloud and ramp forecasts for the next 5 to 20 minutes over an area of 10 square miles were developed. Sky images taken every 30 seconds are processed to determine cloud locations and cloud motion vectors yielding future cloud shadow locations respective to distributed generation or utility solar power plants in the area. The performance of the method depends on cloud characteristics. On days with more advective cloud conditions, the developed method outperforms persistence forecasts by up to 30% (based on mean absolute error). On days with dynamic conditions, the method performs worse than persistence. Sky Imagers hold promise for ramp forecasting and ramp mitigation in conjunction with inverter controls and energy storage. The pre-commercial Sky Imager solar forecasting algorithm was documented with licensing information and was a Sunshot website highlight

  8. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  9. Penetration of lower hybrid current drive waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W.; Aix-Marseille University, 58, Bd Charles Livon, 13284 Marseille ; Goniche, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X.

    2013-11-15

    Lower hybrid (LH) ray propagation in toroidal plasma is shown to be controlled by combination of the azimuthal spectrum launched by the antenna, the poloidal variation of the magnetic field, and the scattering of the waves by the drift wave fluctuations. The width of the poloidal and radial radio frequency wave spectrum increases rapidly as the rays penetrate into higher density and scatter from the drift waves. The electron temperature gradient (ETG) spectrum is particularly effective in scattering the LH waves due to its comparable wavelengths and phase velocities. ETG turbulence is also driven by the radial gradient of the electron current profile giving rise to an anomalous viscosity spreading the LH driven plasma currents. The LH wave scattering is derived from a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of the ray trajectories with diffusivities derived from the drift wave fluctuations. The condition for chaotic diffusion for the rays is derived. The evolution of the poloidal and radial mode number spectrum of the lower hybrid waves are both on the antenna spectrum and the spectrum of the drift waves. Antennas launching higher poloidal mode number spectra drive off-axis current density profiles producing negative central shear [RS] plasmas with improved thermal confinement from ETG transport. Core plasma current drive requires antennas with low azimuthal mode spectra peaked at m = 0 azimuthal mode numbers.

  10. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  11. Orchestrating Market Success: Seattle Market Introduction Workshop Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video from Jim Brodrick's opening presentation at the July 2011 DOE SSL Market Introduction Workshop in Seattle, Washington.

  12. Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This article is the April 1995 uranium market summary. Overall market activity during this period was low, with five deals in the concentrates market, two deals in the long-term natural uranium market, and three deals in the spot enrichment market. There were no spot trades in the UF6 or conversion market. The restricted and unrestricted exchange values were $11.60 and $7.35 respectively. The restricted and unrestricted UF6 values were $36.00 and $25.50, and the restricted and unrestricted transaction values were $10.30 and $7.25. Active uranium supply rose, and active demand fell.

  13. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Acceleration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration Conventional Water Power: Market AccelerationTara...

  14. Systems-Level Analysis & Bioenergy Market Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quad Chart Overview Timeline * Systems Analysis: Ongoing Since 2004 * Market Report o Start: October 2013 o Market Report Finish: September 2017 o 2013 Market Report: 95% ...

  15. Solar Market Pathways | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Market Pathways Solar Market Pathways The Solar Market Pathways program supports 15 SunShot projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These...

  16. EnviroMarket | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EnviroMarket Jump to: navigation, search Name: EnviroMarket Place: England, United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: EnviroMarket provides technical support and advice to corporate,...

  17. Hydropower Market Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydropower Market Report Hydropower Market Report Hydropower Market Report Top 10 Things You Didn't Know about Hydropower An error occurred. Try watching this video on...

  18. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 Weighted-average price ...

  19. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Annual, Tables 28, 29, 30 and 31. 2003-15-Form EIA-858, "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey". ...

  20. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 thousand pounds U 3 O 8 equivalent Year Maximum ...

  1. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Table S3a. Foreign purchases, foreign sales, and uranium ...

  2. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... and 16. 2003-15-Form EIA-858, "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey". million pounds U 3 O 8 ...

  3. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... and 27. 2003-15-Form EIA-858, "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey". - No data reported. 0 ...

  4. Momentum Savings Market Research Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    collected before with a larger market share than we had last year. Expect to see a market intelligence report in late April and a draft savings model available for comment on our...

  5. NREL: Energy Analysis - Market Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Analysis The laboratory's market analysis helps increase the use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in the marketplace by providing strategic information to stakeholders interested in rapidly changing electricity markets. Our high-quality and objective crosscutting assessments and analysis support informed decision making. Primary focuses include: Energy Technology/Program Cost, Performance, and Market Data The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  6. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Market The SunShot Initiative's Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot's record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage. There are four main funding programs under Technology to Market, each of which addresses innovations in technology

  7. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  8. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria-Martinez, Rocio; O'Connor, Patrick W.; Johnson, Megan M.

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  9. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  10. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyunsoo

    2013-05-15

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti#12;cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s#6; superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  11. Measurement of in-situ strength using projectile penetration: Tests of a new launching system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearst, J.R.; Newmark, R.L.; Charest, J.A.; Lynch, C.S.

    1987-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a continuing need to measure rock strength in situ, both for simple prediction of cavity size, and as input to computational models. In a previous report we compared two methods for measuring formation strength in situ: projectile penetration and a cone penetrometer. We determined that the projectile method was more promising for application to our large-diameter (2-4-m) hole environment. A major practical problem has been the development of a launcher and an apparatus for measuring depth of penetration that would be suitable for use in large-diameter holes. We are developing a gas-gun launcher system that will be capable of measuring both depth of penetration and deceleration of a reusable projectile. The current version of the launcher is trailer-mounted for testing at our Nevada Test Site (NTS) in tunnels and outcrops, but its design is such that it can be readily adapted for emplacement hole use. We test the current launcher on 60-cm cubes of gypsum cement, mixed to provie a range of densities (1.64 to 2.0 g/cc) and strengths (3 to 17 MPa). We compared depth of penetration of a 84-g projectile from a ''Betsy'' seismic gun - traveling on the order of 500 m/s - with the depth of penetration of a 13-kg projectile from the gas gun - traveling on the order of 30 m/s. For projectiles with the same nose size and shape, impacting targets of approximately constant strength, penetration depth was proportional to projectile kinetic energy. The ratio of kinetic energy to penetration depth was approximately proportional to target strength. Tests in tuffs with a wide range of strengths at NTS gave a similar linear relationship between the ratio of kinetic energy to penetration and target strength, and also a linear relationship between deceleration and strength. It appears that penetration can indeed be used as a semiquantitative measure of strength.

  12. Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-14

    EMCAS is a model developed for the simulation and analysis of electricity markets. As power markets are relatively new and still continue to evolve, there is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time and how market participants may act and react to the changing economic, financial, and regulatory environments in which they operate. A new and rather promising approach applied in the EMCAS software is tomore » model the electricity market as a complex adaptive system using an agent-based modeling and simulation scheme. With its unique combination of various novel approaches, the Agent Based Modeling System (ABMS) provides the ability to capture and investigate the complex interactions between the physical infrastructures (generation, transmission, and distribution) and the economic behavior of market participants that are a trademark of the newly emerging markets.« less

  13. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  14. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  15. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call ...

  16. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 1994 400 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Changes to the 1994 Petroleum Marketing Monthly. . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  17. New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar September 16, 2015 - 6:36pm Addthis A new study published by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that the U.S. Eastern Interconnection-one of the largest power systems in the world-can reliably support up to a 30% penetration of wind and solar power. Using high-performance

  18. Fast penetration of megagauss fields into metallic conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2014-08-15

    Megagauss magnetic-field penetration into a conducting material is studied via a simplified but representative model, wherein the magnetic-diffusion equation is coupled with a thermal-energy balance. The specific scenario considered is that of a prescribed magnetic field rising (in proportion to an arbitrary power r of time) at the surface of a conducting half-space whose electric conductivity is assumed proportional to an arbitrary inverse power ? of temperature. We employ a systematic asymptotic scheme in which the case of a strong surface field corresponds to a singular asymptotic limit. In this limit, the highly magnetized and hot “skin” terminates at a distinct propagating wave-front. Employing the method of matched asymptotic expansions, we find self-similar solutions of the magnetized region which match a narrow boundary-layer region about the advancing wave front. The rapidly decaying magnetic-field profile in the latter region is also self similar; when scaled by the instantaneous propagation speed, its shape is time-invariant, depending only on the parameter ?. The analysis furnishes a simple asymptotic formula for the skin-depth (i.e., the wave-front position), which substantially generalizes existing approximations. It scales with the power ?r + 1?2 of time and the power ? of field strength, and is much larger than the field-independent skin depth predicted by an athermal model. The formula further involves a dimensionless O(1) pre-factor which depends on r and ?. It is determined by solving a nonlinear eigenvalue problem governing the magnetized region. Another main result of the analysis, apparently unprecedented, is an asymptotic formula for the magnitude of the current-density peak characterizing the wave-front region. Complementary to these systematic results, we provide a closed-form but ad hoc generalization of the theory approximately applicable to arbitrary monotonically rising surface fields. Our results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of the model, and compare favourably with detailed magnetohydrodynamic simulations reported in the literature.

  19. Practical and cost effective solution to the need for shielding penetrations against photons and neutrons from normal and accident losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Schwahn

    1997-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) houses a 4 GeV, 200 {micro}A continuous wave (CW) recirculating electron accelerator. This underground accelerator is made up of two superconducting linear accelerators (linacs), two arcs, a beam switch yard (BSY), and three end stations. Each linac has the capability of accelerating electrons to a kinetic energy of 400 MeV. The arcs contain four (on the west) and five (on the east) beamlines to transport the beams of differing energies back into the linacs. The BSY steers the desired beams into the end stations as needed for nuclear physics experiments. The accelerator is connected to the control and diagnostic electronics in the above-ground service buildings via 30 cm and 51 cm diameter penetrations that travel through 4.6 m of soil and concrete. As a result, there exists the potential for personnel exposure to radiation scattering up the penetrations. It was desired that some of these buildings become Uncontrolled Areas, so that persons in the buildings would not require dosimetry. The Jefferson Lab Beam Containment Policy also requires that effective dose rates to workers be limited to 150 mSv in one hour if a maximum beam power loss accident was to continue unabated.

  20. Power marketing and renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences.

  1. Energy Markets Outlook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Markets Outlook For National Association for Business Economics March 7, 2016 | Washington, D.C. By Adam Sieminski, Administrator Forecast -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 2011-Q1 2012-Q1 2013-Q1 2014-Q1 2015-Q1 2016-Q1 2017-Q1 Implied stock change and balance (right axis) World production (left axis) World consumption (left axis) world supply and demand million barrels per day implied stock change million barrels per day Global oil inventories are forecast to

  2. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Monthly May 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other offi cer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of

  3. Exploring Your Energy Markets

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Exploring Your Energy Markets February 24, 2016 11:00 am - 12:30 PM MST Tribal Energy Development Operation and Management Best Practices 2 Todays Presenters * Randy Manion manion@wapa.gov * Doug MacCourt Douglas.Maccourt@hq.doe.gov * Philipp Beiter philipp.beiter@nrel.gov * Al Austin austin@wapa.gov * Todd Hegwer toddhegwer@gmail.com * Wenona Benally Baldenegro wbenally@navajo- nsn.gov * Robert Kennedy Robert.Kennedy@tetratech.com 3 Link to the Webinar Slides and Audio Everyone will receive a

  4. Field measurements of frost penetration into a landfill cover that uses a paper sludge barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; LaPlante, C.; Zimmie, T.F.; Quiroz, J.

    1999-07-01

    Frost penetration is a major environmental concern in landfill design. Freezing and thawing cycles may deteriorate the permeability of the liner or cap. In this study, the depth of frost penetration into a landfill cover that uses paper sludge as the impermeable barrier (the Hubbardston landfill in Massachusetts) was measured using a frost measurement system. A thermistor probe measured the temperature at various depths. Although temperature measurements are important, soil resistivity measurements are required to accurately predict the freezing level, since soil resistivity increases greatly upon freezing. A conductivity probe measured the half-bridge voltage between conductivity rings and a ground rod. Data were collected in data loggers. The data collected from 1992--1996 showed that the frost level did not penetrate the paper sludge capping layer. Heavy snow cover throughout the winters decreased the depth of frost penetration by insulating the landfill. The high water content in the sludge also contributed to the lack of freezing.

  5. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  6. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  7. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  8. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-2426 Unlimited Release UC-705 Penetration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of penetrability, or S-number, had no meaning in terms of standard material properties. ... The Young S-number is used in the PENCURV 2D and PENCURV 3D codes, but in conjunction with ...

  9. Policies and Programs to Integrate High Penetrations of Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this project are to highlight the diverse approaches for enabling high renewable energy penetration; synthesize lessons on effective policies and programs and present avenues for action to energy ministers and other stakeholders.

  10. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  11. New Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances with High Wind, Solar Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report finds that with high penetrations of wind and solar on the grid, together with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western Interconnection can withstand the crucial first minute after large grid disturbances.

  12. Market Research Report - Global Open Source Software Market Size...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  13. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential This study looks at the technical feasibility of generating power with PV arrays. PDF icon 47956.pdf More Documents & Publications Renewable Power Options for Electricity Generation on Kaua'i: Economics and Performance Modeling Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island

  14. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a limited set of advanced inverter functions.

  15. NREL: Solar Research - NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Engineers Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of variable solar

  16. Prediction of Weld Penetration in FCAW of HSLA steel using Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asl, Y. Dadgar; Mostafa, N. B.; Panahizadeh, V. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedkashi, S. M. H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17

    Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semiautomatic or automatic arc welding process that requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux. The main FCAW process parameters affecting the depth of penetration are welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed. Shallow depth of penetration may contribute to failure of a welded structure since penetration determines the stress-carrying capacity of a welded joint. To avoid such occurrences; the welding process parameters influencing the weld penetration must be properly selected to obtain an acceptable weld penetration and hence a high quality joint. Artificial neural networks (ANN), also called neural networks (NN), are computational models used to express complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) method is used to predict the effects of welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed on weld penetration depth in gas shielded FCAW of a grade of high strength low alloy steel. 32 experimental runs were carried out using the bead-on-plate welding technique. Weld penetrations were measured and on the basis of these 32 sets of experimental data, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network was created. 28 sets of the experiments were used as the training data and the remaining 4 sets were used for the testing phase of the network. The ANN has one hidden layer with eight neurons and is trained after 840 iterations. The comparison between the experimental results and ANN results showed that the trained network could predict the effects of the FCAW process parameters on weld penetration adequately.

  17. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  18. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Strong, S.; Strong, M.

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  19. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  20. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  1. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  2. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  3. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  4. Terminal ballistics of a reduced-mass penetrator. Final report, January 1990--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silsby, G.F.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to examine the performance of a reduced-mass concept penetrator impacting semi-infinite rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) at normal incidence. The reduced-mass penetrator used in this program is a solid tungsten alloy rod with eight holes drilled parallel to its axis, equally spaced on a circle, with axes parallel to the rod axis. Its performance was contrasted with baseline data for length-to- diameter ratios (L/D) 4 and 5 solid tungsten alloy penetrators. Striking velocity was nominally 1.6 km/s. A determined effort to reduce the scatter in the data by analysis of collateral data from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and literature sources suggested only a rather weak influence of L/D on penetration even at L/Ds approaching 1 and provided a tentative relationship to remove the influence of target lateral edge effects. It tightened up the holed-out rod data enough to be able to conclude with a moderate degree of certainty that there was no improvement in penetration as suggested by a simplistic density law model. A companion work by Kimsey of ARL examines the performance of this novel penetrator concept computationally, using the Eulerian code CTH. His work explains the possible causes of reduced performance suggested by analysis by Zook and Frank of ARL, though with some relative improvement in performance at higher velocities.

  5. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  6. Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Market Transformation Significant research and development progress has paved the way for fuel cells to enter today's commercial marketplace for a variety of applications, including specialty vehicles and stationary and portable power. The growing number of commercial products, in combination with the federal and state financial incentives available now, are instrumental in supporting the role that fuel cells play in our nation's energy portfolio. Through its market

  7. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent ... on information reported on Form EIA-858, "Uranium Marketing ... nuclear power reactors by contract type and material type, ...

  8. PADD 5 Transportation Fuels Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... during periods of supply disruption and market change. ... to manage distribution system inefficiencies and ... Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemical substances ...

  9. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JULY 2009 2008 GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (This page intentionally left blank) Table of Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Major 2008 Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  10. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners.

  11. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, A. C.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind industry in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  12. Momentum Savings Market Research Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    programs? Are you excited about improving programs from Momentum Savings market research? And what IS a current practice baseline? Early next year we will be tackling this...

  13. Market values summary/December market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-01-01

    This article is the December 1993 uranium market summary. During this period, there were six deals in the restricted concentrates market and none in the unrestricted market. The restricted value dropped slightly to $9.85 per pound U3O8, while the unrestricted market rose slightly to $7.00. The UF6 market was also slow, with a slight decrease in the restricted UF6 value to $31.00 and no change in the unrestricted value ($24.00). The unrestricted transaction value was $7.15 per pound U3O8, and the restricted value was $10.25. In the enrichment services market, the unrestricted SWU value remained fixed at $68.00 per SWU, while the unrestricted value increased by a dollar to $84.00 per SWU. Active uranium supply decreased, while active demand increased.

  14. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  15. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly Table 18. Domes c crude oil fi rst purchase prices dollars per barrel Year month U.S. Average PAD District 1 PAD District 2 U.S. Average Less AK North Slope Average NY PA WV Average IL IN KS KY MI NE 1990 20.03 21.57 22.06 23.32 23.00 22.16 22.88 23.36 23.46 23.21 23.20 22.92 21.94 1991 16.54 18.16 19.01 19.67 19.48 W 19.58 20.19 20.20 19.84 19.84 19.88 18.78 1992 15.99 17.38 18.52 19.05 19.01 18.09 18.63 19.26 19.27

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Statistics U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly Table 1. Crude oil prices dollars per barrel Year month Domes c fi rst purchase prices Average F.O.B.[a] cost of crude oil imports[b] Average landed cost of crude oil imports[b] Refi ner acquisi on cost of crude oil Domes c Imported Composite 1990 average 20.03 20.37 21.13 22.59 21.76 22.22 1991 average 16.54 16.89 18.02 19.33 18.70 19.06 1992 average 15.99 16.77 17.75 18.63 18.20 18.43 1993 average 14.25 14.71 15.72

  17. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  18. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  19. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  20. Penetration and air-emission-reduction benefits of solar technologies in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study of four solar energy technologies and the electric utility industry are reported. The purpose of the study was to estimate the penetration by federal region of four solar technologies - wind, biomass, phtovoltaics, and solar thermal - in terms of installed capacity and power generated. The penetration by these technologies occurs at the expense of coal and nuclear power. The displacement of coal plants implies a displacement of their air emissions, such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. The main conclusion of this study is that solar thermal, photovoltaics, and biomass fail to penetrate significantly by the end of this century in any federal region. Wind energy penetrates the electric utility industry in several regions during the 1990s. Displaced coal and nuclear generation are also estimated by region, as are the corresponding reductions in air emissions. The small-scale penetration by the solar technologies necessarily limits the amount of conventional fuels displaced and the reduction in air emissions. A moderate displacement of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen is estimated to occur by the end of this century, and significant lowering of these emissions should occur in the early part of the next century.

  1. Detecting Cellulase Penetration Into Corn Stover Cell Walls by Immuno-Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohoe, B. S.; Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-06-15

    In general, pretreatments are designed to enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes, allowing for more efficient conversion. In this study, we have detected the penetration of major cellulases present in a commercial enzyme preparation (Spezyme CP) into corn stem cell walls following mild-, moderate- and high-severity dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments. The Trichoderma reesei enzymes, Cel7A (CBH I) and Cel7B (EG I), as well as the cell wall matrix components xylan and lignin were visualized within digested corn stover cell walls by immuno transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using enzyme- and polymer-specific antibodies. Low severity dilute-acid pretreatment (20 min at 100 C) enabled <1% of the thickness of secondary cell walls to be penetrated by enzyme, moderate severity pretreatment at (20 min at 120 C) allowed the enzymes to penetrate {approx}20% of the cell wall, and the high severity (20 min pretreatment at 150 C) allowed 100% penetration of even the thickest cell walls. These data allow direct visualization of the dramatic effect dilute-acid pretreatment has on altering the condensed ultrastructure of biomass cell walls. Loosening of plant cell wall structure due to pretreatment and the subsequently improved access by cellulases has been hypothesized by the biomass conversion community for over two decades, and for the first time, this study provides direct visual evidence to verify this hypothesis. Further, the high-resolution enzyme penetration studies presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of cell wall deconstruction by cellulolytic enzymes.

  2. Final Report- National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the key informational barriers for consumers, installers, regulators and policymakers, is the proper comparison cost of utility-supplied electricity that will be replaced with a Photovoltaic (PV) system. Oftentimes, these comparisons are made with national or statewide averages which results in inaccurate comparisons and conclusions. Illinois State University seeks to meet the need for accurate information about electricity costs and rate structure by building a national database of utility rates and rate structures. The database will build upon the excellent framework that was developed by the OpenEI.org initiative and extend it in several important ways. First, the data will be populated and monitored by a team of trained regulatory economists. Second, the database will be more comprehensive because it will be populated with data from newer competitive retail suppliers for states that have restructured their electricity markets to allow such suppliers. Third, the University and its Institute for Regulatory Policy Studies will maintain the database and ensure that it contains the most recent rate information.

  3. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  4. Market values summary/February market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This article is the February 1995 uranium market summary. In the natural uranium and concentrates market, there were 10 deals, and the restricted value moved upward to $10.40. The unrestricted value remained fixed at $7.25. In the UF6 market, there were two deals in the restricted market, and the restricted value rose to $32.75 per kgU as UF6. The unrestricted value remained at $25.00. The restricted transaction value rose to $9.75, and the unrestricted value rose to $7.15. In the enrichment services market, there were three deals. The restricted SWU value rose to $90 per SWU, and the unrestricted value rose to $75 per SWU. Active uranium supply and active uranium demand dropped this reporting period.

  5. Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-05-01

    This article is the April 1994 uranium market summary. The near-term market was slow, with three near-term deals for concentrates and none for UF6. This was reflected in the decline of the concentrates restricted value $9.30 per pound U3O8 and the UF6 restricted value to $29.75 per kgU as UF6. In each market, the unrestricted value remained unchanged at $7.00 and $24.50 due to the lack of trades in the unrestricted market. Transaction values in both the restricted and unrestricted market were constant at $9.45 and $7.05 per pound U3O8. The restricted SWU value rose a dollar to $88 per SWU, and the unrestricted SWU value remained steady at $67 per SWU. Active demand continued to decrease, while active supply increased.

  6. Noncommercial Trading in the Energy Futures Market

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    How do futures markets affect spot market prices? This is one of the most pervasive questions surrounding futures markets, and it has been analyzed in numerous ways for many commodities.

  7. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  8. Technology to Market | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Market Technology to Market The SunShot Initiative's Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot's record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models to the market. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage. All Technology to Market programs are tightly structured to ensure that recipients commercialize the funded technology and achieve

  9. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Gamesa Wind to Market | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Represents the interests of wind project owner clients in the Spanish electricity market References: Gamesa Wind to Market1 This article is a stub. You...

  12. Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to the Industrialization of Thermoelectric Devices Market pricing of thermoelectric raw materials and processing, cost of ...

  13. NRG Power Marketing LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marketing LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: NRG Power Marketing LLC Address: 211 Carnegie Center Place: Princeton, New Jersey Country: United States Phone Number: 609-524-4500...

  14. Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc Address: 1177 West Loop South Suite 800 Place: Houston, TX Zip: 77027 Phone Number:...

  15. Ameren Energy Marketing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marketing Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ameren Energy Marketing Place: Missouri Service Territory: Missouri Phone Number: 1 800-552-7583 Website: www.ameren.commissouri...

  16. Rainbow Energy Marketing Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Marketing Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corp Place: North Dakota Phone Number: (701) 222-2290 Website: www.rainbowenergy.com Facebook:...

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries Here you'll find marketing summaries for technologies available for licensing from the Princeton Plasma Physics...

  18. Enertech Marketing Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enertech Marketing Services Jump to: navigation, search Name: Enertech Marketing Services Place: Bangalore, Karnataka, India Zip: 560041 Sector: Services, Solar Product: Enertech...

  19. Naval Research Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naval Research Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries Here you'll find marketing summaries for technologies available for licensing from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The...

  20. Green Power Marketing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Power Marketing Jump to: navigation, search Gearbox installation at Xcel Energy's Ponnequin Wind Farm in Colorado. Photo from Jeroen van Dam, NREL 19257 Green power marketing...

  1. Ameren Energy Marketing (Illinois) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marketing (Illinois) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ameren Energy Marketing Place: Illinois References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 EIA Form 861...

  2. Badger Power Marketing Auth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Marketing Auth Jump to: navigation, search Name: Badger Power Marketing Auth Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (715) 526-2920 Facebook: https:www.facebook.compages...

  3. Wolverine Power Marketing Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Marketing Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wolverine Power Marketing Coop Place: Michigan Phone Number: 1.877.907.9762 Website: www.wpmc.coop Outage Hotline:...

  4. Energy Market Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Market Analysis synthesizes all analysis efforts in the analysis spectrum. Scenario analyses, in the context of market analysis, are used to answer several questions: What ...

  5. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving ...

  6. Marketing and Communications Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Communications Plan Marketing and Communications Plan This is a document from Energy ... PDF icon Marketing and Communications Plan More Documents & Publications Sonoma County ...

  7. Power Marketing Administrations Leading the Nation's Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leading the Nation's Transition to a 21st Century Electric Grid Power Marketing ... The Energy Department's Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) play a vital role in ...

  8. Building America Market Partnerships | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Building America Market Partnerships Building America Market Partnerships This ... View the meetings page to learn about Building America Technical and Stakeholder events, ...

  9. Environmental Markets Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20005 Product: The Environmental Markets Association (EMA), an international nonprofit trade association, was originally formed in 1997 to promote market-based trading solutions...

  10. Career Map: Power Marketer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Frequent travel is often required to meet with utility representatives. Power marketers typically do the following: Monitor and forecast marketing and sales trends Measure the ...

  11. International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy: Leveraging U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy: Leveraging U.S. Government Resources Breakout Session 3C-Fostering Technology Adoption III: International Market Opportunities in ...

  12. Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials Available Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials Available September 16, 2015 -...

  13. Solar Energy Market Forecast | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Market Forecast Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Solar Energy Market Forecast AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector:...

  14. International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy: Leveraging U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy: Leveraging U.S. Government Resources International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy: Leveraging U.S. Government Resources Breakout ...

  15. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report Summary Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

    2010-08-01

    This is a Powerpoint presentation on the 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report, which covers the major developments in the U.S. wind energy market in 2009.

  16. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    This is the executive summary for the 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report, which covers the major developments in the U.S. wind energy market in 2009.

  17. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text...

  18. Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities: Markets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities: Markets and Barriers to Growth Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities: Markets and Barriers to Growth Presentation by Matt Most, Encana Natural Gas, ...

  19. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report Presentation | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Publications 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report Presentation 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report Economic Environment 0 Anirban Basu, Chairman & CEO, Sage Policy Group, Inc....

  20. Carbon Market Brasil Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Market Brasil Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Market Brasil Consulting Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04120-070 Sector: Carbon Product: Brazil-based carbon...

  1. Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Global Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance...

  2. NREL Market Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: NREL Market analysis AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Market analysis Website: www.nrel.govanalysis...

  3. Energy Merchant Marketing EMM | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Energy Merchant Marketing (EMM) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10022 Product: Biodiesel producer. References: Energy Merchant Marketing (EMM)1 This article is a stub....

  4. 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation that summarizes the annual Wind Technologies Market Report, which summarizes key trends in the 2012 U.S. wind power market.

  5. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT JUNE 2010 2008 FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT i Authors This report was written primarily by Bill Vincent of the Breakthrough ...

  6. Fact Sheet: 2012 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alice Orrell, Bret Barker

    2013-04-06

    This fact sheet summarizes findings from the forthcoming 2012 Distributed Wind Market Report, offering a snapshot of the distributed wind market based on 2012 data.

  7. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  8. U.S. Solar Market Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Sherwood

    2006-07-01

    U.S. solar installations by technology are detailed for 1998���¢��������2005. The growth and state distribution of installations are different for the three primary solar sectors: ���¢�������¢ photovoltaics, ���¢�������¢ solar water heating and space heating, and ���¢�������¢ solar pool heating. Photovoltaic installations have grown steadily. Since 2001, grid-connected installations grew at an average rate of 52%. California has 79% of the installations, with Arizona, New Jersey, New York, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Oregon accounting for most of the remaining installations. The offgrid growth has been steady, but significantly lower. Solar water heating and solar space heating installations have shown little growth since 1997. Hawaii dominates, with 41% of the market. Other states with a large number of installations include Puerto Rico, California, Florida, and Arizona. Solar pool heating accounts for the largest number of installations and has grown at an average rate of 13% since 1997. Installations in California and Florida are 75% of the pool heating market.

  9. Spherical cavity-expansion forcing function in PRONTO 3D for application to penetration problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, T.L.; Tabbara, M.R.

    1997-05-01

    In certain penetration events the primary mode of deformation of the target can be approximated by known analytical expressions. In the context of an analysis code, this approximation eliminates the need for modeling the target as well as the need for a contact algorithm. This technique substantially reduces execution time. In this spirit, a forcing function which is derived from a spherical-cavity expansion analysis has been implemented in PRONTO 3D. This implementation is capable of computing the structural and component responses of a projectile due to three dimensional penetration events. Sample problems demonstrate good agreement with experimental and analytical results.

  10. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  11. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  12. Strategies to Mitigate Declines in the Economic Value of Wind and Solar at High Penetration in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This resource evaluates several options to reduce and eliminate the decline in the value of wind and solar PV technology, as a previous study had quantified the decline as penetration levels increased. Researchers found that largest increase in the value of PV at high penetration levels comes from assuming that low-cost bulk power storage is an investment option. Other attractive options, particularly at more modest penetration levels, include real-time pricing and technology diversity.

  13. New Report Charts Dynamic, Steady Growth of the U.S. Solar Jobs Market |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Report Charts Dynamic, Steady Growth of the U.S. Solar Jobs Market New Report Charts Dynamic, Steady Growth of the U.S. Solar Jobs Market November 16, 2012 - 2:00pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The solar industry is one of the fastest growing job markets in the U.S., employing more than 119,000 skilled workers. The market is growing at an annual rate of 13.2 percent. A new

  14. Markets for concentrating solar power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    The report describes the markets for concentrating solar power. As concentrating solar power technologies advance into the early stages of commercialization, their economic potential becomes more sharply defined and increasingly tangible.

  15. Energy Management and Marketing Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region Power Marketing Merchant Real Time N6500 114 Parkshore Drive...

  16. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  17. Step 1: Assess the Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To establish meaningful program goals and objectives and to create program offerings that will resonate with your community, you will first need to understand the local market for energy efficiency:

  18. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  19. Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation, from a team of evaluators, independent of the BBNP program, with whom DOE contracted to assess the performance of BBNP and identify lessons learned.

  20. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop February 16–17, 2011, in Washington, D.C....

  1. National Symposium on Market Transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), this three-day conference features speakers covering topics within the scope of market transformation.

  2. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  3. Method to Reduce Molten Salt Penetration into Bulk Vitrification Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Hrma, P.R.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.; Matyas, J.; Rodriguez, C.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States); Witwer, K.S. [AMEC Nuclear Holdings Ltd., GeoMelt Division, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material consisting of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. However, the castable refractory block (CRB) portion of the refractory lining has sufficient porosity to allow the low-viscosity molten ionic salt (MIS), which contains technetium (Tc) in a soluble form, to penetrate the CRB. This limits the effectiveness of the final waste form. This paper describes tests conducted to develop a method aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the CRB. Tests showed that MIS formed in significant quantities at temperatures above 300 deg. C, remained stable until roughly 550 deg. C where it began to thermally decompose, and was completely decomposed by 800 deg. C. The estimated volume fraction of MIS in the feed was greater than 40%, and the CRB material contained 11 to 15% open porosity, a combination allowing a large quantity of MIS to migrate through the feed and penetrate the open porosity of the CRB. If the MIS is decomposed at temperatures below 300 deg. C or can be contained in the feed until it fully decomposes by 800 deg. C, MIS migration into the CRB can be avoided. Laboratory and crucible-scale experiments showed that a variety of methods, individually or in combination, can decrease MIS penetration into the CRB. Modifying the CRB to block MIS penetration was not deemed practical as a method to prevent the large quantities of MIS penetration seen in the full-scale tests, but it may be useful to reduce the impacts of lower levels of MIS penetration. Modifying the BV feed materials to better contain the MIS proved to be more successful. A series of qualitative and quantitative crucible tests were developed that allowed screening of feed modifications that might be used to reduce MIS penetration. These tests showed that increasing the specific surface area of the soil (used as the primary glass-forming solid in the baseline process) by grinding stopped MIS penetration nearly entirely for feeds that contained waste simulants with lower quantities of nitrate salts. Grinding soil significantly reduced MIS penetration in feeds with higher nitrate quantities, but it was necessary to add carbohydrates (sucrose or cellulose) to destroy a portion of the nitrate at low temperatures to reach the same low levels of MIS penetration seen for the lower nitrate feeds. Developing feeds to reduce MIS penetration in full-scale BV applications resulted in two additional refinements. Soil-grinding to the necessary levels proved to be difficult and expensive, so the fine soil was replaced with readily available fine-grained glass-forming minerals. Cellulose was shown to have less impact on dryer operation than sucrose and was chosen as the carbohydrate source to use in subsequent engineering- and full-scale tests. (authors)

  4. Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-11-01

    This article is the October 1993 uranium market summary. In spite of the substantial quantity of material that moved through the unrestricted market during this period, the unrestricted exchange value remained constant at $6.90 per pound U3O8, and the unrestricted value dipped to $10.15. There were four deals in the concentrates market during this period. Both the restricted and the unrestricted UF6 values remained constant at $31.75 and $24.75 per kgU as UF6 respectively, as did the restricted and unrestricted SWU values ($82 and $68 respectively). Active supply increased, while active demand decreased.

  5. Market Challenges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics » Market Challenges Market Challenges Solid-state lighting (SSL) has the potential to significantly reduce lighting energy use and slash greenhouse-gas emissions. By 2030, DOE estimates that SSL could potentially cut national lighting electricity use nearly in half, but a number of challenges stand in the way of achieving the full energy saving potential of SSL. Although SSL products now appear to be competitive in many applications-from bulbs sold in grocery stores to street lights

  6. WINDExchange: Wind Energy Market Sectors

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Market Sectors Printable Version Bookmark and Share Utility-Scale Wind Distributed Wind Motivations for Buying Wind Power Buying Wind Power Selling Wind Power Wind Energy Market Sectors U.S. power plants generate electricity for homes, factories, and businesses from a variety of resources, including coal, hydro, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, and (non-hydro) renewable resources such as wind and solar energy. This power generation mix varies significantly across the country depending on

  7. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report May 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States

  8. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 U.S. Energy Information Administration / 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 2013 2014 2015 American Fuel Resources, LLC Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. AREVA / AREVA NC, Inc. AREVA NC, Inc. AREVA / AREVA NC, Inc. ARMZ (AtomRedMetZoloto) BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd ARMZ (AtomRedMetZoloto) BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd CAMECO BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty

  9. Electricity market players subgroup report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borison, A.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine competition in the electric power industry from an ``industrial organization`` point of view. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 describes the ``industrial organization`` approach used to analyze the electric power market. Industrial organization emphasizes specific market performance criteria, and the impact of market structure and behavior on performance. Chapter 3 identifies the participants in the electric power market, grouped primarily into regulated producers, unregulated producers, and consumers. Chapter 4 describes the varieties of electric power competition, organized along two dimensions: producer competition and consumer competition. Chapters 5 and 6 identify the issues raised by competition along the two dimensions. These issues include efficiency, equity, quality, and stability. Chapters 7 through 9 describe market structure, behavior and performance in three competitive scenarios: minimum competition, maximum competition, and moderate competition. Market structure, behavior and performance are discussed, and the issues raised in Chapters 5 and 6 are discussed in detail. Chapter 10 provides conclusions about ``winners and losers`` and identifies issues that require further study.

  10. Electricity market players subgroup report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borison, A.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine competition in the electric power industry from an industrial organization'' point of view. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 describes the industrial organization'' approach used to analyze the electric power market. Industrial organization emphasizes specific market performance criteria, and the impact of market structure and behavior on performance. Chapter 3 identifies the participants in the electric power market, grouped primarily into regulated producers, unregulated producers, and consumers. Chapter 4 describes the varieties of electric power competition, organized along two dimensions: producer competition and consumer competition. Chapters 5 and 6 identify the issues raised by competition along the two dimensions. These issues include efficiency, equity, quality, and stability. Chapters 7 through 9 describe market structure, behavior and performance in three competitive scenarios: minimum competition, maximum competition, and moderate competition. Market structure, behavior and performance are discussed, and the issues raised in Chapters 5 and 6 are discussed in detail. Chapter 10 provides conclusions about winners and losers'' and identifies issues that require further study.

  11. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On the front cover: Smithland Hydropower Project, Livingston County, KY (image courtesy of American Municipal Power). The plant-scheduled for completion in late 2015 or early 2016-will have an estimated rated capacity of 72 MW and an estimated annual production of 379 GWh. It is one of three projects being built by American Municipal Power at non-powered dams along the Ohio River. The photo was taken in November 2014. This report is being disseminated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Gregory

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  13. Partially penetrating fractures: Pressure transient analysis of an infinite conductivity fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Cinco-Ley, H.; Horne, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of the partial penetration of an infinite conductivity fracture on the transient pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well is investigated. Analysis of results shows that the pressure behavior of a well intersected by a partially-penetrating infinite conductivity vertical fracture can be divided into three flow periods: 1) the early time flow period which is characterized by a formation linear flow as in the case of a fully-penetrating infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, 2) the infinite-acting flow period and 3) the pseudoradial flow period which develops after the effects of the vertical boundaries of the reservoir are felt in the pressure behavior of the well. A log-log graph of log(h /SUB f/ /h)p /SUB wD/ versus log t /SUB Dxf/ shows a slope of one half during the early time flow period of a well with an infinite-conductivity partially penetrating fracture. The time for the end of the early time flow period is directly related to the square of the dimensionless height of the fracture, h /SUB fD/, which is defined as the ratio between the height of the fracture and its half length.

  14. Method of dispensing droplets to penetration-resistive mediums. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, V.L.; Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1982-06-10

    Uniform, monosized microspheroids are produced in a gelation medium characterized by a high resistance to surface penetration by reducing the effect of impact on entry of the droplets into the medium by contacting the droplet with a stream of medium and by introducing the resulting stream into a gelation column.

  15. Market values summary/March market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-04-01

    This article is the March 1993 uranium market summary. In the natural uranium and concentrates market, there were eight transactions. Both the restricted and unrestricted values were unchanged at $9.45 and $7.00 per pound of U3O8 respectively. In the UF6 market, there were three deals. Both restricted and unrestricted values were also unchanged at $30.00 and $24.50 per kgU as UF6 respectively. The restricted transaction value dropped slightly to $9.45, and the unrestricted value dropped to $7.05. In the enrichment services market, there were six deals reported, with the restricted SWU value rising to $87.00 and the unrestricted SWU value dropping to $67.00. Active uranium demand decreased considerably, while active supply increased.

  16. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,712.4 8.50 Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC DC Power Marketer 1 148,128 9,306.9 ... 15,133.8 8.71 Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC MD Power Marketer 2 113,058 6,601.5 ...

  17. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 49 392 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Kerosene refiners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  18. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 49 392 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Kerosene refiners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  19. Melamine Formaldehyde Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Melamine Formaldehyde Market Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  20. Financing Program Market Segments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Segments Financing Program Market Segments Financing programs are not one-size-fits-all-different financial products will work better for different market segments. Markets to consider include: Public Sector Residential Commercial and Industrial Select a financing structure in the table for more information. Financing Structures Market Segment Public Sector Residential Commercial Small Business Bonds X X X Clean Renewable Energy Bonds X Energy Efficient Mortgages X Energy Savings

  1. Probability-Weighted LMP and RCP for Day-Ahead Energy Markets using Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; O'Malley, M.

    2012-06-01

    Variable renewable generation resources are increasing their penetration on electric power grids. These resources have weather-driven fuel sources that vary on different time scales and are difficult to predict in advance. These characteristics create challenges for system operators managing the load balance on different timescales. Research is looking into new operational techniques and strategies that show great promise on facilitating greater integration of variable resources. Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment models are one strategy that has been discussed in literature and shows great benefit. However, it is rarely used outside the research community due to its computational limits and difficulties integrating with electricity markets. This paper discusses how it can be integrated into day-ahead energy markets and especially on what pricing schemes should be used to ensure an efficient and fair market.

  2. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  3. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  4. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  5. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  6. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  7. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  10. An investigation of penetrant techniques for detection of machining-induced surface-breaking cracks on monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, G.A.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this effort was to evaluate penetrant methods for their ability to detect surface-breaking cracks in monolithic ceramic materials with an emphasis on detection of cracks generated by machining. There are two basic penetrant types, visible and fluorescent. The visible penetrant method is usually augmented by powder developers and cracks detected can be seen in visible light. Cracks detected by fluorescent penetrant are visible only under ultraviolet light used with or without a developer. The developer is basically a powder that wicks up penetrant from a crack to make it more observable. Although fluorescent penetrants were recommended in the literature survey conducted early in this effort, visible penetrants and two non-standard techniques, a capillary gaseous diffusion method under development at the institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow, and the {open_quotes}statiflux{close_quotes} method which involves use of electrically charged particles, were also investigated. SiAlON ring specimens (1 in. diameter, 3/4 in. wide) which had been subjected to different thermal-shock cycles were used for these tests. The capillary gaseous diffusion method is based on ammonia; the detector is a specially impregnated paper much like litmus paper. As expected, visible dye penetrants offered no detection sensitivity for tight, surface-breaking cracks in ceramics. Although the non-standard statiflux method showed promise on high-crack-density specimens, it was ineffective on limited-crack-density specimens. The fluorescent penetrant method was superior for surface-breaking crack detection, but successful application of this procedure depends greatly on the skill of the user. Two presently available high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrants were then evaluated for detection of microcracks on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC from different suppliers. Although 50X optical magnification may be sufficient for many applications, 200X magnification provides excellent delectability.

  11. Servohydraulic methods for mechanical testing in the Sub-Hopkinson rate regime up to strain rates of 500 1/s.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2005-10-01

    Tensile and compressive stress-strain experiments on metals at strain rates in the range of 1-1000 1/s are relevant to many applications such as gravity-dropped munitions and airplane accidents. While conventional test methods cover strain rates up to {approx}10 s{sup -1} and split-Hopkinson and other techniques cover strain rates in excess of {approx}1000 s{sup -1}, there are no well defined techniques for the intermediate or ''Sub-Hopkinson'' strain-rate regime. The current work outlines many of the challenges in testing in the Sub-Hopkinson regime, and establishes methods for addressing these challenges. The resulting technique for obtaining intermediate rate stress-strain data is demonstrated in tension on a high-strength, high-toughness steel alloy (Hytuf) that could be a candidate alloy for earth penetrating munitions and in compression on a Au-Cu braze alloy.

  12. NERSC-8 Vendor Market Survey

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC-8 Project Lead NERSC-8 Market Survey --- 1 --- November 15, 2012 * Seek v endor i nput t o o p6mize 6 ming, r equirements and business prac6ces * Opportunity f or v endors t o p rovide i nput p rior t o formal p rocurement p rocess We are starting our next procurement, NERSC-8, with a round of market surveys Vendor B riefing --- 2 --- NERSC's mission is to enable science NERSC Mission: To accelerate the pace of scientific discovery by providing high-performance computing, data systems and

  13. May market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Seven uranium transactions totalling nearly three million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported during May, but only two, totalling less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8, involved concentrates. As no discretionary buying occurred during the month, and as near-term supply and demand were in relative balance, prices were steady, while both buyers and sellers appeared to be awaiting some new market development to signal the direction of future spot-market prices. The May 31, 1993, Exchange Value and the Restricted American market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates were both unchanged at $7.10, and $2.95 per pound U3O8, respectively. NUEXCO's judgement was that transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that were both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on May 31 at $10.05 per pound U3O8. Two near-term concentrate transactions were reported in which one US utility purchased less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8 from two separate sellers. These sales occurred at price levels at or near the May 31 Exchange Value plus RAMP. No long-term uranium transactions were reported during May. Consequently, the UF6 Value decreased $0.20 to $24.30 per kgU as UF6, reflecting some weakening of the UF6 market outside the USA.

  14. Global environmental markets: Equity and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chichilnisky, G.

    1997-12-31

    Global markets trading rights to emit greenhouse gases are now actively considered by the United Nations. This leads to a new phenomenon: environmental markets in a global scale. Is this new, or are these markets simply a global manifestation of a trend towards market solutions? This paper will show that there is a fundamental difference between global environmental markets and standard stock exchanges. Because the atmosphere of the planet is one and the same for all, these markets trade {open_quotes}public goods{close_quotes} which are, however, privately produced. These are different from all the goods that are traded in markets today. Efficiency in these markets dictates different rules, involving a more equitable allocation of property rights on environmental use, and this requires new institutional arrangements. There is a need for a new institution, an International Bank for Environmental Settlements (IBES), which can lead to organized trading and ensures market integrity and efficiency.

  15. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K.; Venkatech, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-30

    The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling and Analysis Partnership (REMAP) sponsors ongoing workshops to discuss individual 'renewable' technologies, energy/economic modeling, and - to some extent - policy issues related to renewable energy. Since 2002, the group has organized seven workshops, each focusing on a different renewable technology (geothermal, solar, wind, etc.). These workshops originated and continue to be run under an informal partnership of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE). EPA originally funded the activities, but support is now shared between EPA and EERE. REMAP has a wide range of participating analysts and models/modelers that come from government, the private sector, and academia. Modelers include staff from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), NREL, EPA, Resources for the Future (RFF), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), Regional Economic Models Inc. (REMI), ICF International, OnLocation Inc., and Boston University. The working group has more than 40 members, which also includes representatives from DOE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and ACORE. This report summarizes the activities and findings of the REMAP activity that started in late 2006 with a kickoff meeting, and concluded in mid-2008 with presentations of final results. As the project evolved, the group compared results across models and across technologies rather than just examining a specific technology or activity. The overall goal was to better understand how and why different energy models give similar and/or different answers in response to a set of focused energy-related questions. The focus was on understanding reasons for model differences, not on policy implications, even though a policy of high renewable penetration was used for the analysis. A group process was used to identify the potential question (or questions) to be addressed through the project. In late 2006, increasing renewable energy penetration in the electricity sector was chosen from among several options as the general policy to model. From this framework, the analysts chose a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) as the way to implement the required renewable energy market penetration in the models. An RPS was chosen because it was (i) of interest and represented the group's consensus choice, and (ii) tractable and not too burdensome for the modelers. Because the modelers and analysts were largely using their own resources, it was important to consider the degree of effort required. In fact, several of the modelers who started this process had to discontinue participation because of other demands on their time. Federal and state RPS policy is an area of active political interest and debate. Recognizing this, participants used this exercise to gain insight into energy model structure and performance. The results are not intended to provide any particular insight into policy design or be used for policy advocacy, and participants are not expected to form a policy stance based on the outcomes of the modeling. The goals of this REMAP project - in terms of the main topic of renewable penetration - were to: (1) Compare models and understand why they may give different results to the same question, (2) Improve the rigor and consistency of assumptions used across models, and (3) Evaluate the ability of models to measure the impacts of high renewable-penetration scenarios.

  16. Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    This article is the October uranium market summary. During this period, volume increased to 2.2 Mlb U3O8 on the spot concentrates market. The unrestricted and restricted exchange values remained steady at $7.00 and $9.05 per pound U3O8 respectively. There were two UF6 deals during this period, and with supply more than adequate to meet the demand, the restricted UF6 price remained unchanged at $29.00 per kgU as UF6. The unrestricted value increased slightly to $24.50. The conversion value was unchanged, and the enrichment services market/prices weakened. Both active supply and demand decreased during this period.

  17. Market values summary/March market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This article is the March 1995 uranium market summary. There were 14 near-term deals is natural uranium market for a total of 5.2 Mlb. The restricted exchange value moved upward to $11.75 per pound U3O8, and the unrestricted value rose to $7.35. The UF6 market was quite active, with 8 deals and with restricted and unrestricted prices for UF6 both up ($34.75 and $22.50 per kgU as UF6 respectively). The restricted and unrestricted transaction values also rose to $10.05 and $7.25 respectively. Enrichment services followed the overall trend, with increases to $92 and $78 per SWU. Active uranium supply dropped, as did active demand.

  18. Simulation of interplanetary magnetic field B{sub y} penetration into the magnetotail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiuling; Shen, Chao; Liu, Zhenxing

    2014-07-15

    Based on our global 3D magnetospheric MHD simulation model, we investigate the phenomena and physical mechanism of the B{sub y} component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) penetrating into the magnetotail. We find that the dayside reconnected magnetic field lines move to the magnetotail, get added to the lobe fields, and are dragged in the IMF direction. However, the B{sub y} component in the plasma sheet mainly originates from the tilt and relative slippage of the south and north lobes caused by plasma convection, which results in the original B{sub z} component in the plasma sheet rotating into a B{sub y} component. Our research also shows that the penetration effect of plasma sheet B{sub y} from the IMF B{sub y} during periods of northward IMF is larger than that during periods of southward IMF.

  19. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-2426 Unlimited Release UC-705 Penetration Equations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-2426 Unlimited Release * UC-705 Penetration Equations C. W. Young Applied Research Associates, Inc. 4300 San Mateo Blvd. NE, Suite A-220 Albuquerque NM 871 10 Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; distribution

  20. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401

  1. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  2. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report Barry A. Mather National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sunil Shah Southern California Edison Benjamin L. Norris and John H. Dise Clean Power Research Li Yu, Dominic Paradis, and Farid Katiraei Quanta Technology Richard Seguin, David Costyk, Jeremy Woyak, Jaesung Jung, Kevin Russell, and Robert Broadwater Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-61269 June 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S.

  3. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  4. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

  5. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  6. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  7. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  8. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  9. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  10. Regions in Energy Market Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, W.

    2007-02-01

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  11. Regions in Energy Market Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  12. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary; Moore, Sheila A

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  13. Ballistic penetration test results for Ductal and ultra-high performance concrete samples.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III

    2010-03-01

    This document provides detailed test results of ballistic impact experiments performed on several types of high performance concrete. These tests were performed at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility using a 50 caliber powder gun to study penetration resistance of concrete samples. This document provides test results for ballistic impact experiments performed on two types of concrete samples, (1) Ductal{reg_sign} concrete is a fiber reinforced high performance concrete patented by Lafarge Group and (2) ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) produced in-house by DoD. These tests were performed as part of a research demonstration project overseen by USACE and ERDC, at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research (STAR) facility. Ballistic penetration tests were performed on a single stage research powder gun of 50 caliber bore using a full metal jacket M33 ball projectile with a nominal velocity of 914 m/s (3000 ft/s). Testing was observed by Beverly DiPaolo from ERDC-GSL. In all, 31 tests were performed to achieve the test objectives which were: (1) recovery of concrete test specimens for post mortem analysis and characterization at outside labs, (2) measurement of projectile impact velocity and post-penetration residual velocity from electronic and radiographic techniques and, (3) high-speed photography of the projectile prior to impact, impact and exit of the rear surface of the concrete construct, and (4) summarize the results.

  14. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2011-11-01

    At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

  15. Influence of sulfur and welding conditions on penetration in thin strip stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheller, P.R. ); Brooks, R.F.; Mills, K.C. . Division of Materials Metrology)

    1995-02-01

    Welding trials and surface tension measurements have been carried out on 304 stainless steels with sulfur (S) contents between 20 and 100 ppm. Surface tension measurements, determined by the levitated drop method, indicated that the temperature coefficient of surface tension (d[gamma]/dT) changed from negative to positive values at S contents exceeding approximately 50 ppm. Strips with a thickness of approximately 1 mm were GTA welded on both single-electrode, small-scale and multi-electrode industrial-scale units. Welding speeds of 1 to 2 m min[sup [minus]1] were used on the small-scale unit and up to 5 m min[sup [minus]1] on the industrial unit. The weld penetration was found to increase, for both full and partial penetration welds, with (1) increasing sulfur contents; and (2) increasing linear energy. On the small scale-unit markedly higher penetration was observed in heats with S contents > 60 ppm. But the influence of S contents was only of minor importance for welds obtained on the industrial unit. It was found that the similar weld geometry could be obtained for both low ([<=] 60 ppm) and high (> 60 ppm) sulfur contents by careful adjustment of welding parameters. The observed changes in weld geometry are consistent with the proposition that the fluid flow in the weld pool is dominated by thermo-capillary (Marangoni) forces during the GTA welding of thin strips.

  16. 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Technologies Market Report 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report The 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report is a comprehensive analyses of the U.S. distributed wind energy market ever published, this report provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, focusing on 2012. PDF icon 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report More Documents & Publications 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report 2014 Wind Technologies Market

  17. A Unified Equation for the Reaction Rate in Dense Matter Stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasques, L. R.; Wiescher, M.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2007-10-26

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear reaction rates in multi-component dense stellar plasma. First we describe calculations of the astrophysical S-factor at low energies using the Sao Paulo potential on the basis of the barrier penetration model. Then we present a simple phenomenological expression for a reaction rate. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature.

  18. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model documentation summarizes the default data inputs and assumptions for the model. Input data for the model are regularly updated and include recent EIA Annual Energy Outlook projections, state-level net metering and incentive policies, and utility-level retail electricity rates. Note that the dGen model builds on, extends, and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated SolarDS model. Documentation Outline Introduction

  19. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The first mass marketed PEVs were introduced in 2010 with the Nissan Leaf,...

  20. R&D Efforts for Enabling High Penetration Photovoltaics in U...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MW US PV Market - Historic 4 Source: GTM Research Solar Executive Briefing, JAN14 Global PV Demand Forecast 5 * 300GW by 2018, 1TW not before 2030. * Much too slow given the...