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1

UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Map-Annex 1 Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Climate Topics: Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: maps.unfccc.int/di/map/ Country: Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States

2

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) (Redirected from MARKAL) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) Agency/Company /Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.iea-etsap.org/web/Markal.asp Cost: Paid OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool References: MARKAL website[1] Related Tools Ventana's Energy, Environment, Economy-Society (E3S) Model Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS

3

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) Agency/Company /Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.iea-etsap.org/web/Markal.asp Cost: Paid OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool References: MARKAL website[1] Related Tools Ventana's Energy, Environment, Economy-Society (E3S) Model Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS An integrated energy systems modeling platform that can be used to analyze

4

Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.etsap.org/index.asp Country: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

5

Energy technologies for rural areas â?? decentralised power generation through MARKAL modelling: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to shortage of power, extremely subsidised tariffs, poor financial recovery, long transmission lines, there exists a very poor demand-supply balance in the rural energy sectors of India. MARKAL bases analysis of a village-group in western India reveals that there is a potential of reducing the electricity demand by about 18% as compared to the business-as-usual case through adopting energy efficiency measures. Results show that in the studied area, renewable energy systems are not likely to penetrate without government subsidy. Sufficient potential was found for making the area independent from grid through decentralised electricity generation. Through decentralised electricity generation, there is a potential of reducing 2200 ton carbon-dioxide emissions as compared to the business-as-usual case. Electricity generation through bio-gas plants for domestic consumption and through photovoltaic systems for irrigation pumps have been found more attractive as compared to other options.

Jyotirmay Mathur

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

The future of natural gas consumption in Beijing, Guangdong and Shanghai: An assessment utilizing MARKAL  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas could possibly become a si0gnificant portion of the future fuel mix in China. However, there is still great uncertainty surrounding the size of this potential market and therefore its impact on the global gas trade. In order to identify some of the important factors that might drive natural gas consumption in key demand areas in China, we focus on three regions: Beijing, Guangdong, and Shanghai. Using the economic optimization model MARKAL, we initially assume that the drivers are government mandates of emissions standards, reform of the Chinese financial structure, the price and available supply of natural gas, and the rate of penetration of advanced power generating and end-use. The results from the model show that the level of natural gas consumption is most sensitive to policy scenarios, which strictly limit SO2 emissions from power plants. The model also revealed that the low cost of capital for power plants in China boosts the economic viability of capital-intensive coal-fired plants. This suggests that reform within the financial sector could be a lever for encouraging increased natural gas use.

BinBin Jiang; Chen Wenying; Yu Yuefeng; Zeng Lemin; David Victor

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce 2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emissions by an equal percentage (say by 20 per cent), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Leonard D. Hamilton

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

MARKAL-MACRO -- An integrated energy-environmental-economic decision tool: Evaluation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Green Lights/Energy Star Buildings Programs  

SciTech Connect

The MARKAL-MACRO model is used to evaluate the cost effectiveness and market potential in Taiwan for technologies which are promoted by the US Environmental Protection Agency Green Lights and Energy Star Buildings Programs. Comparative analysis of the model results show that these technologies are economically more competitive than conventional technologies and are projected to be dominant in the market place in meeting retrofit and future energy demands in commercial buildings under least-cost energy planning strategies.

Lee, J.C.; Goldstein, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Linkey, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, New York, NY (United States); Huang, J.I. [InfoLink, Inc., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Development of an Energy System Model in Jiangsu Region with MARKAL: An Analysis of the Supply Side  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Research, conducted in collaboration with Department of Mechanical Engineer of Southeast University of Nanjing situated in the Jangsu Region, has been developed over a period of three years in the ambit of Sc...

Vincenzo Naso; Flavio Rottenberg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

How can accelerated development of bioenergy contribute to the future UK energy mix? Insights from a MARKAL modelling exercise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work explores the potential contribution of bioenergy technologies to 60% and 80% carbon reductions in the UK energy system by 2050, by outlining the potential for accelerated technological development of...

Donna Clarke; Sophie Jablonski; Brighid Moran…

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Timber Haulage Contract (Rev 1/8/06) No: Unit: Date: Page 1 Contract Manager  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the Commission); Contract Map the map or maps annexed as Part 2 of the Schedule; Dangerous Substances any case) of causing harm to man or any other living organism or damaging the environment or public health;Timber Haulage Contract (Rev 1/8/06) No: Unit: Date: Page 2 Contract Manager: dangerous waste whether

12

Ghana-UNDP Climate Activities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP Climate Activities UNDP Climate Activities Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Development Programme Topics Background analysis Website http://ccmap.undp.org/ Country Ghana Western Africa References UNDP Interactive Climate Projects Map[1] Ghana (17) Climate Change Adaptation Programme Climate Change and Development - Adapting by Reducing Vulnerability (CCDARE) Enhancing Access to Sustainable Energy Services Enhancing Access to Sustainable Energy Services for the Poor in Ghana Ghana National Capacity Assessment (Completed) Ghana: Establishing an Effective and Sustainable Structure for Implementing Multilateral Environment Agreements Ghana: Second national Communication to the UNFCCC Global Village Energy Partnership - Energy for Poverty Reduction Action Plan (Completed)

13

Coupling Climate Damages and GHG Abatement Costs in a Linear Programming Framework  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper discusses the coupling of non-linear non-convex damage costs due to climate change with a cost-efficiency analysis based on a technical-economic linear programming model like MARKAL and studies the impl...

M. Labriet; R. Loulou

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Distributed Energy: Modeling Penetration in Industrial Sector Over the Long-Term  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the generation of steam. Within the framework of a US energy system model (MARKAL using the assumptions underlying AEO 2005), where all sources of energy supply and demand are depicted, the potential penetration of DE options is evaluated. The industrial... and the generation of steam. Within the framework of a US energy system model (MARKAL using the assumptions underlying AEO 2005), where all sources of energy supply and demand are depicted, the potential penetration of DE options is evaluated. The industrial...

Greening, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Impact of Hydrogen Production onImpact of Hydrogen Production on U.S. Energy MarketsU.S. Energy Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vehicles. H2P - HFCIT Program goals for fuel cell costs H2PST - H2P + vehicle subsidy ($3,000 for 2015 systems 5 #12;Preliminary MARKAL AnalysisPreliminary MARKAL Analysis H2IO - IEA "Optimistic" fuel cell costs H2IOST - H2IO + vehicle subsidy ($3,000 for 2015 & 2020, $1,500 for 2025) and H2 fuel taxes

16

Perfluorooctane sulphonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in drinking and environmental waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rapidly after the Buncefield Oil Depot fire, have LODs...the region of Buncefield Oil Depot and subsequent pollution...GAC is regenerated by heating at high temperatures in...following the Buncefield Oil Depot fire, the amount...Bob Markall and Robin Price of Anglian Water for supplying...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Energy Policy & Technology Analysis | Global and Regional Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Energy Technologies Department Energy Policy and Technology Analysis The group's core focus is on long-term integrated energy, environmental, and economic analysis using the MARKAL family of models, a well-established tool for energy systems analysis. With 30 years of development under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, MARKAL has approximately 100 user institutions in more than 50 countries. A bottom-up analysis with explicit technology representation, the models include a physical description of energy technologies, and allow for "well-to-wheel" comparison of technologies and technological pathways. They study the impact of technological change/progress on energy markets, and provide a technology-rich basis for estimating energy dynamics over a multi-period

18

Soft-linking energy systems and GIS models to investigate spatial hydrogen infrastructure development in a low-carbon UK energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes an innovative modelling approach focusing on linking spatial (GIS) modelling of hydrogen (H2) supply, demands and infrastructures, anchored within a economy-wide energy systems model (MARKAL). The UK government is legislating a groundbreaking climate change mitigation target for a 60% CO2 reduction by 2050, and has identified H2 infrastructures and technologies as potentially playing a major role, notably in the transport sector. An exploratory set of linked GIS–MARKAL model scenarios generate a range of nuanced insights including spatial matching of supply and demand for optimal zero-carbon H2 deployment, a crucial finding on successive clustering of demand centres to enable economies of scale in H2 supply and distribution, the competitiveness of imported liquid H2 and of liquid H2 distribution, and sectoral competition for coal with carbon sequestration between electricity and H2 production under economy-wide CO2 constraints.

Neil Strachan; Nazmiye Balta-Ozkan; David Joffe; Kate McGeevor; Nick Hughes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Community for Energy, Environment and Development (COMMEND) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community for Energy, Environment and Development (COMMEND) Community for Energy, Environment and Development (COMMEND) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Community for Energy, Environment and Development Agency/Company /Organization: Stockholm Environment Institute Sector: Climate, Energy Topics: Finance, Market analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Other Website: www.energycommunity.org/default.asp?action=71 RelatedTo: String representation "EnergyPLAN, UND ... cation (MARKAL)" is too long. Community for Energy, Environment and Development Screenshot References: COMMAND[1] COMMEND (COMMunity for ENergy environment & Development) is an international initiative designed to foster a community among energy analysts working on energy for sustainable development. COMMEND is managed

20

GLIMPSE: A Rapid Decision Framework for Energy and Environmental Policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We find opportunities for substantial cobenefits in setting both climate change mitigation and health-benefit based air quality improvement targets. ... The EPA MARKAL database is populated with U.S. data that incorporates technology and fuel assumptions from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s 2012 Annual Energy Outlook(29) and availability of renewable energy from Department of Energy’s National Energy Modeling System. ... Policymakers and other stakeholders propose energy policies to promote various causes, from domestic energy independence to protecting public health and mitigating climate change. ...

Farhan H. Akhtar; Robert W. Pinder; Daniel H. Loughlin; Daven K. Henze

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "markal unfccc-global map-annex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Analysis of the energy and environmental effects of green car deployment by an integrating energy system model with a forecasting model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By 2020, Korea has set itself the challenging target of reducing nationwide greenhouse gas emissions by 30%, more than the BAU (Business as Usual) scenario, as the implementation goal required to achieve the new national development paradigm of green growth. To achieve such a target, it is necessary to diffuse innovative technologies with the capacity to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, the ripple effect of diffusing innovative technologies on the energy and environment must be quantitatively analyzed using an energy system analysis model such as the MARKAL (Market Allocation) model. However, energy system analysis models based on an optimization methodology have certain limitations in that a technology with superior cost competitiveness dominates the whole market and non-cost factors cannot be considered. Therefore, this study proposes a new methodology for overcoming problems associated with the use of MARKAL models, by interfacing with a forecasting model based on the discrete-choice model. The new methodology was applied to green car technology to verify its usefulness and to study the ripple effects of green car technology on greenhouse gas reduction. The results of this study can be used as a reference when establishing a strategy for effectively reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, and could be of assistance to future studies using the energy system analysis model.

Duk Hee Lee; Sang Yong Park; Jong Chul Hong; Sang Jin Choi; Jong Wook Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Title Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Leibowicz, Benjamin, Maria Roumpani, and Peter H. Larsen Journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy Volume 3 Start Page 60 Issue 1 Date Published 2013 Keywords foresight, MARKAL, nuclear electricity, value of information Abstract In this study we analyze the impact of a radical change in nuclear electricity costs on the optimal electricity generation technology mix (EGTM) and constrain the value of information (VOI) on future nuclear costs. We consider three nuclear cost events and four carbon emissions caps. We develop a two-stage framework for energy-economic model MARKAL to eliminate foresight of future nuclear cost movements. We examine how the EGTM responds to these movements under alternative caps and analyze how these movements affect the cost of each cap. We define the expected savings from perfect foresight (ESPF), an upper bound on the VOI. We found that with current technologies, carbon mitigation that does not rely heavily on nuclear electricity is economically insensible. The Strong Cap is extremely costly because it restricts flexibility to respond to cost signals in choosing among technologies. The ESPF is highest under the Medium Cap by a substantial margin.

23

The committee met in the Department of Energy Training  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

THURSDAY THURSDAY APRIL 19, 2001 The committee met in the Department of Energy Training Facility, 8th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 8:30 a.m., Carol A. Gotway Crawford, Ph.D., Chair, presiding. PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD, Ph.D., Chair F. JAY BREIDT, Ph.D., Vice Chair MARK BERNSTEIN, Ph.D. JOHNNY BLAIR MARK BURTON, Ph.D. THOMAS G. COWING, Ph.D. JAMES K. HAMMITT, Ph.D. NICOLAS HENGARTNER W. DAVID MONTGOMERY, Ph.D. WILLIAM G. MOSS, Ph.D. POLLY A. PHIPPS, Ph.D. RANDY R. SITTER, Ph.D. ROY WHITMORE, Ph.D. C-O-N-T-E-N-T-S Welcome 3 Introductions 4 Opening remarks 7 Progress on EIA/ASA Fellowship 21 Briefing: Progress on MARKAL 28 Questions from Committees 41 Briefing: Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Power Plants 45

24

An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village Agency/Company /Organization: Howells, Alfstad, Victor, Goldstein and Remme Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: iea-etsap.org/web/Workshop/worksh_6_2003/2003P_howells.pdf Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Africa Language: English This paper reports on efforts to extend a MARKAL energy model for South Africa to include rural energy choices, allowing for computation of optimal energy systems in a typical (non-electrified) rural village.

25

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications Project Summary Full Title: CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications Project ID: 263 Principal Investigator: Chip Friley Brief Description: This analysis used the 10-region U.S. MARKAL model to quantify the impact of changes in production, distribution and vehicle costs and carbon prices on fuel cell vehicle penetration and overall carbon dioxide emissions. Keywords: Carbon dioxide (CO2); Hydrogen; Fuel cells Purpose Perform analysis of topics of interest to the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies program related to projected carbon dioxide reduction benefits of fuel cell applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Chip Friley Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Address: Mail Stop 475C

26

Special Report: OAS-RA-L-12-01 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

L-12-01 L-12-01 Special Report: OAS-RA-L-12-01 November 28, 2011 Special Inquiry on the Office of the Chief Financial Officer's Information Technology Expenditures The Office of Inspector General (OIG) received a complaint on April 13, 2011, through the OIG Hotline alleging the waste of appropriated Fiscal Year 2010 and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds by senior officials within the Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO). Information alleged included the mismanagement of over $6 million worth of software contracts and user licenses. Specifically, the complaint reported issues with the procurement and implementation of the Market Allocation Modeling Effort (MarkAl), the Multi-Attribute Decision Model (MADA), Microsoft's SharePoint, the @Risk software, and the

27

Approach for Calculating OE Benefits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reliability Reliability U.S. Department of Energy - 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 2007 Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Joe Paladino October 29, 2007 Approach for Calculating OE Benefits Challenges * Established benefits methodologies (e.g., NEMS and MARKAL) do not address some of the major benefits that OE's program will provide (e.g. reliability). * Much of OE's program is about transforming the way the T&D infrastructure operates rather than replacing components: - Some technologies need a high penetration or must be deployed as an entire system to yield benefits (e.g. PMUs or Distribution Automation). - Some programs within OE are not developing "widgets" that can be easily counted. - OE is developing tools/methodologies or funding demonstrations that

28

Spatial development of hydrogen economy in a low-carbon UK energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen technologies and infrastructures might play a significant role in meeting ambitious climate and energy policy goals of the UK Government. Nonetheless, studies on hydrogen are either limited in scope in that they do not take into account the relationships with the wider energy system drivers and constraints or do not consider how a hydrogen network might develop geographically. This paper presents a framework where a spatially explicit hydrogen module is embedded in the UK MARKAL Energy System model to explore energy system trade-offs for the production, delivery and use of hydrogen at the sub-national level. A set of illustrative scenarios highlight the competitiveness of hydrogen related infrastructures and technologies as well as imported liquid hydrogen against a stringent emissions reduction target; the effect of emissions reduction trajectory on the development of hydrogen network; the intense resource competition between low carbon hydrogen production and electricity generation, and the importance of economies of scale in hydrogen supply and distribution.

Nazmiye Balta-Ozkan; Elizabeth Baldwin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The cost of carbon-dioxide abatement in Nigeria's energy sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost of carbon dioxide abatement in Nigeria's energy sector has been estimated using MARKAL, a large-scale linear optimisation model, for the period between 1990 and the year 2030. The baseline scenario is based on the concept of the most-likely development-path in the energy system. An integrated abatement scenario is then developed by augmenting the baseline scenario with a set of abatement options: demand-side options, supply-side options, options for increased use of renewable resources, and options for increased use of the associated natural gas that is currently being flared in Nigerian oil fields. The options are assessed and ranked on the basis of their incremental costs per ton of carbon dioxide reduced. Finally, results of a sensitivity study of the model based on perturbations in energy demand growth assumptions are discussed.

F.I. Ibitoye; A.O. Adegbulugbe; J-F.K. Akinbami

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Conditions for the successful deployment of electric vehicles – A global energy system perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the study, we analyse scenarios of car technology deployment and the global energy system using the Global Multi-regional MARKAL (GMM) cost optimisation model. We consider some of the conditions under which new drivetrain technologies, particularly battery electric vehicles (BEVs), may be more cost competitive under different hypothetical states of the world. We focus on the role of a potential niche market for cars with a limited travel range and how this may affect overall deployment of alternative drivetrain technologies and fuel choice. The results show that assuming a market of substantial size for such short-range cars leads to technologies such as \\{BEVs\\} being deployed more readily. In addition, we show the important role of other factors, such as stringent climate change policy and possible limitations to resource availability, in supporting alternative technologies. This analysis thus identifies potential technology targets for support by decision makers.

Martin Densing; Hal Turton; Georg Bäuml

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The impacts of technological learning on the optimum technology mix: simulations for the Indian power sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the investigation of the optimum technology mix of any country, which is clearly an issue of dynamic nature, technological learning and economies of scale play a significant role. Hence, in this paper's long term planning exercise for the Indian power sector (2000-2025), our simulation analysis specifically includes the impacts of technological learning on the optimal inter-temporal choice of power generation technologies. Based on dynamic linear programming methods and MARKAL, a software tool for power generation capacity planning, the most significant result of our analysis is that among various renewable energy technologies, technological learning will favour wind and small hydropower generation, while pressurised fluidised bed combustion-based coal power plants appear to be the favourite conventional fossil fuel-based technology in India.

Jyotirmay Mathur; Narendra Kumar Bansal; Hermann-Joseh Wagner

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Technology learning for renewable energy: Implications for South Africa's long-term mitigation scenarios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technology learning can make a significant difference to renewable energy as a mitigation option in South Africa's electricity sector. This article considers scenarios implemented in a Markal energy model used for mitigation analysis. It outlines the empirical evidence that unit costs of renewable energy technologies decline, considers the theoretical background and how this can be implemented in modeling. Two scenarios are modelled, assuming 27% and 50% of renewable electricity by 2050, respectively. The results show a dramatic shift in the mitigation costs. In the less ambitious scenario, instead of imposing a cost of Rand 52/t CO2-eq (at 10% discount rate), reduced costs due to technology learning turn renewables into negative cost option. Our results show that technology learning flips the costs, saving R143. At higher penetration rate, the incremental costs added beyond the base case decline from R92 per ton to R3. Including assumptions about technology learning turns renewable from a higher-cost mitigation option to one close to zero. We conclude that a future world in which global investment in renewables drives down unit costs makes it a much more cost-effective and sustainable mitigation option in South Africa.

Harald Winkler; Alison Hughes; Mary Haw

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

On the economic potential for electric load management in the German residential heating sector – An optimising energy system model approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Against the background of the ambitious German targets for renewable energy and energy efficiency, this paper investigates the economic potential for thermal load management with virtual power plants consisting of micro-cogeneration plants, heat pumps and thermal storage within the residential sector. An optimising energy system model of the electricity and residential heat supply in Germany is developed in the TIMES (The Integrated MARKAL EFOM System) modelling framework and used to determine capacity developments and dispatch of electricity and residential heat generation technologies until 2050. The analysed scenarios differ with respect to the rate of technological development of heat and power devices, fuel and CO2 prices as well as renewable electricity expansion. Results show that high fuel prices and a high renewable electricity expansion favour heat pumps and insulation measures over micro-cogeneration, whereas lower fuel prices and lower renewable electricity expansion relatively favour the expansion of micro-cogeneration. In the former case heat pump capacities increase to around 67 GWel, whereas in the latter case the total capacity of micro-cogeneration reaches 8 GWel. With the aid of thermal storage, this provides considerable flexibility for electrical load shifting through heat pumps and electricity generation from micro-cogeneration in residential applications, needed for the integration of fluctuating renewable electricity technologies.

Daniel Fehrenbach; Erik Merkel; Russell McKenna; Ute Karl; Wolf Fichtner

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Modelling elements of Smart Grids – Enhancing the \\{OSeMOSYS\\} (Open Source Energy Modelling System) code  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‘Smart Grids’ are expected to help facilitate a better integration of distributed storage and demand response options into power systems and markets. Quantifying the associated system benefits may provide valuable design and policy insights. Yet many existing energy system models are not able to depict various critical features associated with Smart Grids in a single comprehensive framework. These features may for example include grid stability issues in a system with several flexible demand types and storage options to help balance a high penetration of renewable energy. Flexible and accessible tools have the potential to fill this niche. This paper expands on the Open Source Energy Modelling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes how ‘blocks of functionality’ may be added to represent variability in electricity generation, a prioritisation of demand types, shifting demand, and storage options. The paper demonstrates the flexibility and ease-of-use of \\{OSeMOSYS\\} with regard to modifications of its code. It may therefore serve as a useful test-bed for new functionality in tools with wide-spread use and larger applications, such as MESSAGE, TIMES, MARKAL, or LEAP. As with the core code of OSeMOSYS, the functional blocks described in this paper are available in the public domain.

M. Welsch; M. Howells; M. Bazilian; J.F. DeCarolis; S. Hermann; H.H. Rogner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Modelling the effects of climate change on the energy system—A case study of Norway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work is to identify the effects of climate change on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. Changes in the future wind- and hydro-power resource potential, and changes in the heating and cooling demand are analysed to map the effects of climate change. The impact of climate change is evaluated with an energy system model, the MARKAL Norway model, to analyse the future cost optimal energy system. Ten climate experiments, based on five different global models and six emission scenarios, are used to cover the range of possible future climate scenarios and of these three experiments are used for detailed analyses. This study indicate that in Norway, climate change will reduce the heating demand, increase the cooling demand, have a limited impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro-power potential. The reduction of heating demand will be significantly higher than the increase of cooling demand, and thus the possible total direct consequence of climate change will be reduced energy system costs and lower electricity production costs. The investments in offshore wind and tidal power will be reduced and electric based vehicles will be profitable earlier.

Pernille Seljom; Eva Rosenberg; Audun Fidje; Jan Erik Haugen; Michaela Meir; John Rekstad; Thore Jarlset

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Assessment of the impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency policies on the Macedonian energy sector development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main goal of this paper is to examine and quantify how the development of the energy system in Macedonia could be influenced by policies and programs that promote energy efficiency and renewable energy in terms of energy security and diversification economic competitiveness and CO2 mitigation. For this purpose the MARKAL-Macedonia national energy planning model was used. These policies are explored by comparing a reference (business-as-usual) development of energy system with three alternative policy scenarios: (1) Renewable Energy (RE) Scenario—introducing a renewable energy target by 2020 in line with that proposed by the Energy Community; (2) Energy Efficiency (EE) Scenario—exploring the range of energy efficiency measures that are the most cost-effective means to meet national targets aimed at reducing final energy consumption; and (3) Combined RE and EE Scenario—a combination of supply-side and demand-side approaches that examine the resulting synergies of these policy goals. For each scenario the implications of least-cost investment options for new capacity builds investment spending requirements electricity prices fuel expenditures and carbon dioxide emissions were assessed. The analyses have shown that even under the Reference scenario the reliance on electricity import will be reduced as a result of increased gas import. The RE scenario further reduces the overall import by 3% while the EE scenario by 12%. Total discounted costs of the energy system in the Reference scenario is estimated to nearly €36 billion with investment of €3.773 billion for 2.803?GW of new electricity generation capacity needed to meet the increased demand by 2030. The proposed RE target increases the cost of the energy system only by 0.13% due to the availability of additional renewables particularly hydro biomass and biofuels. The combination of the policies that promote increased energy efficiency will decrease the discounted energy system costs of 0.24% (€87 million net present value). The baseline evolution of the energy system results in 59% increase of CO2 emissions over the planning horizon. The analyzed RE and EE policies show strong synergies with a move to a lower carbon economy resulting in cumulative CO2 emissions reduction of 3.7% triggered by an overall drop in consumption and less use of fossil fuels.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z