Sample records for maple acer rubrum

  1. Phenotypic Plasticity of Leaf Shape along a Temperature Gradient in Acer rubrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    Phenotypic Plasticity of Leaf Shape along a Temperature Gradient in Acer rubrum Dana L. Royer1 plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection

  2. Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh. ). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.

  3. acer saccharum saplings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides Common Name: Norway maple Physical Description: Growth Type: Acer platanoides is a medium to large shade...

  4. acer pseudoplatanus polymerizes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides Common Name: Norway maple Physical Description: Growth Type: Acer platanoides is a medium to large shade...

  5. acer freemanii: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides Common Name: Norway maple Physical Description: Growth Type: Acer platanoides is a medium to large shade...

  6. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment) concentration (110­490 nmol molÀ1 ) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees to examine the effects of acute O3 exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were

  7. Maple Exercises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "f" we next show how to "erase" that assignment. > f;. > f := 'f';. > ... ing Maple's le management. ..... It is sad, indeed, that so ne a program as Maple should have ...... Multiply L and U, forming a template of indeterminates which we then. demand ...

  8. Maple Exercises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ing Maple's le management. For example ..... There are commands in Maple that speci cally demand vectors ..... for the values on the right hand sides of the equations. .... vectors into a new matrix, making the building-blocks into the rows of the.

  9. acer rubrum canopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    two major surface parking areas. In conjunction with the existing 1.4 megawatt solar energy facility on this campus, this project will generate Delgado, Mauricio 35 CASE REPORT...

  10. THE NECTAR SECRETION OF MAPLE (ACER PLATANOIDES L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    development of the colonies (RUTT1VER 1957). The object of our effort was to study the biology of flowers

  11. Maple in Exercise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    icon on the toolbar Maple prompts for a le name and a destination for the saved ..... 15 is very high. Since, in Release 3, only one worksheet could be attached to.

  12. Patterns of rhizosphere carbon flux in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Richard P.

    Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Abstract Despite its importance in the terrestrial C for 4­6 h, and the 13 C label was chased through rhizosphere and bulk soil pools in organic and mineral, this process is regarded as a potentially responsive compo- nent to global change because it is sensitive

  13. Getting Started with Maple (September 2003)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weckesser, Warren

    "; everything in here was created in Maple. The actual Maple commands that I entered are shown in the lines+2; 4 Note the semicolon at the end of the line. Each Maple command must end with a semicolon (or preceded by the ">"; these lines are immediately followed by the resulting output. Simple calculations: > 2

  14. Getting Started with Maple Warren Weckesser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weckesser, Warren

    "; everything in here was created in Maple. The actual Maple commands that I entered are shown in the lines+2; 4 Note the semicolon at the end of the line. Each Maple command must end with a semicolon (or preceded by the ">"; these lines are immediately followed by the resulting output. Simple calculations: > 2

  15. 7 Introduction to Maple Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meade, Douglas B.

    , plastics and drugs. The reactor model developed in this chapter's application is based on the principle195 7 Introduction to Maple Programming Chemical engineers apply principles of chemistry, physics and undergo other chemical changes during the manufacturing process. Reactors and reactor models can be used

  16. Carbohydrate Polymers 92 (2013) 334344 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    , at a price of less than $80 per dry ton for forestry biomass and less than $60 per dry ton for agricultural biomass ("U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry," 2011). Consis: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry," 2011). Red maple (Acer rubrum), also known

  17. Maple River Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:Park, Illinois:Maple River

  18. Introduction to Classic Maple by David Maslanka Maple is a computer algebra system designed to do mathematics. Symbolic, numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    2. Saving a Maple Worksheet In order to name and save a Maple worksheet, begin by clicking the left Worksheet Window (see figure above). From the File menu that results, click on the #12;option Save As to describe your worksheet and then click the mouse button on the rectangle OK . This will save your worksheet

  19. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  20. Stem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after 3 years of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    years of treatments to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone S E I J A K A A K I N E N *1 , K AT R I K O the Earth's surface (IPCC, 2001). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant human-influenced greenhouse gasStem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after 3

  1. Lectures on Reduce and Maple at UAM I - Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Toussaint

    2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    These lectures give a brief introduction to the Computer Algebra systems Reduce and Maple. The aim is to provide a systematic survey of most important commands and concepts. In particular, this includes a discussion of simplification schemes and the handling of simplification and substitution rules (e.g., a Lie Algebra is implemented in Reduce by means of simplification rules). Another emphasis is on the different implementations of tensor calculi and the exterior calculus by Reduce and Maple and their application in Gravitation theory and Differential Geometry. I held the lectures at the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, in November 1999.

  2. Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers Harry Atkinson to better mixing of combustion gasses. A. An over fire air system should be installed to direct high.c. pressure minimum. Oil burner fans from 1980 on will usually be a good source for a used fan. a. ½ h.p. on 2

  3. A q-PRODUCT TUTORIAL q-SERIES MAPLE PACKAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garvan, Frank

    A q-PRODUCT TUTORIAL FOR A q-SERIES MAPLE PACKAGE FRANK GARVAN Abstract. This is a tutorial-series and q-products and finding algebraic relations between q-series. Andrews found an algorithm to effectively find finite q-product factorisations when they exist thus answering a question of Andrews. We

  4. Quantavo: a Maple Toolbox for Linear Quantum Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvaro Feito

    2008-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual describes the basic objectives, functionalities and uses of the toolbox for Maple (Maplesoft^TM) called Quantavo. It is intended to facilitate calculations both symbolically and numerically related to Quantum Optics. In particular the evolution, measurement and entanglement properties of quantum states in the Fock basis can be simulated with it. It is provided to the community as a free open source module.

  5. Maple Grove Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History View New PagesSolarMaple

  6. Maple Valley, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:Park, Illinois:Maple

  7. Acer saccharum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    had a significant effect on sap flow up to the point at which transpiration ceased from drought stress. At this point, stomatal resistance was correlated with sap flow, indicating the stomates became more sensitive to dry conditions and closed... earlier than under well watered conditons to prevent water loss, causing sap flow to become unrelated to global irradiance. Water use decreased each day during the drought periods, especially for DR2, for all rootstocks. All rootstocks had the same...

  8. Product Description Destination Tons Cords MBF Stumpage Amount Hard Maple Sawtimber Grade 1 Aspen 0.35 400.00$ 140.00$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Product Description Destination Tons Cords MBF Stumpage Amount Hard Maple Sawtimber Grade 1 Aspen 0.35 400.00$ 140.00$ Hard Maple Sawtimber Grade 2 Aspen 3.29 250.00$ 822.50$ Hard Maple Sawtimber Grade 3 Aspen 2.38 160.00$ 380.80$ Hard Maple Veneer Aspen 600.00$ -$ Hard Maple Birdseye Aspen 0.055 700.00$ 38

  9. How to use Maple as a technical word processor for the web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for display on the web that you can easily create using maple and the distill command. I shall now give step by step instructions on how I created such a thing

  10. Vulnerability of Xylem Vessels to Cavitation in Sugar Maple. Scaling from Individual Vessels to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melcher, Peter

    nega- tive pressures (Dixon and Joly, 1895; Briggs, 1950) allows plants to power the movement of water to withstand tension-induced cavitation is typ- ically inferred from "vulnerability curves" generatedVulnerability of Xylem Vessels to Cavitation in Sugar Maple. Scaling from Individual Vessels

  11. Computational and experimental study of the cluster size distribution in MAPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    for 300 s (melting temperature of toluene is $178 K). Toluene is selected as the matrix solvent due films deposited in matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Analysis of high-resolution SEM-assisted pulsed laser evaporation; Cluster size distribution; Molecular dynamics; Laser ablation Matrix

  12. Sugar maple seed production in northern New Hampshire. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, P.W.; Graber, R.E.

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Large numbers of sugar maple seed are dispersed every second or third year. Very little seed was damaged by insects or mammals to dispersal. The trapping methods used prevented major losses following seed fall. Seed production was positively correlated with tree diameter but not with age of seed trees.

  13. HOMOGENIZATION OF THE STEFAN PROBLEM, WITH APPLICATION TO MAPLE SAP EXUDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    are then applied to solve a much more complicated problem involving multi-phase flow and heat transport in trees that arises from multi-phase flow in a porous medium coupled with heat transport. In particular, we are motivated by the study of sap flow in a maple tree that is subject to both thawing and freezing [5]. We seek

  14. Maple GOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JDP

    2005-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    emphasis is placed on nonlinear optimization models that may involve complicated ... global economy, government organizations and private businesses all aim for resource-efficient operations that deliver high quality products and services.

  15. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, I/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  16. Crop-tree release thinning in 65-year-old commercial cherry-maple stands (5-year results). Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H.C.; Miller, G.W.; Lamson, N.I.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report includes a crop-tree release plan which was applied to a 65-year-old cherry-maple stand in north central West Virginia. Criteria were developed for selecting crop trees for high quality sawtimber and veneer products. Five-year stand growth, mortality, and ingrowth using basal areas, volume, relative density, and number of trees were discussed for the treatments.

  17. ORNL's Paranthaman named ACerS fellow | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627Homeland SecurityJonathanmaterialMorganHeidi Hill

  18. Survival, growth, and juvenile-mature correlations in a West Virginia sugar maple provenance test 25 years after establishment. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuler, T.M.

    1994-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Survival, total height, diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), and stem quality of sugar maple trees of different provenances were compared 25 years after establishment in north-central West Virginia. Provenances were from Michigan, Minnesota, West Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and Quebec, Canada. There were significant differences between provenances for all traits except stem quality. By provenance, total tree height ranged from about 49 to 37 feet; d.b.h. from 6.7 to 3.6 inches; and survival from 100 to 15 percent. The predictability of total tree height 25 years after establishment based on mean provenance height at age 2, 6, 10, and 15 years is discussed.

  19. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E. [Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Box 9775, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Gerard, P.D. [Experimental Statistics Unit, Mississippi State University, Box 9731, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera. Esta informacion es pertinente en determinar el impacto que pueda tener este escarabajo exotico en invernaderos, areas urbanas y otros sistemas forestales donde el escarabajo se establece. (author)

  20. Growth and propagation of Acer grandidentatum Nutt.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tankersley, Boyce Elbert

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the graduate school process. Joseph Calabrese, Lisa Lipscomb, Loras Freiberger, Sylvia Meadows, and Austin Stockton often helped to put matters into their proper perspective. Special thanks to Carol Leach for her advice and help during my studies. The many... on subsequent growth . Once the first flush was completed (June), and a terminal bud was set, fertilization was started to determine if any of the treatments could encourage subsequent growth. The data were analyzed using a general linear model analysis...

  1. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, I/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  2. 2014-10-08, 7:44 PM--FORESTS: Sugar maples reveal obstacles facing species in their e...nge --researchers --Monday, September 29, 2014 --www.eenews.net Page 1 of 3http://www.eenews.net/climatewire/stories/1060006547/print

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    the Appalachian Mountains where temperatures were lower. Sap from these trees is boiled down to produce maple syrup. "We knew the system had warmed, but we weren't seeing the response you would expect," said.3 miles) per decade. Projected temperature increases between 2050 and 2090 under high carbon emissions

  3. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that in as well. 'S...sure, Benny,' he stuttered, 'sure... Whatever you say...' Dl D >- (/) UJ -J 0. - w ui -j a. < ui q: D a. Julien...

  4. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , put on his formal demeanour, and said, 'We came here today to mark a change in our relationship. An important change, and a most welcome one. You and I met two years ago, and we bonded, and as you said, Ray, we became far more effective...|% f5*^ 1 0ff%\\ \\ r*3^ f"!SSl W?/sA byAnjaGruber Julien's waffle - This is set during and after theepisode Flashback (apparently known to some as Slashback). AND THEN WE, UM, BONDED by Julien Detective Ray Vecchio stood beside Constable Benton...

  5. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    could slip an entire ringer inside to pleasure him without causing pain, and they were both enjoying the process immensely. Ray figured it would be only another week or two before he could finally join with Benton, become one with him, as Benton had...'s heavy weight, holding onto him for dear life. 'I love you, too, Benny. More than I ever thought I could love anybody. But let's not jump the gun, OK? Give your Dad some time to get used to the idea. If he's half the Mountie you say he is, he'll come...

  6. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 'Did you ever think about getting a phone? We use them quite a bit in the States now, maybe you've seen the commercials for them?' It was Ray propped in the doorway, engulfed in a giant snowsuit, fur hat and sunglasses. Fraser lowered his gun. 'Ray... the zip closed, though he didn't do up the button or belt. Ray moved around to stand in front of the mountie. 'They were going to use you as an example, you said. What else were they going to do to you, Benny? What else?' For the first time since he...

  7. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'sactually transformative.' Tell me that in American, Benny.' 'Fan-writers add something to the original by using their own creativity. Also, this is a non commercial activity.' 'Fans buy the zine!' 'Well, that would indeedbe the weak point in a defence case, Ray... back up using teeth, tongue, and hard sucking to wring all the sensation possible from the act. 'Please-' Ray found the breath to whisper. Fraser came off his cock with a jerk, met his eyes with a wet and tender smile and said, 'Shut up. I'll let...

  8. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 6 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harding Welsh (Beau Starr), Detective Jack Huey (Tony Craig), Detective Louis Gardino (Daniel Kash), Detective Thomas Dewey (Tom Melissis), Elaine Besbriss (Catherine Bruhier), Inspector Margaret Thatcher (Camilla Scott), State's Attorney Louise St... characters, yeah, yeah.' 'The privacylaws don't apply.' 'Well, someone should do something. ...Hey, if we're fictional, then we belong to our creator, right? Paul Haggis. He should do something.' 'Actually, Ray, we belong to a company named Alliance...

  9. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 9 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and Detective Stanley Raymond Kowalski (Callum Keith Rennie). Other vital characters are Lieutenant Harding Welsh (Beau Starr), Detective Jack Huey (Tony Craig), Detective Louis Gardino (Daniel Kash), Detective Thomas Dewey (Tom Melissis), Elaine Besbriss... been. How very lonely. 'Hey, Benny...' He waited until Benton raised his head once more, those sad blue eyes meeting his. 'You've got me now, and I'll hold you, and touch you, and hug you as much as I can for the rest of my life, OK? I promise...

  10. Pure Maple Syrup Issue 8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), Detective Jack Huey (Tony Craig), Detective Louis Gardino (Daniel Kash), Detective Thomas Dewey (Tom Melissis), Elaine Besbriss (Catherine Bruhier), Inspector Margaret Thatcher (Camilla Scott), State's Attorney Louise St Laurent (Lee Purcell), Fraser... (Benton's best friend) slid into the seat next to Benton just as Miss Ellis rang the bell. 'Hey, Ben,' Mark leaned close to murmur; so close, in fact, that Benton could feel the icy cold radiating offhim. Benton smiled a welcome for his friend...

  11. NREL: Energy Analysis - Ben Maples

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNRELPower Systems Engineering

  12. acer saccharum marsh: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. saccharina damage increased with crop age, and dropped dramatically following harvest. Numbers of E. saccharina followed the same pattern. However, the percentage...

  13. Sweet Potato Fries $4 Maple Dipping Sauce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    dipping sauce Pickle Me Up $7 Beer battered crispy pickle chips, ranch dip House Made Ranch Chips $4 Specials Tuesday Draft Beer Specials Wednesday 12 Wings - $8 Thursday Buckets of Domestic Beer Friday St. Louis Craft Beer Specials Small Plates St. Louis Craft Beers THE EMBA PUB, A GATHERING PLACE THE EMBA

  14. Getting Started with Differential Equations in Maple September 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weckesser, Warren

    order equations here. First, we need to load the "DEtools" library: > with(DEtools): Let's define to Inline by using the menu bar to select Options -> Plot Display -> Inline Let's add a solution curve "linecolor=blue" tells the command to draw the solution curve in black. (The default line color is yellow

  15. Getting Started with Differential Equations in Maple September 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weckesser, Warren

    order equations here. First, we need to load the "DEtools" library: > with(DEtools): Let's define to Inline by using the menu bar to select Options ­> Plot Display ­> Inline Let's add a solution curve "linecolor=blue" tells the command to draw the solution curve in black. (The default line color is yellow

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Invasive Argentine ants reduce fitness of red maple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    species form mutual- isms with honeydew-producing Hemiptera and their aggressive presence deters the natural enemies of the Hemiptera. Invasive ant species like the Argentine ant have often been associated decades (Bronstein 1994; Bruno et al. 2003). Mutualisms involving ants and Hemiptera have been described

  17. Suzhou Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCalifornia Sector:Shrenik IndustriesState of KuwaitSuper WindSurBlade

  18. Shanghai Maple Tongji University hybrid automobile research partnership |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AGShandong Lusa New Energy CoShanghai JienengShanghaiOpen

  19. Maple Ridge 1a Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History View New

  20. Maple Ridge Wind Farm (2005 portion) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History View New5 portion) Jump

  1. Maple Ridge Wind Farm (2006 portion) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History View New5 portion)

  2. Maple Ridge Wind Farm phase II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconvertersourcesource History View New5 portion)phase

  3. Maple Bluff, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California: EnergyChangeMapMap of

  4. Maple Glen, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California: EnergyChangeMapMap ofGlen,

  5. Maple Grove, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California: EnergyChangeMapMap

  6. Maple Heights, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California: EnergyChangeMapMapHeights,

  7. Maple Heights-Lake Desire, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:

  8. Maple Park, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:Park, Illinois: Energy

  9. Maple Plain, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:Park, Illinois: EnergyPlain,

  10. Maple Ridge, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:Park, Illinois:

  11. Matrix Agro Pvt Ltd MAPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy Resources JumpMastic, New York:Matney-Franz

  12. Storage Alternatives for Mobile Computers \\Lambda Fred Douglis Ram'on C'aceres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    storage technologies offer two alter­ natives for file storage on mobile computers: magnetic hard disks Laboratories AT&T Bell Laboratories Frans Kaashoek Kai Li Massachusetts Institute of Technology Princeton University Brian Marsh Joshua A. Tauber D.E. Shaw & Co. Massachusetts Institute of Technology To appear

  13. Para LaS MUjereS (La verdad acer c a del c or azn)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    sanguínea alta y el colesterol alto -- y su riesgo personal de desarrollar enfermedades del corazón. La de enfermedades del corazón: colesterol alto, edad e historial familiar. he tenido muchos amigos que

  14. Sapstreak disease of sugar maple: Development over time and space. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, D.R.

    1994-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The sapstreak disease is a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands. It is caused by the fungus Ceratocystis virescens, which invades sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds created during logging, saphauling, or other activities. The publication describes the results of observations and experiments to learn more about the patterns of disease development and the factors that affect them, within individual trees and within representative forests and sugarbushes.

  15. Eigenvalues of matrices depending on a parameter and the Linset Maple library.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeannerod, Claude-Pierre

    reduced form-based methods in order to solve the eigenvalue perturbation problem. Valuation reduced to the de#12;nition and the computation of a valuation reduced form of a matrix depending on a parameter to handle polynomial matrix fractions and perturbed matrices. In particular, it implements some valuation

  16. 26 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 STRIKE ONE! ALUMINUM. STRIKE TWO! MAPLE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --bats used by high school and college players--also are made of aluminum (or a metal alloy) today. Considering all levels of baseball and softball, non-wood bats (aluminum, metal alloys, and composites) now26 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 STRIKE ONE! ALUMINUM. STRIKE TWO

  17. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  18. allochthonous plant contributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mammals, especially where the maples grow more densely in open habitats. In commercial timber operations, shrub fields of Rocky Mountain maple often interfere with seedling...

  19. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. ash doped uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    57Maple, Hard85Magnolia 58Yellow Poplar86Oak, Chestnut 59Maple, Soft91Oak, White 12 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  1. UTILITIES -STOKER BOILER REPLACEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    HUGHESAVE COUNTRY CL UBBLVD GRAEBER ST BIG BLU ESTEMCOURT LI TTLE BLUESTEM COURT CO LLEGE MAPLE, WILLOW

  2. Biophysical Journal Volume 69 September 1995 1083-1099 Direct Observation of Sub-Picosecond Equilibration of Excitation Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    observed in the Rs. rubrum membranes are interpreted in terms of the dynamics of excitation equilibration-Picosecond Equilibration of Excitation Energy in the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Rhodospirillum rubrum H. Matthieu Visser* *Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit and Institute for Molecular and Biological Sciences

  3. EM Laboratory Researcher James Marra Recognized for Leadership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – Dr. James Marra, an investigator with EM’s Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), was named the 2014 recipient of the D.T. Rankin Award for exemplary service to the Nuclear and Environmental Technology Division of the American Ceramic Society (ACerS).

  4. The kinematics of falling maple seeds and the initial transition to a helical motion This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z. Jane

    seed falls in a characteristic helical motion. A crude analogy with autorotation of a wind turbine the vertical axis, leading to the gyration about the vertical axis and an opening of the cone angle before. The spiral motion appears to be stable against wind disturbance and is insensitive to the initial conditions

  5. 4/23/06 8:13 PM C:\\Documents and Settings\\Wei Cai\\My Documents\\Courses...\\S522a.m 1 of 3 %adpated from maple file S522 from J. R. Barber, Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    = subs(diff(t1,x,2),x,0)/factorial(2) s3 = subs(diff(t1,x,1),x,0)/factorial(1) s4 = subs(t1,x,0) s5 s = solve(s1, s2, s3, s4+p, s5, s6, s7, s8, ... s9, s10,s11,s12, s13,s14,s15,s16, ... b1, b2, b3, Fx1,M1, Fy

  6. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  7. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  8. Content-Based Hyperspectral Image Retrieval Using Spectral Unmixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    , Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 C´aceres, Spain ABSTRACT The purpose of content-based image retrieval weeks of September, 2001, only a few days after the terrorist attacks that collapsed the two main towers

  9. A New Morphological Anomaly Detection Algorithm for Hyperspectral Images and its GPU Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    and Communications University of Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 C´aceres, Spain ABSTRACT Anomaly (WTC) in New York, five days after the terrorist attacks that collapsed the two main towers in the WTC

  10. GPU Implementation of Target and Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Remotely Sensed Hyperspectral Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    of Computers and Communications University of Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 C´aceres, Spain the terrorist attacks that collapsed the two main towers in the WTC complex. Keywords: Hyperspectral imaging

  11. Biodiversity and inference on climate change vulnerability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolpert, Robert L

    ­ Accommodate the interactions #12;Outline · Field data · Inference · Results · Implications #12;Long Hdwds Superimposed manipulations Demographic data Multicohort Individual level Longitudinal Design #12;Acer trees and seeds Experimental gaps Interventions ­ Demographic monitoring ­ Pretreatment

  12. Market Making in the PC Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dedrick, Jason; Kraemer, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as Dell, HP, Acer, Sony and Toshiba are forced toPC market, with only Gateway, Sony and Toshiba as majoruse VAR/SI over retail. Sony uses retail, including its own

  13. Established 1980 A geographically-based living museum of documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waits, Lisette

    Demonstration Garden Camperdown Weeping Elms Black Spruce Incense Cedar Heathers Palouse Prairie Demonstration Maples Norway Spruce Charles Shattuck Arboretum Established 1910 Public Parking Red Barn WEST PALOUSE

  14. A turtle in a fractal garden 1 Turtle Graphics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Scott

    are not a standard part of maple. Rather, they are in a #12;le \\turtle.txt" which we will examine in more detail

  15. A turtle in a fractal garden 4.1 Turtle Graphics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Scott

    here are not a standard part of maple. Rather, they are in a file ``turtle.txt'' which we will examine

  16. area battle creek: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Medicine Websites Summary: ITHACA RD DRYDEN RD GAMEFARMRD East Lawn Cemetery Ellis Hollow Athletic Complex R PROPOSED ROAD PROPOSED ROAD PROPOSEDROAD MAPLE AVENUE EXTENSION...

  17. area battlement creek: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Medicine Websites Summary: ITHACA RD DRYDEN RD GAMEFARMRD East Lawn Cemetery Ellis Hollow Athletic Complex R PROPOSED ROAD PROPOSED ROAD PROPOSEDROAD MAPLE AVENUE EXTENSION...

  18. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    early201202061111769109 Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A. (2012). 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review. NRELTP-5000-52920. National Renewable...

  19. Microsoft Word - Hopkins Ridge BAASA.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Maple Valley Substation and PSE's Talbot Substation. BPA would install audio isolation transformers at the cable crossconnect point to connect AGC suspend send and receive...

  20. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water balances of a boreal aspen forest, 1994–2003, Globalbanksiana) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Theranging from jack pine to aspen and maple?basswood? ash (

  1. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 2 Climate and Transportation Solutions Chapter 3:Gas Emissions in the Transportation Sector by John Conti,Chase, and John Maples Transportation is the single largest

  2. EIS-0285-SA-62: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rocky Reach - Maple Valley No. 1 Transmission Line Right of Way from structure 982 to structure 1101. The transmission line is a 500 kilovolt line (April 2002). Supplement...

  3. Magnetism and superconductivi[t]y in Pr-based filled skutterudite arsenides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayles, Todd Allen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.5 Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and M. B. Maple, ”Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquidSAN DIEGO Magnetism and Superconductiviy in Pr-based Filled

  4. A procedure for finding the k-th power of a matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branko Malesevic; Ivana Jovovic

    2007-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a new procedure in Maple for finding the k-th power of a martix. The algorithm is based on the article [1].

  5. arid lands plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides considerable cover and nesting habitat for many game birds, songbirds, and small mammals, especially where the maples grow more densely in open habitats. In commercial...

  6. Bell's MA 527 Homework Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... Homework 12 · Homework 13 and MAPLE cheat sheets (mws,pdf); Homework 14. A collection of short Flash videos of homework hints from Bell about certain ...

  7. Network Arts: Exposing Cultural Reality David A. Shamma, Sara Owsley, Kristian J. Hammond,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Bradshaw, Jay Budzik Intelligent Information Laboratory Northwestern University 1890 Maple Avenue, 3rd Floor Evanston, Illinois 60201 +1 (847) 467-1771 {ayman, sowsley, hammond, budzik

  8. Between Now and the Semantic Web Andrew Crossen, Jay Budzik, and Kristian J. Hammond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Between Now and the Semantic Web Andrew Crossen, Jay Budzik, and Kristian J. Hammond Intelligent Information Laboratory Northwestern University 1890 Maple Ave. Evanston, IL ISA {acrossen, budzik, hammond

  9. Network Arts: Exposing Cultural Reality David A. Shamma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Shannon

    , Shannon Bradshaw , Jay Budzik Intelligent Information Laboratory Northwestern University 1890 Maple Avenue, 3rd Floor Evanston, Illinois 60201 +1 847 467 1771 {ayman, sowsley, hammond, budzik

  10. www.newphytologist.org 623 Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    primary production in young stands of trembling aspen, paper birch and sugar maple in response to elevated% in the aspen, aspen­birch and aspen­maple communities, respectively. Tropospheric O3 caused 23, 13 and 14 resulted in total biomass response of -7.8, +8.4 and +24.3% relative to the control in the aspen, aspen

  11. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    computational packages, we perform a symmetry classification of destabilizing bifurcations in bidirectional is the equivariant degree and the "Equivariant Degree Maple c Library Package" that performs exact computations is completely taken over by the "Equivariant Degree Maple c Library Package". This equivariant degree approach

  12. THE UMBRAL TRANSFER-MATRIX METHOD: II. Counting Plane Partitions Doron ZEILBERGER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    of the umbra. In this article we describe the Maple package PPar that automatically constructs Umbral Schemes Evolution Umbra for monotone triangles. An Umbra for r-rowed plane partitions Recall that an r #2;k plane ) : For details study carefully the source code of the Maple package PPar. The next step is to #12;nd the pre-umbra

  13. Theoretical ELSEVIE; Theoretical Computer Science 187 ( 1997) 249-262

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbey, Marc

    MAPLE for the analysis of bifurcation phenomena in gas combustion A. El Hamidi",`, M. Garbeyb aD6 for a premixed burner flame. Many experimental and theoretical works in condensed-phase and gas combustion show of the symbolic manipulation language MAPLE for the analysis of bifurcation phenomena in gas combustion. It shows

  14. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  15. Aspects of the phytogeorgraphy of Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecotte, Allen James

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -hickory forest is found on the southern portion of the Ridge top. Call (1891) described areas of the Ridge's vegetation as still par- tially virgin in his day. The two main forest types he described were the maple-beech and the pine-oak forest. The maple...-beech forest dominated and surrounded the Ridge except on the Tertiary outcrops where pine-oak was dominant. This reveals that the maple-beech forest has been severely impacted by man and that the mixed oak-hickory forests are derivations from this once...

  16. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ilities-through-uk-acquisition>. Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A. (2012). 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review. NREL TP-5000-52920. Golden, CO:...

  17. Navigant Market Report 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    atus%20and%20further%20plans.pdf Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A. (2012). 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review. NREL TP-5000-52920. Golden, CO:...

  18. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Accessed March 1, 2012. Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A. (2012). "2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review." NREL TP-5000-52920. Golden, CO:...

  19. Approximate Bivariate Factorization, a Geometric Andre Galligo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoeij, Mark van

    INRIA) Laboratoire de Mathematiques Parc Valrose 06108 Nice cedex 02, France galligo@unice.fr Mark van, Maple Code 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Approximate algebra Over the past ten years symbolic-numeric algorithms

  20. Function: Cliplus:-setup -the initialization procedure for the package 'Cliplus' Calling Sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ablamowicz, Rafal

    , rational} _quatbasis = [[Id, e3we2, e1we3, e2we1], {`Maple has assigned qi:=-e2we3, qj:=e1we3, qk:=-e1we2

  1. Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-78 (2011) 665 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    promote oak recruitment and impede the development of red maple competition. Brose and Van Lear (1998 as a single, high-intensity burn (Loftis 1990, Brose and Van Lear 1998). OBJECTIVE The objective of this study

  2. THE UMBRAL TRANSFER-MATRIX METHOD. IV. Counting SELF-AVOIDING POLYGONS And WALKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    , based on Gian-Carlo Rota's seminal notion of the umbra. In this arti* *cle we describe the Maple. 1 #12; the present case, by Gian-Carlo Rota (see [Z1]) who invented the umbra. Then th* *e task

  3. The umbral transfer-matrix method IV. Counting self-avoiding polygons and walks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    on Gian-Carlo Rota's seminal notion of the umbra. In this article we describe the Maple packages USAP]) who invented the umbra. Then the task remains to design an algorithm, and write a program implementing

  4. THE UMBRAL TRANSFER-MATRIX METHOD. IV. Counting SELF-AVOIDING POLYGONS And WALKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    , based on Gian-Carlo Rota's seminal notion of the umbra. In this article we describe the Maple packages; the present case, by Gian-Carlo Rota (see [Z1]) who invented the umbra. Then the task remains to design

  5. Mining Navigation History for Recommendation Xiaobin Fu, Jay Budzik, Kristian J. Hammond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mining Navigation History for Recommendation Xiaobin Fu, Jay Budzik, Kristian J. Hammond Infolab, Northwestern University 1890 Maple Avenue Evanston, IL 60201 1(847) 467-1265 fu, budzik, hammond

  6. Journal Title: Knowledge-Based Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Budzik Intelligent Information Laboratory Northwestern University 1890 Maple Ave. Evanston, IL 60201 USA +1 847 467-1771 (phone) +1 847 491-5258 (fax) budzik@infolab.nwu.edu Co-Authors: Kristian J. Hammond

  7. User Interactions with Everyday Applications as Context for Just-in-time Information Access

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Budzik and Kristian J. Hammond Intelligent Information Laboratory Northwestern University 1890 Maple Ave. Evanston, IL 60201 USA {budzik, hammond}@infolab.nwu.edu ABSTRACT Our central claim is that user

  8. Vdume 31 Number 6 A Message from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    career that began in the late 1950s in the Fraser Valley community of Maple Ridge, where he was a teacher to teaching assistants. I am happy to announce the appointment of Dr. Daniel R. Birch, Dean of the Facultyof

  9. Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 1. Systems. 1.1. On Line. In this introductory section we will pose no exercises, but instead, will detail. how to use Maple to solve problems in linear ...

  10. An investigation of the efficacy of service quality and its relationship to visitor satisfaction and future behavior in a zoological setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas, Stacy Renee

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &hes have also examined the effectiveness and utilization of educational materials and programs, and the context of educational environments within zoos that support the acquisition of conservation attitudes and knowledge (Wineman, Piper, k Maple, 1996... of freedom and personal choice in selecting topics, routes through the zoo, and the pacing of stops at exhibits. Winernan, Piper, and Maple (1996) suggested that zoos should provide interactive experiences by making their exhibits more open...

  11. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

  12. Diversity of xylariaceous symbionts in Xiphydria woodwasps: role of vector and a host tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mycological Society. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.07.002 f u n g a l e c o l o g y 3 ( 2 0 1 (Acer), alder (Alnus), birch (Betula verrucosa), cherry (Prunus), pear (Pyrus), and elm (Ulmus

  13. Common Nesting Bird Species Common Name Latin Name AOU Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Thomas E.

    -25 m Aspen/Maple AUWA 4 2 14 14 2-16 m Maple/Fir BHGR 3.5 1 12.5 12 2-5 m Maple/Fir WETA 3.5 1 13 10 4 Excavators ACWO 4.5 1 11.5 31 0 % Aspen WISA 5.5 1 13 31.5 28 % Aspen RNSA 5.5 1 13 27 12 % Aspen DOWO 4.5 1.5 12 22.5 0 % Aspen HAWO 4 1 14 29 0 % Aspen RSFL 7.5 1.5 11.5 26.5 56 % Aspen/Fir PYNU 7 1 15.5 22 57

  14. Predicting Harmful Algal Blooms: A Case Study with Dinophysis ovum in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harred, Laura B

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, Lisa Campbell Committee Members, George Jackson Heidi Sosik Masami Fujiwara Steve DiMarco Head of Department, Debbie Thomas May 2014 Major Subject: Oceanography...., 39, 303-312. 29 Johnson, M. D., Stoecker, D. K. and Marshall, H. G. (2013) Seasonal dynamics of Mesodinium rubrum in Chesapeake Bay. J. Plankton Res., 35, 877-893. Kim, M., Nam, S., Shin, W. et al. (2012) Dinophysis caudata (Dinophyceae...

  15. Studies of the C-terminal Region of the Gamma Subunit of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Feng

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    and Girvin 1999). 4. The Binding Change Mechanism and Rotational Catalysis of the ATP Synthase Isotopic exchange studies of 18 O and 32 P revealed that the ? phosphate bond of the nucleotide is broken and reformed with oxygen from water during... et al. 2003). The ? rotation has also been observed in EcF 1 (Omote, Sambonmatsu et al. 1999) and hybrid F 1 that contained ? and ? subunits from the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum and ? subunit from spinach chloroplast F 1 (Tucker, Schwarz et...

  16. Aspects of the phytogeorgraphy of Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecotte, Allen James

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    among the Magnoliaceae. Species migration histories verify the dynamic nature of the vegetation. The presence of loess is perhaps the critical factor in accounting for the presence of an Appalachian element on the Ridge. The Bluffland Hypothesis...-hickory forest is found on the southern portion of the Ridge top. Call (1891) described areas of the Ridge's vegetation as still par- tially virgin in his day. The two main forest types he described were the maple-beech and the pine-oak forest. The maple...

  17. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

  18. Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1. Area of timberland and forest land by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    errors/bars provided in figures and tables represent 68 percent confidence intervals 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4/American elm/red maple White oak/red oak/hickory Area (1,000 acres) Small Medium Large #12;Table 2. ­ Top 10

  19. Table 1. Annual estimates and uncertainty Figure 1. Area of timberland and forest land by year.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4 23.5 16,486 3.6 19.0 All Species 26,915 1.3 100.0 86,707 2.0 100.0 Proportion of total sawtimber,000.000acres) Year Timberland Forest land 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Oak/hickory Maple/beech/birch Oak/pine Elm

  20. Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1. Area of timberland and forest land by year.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of growing-stock trees (1,000,000 ft3 ) 14,104 2.0 3.1 Annual net growth of growing- stock trees (1,000 ft3 2000 2010 Area(1,000,000acres) Year Large Medium Small 0 1 2 3 4 Oak/hickory Maple/beech/birch Elm

  1. Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1. Area of timberland and forest land by year.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000,000 ft3 ) 15,552 1.8 3.9 Net volume of growing-stock trees (1,000,000 ft3 ) 13,903 2.0 1.6 Annual net Area(1,000,000acres) Year Forest Land Timberland 0 1 2 3 4 Oak/hickory Maple/beech/birch Elm

  2. DeCoding Your Housing Assignment Confused by the letters and numbers that comprise your housing assignment? If so, the following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howitt, Ivan

    DeCoding Your Housing Assignment Confused by the letters and numbers that comprise your housing Delta Zeta House CE Cedar Hall HA Hawthorn Hall CL CF Lynch Hall HI Hickory Hall EL Elm Hall HL Holshouser Hall G01 Kappa Sigma House HT Hunt Hall G02 Lambda Chi Alpha House MA Maple Hall G03 Zeta Tau

  3. Bala, K., P. Dutre (eds.). Render-ing Techniques 2005. Springer-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    . Reliable Distributed Systems: Technologies, Web Ser- vice, and Applications. Springer- Verlag Kleinberg, J. Gehrke. Database Management Systems, 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Schneider, F.B. Trust in Cyber- space to Maple. Prentice Hall Schwartz, D. Introduction to UNIX. Prentice Hall 1997 Birman, K. Building Secure

  4. TABLE D'HTE PRICES INCLUDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Carrot Soup, Chive Oil Parsnip Root Soup, Apple Infused Sour Cream Crostini extra : $2.00 MAIN COURSES with Potato Flan and Market Vegetables $69.25 Maple and Sichuan Peppercorn Salmon over a Panko Crusted Risotto Cake served with Market Vegetables $67.25 Ricotta and Spinach Cannelloni topped with a Roasted Tomato

  5. INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO. Staff on the Vale Village try to ensure and cleaned to a high standard. Please make sure that you complete this inventory and note down anything which rail x 1 INVENTORY FOR MAPLE BANK FLAT NO: BLOCK NO: ROOM NO: NAME: TELEPHONE EXT. NO: #12;How

  6. Ris National Laboratory DTU Optics and Plasma Research Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø National Laboratory DTU Postprint Optics and Plasma Research Department 2007 Paper: www (MAPLE) K Rodrigo1,2, J Schou1#, B Toftmann1 and R Pedrys2 1 Department of Optics and Plasma Research Department of Optics and Plasma Research, Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark 2 Institute

  7. June 2014 Newell Drive Menu c:\\users\\hmonkhorst\\appdata\\local\\microsoft\\windows\\temporary internet files\\content.outlook\\azxec63b\\june

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapletal, Jindrich

    Sandwich on Wheat S: Graham Crackers, Peaches 16 17 18 19 20 B: Cold Cereal, Orange Juice, Milk L: Latin Turkey Breast w/ Gravy, Maple Caramelized Carrots, Whole Wheat Penne Pasta, Crushed Pineapple, Milk Meat Alt- Dinner Roll S: Birthday Day Snack Angel Food Cake, Vanilla Ice Cream 23 24 25 26 27 B: Cold

  8. March 2014 Newell Drive Menu \\\\ad.ufl.edu\\hr\\home\\agould\\desktop\\march 2014.docx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Dairy Alt- Turkey Sandwich on Wheat S: Birthday Day Snack Angel Food Cake, Vanilla Ice Cream 24 25 26 27: Oatmeal, Bananas, Milk L: Roasted Turkey Breast w/ Gravy, Maple Caramelized Carrots, Whole Wheat Penne Alt- Turkey Sandwich on Wheat S: Vanilla Wafers, Peaches B: Banana Muffin, Crushed Pineapple, Milk L

  9. Improved Connectivity using Hybrid Uni/Omni-Directional Antennas in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Ji Heon

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2008 Major: Electrical Engineering ii ABSTRACT Improved Connectivity using Hybrid Uni/Omni-Directional Antennas in Sensor Networks (April 2008... environments: MATLAB, Maple Design automation tools: SIMULINK, PSpice, MAX+PLUS II LEADERSHIP & ACTIVITIES Student Engineers’ Council Undergraduate Curriculum Committee, Dept. of Computer Science Computing Service Advisory Committee, Dept. of Computer...

  10. National Center for Environmental Health Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    staff. EPHOC Target Audiences · New-hire environmental public health professional with a science major). · Occupational Safety and Health (Elizabeth Maples, UAB School of Public Health Environmental Health SciencesNational Center for Environmental Health Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services

  11. Towards A Mathematical Services Description Olga Caprotti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards A Mathematical Services Description Language Olga Caprotti Wolfgang Schreiner Research Introduction In the recent years, mathematical software systems, i.e., computer algebra systems like Maple. There are numerous examples in the literature of scien- ti#12;c software needing access to computer algebra methods

  12. GREEN MOUNTAIN MORRIS DANCERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountain (boys) and Maple Leaf (girls) will be recruiting new members in January 2009, typically 6th grade to Chris.Levey@dartmouth.edu. Morris dancing is an energetic stick clashing, bell ringing, handkerchief, 2008: New England Folk Festival (NEFFA) Perform Saturday 3-4pm at the main entrance. May 1, 2008

  13. Gamma-Normal Probability Distribution Arc Length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesam

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    1Department of Industrial Engineering, Mazandaran University of Science and ... The shortest path problem has been widely studied in the fields of operations research, computer ... There are several methods to find the shortest path from ..... To solve this integral we used the mathematical software Maple 15 but it was not

  14. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 2005, p. 69266933 Vol. 71, No. 11 0099-2240/05/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/AEM.71.11.69266933.2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Jr., Frederick C.

    Morrison1 The MAPLE Research Initiative, Department of Animal Sciences,1 Department of Food, Agricultural in agricultural environments. These real-time PCR assays provide rapid, quantitative, cultivation or wastewater or by other routes, such as meat or milk products (8, 13, 19, 35). Second, some commensal bacteria

  15. EVERY REAL ELLIPSOID IN C2 ADMITS CR UMBILICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Shanyu

    , RootOf, `^`, constant, function, rational, mathfunc} _quatbasis = [[Id, e3we2, e1we3, e2we1], {`Maple has assigned qi:=-e2we3, qj:=e1we3, qk:=-e1we2`}] `************* End *************` `>>> Global

  16. Vector bundles on curves over Cp Annette Werner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, Annette

    , rational, indexed, numeric, RootOf, mathfunc, `^`} _quatbasis = [[Id, e3we2, e1we3, e2we1], {`Maple has assigned qi:=-e2we3, qj:=e1we3, qk:=-e1we2`}] `************* End *************` `>>> Global variables

  17. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. 9/99.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are affected by this disease, including aspen, birch, cottonwood, poplar, spruce, willow, ash, maple, elm Cytospora. These pathogens affect many species of trees in Colorado, including aspen, cottonwood, lombardy are host specific and will not spread to other tree species. Aspen and cottonwoods are attacked by the same

  18. A Vision of the Future Michigan State University undertakes forest management on its properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 2-year-old aspen regeneration in a clearcut, (3) sugar maple seedlings wait for release, (4) high slowly. The first surveyors found that most of Neebish Island was covered by aspen-birch forests around. The forests are still primarily dominated by aspen and bir

  19. Ecology 2003 17, 289304

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the Aspen FACE project D. F different functional groups (the indeterminate, pioneer, O3-sensitive species Trembling Aspen, Populus remarkably consist- ent in pure Aspen stands and in mixed Aspen/Birch and Aspen/Maple stands, from leaf

  20. Green Chemistry Dynamic Article Links Cite this: Green Chem., 2011, 13, 91

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Green Chemistry Dynamic Article Links Cite this: Green Chem., 2011, 13, 91 www.rsc.org/greenchem PAPER Renewable gasoline from aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of aqueous sugar solutions prepared In this paper we demonstrate an integrated process for the production of high octane gasoline from maple wood

  1. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-203. 2007. 67 Reintroducing Fire to the Oak Forests of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    of Pennsylvania: Response of Striped Maple1 Patrick H. Brose,2 Gary W. Miller,3 and Kurt W. Gottschalk3 Abstract throughout eastern North America, including the mid-Atlantic region (Abrams 1992, Brose et al. 2001, Yaussy, WV. #12;Management Strategies--Reintroducing Fire to Oak Forests--Brose et al. USDA Forest Service

  2. On the Complexity of the Montes Ideal Factorization Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David

    into two main variations, the "one-element" method [8] and the "two-element" method [16]. Versions of the one-element method are used by Maple and PARI. The two-element method is used, e.g., by Magma an alternative to the methods based on ideas of Zassen- haus. A familiar application of Newton polygons gives

  3. PLM Mathrice 9 fevrier 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langevin, Rémi

    PLM Mathrice 9 f´evrier 2011 Personnalisation du hostname affich´e par Matlab et Maple Lorsque ' ; return 0; } 1 http://plm.math.cnrs.fr/my-hostname.h 2 http://plm.math.cnrs.fr/my-hostname.c #12;La

  4. Getting Started with Mathematica Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkana, Rennan

    and computer. Every command, function, option, button, menu, or object in Mathematica fits into this philosophy, generalization, and pattern discovery. If you feel you do not fit this profile, you might want to learn Maple -> Open Select Open from the File menu. 3,Ctl-6,5 Press 3, then hold the Control key and press 6

  5. Computational Algebra Group Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computational Algebra Group Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics Department - y + 1 0 1 Introduction Our goal is to do linear algebra computations over arbitrary rings and fields. We have written a Maple package, GenericLinearAlgebra, that implements the following commands

  6. Beyond Similarity Jay Budzik, Kristian J. Hammond, Larry Birnbaum, and Marko Krema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Beyond Similarity Jay Budzik, Kristian J. Hammond, Larry Birnbaum, and Marko Krema Intelligent Information Laboratory Northwestern University 1890 Maple Ave. Evanston, IL USA {budzik, hammond, birnbaum (Lieberman 1995, Rhodes and Starner 1996, Badue, Vaz, and Albuquerque 1998, Budzik et al. 1998, Kulyukin 1999

  7. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Jay Budzik, Sanjay Sood, Kristian J. Hammond, and Larry Birnbaum Abstract The Watson system-in-time Retrieval: Adapting the Watson System to User Needs Jay Budzik Center for Technology Commercialization Northwestern University 1801 Maple Ave., Evanston, IL 60201 USA +1 847 467 6158 budzik

  8. Thermally Enhanced Pipe for Geothermal Applications Stphane Gonthier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in St-Lazare, QC, Canada · Leaders in Pipe and Tubing in Niche Markets · Over 30 years of experienceThermally Enhanced Pipe for Geothermal Applications Stéphane Gonthier Président ­ Versaprofiles Inc pipe and profile extrusion · Markets ­ Geothermal ­ Potable Water Distribution ­ Maple Sap Collection

  9. Time Series Analysis of Aviation Dr. Richard Xie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is free · R is a language, not just a statistical tool · R makes graphics and visualization of the best, Mathematica, Maple ­ SAS, SPSS, STATA, R ­ ROOT, PAW, KNIME, Data Applied, etc. ­ Others #12;Use R! · R quality · A flexible statistical analysis toolkit · Access to powerful, cutting-edge analytics · A robust

  10. The University of Iowa College of Engineering Engineering Professional Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Mathews

    Honeywell Des Plaines, IL Hydrite Chemical Co. Waterloo, IA IATL: Center for Global Environmental Research Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL Barr Engineering Minneapolis, MN Boston Scientific Maple Grove, MN Decatur, IL Caterpiller Mossville, IL Caterpiller Peoria, IL Cedar River Paper Company Cedar Rapids, IA

  11. Kenneth D. Forbus Qualitative Reasoning Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    Northwestern University 1890 Maple Avenue, Evanston, IL, 60201 Abstract Qualitative reasoners have been use of qualitative reasoning by engineers, scientists, and plain folks suggests that tractable: By tightly integrating numerical and qualitative models, behavior can be ex- plained as well as predicted

  12. Modeling infant learning via symbolic structural alignment Sven E. Kuehne (skuehne@ils.nwu.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    Modeling infant learning via symbolic structural alignment Sven E. Kuehne (skuehne@ils.nwu.edu) Department of Computer Science, Northwestern University 1890 Maple Avenue, Evanston, IL 60201 USA Dedre, IL 60201 USA Kenneth D. Forbus (forbus@ils.nwu.edu) Department of Computer Science, Northwestern

  13. Field Station Contributors, 2001 Anderson, Garry and Janice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    and Bessie Hamilton, Stanley and Mary Hattin, Don and Marge Hemund, Maxine Jacobs, Alan and Luanna Kammer, Thomas and Heidi Keller, Stanley and Teresa Kemmerer, Bryan Koch, Philip and Ellen Kooters Geology Tools Maples, Christopher and Sara Mead, Thomas and Lenore Meyers, James and Margaret Murray, James Orgill, J

  14. Practice Problems 12: Answers 1. Kansas can be modelled as a rectangle of length 500 miles and of height 300 miles. The population density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKay, Benjamin

    Calculus I Practice Problems 12: Answers 1. Kansas can be modelled as a rectangle of length 500 x3 3 500 0 ¢ 4 25 million 2. A pencil sharpener is made by drilling a cone out of a sphere computation is arithmetically tedious, and is best done on the computer (I used MAPLE). PSfrag replacements -1

  15. Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change. Figure 2. Forest land area by stand-size class* for top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (1,000,000 ft3 ) 13,741 2.0 0.9 Annual net growth of growing-stock trees (1,000 ft3 /year) 382,226 3,000,000acres) Year Large diameter Medium diameter Small diameter 0 1 2 3 4 Oak/hickory Maple/beech/birch Elm Black cherry White oak Aspen Ash Virginia pine Black locust Scarlet oak Elm Average Annual Mortality

  16. Figure 3. Area of timberland by stand-size class (based on small, medium, and large trees) and year.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of growing- stock trees (1,000 ft3/year) 13,626 30.7 -51.6 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Maple/beech/birch Oak/hickory Aspen/birch Spruce/fir Elm/ash/cottonwood White/red/jack pine Oak/pine Forest Land

  17. Primary decomposition of zero-dimensional ideals: Putting Monico's algorithm into practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    ". In this extended abstract, we report on new sets of experiments, in the Maple and Magma systems, for which our their multiplicities. For i = 1, . . . , , define ri = cmi i (t) A, and take for Ri any preimage of ri in k[X1; 2. factoring t as t = cm1 1 · · · cm ; 3. computing cmi i (t) for all i. In this work, we

  18. West Virginia's Forest Resources, 2011 Research Note NRS-148 This publication provides an overview of forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timberland #12;0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 4.4 5.8 0.0 1.0 2.0 diameter Stand-size Class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Oak/hickory Maple/beech/birch Oak/pine Pitch/Virginia pine Elm

  19. On distinguishing trees by their chromatic symmetric functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeremy L.; Morin, Matthew; Wagner, Jennifer D.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Victor Reiner, Bruce Sagan, and Stephanie van Willigenburg for many helpful con- versations. The database of trees constructed by Piec, Malarz, and Kulakowski [14], and John Stembridge’s freely available Maple package SF, were invaluable for calculating... the edges of each Li as ei,1, ei,2, . . . , ei,?i , starting from the leaf and reading in toward the torso, then ?ei,j? = min(j, n? j). Case 1: ?1 ? n ? ?1. Then j ? n ? j for every edge ei,j . In this case da = #{i | ?i ? a}, and d(T ) is just the conjugate...

  20. Forest structure of the big Thicket Scenic Area, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Daniel Harrison

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Cahaba series. Lob- lolly pine, water oak, black gum, and red maple are the dominant species visible. Interior view of stand 3, Lucy series. The large tree is southern magnolia and the under- story is redbay. Interior view of the bayhead stand (12...-hardwood forest which originally encompassed an area of two million acres (McLeod 1967). It contains elements of the oak-pine and southeastern ever- green forest regions of Braun (1950) and represents the westernmost extent of the southern mixed hardwood...

  1. Mapleton, North Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca, California:Park, Illinois:MapleMapleton,

  2. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2003

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples 2011

  3. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2004

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples 20114"

  4. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples 20114"5"

  5. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples

  6. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2007

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples7" "Note:

  7. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples7"

  8. Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. DepartmentOregon826 detailed data TheJohn Maples7"09"

  9. Test of four stand growth simulators for the northeastern United States. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuler, T.M.; Marquis, D.A.; Ernst, R.L.; Simpson, B.T.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SILVAH, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and OAKSIM simulators, commonly used in the northeastern United States, were evaluated by comparing predicted stand development with actual stand development records for periods ranging from 15 to 50 years. Results varied with stand parameter, forest type, projection length, and geographic area. Except in the spruce-fir forest type where FIBER stands out as the best simulator, no single simulator is clearly superior to the others for all locations within a forest type. In general, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and SILVAH performed best in the northern hardwood (beech-birch-maple) forest type: NE-TWIGS and SILVAH performed best in the Allegheny hardwood (cherry-maple) forest type; SILVAH and OAKSIM performed best in the oak-hickory forest type; and SILVAH was most suitable in the transition hardwood (mixture of northern hardwoods and oaks) forest type. The results give growth and yield model users more information for selecting the simulator most suitable for their particular needs. The results also can be used as a diagnostic tool for growth and yield model development.

  10. Dynamics of white pine in New England. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leak, W.B.; Cullen, J.B.; Frieswyk, T.S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth, regeneration, and quality of white pine between the 1970`s and 1980`s were analyzed for the six-state New England region. Growth was comparable among all states except for Rhode Island where the growth (1.71%) was low in comparison with other states and with the growth of red maples (4.29%) within the state. For all states, the proportion of acreage in white pine seedling/sapling stands was too small (8%) to maintain the current volume and acreage of the species. The percentage of volume in grades 1 and 2 more than doubled between the 1970`s and 1980`s in all states except Massachusetts and Connecticut where the percentage remained about constant.

  11. The Forest-Atmospheric Carbon Transfer and Storage-II (FACTS-II): Aspen FACE project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnosky, D.F.; Pregitzer, K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products; Hendrey, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Isebrands, J.G. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FACTS II (Aspen FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  12. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  13. Quantum delocalization directs antenna absorption to photosynthetic reaction centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe Caycedo-Soler; Chris A. Schroeder; Caroline Autenrieth; Robin Ghosh; Susana F. Huelga; Martin B. Plenio

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Photosynthesis -- the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy -- is fundamental for supporting life on our planet. Despite its importance, the physical principles that underpin the primary steps of photosynthesis, from photon absorption to electronic charge separation, remain to be understood in full. Previously, electronic coherence within tightly-packed light-harvesting (LH) units or within individual reaction centers (RCs) has been recognized as an important ingredient for a complete understanding of the excitation energy transfer dynamics. However, the electronic coherence across RC and LH units has been consistently neglected as it does not play a significant role during these relatively slow transfer processes. Here, we turn our attention to the absorption process, which occurs on much shorter timescales. We demonstrate that the - often overlooked - spatially extended but short-lived excitonic delocalization across RC and LH units plays a relevant role in general photosynthetic systems, as it causes a redistribution of direct absorption towards the charge separation unit. Using the complete core complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum, we verify experimentally an 80 % increase in the direct optical absorption of the RC in situ as compared to isolated RCs. Numerical calculations reveal that similar enhancements can be expected for a wide variety of photosynthetic units in both plant and bacterial systems, suggesting that this mechanism is conserved across species and providing a clear new design principle for light-harvesting nanostructures

  14. IMPACTS OF INTERACTING ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND O3 ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF A NORTHERN FOREST ECOSYSTEM: OPERATING AND DECOMMISSIONING THE ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University; Zak, Donald R. [University of Michigan; Kubiske, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service; Pregitzer, Kurt S. [University of Idaho

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the most important and pervasive greenhouse gases driving global change and impacting forests in the U.S. and around the world are atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. As the only free air, large-scale manipulative experiment studying the interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on forests, the Aspen FACE experiment was uniquely designed to address the long-term ecosystem level impacts of these two greenhouse gases on aspen-birch-maple forests, which dominate the richly forested Lake States region. The project was established in 1997 to address the overarching scientific question: “What are the effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, on the structure and functioning of northern hardwood forest ecosystems?” From 1998 through the middle of the 2009 growing season, we examined the interacting effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on ecosystem processes in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem to compare the responses of early-successional, rapid-growing shade intolerant trembling aspen and paper birch to those of a late successional, slower growing shade tolerant sugar maple. Fumigations with elevated CO2 (560 ppm during daylight hours) and O3 (approximately 1.5 x ambient) were conducted during the growing season from 1998 to 2008, and in 2009 through harvest date. Response variables quantified during the experiment included growth, competitive interactions and stand dynamics, physiological processes, plant nutrient status and uptake, tissue biochemistry, litter quality and decomposition rates, hydrology, soil respiration, microbial community composition and respiration, VOC production, treatment-pest interactions, and treatment-phenology interactions. In 2009, we conducted a detailed harvest of the site. The harvest included detailed sampling of a subset of trees by component (leaves and buds, fine branches, coarse branches and stem, coarse roots, fine roots) and excavation of soil to a depth of 1 m. Throughout the experiment, aspen and birch photosynthesis increased with elevated CO2 and tended to decrease with elevated O3, compared to the control. In contrast to aspen and birch, maple photosynthesis was not enhanced by elevated CO2. Elevated O3 did not cause significant reductions in maximum photosynthesis in birch or maple. In addition, photosynthesis in ozone sensitive clones was affected to a much greater degree than that in ozone tolerant aspen clones. Treatment effects on photosynthesis contributed to CO2 stimulation of aboveground and belowground growth that was species and genotype dependent, with birch and aspen being most responsive and maple being least responsive. The positive effects of elevated CO2 on net primary productivity NPP were sustained through the end of the experiment, but negative effects of elevated O3 on NPP had dissipated during the final three years of treatments. The declining response to O3 over time resulted from the compensatory growth of O3-tolerant genotypes and species as the growth of O3-sensitive individuals declined over time. Cumulative NPP over the entire experiment was 39% greater under elevated CO2 and 10% lower under elevated O3. Enhanced NPP under elevated CO2 was sustained by greater root exploration of soil for growth-limiting N, as well as more rapid rates of litter decomposition and microbial N release during decay. Results from Aspen FACE clearly indicate that plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide, regardless of community type or ozone level, obtained significantly greater amounts of soil N. These results indicate that greater plant growth under elevated carbon dioxide has not led to “progressive N limitation”. If similar forests growing throughout northeastern North America respond in the same manner, then enhanced forest NPP under elevated CO2 may be sustained for a longer duration than previously thought, and the negative effect of elevated O3 may be diminished by compensatory growth of O3-tolerant plants as they begin to dominate forest communities. By the end of the experiment, elevated CO2 increased ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas

  15. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  16. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  17. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  18. A computer code for calculations in the algebraic collective model of the atomic nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Welsh; D. J. Rowe

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Maple code is presented for algebraic collective model (ACM) calculations. The ACM is an algebraic version of the Bohr model of the atomic nucleus, in which all required matrix elements are derived by exploiting the model's SU(1,1) x SO(5) dynamical group. This, in particular, obviates the use of coefficients of fractional parentage. This paper reviews the mathematical formulation of the ACM, and serves as a manual for the code. The code enables a wide range of model Hamiltonians to be analysed. This range includes essentially all Hamiltonians that are rational functions of the model's quadrupole moments $q_M$ and are at most quadratic in the corresponding conjugate momenta $\\pi_N$ ($-2\\le M,N\\le 2$). The code makes use of expressions for matrix elements derived elsewhere and newly derived matrix elements of the operators $[\\pi\\otimes q \\otimes\\pi]_0$ and $[\\pi\\otimes\\pi]_{LM}$. The code also provides ready access to SO(3)-reduced SO(5) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients through data files provided with the code.

  19. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the fourth quarter of this project, a final attempt was made to calibrate a video-based ash analyzer for use in this application. It was concluded that the low ash content and the coarse particle size of the flotation tailings slurry at the Maple Meadow plant site made the video-based system unsuitable for this application. Plans are now underway to lease a nuclear-based analyzer as the primary sensor for this project.

  20. An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jobie M. Gerken

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some error is expected.

  1. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

  2. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point Hoboken NJ 07030

    2012-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a �demonstration� size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  3. Interactive Supercomputing’s Star-P Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, Alan; Husbands, Parry; Leibman, Steve

    2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis of this extended abstract is simple. High productivity comes from high level infrastructures. To measure this, we introduce a methodology that goes beyond the tradition of timing software in serial and tuned parallel modes. We perform a classroom productivity study involving 29 students who have written a homework exercise in a low level language (MPI message passing) and a high level language (Star-P with MATLAB client). Our conclusions indicate what perhaps should be of little surprise: (1) the high level language is always far easier on the students than the low level language. (2) The early versions of the high level language perform inadequately compared to the tuned low level language, but later versions substantially catch up. Asymptotically, the analogy must hold that message passing is to high level language parallel programming as assembler is to high level environments such as MATLAB, Mathematica, Maple, or even Python. We follow the Kepner method that correctly realizes that traditional speedup numbers without some discussion of the human cost of reaching these numbers can fail to reflect the true human productivity cost of high performance computing. Traditional data compares low level message passing with serial computation. With the benefit of a high level language system in place, in our case Star-P running with MATLAB client, and with the benefit of a large data pool: 29 students, each running the same code ten times on three evolutions of the same platform, we can methodically demonstrate the productivity gains. To date we are not aware of any high level system as extensive and interoperable as Star-P, nor are we aware of an experiment of this kind performed with this volume of data.

  4. QER- Comment of Jennifer Markens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To the committee: In Germany, utilities companies who increased reliance on fossil fuels are now showing drastic losses. Utility revenues are spiraling. Is the Northeast going down this path? RWE"s Terium reported dismal earnings, and admitted that the utility had invested too heavily in fossil fuel plants at a time when it should have been thinking about renewables. Sadly, this model requires that utility companies work with communities around developing a different model. This model of renewable energy is a more resilient system, and offers long term stability with none of the down side of fossil fuels. It is clear that in the Merger between Northeast Utilities and Nstar, the fossil fuel death spiral is being continued, making us less competitive in world markets. A further concern for our small state is that with leaky, radioactive Marcellus gas going through our aquifers, and across some of our best heritage soils and farmlands, our food and products will suffer on world markets, too, since other countries are far more advanced in legislation about food and product safety. No one is going to buy radioactive maple syrup . . . or any farm products that absorb neurotoxins. Basically, any product that uses water for production will be adversely affected, never mind the health and well being of Massachusetts citizens whose health can be compromised, and the enormous loss of income, land, water, and expense of importing water, or effectively treating it- if that's possible. Our state will pay for this poor decision for decades and this decision will knee cap nearly every industry in Massachusetts. Our world class medical facilities will be overburdened, and if current practices are any indication, their medical research is likely to be muffled to protect and industry that has no interest in protecting us. This is a plan to enrich individuals at the expense of our citizens. We have the resources, and willing participants to make a different plan. High pressure pipelines represent the lowest and least effective use of eminent domain at this point in history and this is a foolhardy step for our state. Best regards, Jennifer Markens

  5. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 �������°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond