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1

UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Map-Annex 1 Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Climate Topics: Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: maps.unfccc.int/di/map/ Country: Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States

2

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) (Redirected from MARKAL) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) Agency/Company /Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.iea-etsap.org/web/Markal.asp Cost: Paid OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool References: MARKAL website[1] Related Tools Ventana's Energy, Environment, Economy-Society (E3S) Model Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS

3

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation)...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy, environmental, and economic factors, the MARKAL model provides energy system solutions to support national planning and policy decisions. It finds a least cost set of...

4

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) Agency/Company /Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.iea-etsap.org/web/Markal.asp Cost: Paid OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool References: MARKAL website[1] Related Tools Ventana's Energy, Environment, Economy-Society (E3S) Model Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS An integrated energy systems modeling platform that can be used to analyze

5

MARKAL-MACRO: An overview  

SciTech Connect

MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled {open_quotes}top-down macroeconomic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}bottom-up engineering{close_quotes} perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands? Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources? Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands? An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Manne, A.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US); Wene, C.O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US)]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

1992-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

6

Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.etsap.org/index.asp Country: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

7

MARKAL-MACRO: A methodology for informed energy, economy and environmental decision making. Informal report  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1970`s, energy system analysts have been using models to represent the complexities of interactions in energy systems to help shape policy. Since the mid-1980`s, heightened awareness has made it necessary also to consider the environmental impacts of energy policies. MARKAL is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to explore mid- to long-term responses to different technological futures, emissions limitations, and policy scenarios. MARKAL-MACRO is an extension of MARKAL that integrates these capabilities directly with a neoclassical macroeconomic growth model. By combining bottom-up engineering and top-down macroeconomic approaches in a single modeling framework, MARKAL-MACR is able to capture the interplay between the energy system, the economy and the environment, allowing the affects on demands of endogenously determined energy prices to be explored.

Goldstein, G.A.

1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

Comparative review of the Time-stepped Energy System Optimization Model (TESOM) and the IEA Market Allocation Model (MARKAL)  

SciTech Connect

The two principal energy system models used in the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory are described and their important differences are contrasted.

Kydes, A.S.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

UNRegion Southern Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Analysis Program (MARKAL) + Eurostat + GHG Management Institute curriculum + Gibraltar + Greece + Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) + Italy +...

10

Proximal-ACCPM: a versatile oracle based optimization method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 26, 2004 ... air quality model and a techno-economic model of energy choices in ... peaks in green areas. .... MARKAL-Geneva: A model to assess energy-.

11

UNRegion Eastern Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Case Studies + EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) + Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) + Eurostat + Forest Carbon Partnership...

12

Giuseppe Muliere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the Energy Management Laboratory and his research work focuses on models for local energyenvironmental planning. At the moment he is working on the MarkAl optimization...

13

Ghana-UNDP Climate Activities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP Climate Activities UNDP Climate Activities Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Development Programme Topics Background analysis Website http://ccmap.undp.org/ Country Ghana Western Africa References UNDP Interactive Climate Projects Map[1] Ghana (17) Climate Change Adaptation Programme Climate Change and Development - Adapting by Reducing Vulnerability (CCDARE) Enhancing Access to Sustainable Energy Services Enhancing Access to Sustainable Energy Services for the Poor in Ghana Ghana National Capacity Assessment (Completed) Ghana: Establishing an Effective and Sustainable Structure for Implementing Multilateral Environment Agreements Ghana: Second national Communication to the UNFCCC Global Village Energy Partnership - Energy for Poverty Reduction Action Plan (Completed)

14

2011 STEPS / NextSTEPS Symposium: Insights from STEPS & Introduction to NextSTEPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Mike Nicholas Dimensions of Sustainability: Mark Delucchi (GHG and Air Pollutant Emissions), Sonia Yeh Transitions in the Light Duty Sector: Joan Ogden Transportation Wedges (MARKAL): Sonia Yeh Panel Discussion (Land Use), Gouri Shankar Mishra (Water) Panel Discussion: Is there a clear winner for the near term

California at Davis, University of

15

Designing a cost-effective CO2 storage infrastructure using a GIS based linear optimization energy model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage needs a dedicated infrastructure. Planning and designing of this infrastructure require incorporation of both temporal and spatial aspects. In this study, a toolbox has been developed that integrates ... Keywords: CCS, CHP, CO2 capture transport and storage, Energy systems model, Ft, GIS, IGCC, Linear optimization, MARKAL, NGCC, O&M&M, PC

Machteld van den Broek; Evelien Brederode; Andrea RamŪrez; Leslie Kramers; Muriel van der Kuip; Ton Wildenborg; Wim Turkenburg; Andrť Faaij

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Ris DTU 09-06-08 Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-border grid-distributed energy trade and common action among the Nordic countries to facilitate CO2 reductions Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) · Energy Technology Data Exchange · Energy and Environmental Energy Agency ­ MARKAL implementation · 1995: Benefits from Electricity Trade in Northern Europe under CO

17

New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information required to analyze the scenarios using Water-MARKAL. This report describes the successes and challenges of defining and demonstrating the decision tool, Water-MARKAL. The issues that the stakeholders perceive for New York City are listed and the difficulties in gathering required information for Water-MARKAL to analyze these issues at the desired level of detail are described.

Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Energy Policy & Technology Analysis | Global and Regional Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Energy Technologies Department Energy Policy and Technology Analysis The group's core focus is on long-term integrated energy, environmental, and economic analysis using the MARKAL family of models, a well-established tool for energy systems analysis. With 30 years of development under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, MARKAL has approximately 100 user institutions in more than 50 countries. A bottom-up analysis with explicit technology representation, the models include a physical description of energy technologies, and allow for "well-to-wheel" comparison of technologies and technological pathways. They study the impact of technological change/progress on energy markets, and provide a technology-rich basis for estimating energy dynamics over a multi-period

19

Community for Energy, Environment and Development (COMMEND) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community for Energy, Environment and Development (COMMEND) Community for Energy, Environment and Development (COMMEND) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Community for Energy, Environment and Development Agency/Company /Organization: Stockholm Environment Institute Sector: Climate, Energy Topics: Finance, Market analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Other Website: www.energycommunity.org/default.asp?action=71 RelatedTo: String representation "EnergyPLAN, UND ... cation (MARKAL)" is too long. Community for Energy, Environment and Development Screenshot References: COMMAND[1] COMMEND (COMMunity for ENergy environment & Development) is an international initiative designed to foster a community among energy analysts working on energy for sustainable development. COMMEND is managed

20

Overview of the principal Brookhaven energy system optimization models. [BESOM, three variants, and two applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Brookhaven Energy System Optimization Model (BESOM), three of its variants, and two examples of characteristic applications are described. BESOM is a linear-programming model that was developed for the quantitative evaluation of energy technologies and policies within a systems framework. The model is designed to examine interfuel substitutions in the context of constraints on the availability of competing resources and technologies. BESOM provides a snapshot of the national energy system configuration, while MARKAL and TESOM provide, respectively, a farsighted time dimension and a simulation capability for the examination of the evolution of a national energy system over a time horizon.

Kydes, A S

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "markal unfccc-global map-annex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Title Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Leibowicz, Benjamin, Maria Roumpani, and Peter H. Larsen Journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy Volume 3 Start Page 60 Issue 1 Date Published 2013 Keywords foresight, MARKAL, nuclear electricity, value of information Abstract In this study we analyze the impact of a radical change in nuclear electricity costs on the optimal electricity generation technology mix (EGTM) and constrain the value of information (VOI) on future nuclear costs. We consider three nuclear cost events and four carbon emissions caps. We develop a two-stage framework for energy-economic model MARKAL to eliminate foresight of future nuclear cost movements. We examine how the EGTM responds to these movements under alternative caps and analyze how these movements affect the cost of each cap. We define the expected savings from perfect foresight (ESPF), an upper bound on the VOI. We found that with current technologies, carbon mitigation that does not rely heavily on nuclear electricity is economically insensible. The Strong Cap is extremely costly because it restricts flexibility to respond to cost signals in choosing among technologies. The ESPF is highest under the Medium Cap by a substantial margin.

22

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications Project Summary Full Title: CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications Project ID: 263 Principal Investigator: Chip Friley Brief Description: This analysis used the 10-region U.S. MARKAL model to quantify the impact of changes in production, distribution and vehicle costs and carbon prices on fuel cell vehicle penetration and overall carbon dioxide emissions. Keywords: Carbon dioxide (CO2); Hydrogen; Fuel cells Purpose Perform analysis of topics of interest to the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies program related to projected carbon dioxide reduction benefits of fuel cell applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Chip Friley Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Address: Mail Stop 475C

23

Special Report: OAS-RA-L-12-01 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

L-12-01 L-12-01 Special Report: OAS-RA-L-12-01 November 28, 2011 Special Inquiry on the Office of the Chief Financial Officer's Information Technology Expenditures The Office of Inspector General (OIG) received a complaint on April 13, 2011, through the OIG Hotline alleging the waste of appropriated Fiscal Year 2010 and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds by senior officials within the Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO). Information alleged included the mismanagement of over $6 million worth of software contracts and user licenses. Specifically, the complaint reported issues with the procurement and implementation of the Market Allocation Modeling Effort (MarkAl), the Multi-Attribute Decision Model (MADA), Microsoft's SharePoint, the @Risk software, and the

24

Approach for Calculating OE Benefits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reliability Reliability U.S. Department of Energy - 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 2007 Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Joe Paladino October 29, 2007 Approach for Calculating OE Benefits Challenges * Established benefits methodologies (e.g., NEMS and MARKAL) do not address some of the major benefits that OE's program will provide (e.g. reliability). * Much of OE's program is about transforming the way the T&D infrastructure operates rather than replacing components: - Some technologies need a high penetration or must be deployed as an entire system to yield benefits (e.g. PMUs or Distribution Automation). - Some programs within OE are not developing "widgets" that can be easily counted. - OE is developing tools/methodologies or funding demonstrations that

25

The committee met in the Department of Energy Training  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

THURSDAY THURSDAY APRIL 19, 2001 The committee met in the Department of Energy Training Facility, 8th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 8:30 a.m., Carol A. Gotway Crawford, Ph.D., Chair, presiding. PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD, Ph.D., Chair F. JAY BREIDT, Ph.D., Vice Chair MARK BERNSTEIN, Ph.D. JOHNNY BLAIR MARK BURTON, Ph.D. THOMAS G. COWING, Ph.D. JAMES K. HAMMITT, Ph.D. NICOLAS HENGARTNER W. DAVID MONTGOMERY, Ph.D. WILLIAM G. MOSS, Ph.D. POLLY A. PHIPPS, Ph.D. RANDY R. SITTER, Ph.D. ROY WHITMORE, Ph.D. C-O-N-T-E-N-T-S Welcome 3 Introductions 4 Opening remarks 7 Progress on EIA/ASA Fellowship 21 Briefing: Progress on MARKAL 28 Questions from Committees 41 Briefing: Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Power Plants 45

26

An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village Agency/Company /Organization: Howells, Alfstad, Victor, Goldstein and Remme Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: iea-etsap.org/web/Workshop/worksh_6_2003/2003P_howells.pdf Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Africa Language: English This paper reports on efforts to extend a MARKAL energy model for South Africa to include rural energy choices, allowing for computation of optimal energy systems in a typical (non-electrified) rural village.

27

Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration's 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO[sub 2] emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO[sub 2] emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO[sub 2] emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration`s 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Energy Technology Systems Analysis Global Energy Systems and Common Analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

success of this nearly unique collaboration community can be attributed to the contributions of the 17 Contracting Parties, the dedication of the experts involved in ETSAP, and the efforts of the modelling community experts. This report summarizes the advancements, applications, and accomplishments within the community and thereby demonstrates why ETSAP has sustained now for three decades. It provides many examples of policy relevant application of the MARKAL/TIMES modelling platform and its continued spread to new users through capacity building projects, as well as the ongoing advancement of the methodology to meet the requirements for integrated energy planning in these challenging times. With the knowledge and skills needed to effectively use the methodology now widespread around the world, the framework is positioned to make further important contributions towards identifying policies and pathways that will lead to the low-carbon future essential for sustainable development on our planet. The editors wish to thank all those actively involved in ETSAP as well as those working with the ETSAP Tools who have contributed to this amalgamation of the accomplishments of the last three years. We also want acknowledge the assistance of Jerome LaMontagne and Kris Humbert towards ensuring the overall quality of this document. Tribute to the Memory of Alan Manne A special acknowledgement is given to the memory of Professor Alan Manne, whose

Gary Goldstein; Giancarlo Tosato Acknowledgments

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined.

Xiaolin Xi [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Examining hydrogen transitions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

World Biofuels Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.

Alfstad,T.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGIES IN NIGERIA: PRESENT SITUATION, FUTURE PROSPECTS AND POLICY FRAMEWORK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Nigeria is endowed with abundant energy resources, both conventional and renewable, which provide her with immense capacity to develop an effective national energy plan. However, introduction of renewable energy resources into the nationís energy mix have implications on its energy budget. The national energy supply system has been projected into the future using MARKAL, a large scale linear optimization model. However, this model may not be absolutely representative of the highly non-linear future of renewable energy. Results of the model reveal that under only a least cost constraint, only large hydro power technology is the prominent commercial renewable energy technology in the electricity supply mix of the country. Despite the immense solar energy potentials available, solar electricity generation is attractive only under severe CO2 emissions mitigation of the nationís energy supply system. Similarly, the penetration of small-scale hydro power technology in the electricity supply mix is favoured only under CO2 emissions constraints. Due to economy of scale, large hydro power technology takes the lion share of all the commercial renewable energy resources share for electricity generation under any CO 2 emissions constraint. These analyses reveal that some barriers exist to the development and penetration of renewable energy resources for electricity production in Nigeriaís energy supply system. Barriers and possible strategies to overcome them are discussed. Intensive efforts and realistic approach towards energy supply system in the country will have to be adopted in order to adequately exploit renewable energy resources and technologies for economic growth and development.

John-felix K. Akinbami

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z