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1

Manzanita Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. Manzanita has explored the wind resource potential on tribal land and developed a business plan by means of this wind energy feasibility project, which enables Manzanita to make informed decisions when considering the benefits and risks of encouraging large-scale wind power development on their lands. Technical consultant to the project has been SeaWest Consulting, LLC, an established wind power consulting company. The technical scope of the project covered the full range of feasibility assessment activities from site selection through completion of a business plan for implementation. The primary objectives of this feasibility study were to: (1) document the quality and suitability of the Manzanita Reservation as a site for installation and long-term operation of a commercially viable utility-scale wind power project; and, (2) develop a comprehensive and financeable business plan.

Trisha Frank

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Manzanita Estates Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Reno, Nevada Coordinates 39.5296329°, -119.8138027° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

3

AVTA: Toyota Prius Gen III HEV 2010 Testing Results | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toyota Prius Gen III HEV 2010 Testing Results AVTA: Toyota Prius Gen III HEV 2010 Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out...

4

Argonne TTRDC - D3 (Downloadable Dynamometer Database) - 2013 Toyota Prius  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid 2013 Toyota Prius front view 2013 Toyota Prius rear view Front View - 2013 Toyota Prius Rear View - 2013 Toyota Prius The model year 2013 Toyota Prius PHV is the first production iteration of Toyota's hybrid system to be produced as a plug in electric vehicle, with a 4.4kWh lithium-ion battery. This vehicle includes a 1.8L Atkinson-cycle engine, two electric machines (one motor, one generator) with a power-split device used to control the blended allocation of energy between the two power paths. The 2013 Toyota Prius PHV was evaluated as part of the Advanced Vehicles Technology Evaluation (AVTE) under the funding and guidance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Key Technology Third generation power-split configuration with plug-in capability

5

Argonne TTRDC - D3 (Downloadable Dynamometer Database) - 2012 Toyota Prius  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Toyota Prius 2 Toyota Prius 2012 Toyota Prius front view 2012 Toyota Prius rear view Front View - 2012 Toyota Prius Rear View - 2012 Toyota Prius The MY2012 Toyota Prius PHV is the first production iteration of Toyota's hybrid system to be produced as a plug in electric vehicle, with a 4.4kWh lithium-ion battery. This vehicle includes a 1.8L Atkinson-cycle engine, two electric machines (one motor, one generator) with a power-split device used to control the blended allocation of energy between the two power paths. Key Technology Third generation power-split configuration with plug-in capability 60kW Drive Motor 73kW 1.8L Atkinson cycle engine 207V, 4.4kWh Li-ion Battery Report Testing Summary, 20° F ambient temperature (pdf) Testing Summary, 72° F ambient temperature (pdf)

6

AVTA: Toyota Prius PHEV 2013 Testing Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a Toyota Prius PHEV 2013. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.transportation.anl.gov/D3/2013_toyota_prius_phev.html). The reports for download here are based on research done at Idaho National Laboratory. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

7

Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management  

SciTech Connect

In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

8

Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? July 7, 2009 - 5:07pm Addthis Francis X. Vogel Executive Director and Coordinator of the Wisconsin Clean Cities coalition An unexpected snowfall in late March prompted me to take my two daughters, Paloma and Ava, for a memorable afternoon of sledding and hot chocolate. However, before leaving home, I unplugged a cord from the standard 110-volt wall socket in my garage and did likewise from the port on the back of my 2007 Toyota Prius. I rolled up the cord, placed it in my trunk, and smoothly drove off. Nestled in my vehicle's spare tire well, a 200-pound lithium-ion battery pack allowed me to go up to 30 miles on electric power before recharging. Yes, I'm fortunate to be one of the only private owners of a plug-in

9

Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? July 7, 2009 - 5:07pm Addthis Francis X. Vogel Executive Director and Coordinator of the Wisconsin Clean Cities coalition An unexpected snowfall in late March prompted me to take my two daughters, Paloma and Ava, for a memorable afternoon of sledding and hot chocolate. However, before leaving home, I unplugged a cord from the standard 110-volt wall socket in my garage and did likewise from the port on the back of my 2007 Toyota Prius. I rolled up the cord, placed it in my trunk, and smoothly drove off. Nestled in my vehicle's spare tire well, a 200-pound lithium-ion battery pack allowed me to go up to 30 miles on electric power before recharging. Yes, I'm fortunate to be one of the only private owners of a plug-in

10

HEV Fleet Testing - Summary Fact Sheet 2010 Toyota Prius  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toyota Prius VIN JTDKN3DU2A5010462 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 1.8 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 60 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 885 lbs Features:...

11

2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

12

2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

13

Microsoft Word - TM-2010-253 - 2010 Prius Report - 26 - Tim ...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

11 EVALUATION OF THE 2010 TOYOTA PRIUS HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE SYSTEM Prepared by: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mitch Olszewski, Program Manager Submitted to: Energy Efficiency and...

14

Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system  

SciTech Connect

Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T. [McKay Pump and Drilling, Reno, NV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

AVTA ? PHEV Demonstrations and Testing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Escape (Electrovaya) - done - Hybrids Plus Escape, 2 models (Hybrids Plus and K2 Energy Solutions) - Hybrids Plus Prius (Hybrids Plus) - Manzanita Prius (lead acid and...

16

Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Report details the six-month...

17

BLACK THUNDER COAL MINE AND LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLACK THUNDER COAL MINE AND LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SEISMIC ENERGY of Explosive Engineers, 2-5 Feb 97, Las Vegas, NV #12;BLACK THUNDER COAL MINE AND LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL and David Gross Thunder Basin Coal Company Post Office Box 406 Wright, Wyoming 82732 D. Craig Pearson

18

Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Torque-Capability, Torque-Property, No-Load Back EMF, and Mechanical Losses  

SciTech Connect

In today's hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is currently considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is significant that in today's marketplace, Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. This project's objective is to test the torque capability of the 2004 Prius motor and to analyze the torque properties relating to the rotor structure. The tested values of no-load back electromotive force (emf) and mechanical losses are also presented.

Hsu, J.S.

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report details the six-month evaluation of the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency.

20

Microsoft Word - TM-2010-253 - 2010 Prius Report - 26 - Tim - edited 2-16-2011  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Vehicle Technologies, EE-2G Vehicle Technologies, EE-2G 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 FY2011 EVALUATION OF THE 2010 TOYOTA PRIUS HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE SYSTEM Prepared by: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mitch Olszewski, Program Manager Submitted to: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Vehicle Systems Team Susan A. Rogers, Technology Development Manager March 2011 ORNL/TM-2010/253 Energy and Transportation Science Division EVALUATION OF THE 2010 TOYOTA PRIUS HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE SYSTEM T. A. Burress S. L. Campbell C. L. Coomer C. W. Ayers A. A. Wereszczak J. P. Cunningham L. D. Marlino L. E. Seiber H. T. Lin Publication Date: March 2011 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fuel Economy of the 2014 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Search for Other Vehicles View the Mobile Version of This Page Compare Side-by-Side 4 cyl, 1.8 L Automatic (variable gear ratios) Regular Gas and Electricity EPA Fuel Economy Miles per Gallon Personalize Regular Gas 50 Combined 51 City 49 Highway Elec+Reg. Gas 95 Combined 29 kw-hrs/100 miles *Miles per Gallon Equivalent - 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kw-hr Unofficial MPG Estimates Shared by Vehicle Owners My MPG Owner MPG Estimates are not yet available for this vehicle. How can I Share My MPG? Vehicle Specification Data EPA Size Class Additional Information Midsize Cars Drive Front-Wheel Drive Gas Guzzler no Turbocharger no Supercharger no Passenger Volume 94ft3 (Hatchback) Luggage Volume 22ft3 (Hatchback) Engine Descriptor Additional Information PHEV

22

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

Ayers, C.W.

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

23

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electic Drive System Interim Report - Revised  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Both of these motive power sources are capable of providing mechanical drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak power output of 50 kW at 1300 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

Ayers, C.W.; Hsu, J.S.; Marlino, L.D.; Miller, C.W.; Ott, G.W., Jr.; Oland, C.B.; Burress, T.A.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

The neutron 'thunder' accompanying large extensive air showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The bulk of neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core (~'neutron thunder'~) are produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. This conclusion raises an important problem of the interaction of EAS with the ground, the stuff of the detectors and their environment. Such interaction can give an additional contribution to the signal in the EAS detectors at {\\em km}-long distances from the large EAS core after a few $\\mu s$ behind the EAS front.

A. D. Erlykin

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

25

ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Which is more fuel efficient, a Mercedes E250 or a Prius?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

done with such a blend). But it's easiest to just do the last calculation. A 90/10 mixture of gasoline many gallons of gasoline were needed to refill the tank? 390 miles + 20 miles = 410 miles 10.218 Gallons of gasoline used by the Prius (according to the story ­ see web link) (b) Over this same distance

Toohey, Darin W.

26

The neutron 'thunder' accompanying the extensive air shower  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations show that neutrons are the most abundant component among extensive air shower hadrons. However, multiple neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core ('neutron thunder') are mostly not the neutrons of the shower, but have a secondary origin. The bulk of them is produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. The delays are due to the termalization and diffusion of neutrons in the moderator and reflector of the monitor accompanied by the production of secondary gamma-quanta. This conclusion raises the important problem of the interaction of EAS with the ground, the stuff of the detectors and their environment since they have often hydrogen containing materials like polyethilene in neutron monitors. Such interaction can give an additional contribution to the signal in the EAS detectors. It can be particularly important for the signals from scintillator or water tank detectors at km-long distances from the EAS core where neutrons of the shower become the dominant component after a few mcsec behind the EAS front.

A. D. Erlykin

2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hybrid Electric Vehicle End-of-life Testing on Honda Insights, Honda Gen I Civics, and Toyota Gen I Priuses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

262 262 U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Hybrid Electric Vehicle End-of-Life Testing On Honda Insights, Honda Gen I Civics and Toyota Gen I Priuses TECHNICAL REPORT James Francfort Donald Karner Ryan Harkins Joseph Tardiolo February 2006 Idaho National Laboratory Operated by Battelle Energy Alliance INL/EXT-06-01262 U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Hybrid Electric Vehicle End-of-Life Testing On Honda Insights, Honda Gen I Civics and Toyota Gen I Priuses James Francfort i Donald Karner and Ryan Harkins ii Joseph Tardiolo iii February 2006 Idaho National Laboratory Transportation Technology Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy

28

Celastrol, a Triterpene Extracted from the Chinese Thunder of God Vine, Is a Potent Proteasome Inhibitor and Suppresses Human Prostate Cancer Growth in Nude Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from the Chinese Thunder of God Vine, Is a Potent Proteasome...Chinese medicine Thunder of God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii...vine also known as Thunder of God Vine, belongs to the Celastraceae...is made of two 19S regulatory particles and a 20S core particle. The...

Huanjie Yang; Di Chen; Qiuzhi Cindy Cui; Xiao Yuan; and Q. Ping Dou

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Hybrid Electric Vehicle End-Of-Life Testing On Honda Insights, Gen I Civics And Toyota Gen I Priuses  

SciTech Connect

This technical report details the end-of-life fuel efficiency and battery testing on two model year 2001 Honda Insight hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), two model year 2003 Honda Civic HEVs, and two model year 2002 Toyota Prius HEVs. The end-of-life testing was conducted after each vehicle has been operated for approximately 160,000 miles. This testing was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). The AVTA is part of DOEs FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. SAE J1634 fuel efficiency testing was performed on the six HEVs with the air conditioning (AC) on and off. The AC on and off test results are compared to new vehicle AC on and off fuel efficiencies for each HEV model. The six HEVs were all end-of-life tested using new-vehicle coast down coefficients. In addition, one of each HEV model was also subjected to fuel efficiency testing using coast down coefficients obtained when the vehicles completed 160,000 miles of fleet testing. Traction battery pack capacity and power tests were also performed on all six HEVs during the end-of-life testing in accordance with the FreedomCAR Battery Test Manual For Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles procedures. When using the new-vehicle coast down coefficients (Phase I testing), 11 of 12 HEV tests (each HEV was tested once with the AC on and once with the AC off) had increases in fuel efficiencies compared to the new vehicle test results. The end-of-life fuel efficiency tests using the end-of-life coast down coefficients (Phase II testing) show decreases in fuel economies in five of six tests (three with the AC on and three with it off). All six HEVs experienced decreases in battery capacities, with the two Insights having the highest remaining capacities and the two Priuses having the lowest remaining capacities. The AVTAs end-of-life testing activities discussed in this report were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory; the AVTA testing partner Electric Transportation Applications, and by Exponent Failure Analysis Associates.

James Francfort; Donald Karner; Ryan Harkins; Joseph Tardiolo

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Rolling Thunder -- Integration of the Solo 161 Stirling engine with the CPG-460 solar concentrator at Ft. Huachuca  

SciTech Connect

Project Rolling Thunder is a dish/Stirling demonstration project at Ft. Huachuca, a US Army fort in southeastern Arizona (Huachuca means rolling thunder in Apache). It has been supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a cooperative program between the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a 1992 SERDP project, Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) installed a CPG 7 kW(c) dish/Stirling system at the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) in Ft. Huachuca, Arizona. The primary objective of the SERDP Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications project was to demonstrate a CPG 7-kW(c) dish/Stirling system at a military facility. Unfortunately, Cummins Engine Company decided to divest its solar operations. As a direct result of Ft. Huachuca`s interest in the Cummins dish/Stirling technology, Sandia explored the possibility of installing a SOLO 161 Stirling power conversion unit (PCU) on the Ft. Huachuca CPG-460. In January 1997, a decision was made to retrofit a SOLO 161 Stirling engine on the CPG-460 at Ft. Huachuca. Project Rolling Thunder. The SOLO 161 Demonstration at Ft. Huachuca has been a challenge. Although, the SOLO 161 PCU has operated nearly flawlessly and the CPG-460 has been, for the most part, a solid and reliable component, integration of the SOLO PCU with the CPG-460 has required significant attention. In this paper, the integration issues and technical approaches of project Rolling Thunder are presented. Lessons of the project are also discussed.

Diver, R.B.; Moss, T.A.; Goldberg, V.; Thomas, G.; Beaudet, A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Run 263 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and dispersed molybdenum catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Run 263 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on October 31, 1991 and continued until February 23, 1992. Tests were conducted by operating the reactors in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode and by processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal from Wyodak-Anderson seam in Wyoming Powder River Basin. Half volume reactors were used for the entire run. In the first part of Run 263, a dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance without a supported catalyst in the second stage. Molyvan L and Molyvan 822 (commercially available as friction reducing lubricants) were used as precursors for the dispersed molybdenum catalyst. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating the solids buildup was also evaluated. For the second part of the run, the hybrid catalyst system was tested with supported Criterion 324 1/1611 catalyst in the second stage at catalyst replacement rates of 2 and 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The molybdenum concentration was 100--200 ppm based on MF coal. Iron oxide was used as a slurry catalyst precursor at a rate of 1--2 wt % MF coal throughout the run with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the sulfiding agent. The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 2482 hours for an on-stream factor of 91.2% and the ROSE-SR[sup sm] unit was on-feed for 2126 hours for an on-stream factor of 96.4% for the entire run.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Run 263 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and dispersed molybdenum catalysts. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Run 263 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on October 31, 1991 and continued until February 23, 1992. Tests were conducted by operating the reactors in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode and by processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal from Wyodak-Anderson seam in Wyoming Powder River Basin. Half volume reactors were used for the entire run. In the first part of Run 263, a dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance without a supported catalyst in the second stage. Molyvan L and Molyvan 822 (commercially available as friction reducing lubricants) were used as precursors for the dispersed molybdenum catalyst. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating the solids buildup was also evaluated. For the second part of the run, the hybrid catalyst system was tested with supported Criterion 324 1/1611 catalyst in the second stage at catalyst replacement rates of 2 and 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The molybdenum concentration was 100--200 ppm based on MF coal. Iron oxide was used as a slurry catalyst precursor at a rate of 1--2 wt % MF coal throughout the run with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the sulfiding agent. The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 2482 hours for an on-stream factor of 91.2% and the ROSE-SR{sup sm} unit was on-feed for 2126 hours for an on-stream factor of 96.4% for the entire run.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Relation of the Effect of a Thunder Clap on the Compass of a Ship on the Coast of New England  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 January 1684 research-article A Relation of the Effect of a Thunder Clap on the Compass of a Ship on the Coast of New England The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775). www.jstor.org

1684-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

MANZANITA Fall 2009 Getting the Dirt on Roots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;2 nitrogen and phosphorous, and water from the soil to support their photosynthetic activities. Fungi lack

Bruns, Tom

36

HEV Fleet Testing - Summary Fact Sheet for 2010 Toyota Prius  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

courts, law offices, and medical facilities on city streets and urban freeways. Vehicle Specifications Engine: 1.8 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 60 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt...

37

Maintenance Records for 2010 Toyota Prius vin#0462  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DU2A5010462 Date Mileage Description Cost 11232009 5,935 Changed oil and filter, rotated tires, and inspected brakes 31.75 12182009 13,330 Changed oil and filter and inspected...

38

Hym Prius Commercial-use Ch and Dr All 2009.xlsx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial-use Commercial-use Charging rate: Level 1 Number of vehicles: Charge control: Uncontrolled Date range: Jan - Dec 2009 Battery Capacity: 5 kWh Weekday Weekend Number of trips Total distance driven (mi) Number of charging events Charging energy consumed (AC kWh) Charge depleting (CD) distance driven (mi) Percent of total distance Charge sustaining (CS) distance driven (mi) Percent of total distance Driving segments between charging events 1 153 32,253 3,478 179,351 15,767 61,134 5,309 575,891 58,893 12,902 1,461 Overall 66,443 634,784 14,363 35,731 195,118 31% 439,667 69% 31% 27% 396,540 43,127 69% 73% Vehicle Technologies Program 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 Weekday Weekend Distance traveled (mi) Distance Traveled by Operating Mode CS CD 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% f total distance driven driving segment

39

Hym Prius Personal-use Ch and Dr 9-2008 to 3-2010.xlsx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Personal-use Personal-use Charging rate: Level 1 Number of households: Charge control: Uncontrolled Date range: Sep 2008 - Mar 2010 Battery Capacity: 5 kWh Weekday Weekend Number of trips Total distance driven (mi) Number of charging events Charging energy consumed (AC kWh) Charge depleting (CD) distance driven (mi) Percent of total distance Charge sustaining (CS) distance driven (mi) Percent of total distance Driving segments between charging events 1 67 1,285 373 7,596 1,828 1,735 510 14,142 5,026 401 130 Overall 2,245 531 1,659 19,168 9,425 49% 9,743 51% 54% 36% 6,545 3,198 46% 64% Vehicle Technologies Program 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Weekday Weekend Distance traveled (mi) Distance Traveled by Operating Mode CS CD 0% 20% 40% 60% f total distance driven driving segment bin Miles-weighted Distribution of Distance

40

Abstract, Institute of Lake Superior Geology Conference in Thunder Bay, 2012 Anatomy of a Mesoarchean Batholith  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB) lies in the North Caribou Terrane (NCT) of the Superior Province at the northeastern boundary of the North Caribou Core and the Island Lake Domain (Stott et al. 2010). The NCGB hosts on the deposit have been linked to intrusions along the margins of the NCGB (Stott and Biczok 2010). The most

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

1 Year Postdoctoral Visitor in Policy, Sustainability & Education, York University, Toronto and Lakehead University, Thunder Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Year Postdoctoral Visitor in Policy, Sustainability & Education, York University, Toronto available in the Institute for Research and Innovation in Sustainability at York University and the Centre for Place and Sustainability Studies at Lakehead University. The post-doctorate appointment will be joining

42

Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

so it can be compared to something familiar. The fuel economy calculation starts with an energy conversion with standard energy content values 2 for each fuel: * Hydrogen: 51,532...

43

Les ombres noires de Saint Domingue: The Impact of Black Women on Gender and Racial Boundaries in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thunder, directed by Ben Stiller, Paramount Pictures andThunder, directed by Ben Stiller, Paramount Pictures and

Mitchell, Robin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

-A Science Service Feature By Dr; Charles F, hooks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the lightning flash and the rumble of the thunder, tremely heavy thunder can be heard tnice or three timesclude8 that the loudest thunder corms from the strongest and brightest and domward- directed lightning

45

Fact #765: February 4, 2013 EPA's Top 10 Conventionally-Fueled Vehicles for Model Year 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

For the 2013 model year, the Toyota Prius and smaller Prius c took the top spot with a combined average of 50 mpg. All vehicles making this list are hybrid vehicles, and six of the ten cars making...

46

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND GROUP PROCESSES Going Green to Be Seen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-statured automobile coveted across demographic categories. Why is the Prius is so successful? One possibility is that the Prius is a hybrid gas­electric vehicle, meaning that it costs less to fuel. Yet it costs many thousands

Sorenson, Michael

47

Secretary Chu's Remarks at the California Institute of Technology...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

computer tools with embedded energy analysis. It was the system integration of the automobile engine, transmission, brakes and battery that enabled Toyota to create the Prius....

48

Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery Type Capacity (kWh) Saft Li- Ion Price EDrive PriusPM synchron AC PM synchron AC Saft Li-Ion Valence LiIon EEEI

Williams, Brett D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Science Sert.ic,e Feature-Released upon receipt but intended f o r use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[Pm ? Mailed June 15, 1934 LIGHTNING WITHOUT THUNDER By Charles Fitzhugh Tal-, Authority on Meteorology. Distant lightning without audible thunder is familiar t o everybody, but silent lightning i n was struck; I saw a blinding flash simultaneous with a aplittting sound and waited f o r the crash of thunder

50

Local Employers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medical Center Presbyterian Espanola Hospital Santa Fe Mountain Center Hospitality and Tourism Northern New Mexico Bishops Lodge (Ranch, Resort, Spa) Buffalo Thunder Resort and...

51

This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

(A semi-submersible platform is a floating platform moored on location using ballast tanks in the hull for vertical positioning.) The Thunder Horse platform began commissioning...

52

Anthony Wayne: The History and Archaeology of an Early Great Lakes Steamboat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

History of the Great Lakes Collection TBNMSC Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Collection x TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... ........................................................................................................... 365 APPENDIX C ........................................................................................................... 371 APPENDIX D...

Krueger, Bradley Alan

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

53

Advanced Vehicle Testing & Evaluation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toyota Prius Plug-in 2013 Ford C-Max Hybrid 2013 Ford C-Max Energi 2013 Ford Fusion Energi 2014 VW Jetta Hybrid 2013 FLEET TEST VEHICLES 2 Honda CR-Z HEV 2...

54

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Dominion Resources, Inc...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

electric vehicles (PEVs), including Chevy Volts, a Nissan LEAF, and Toyota Prius plug-in conversions. DVP is also offering its customers two experimental time-of-use rates...

55

Benchmarking of Advanced HEVs and PHEVs over a Wide Range...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the year 6 FY08 Wide Temperature Range Benchmarking > PHEV's On road Testing of PHEV Conversions (Prius and Escape) - On Road evaluation at Argonne (ANL City Cycle) * Hymotion...

56

Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs. Plug-in Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Toyota Prius hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) was first released in the U.S. market in January 2000 and 324 were sold in the first month. The Chevrolet Volt, a hybrid-electric plug-in, and the...

57

Noise reduction control strategy of a permanent magnet synchronous machine for vehicle applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Speed Drives and Vehicular Applications ................. 5 1.2.1 ASD Benefits to Fuel Savings in Traffic ............................. 6 1.2.2 BWM Mild Hybrid Mass Introduction ................................. 6 1.2.3 Toyota Prius... the response of other manufacturers. 1.2.3 Toyota Prius In the automotive sector there are primarily two platforms to work with as a hybrid researcher, as one will encounter patents from either two companies as they work on this technology. The first...

Doolittle, Randy Gene

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Enlaces para Híbridos Enchufables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enlaces para Híbridos Enchufables Enlaces para Híbridos Enchufables Salga de Ahorremosgasolina.org Los enlaces de abajo son de páginas que no son parte de la página de ahorremosgasolina.gov. Ofrecemos estos enlaces externos para su conveniencia y para que tenga usted acceso a información adicional que podría ser de su interés y utilidad. Fabricantes de Vehículos Híbridos Enchufables Primer Reporte de Manejo del Toyota Prius Hibridos Enchufable del 2010 Reporte de Auto y Conductor del Prius Híbrido Enchufable del 2010 Primer Reporte de Manejo del Prius Híbrido Enchufable 2010 Reporte del Prius híbrido enchufable de la Línea de Edmunds Debut del Prius Híbrido Enchufable 2010 en el Auto Show de Los Angeles Comunicado de prensa de la Toyota con información del Prius Híbrido Enchufable 2010

59

o Fences roun Fi JAMES L. MURPHY AND HARRY E. SCHIMKE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clover (Chamaebatia foliosa), and manzanita brush r..Q.t9J~...tgRholus viscida). There were twoo Fences roun Fi JAMES L. MURPHY AND HARRY E. SCHIMKE ABSTRACT: Five meshes (1/8 to 1 inch) of 16-breaks - -retard them until fir e crews a r r i v ed, costs of installing and maintaining fences might be justified

Standiford, Richard B.

60

San Nicolas Marine Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the asphaltum min- ing days to a viable and self-sustaining habitat. Manzanita Village Restoration Project College of Creative Studies 555 465 Housing & Residential Services 411 429LOT 3 LOT 9 LOT 7 LOT 23 LOT 27 Lehmann Concert Hall Multi- Cultural Theater Corwin Pavillion University House Centennial House Marine

California at Santa Barbara, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Microsoft Word - ORNL-TM-2006-423.doc  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FY 2006 Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Prepared by: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mitch Olszewski, Program Manager Submitted to: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Vehicle Systems Team Susan A. Rogers, Technology Development Manager May 2005 ORNL/TM-2006/423 Engineering Science and Technology Division Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System R. H. Staunton C. W. Ayers L. D. Marlino J. N. Chiasson University of Tennessee-Knoxville T. A. Burress Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Publication Date: May 2006 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by

62

SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects Fact Sheet.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOEs Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

63

Mesoscale Structure of Trade Wind Convection over Puerto Rico: Composite Observations and Numerical Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the mesoscale structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), low-level circulation, and trade wind convection over the sub-tropical island of Puerto Rico in mid-summer. Shallow afternoon thunder...

Mark R. Jury; Sen Chiao; Eric W. Harmsen

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Varley family: engineers and artists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...at the crucial time when incandescent lighting was being introduced. The rapid exploitation of this form of lighting created a demand for large, efficient...Thunder Storm; with some Remarks on Medical Electricity', by Mr Cornelius Varley...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

The Structure and Stability of Ball Lightning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the reaction will be endothermic and can refrigerate its surface. The ball can thus be considered as a thermochemical heat pump powered by the electric field of a thunder storm. The surface refrigeration allows the condensation of water in quantities...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Mapping The Midwest Future Improving Transportation Competitiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regina Williston Thunder Bay Thompson 356 mi 438 mi Note: Distances are in road miles The Centre of Development Shipping to Williston from Winnipeg is 20 to 50 per cent cheaper than shipping from other regional

Levinson, David M.

67

Mathematics Competition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

answer is worth 6. 11. The sound of thunder travels away from a lightning flash at 331 m/s. Joe sees a lightning flash, and then hears the thunder 12 seconds later. To the nearest tenth of a kilometre, how far away is Joe from the lightning flash? (A) 3.0 (B) 3.5 (C) 4.0 (D) 4.5 (E) 5.0 12. In the diagram, what

Le Roy, Robert J.

68

Battery business boost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... year, A123 formed deals with the US car manufacturer Chrysler to make batteries for its electric cars. Other applications for A123 products include batteries for portable power tools and huge batteries ... batteries are not yet developed enough to be considered for use in its Prius hybrid electric car, preferring instead to keep using nickel metal hydride batteries. ...

Katharine Sanderson

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

69

Author's personal copy Neural Networks 21 (2008) 458465  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engine, an electric motor and a generator. A highly efficient engine can simultaneously charge Abstract A neural network controller for improved fuel efficiency of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric the appropriate power split between the electric motor and the engine to minimize fuel consumption and emissions

Prokhorov, Danil

70

INFRASTRUCTURE FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Mostly free. Good for awareness, sales · Free charging is quickly congested · Inconsistent coverage · One retention · Corporate responsibility · Increase sales at retail stores · Make money on the sale Chargers Needed Per 100 Vehicles Based on Survey Toyota Plug-In Prius Chevy Volt Nissan Leaf #12;EV

California at Davis, University of

71

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery to store energy, and electric motor/generators for energy conversion, a hydraulic hybrid power-train stores energy in hydraulic accumulators and uses hydraulic pump/motors for energy conversion. Hydraulic of these architectures and validates these features. Using a Toyota Prius like engine and chassis as common factors, fuel

Li, Perry Y.

72

The inverter in a hybrid or fully  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inverter in a hybrid or fully electric vehicle, such as the Toyota Prius, supplies power from the batteries to the motor. Inverters used in this application are currently limited by their power new material devices under real operating conditions. A project with TRW and others is investigating

Davies, Christopher

73

Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Final EIS Volume 2b, part 2 of 2  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix D Cultural Resources Appendix D Cultural Resources CONTENTS Appendix D.1 Native American Correspondence 2009, March 10 Request to Consult on Proposed Project (Quechan Indian Tribe) 2009, March 27 Sacred Lands File Search Results (NAHC) 2009, April 14 Invitation to Consult on Proposed Project (Quechan Tribal Council) 2009, May 28 Invitation to Consult on Proposed Project Ah-Mut-Pipa Foundation Baron Group of the Capitan Grande Campo Kumeyaay Nation Ewiiaapaayp Tribal Office Kumeyaay Cultural Historic Committee Kumeyaay Cultural Repatriation Committee Kwaaymii Laguna Band of Mission Indians La Posta Band of Mission Indians Manzanita Band of Kumeyaay Nation Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians

74

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE - Lightning Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE - Lightning Safety Lightning: What You Need to Know * NO PLACE outside is safe when thunderstorms are in the area!! * If you hear thunder, lightning is close enough to strike you. * When you hear thunder, immediately move to safe shelter: a substantial building with electricity or plumbing or an enclosed, metal-topped vehicle with windows up. * Stay in safe shelter at least 30 minutes after you hear the last sound of thunder. Indoor Lightning Safety * Stay off corded phones, computers and other electrical equipment that put you in direct contact with electricity. * Avoid plumbing, including sinks, baths and faucets. * Stay away from windows and doors, and stay off porches. * Do not lie on concrete floors, and do not lean against concrete walls.

75

EA-1603: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Finding of No Significant Impact Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1603: Finding of No Significant Impact Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase testing and training activities and expansion of operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico More Documents & Publications EA-1603: Final Environmental Assessment Federal Register Notice: National Nuclear Security Administration Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

76

EA-1603: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Environmental Assessment Final Environmental Assessment EA-1603: Final Environmental Assessment Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Under the Proposed Action, the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range expansion would include approximately 1,680 acres of US Air Force-owned land located in the southwest corner of the Coyote Test Field, adjacent to TA-III. DOE/EA-1603: Final Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (April 2008) More Documents & Publications EIS-0281: Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0281: Final Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement EA-1603: Finding of No Significant Impact

77

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2012" Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2012" "Rank","Mine Name / Company","Mine Type","State","Production (short tons)" 1,"North Antelope Rochelle Mine / Peabody Powder River Mining Ll","Surface","Wyoming",107639188 2,"Black Thunder / Thunder Basin Coal Company Llc","Surface","Wyoming",93082919 3,"Cordero Mine / Cordero Mining Llc","Surface","Wyoming",39204736 4,"Antelope Coal Mine / Antelope Coal Llc","Surface","Wyoming",34316314 5,"Belle Ayr Mine / Alpha Coal West, Inc.","Surface","Wyoming",24227846 6,"Eagle Butte Mine / Alpha Coal West, Inc.","Surface","Wyoming",22466733

78

Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors September 28, 2011 - 3:22pm Addthis A hydrogen-powered Toyota Prius pulls up to Humboldt State University's student designed hydrogen fueling station. A hydrogen-powered Toyota Prius pulls up to Humboldt State University's student designed hydrogen fueling station. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technology Program Since 2004, the Hydrogen Student Design Contest has challenged university students from across the globe to use their skills in design, engineering, economics, environmental science, business and marketing to devise innovative hydrogen energy applications for real-world use. "You have to innovative and you have to stretch yourself-it was a

79

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions January 27, 2011 - 4:07pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The closest most people get to a vehicle before it is offered to the general public is seeing it on TV or at an auto show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius, which is expected to be released in 2012. Clean Cities is an initiative in the Department's Vehicle Technologies Program that is focused on reducing petroleum use in transportation - which makes this demonstration a perfect fit. A PHEV Prius can run for up to 13 miles on all-electric power before

80

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions January 27, 2011 - 4:07pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The closest most people get to a vehicle before it is offered to the general public is seeing it on TV or at an auto show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius, which is expected to be released in 2012. Clean Cities is an initiative in the Department's Vehicle Technologies Program that is focused on reducing petroleum use in transportation - which makes this demonstration a perfect fit. A PHEV Prius can run for up to 13 miles on all-electric power before

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy Saver Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July 7, 2009 July 7, 2009 Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? An unexpected snowfall in late March prompted me to take my two daughters, Paloma and Ava, for a memorable afternoon of sledding and hot chocolate. However, before leaving home, I unplugged a cord from the standard 110-volt wall socket in my garage and did likewise from the port on the back of my 2007 Toyota Prius. I rolled up the cord, placed it in my trunk, and smoothly drove off. July 2, 2009 How Will You Save Fuel and Energy this 4th of July? Independence Day is this Saturday, and July 4th is typically one of the busiest days for auto travel in the United States. All of that traffic could mean lots of idling and stop-and-go driving; plan carefully and follow these tips from fueleconomy.gov to be sure you are getting the best

82

Plug-in Hybrid Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plug-in Hybrid Links Plug-in Hybrid Links Exit Fueleconomy.gov The links below are to pages that are not part of the fueleconomy.gov Web site. We offer these external links for your convenience in accessing additional information that may be useful or interesting to you. Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and Manufacturers Chevrolet Volt Official site for the Chevrolet Volt Cadillac ELR Official site for the Cadillac ELR (arriving early 2014) Ford C-MAX Energi Plug-in Hybrid Official site for the C-MAX Energi Plug-in Hybrid Ford Fusion Energi Plug-in Hybrid Official site for the Fusion Energi Plug-in Hybrid Honda Accord Plug-in Official site for the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Toyota Prius Plug-in Official site for the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Plug-in-Related Information and Tools

83

幻灯片 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric-Drive Vehicle Testing Electric-Drive Vehicle Testing at CAERI Hao Zhang China Automotive Engineering Research Institute 1. Overview 2. On-going Work 3. Future Work 4. Conclusion Contents Three-year Plan Full Hybrid BEV Plug-in REEV Mild Hybrid  Three year program in CAERI  Evaluating the performance of the EV, HEV and PHEV  Plan to benchmark more than 12 cars in three years ☆ Milestones 2011-Q2 2011-Q3 2011-Q4 2012-Q1 2012-Q2 2012-Q3 2012-Q4 Test Procedures Research and Preparation for cars Civic Hybrid Test and Analysis Nissan Leaf Test and Analysis MY2010 Prius Test and Analysis Fusion Hybrid Test and Analysis Volt Test and Analysis Plug-in Prius Test and Analysis 2011-2012 works Testing Approach  The vehicle testing activity and analysis approach has been defined:

84

Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors September 28, 2011 - 3:22pm Addthis A hydrogen-powered Toyota Prius pulls up to Humboldt State University's student designed hydrogen fueling station. A hydrogen-powered Toyota Prius pulls up to Humboldt State University's student designed hydrogen fueling station. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technology Program Since 2004, the Hydrogen Student Design Contest has challenged university students from across the globe to use their skills in design, engineering, economics, environmental science, business and marketing to devise innovative hydrogen energy applications for real-world use. "You have to innovative and you have to stretch yourself-it was a

85

Building Information Modeling (BIM), Utilized During the Design and Construction Phase of a Project Has the Potential to Create a Valuable Asset in Its Own Right ('BIMASSET') at Handover that in Turn Enhances the Value of the Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be drawn from the manufacturing industry. A similarity to the BIM collaboration process can be found in the Toyota Production System. A vehicle development system called the ?Obeya? system was developed for the Prius, which is now the new standard... for Toyota. The system serves two main purposes, which is information management and on the spot decision making. It enabled project participants to keep track of the project development schedule through the CAD terminals, schedules with checkpoints...

Patrick, R.; Munir, M.; Jeffrey, H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

1 Real-time Sign Language Letter and Word Recognition from Depth Data -Supplemental Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the thunder trade us waste wheel wire yes Table 1: Set of 56 words used to test the word recognition system. They have been selected randomly from the lexicon of 900 words known to the system. 3 #12;about able accept balance ball band base basin basket bath be beautiful because bed bee before behaviour belief bell bent

Gall, Juergen

88

Electricity in Volcanic Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the solid material ejected was still airborne and while much of it was moving upward...greater than 10 m3/ sec and a small fraction of that esti-mated from the growth...average thunder-storm the rate of energy release from the heat of the condensing water...

Robert Anderson; Stuart Gathman; James Hughes; Sveinbjrn Bjrnsson; Sigurgeir Jnasson; Duncan C. Blanchard; Charles B. Moore; Henry J. Survilas; Bernard Vonnegut

1965-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

89

A, Science Service Feature Released upon receipt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of lipgtning. It is an elec- trical discharge, l e s s violent than a lightning flash, proceeding from pointed, but i t is aleo seeE, i n the &Fence of thunder and lightning, when rain, snow o r h a i l is falling

90

Appendix 10-D The College of William & Mary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

monitoring thunderstorm activity, such as direction of movement and distance from the lightning flashes be aware of how close lightning is occurring. The "flash to bang" method is the easiest and most convenient the time the lightning ("flash") is sighted to when the clap of thunder ("bang") is heard. Divide

Swaddle, John

91

A, Science Service Feature aeleased upon receipt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flashes of fW.1 red lightning occurring once a minute sixteen minutes, The S. S. t'Inbtr i n the West a severe thunder- storm on the Pacific coast of Central &nerica, during which a flash of lightning struck WEATHER ? Mailed April 20,1935 LIGHTNING ODDITIEE!. By Charles Pitzhugh Talman, Authority on Meteorology

92

As the Governor of Florida, I have seen firsthand the impact severe weather can have on our state. Each year, Florida experiences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

light, thunder is heard after a flash of lightning. Lightning Safety As a storm approaches, many people of Contents Severe Weather Awareness Week Lightning and Wildfires MONDAY Lightning #12;4 With an average of 1.4 million cloud-to- ground lightning strikes each year

Meyers, Steven D.

93

Appendix 7-F Lightning Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as direction of movement and distance from the lightning flashes. The next measure for the coaching staff be aware of how close lightning is occurring. The "flash to bang" method is the easiest and most convenient the time the lightning ("flash") is sighted to when the clap of thunder ("bang") is heard. (Divide

Swaddle, John

94

MET Stations and Web Cams in the Great Lakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Alpena, MI, Muskegon, MI, South Haven, MI, Michigan City, IN, Chicago, IL, and Toldeo, OH also include: Alpena, MI Chicago, IL Muskegon, MI Michigan City, IN South Haven, MI Toledo, OH Met Data Stations: Alpena, MI Chicago, IL Michigan City, IN Milwaukee, WI Muskegon, MI South Haven, MI Thunder Bay

95

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on the Use of Computational Methods in the Study of Endangered Languages, pages 3442, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 26 June 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linguistics Modeling the Noun Morphology of Plains Cree Conor Snoek1 , Dorothy Thunder1 , Kaidi L~oo1 , Antti of a com- putational model of the morphology of Plains Cree based on the technology of finite state transducers (FST). The paper focuses in particular on the modeling of nominal morphology. Plains Cree

96

Generalized Rough Set Models Department of Computer Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generalized Rough Set Models Y.Y. Yao Department of Computer Science Lakehead University Thunder the rough set theory in early eighties, many proposals have been made for generalizing and interpreting rough sets [3, 4, 19, 27, 37, 38, 39, 46, 47, 51, 52, 54, 55, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 83, 92

Yao, Yiyu

97

Comparison of Rough-set and Interval-set Models for Uncertain Reasoning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of Rough-set and Interval-set Models for Uncertain Reasoning Y.Y. Yao and Xining Li Department of Computer Science Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 Abstract In the rough-set of their extended set-theoretic operators. The operators in the rough-set model are not truth-functional, while

Yao, Yiyu

98

Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines  

SciTech Connect

A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

Hsu, John S [ORNL; Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Wiles, Randy H [ORNL; Coomer, Chester [ORNL; Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Frostbite Theater - Static Electricity Experiments - Opposites Attract and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Behind the Scenes Behind the Scenes Previous Video (Behind the Scenes) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Thunder and Lightning) Thunder and Lightning Opposites Attract and Likes Repel An electroscope can be used to show that opposite electric charges attract and like electric charges repel. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: I'm sure you all know that opposite charges attract and like charges repel, but have you ever seen it? If not, we can show you with these things! Steve: These devices are called electroscopes. They're made from a little clippy thing and two pieces of plastic. If Joanna and I take our fingers and scrape them against the plastic

100

Solarnorth '81 by Tymura Solardesigns: diverse residential, commercial and industrial projects at and above the 48th parallel in Ontario, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Solar Energy Heating Applications are On the Rise in and above the Northwestern City of Thunder Bay, on the northern shore of Lake Superior. Unique in their diversifications, the architectural commissions range from pure passive residential design thru hybrid systems; residential Greenhouse-Solarium active swimming pool and commercial hotel pool to inexpensive hybrid system for Canada's First Commercial Solar Lumber Drying Kiln; as well as combined earth sheltered with solar system design for a dormitory complex and shopping center. By May 1981, 7 buildings designed by Tymura Solardesigns in the Thunder Bay area will have been subjected to the Extreme Canadian climate (10,500/sup 0/F degree days, yearly temperature maximums from -41/sup 0/F to 90/sup 0/F, and solar fractions vary from 50% to 75%, with economic payback periods ranging between 7 and 10 years.

Tymura, E.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The distribution of thunderstorm and lightning parameters over the Eastern Hemisphere for 1972  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hz, and 40 kHz, that approximately 120 discharges occur per second. This result is in close agreement with that of Brooks, especially when one considers the disparate methods of analysis. Aiya (1968) used lightning flash counters to estimate that a local... processes by which charge is transferred between centers of opposite polarity (Huschke, 1959). Lightning discharges almost always are accompanied by thunder. In April 1855, five "brilliant flashes" of lightning were seen to strike the Washington Monument...

Freeman, William Burns

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During the first quarter of FY 1993, the Project proceeded close to the Project Plan. The analysis of the feed material has been completed as far as possible. Some unplanned distillation was needed to correct the boiling range of the Black Thunder solvent used during the autoclave tests. Additional distillation will be required if the same solvent is to be used for the bench unit tests. A decision on this is still outstanding. The solvent to be used with Illinois No. 6 coal has not yet been defined. As a result, the procurement of the feed and the feed analysis is somewhat behind schedule. Agglomeration tests with Black Thunder coal indicates that small agglomerates can be formed. However, the ash removal is quite low (about 10%), which is not surprising in view of the low ash content of the coal. The first series of autoclave tests with Black Thunder coal was completed as planned. Also, additional runs are in progress as repeats of previous runs or at different operating conditions based on the data obtained so far. The results are promising indicating that almost complete solubilization (close to 90%) of Black Thunder coal can be achieved in a CO/H{sub 2}O environment at our anticipated process conditions. The design of the bench unit has been completed. In contrast to the originally planned modifications, the bench unit is now designed based on a computerized control and data acquisition system. All major items of equipment have been received, and prefabrication of assemblies and control panels is proceeding on schedule. Despite a slight delay in the erection of the structural steel, it is anticipated that the bench unit will be operational at the beginning of April 1993.

Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. [Canadian Energy Development, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts  

SciTech Connect

During the first quarter of FY 1993, the Project proceeded close to the Project Plan. The analysis of the feed material has been completed as far as possible. Some unplanned distillation was needed to correct the boiling range of the Black Thunder solvent used during the autoclave tests. Additional distillation will be required if the same solvent is to be used for the bench unit tests. A decision on this is still outstanding. The solvent to be used with Illinois No. 6 coal has not yet been defined. As a result, the procurement of the feed and the feed analysis is somewhat behind schedule. Agglomeration tests with Black Thunder coal indicates that small agglomerates can be formed. However, the ash removal is quite low (about 10%), which is not surprising in view of the low ash content of the coal. The first series of autoclave tests with Black Thunder coal was completed as planned. Also, additional runs are in progress as repeats of previous runs or at different operating conditions based on the data obtained so far. The results are promising indicating that almost complete solubilization (close to 90%) of Black Thunder coal can be achieved in a CO/H[sub 2]O environment at our anticipated process conditions. The design of the bench unit has been completed. In contrast to the originally planned modifications, the bench unit is now designed based on a computerized control and data acquisition system. All major items of equipment have been received, and prefabrication of assemblies and control panels is proceeding on schedule. Despite a slight delay in the erection of the structural steel, it is anticipated that the bench unit will be operational at the beginning of April 1993.

Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. (Canadian Energy Development, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A laboratory study of selected large hailstones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). More recently, Changnon ( 1972) has estimated the monetary loss to the United States each year and found it to exceed 315 million dollars (based on 1968 prices). Thus, the formation and growth of hail constitutes an element of meteorological study... the front contr ibuted si gnif- icantly to the late afternoon and evening development of thunder storms. In addition, the large scale circulations around the Bermuda high, with its extension into the southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico...

Marrs, John Thomas

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Reproductive success of Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in relation to common environmental noise ? biotic, non-military aircraft, and weather-related  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From 2000 to 2005 noise in Mexican spotted owl habitat in the Gila National Forest NM was monitored using an array of Larson-Davis (LD) sound level meters (SLMs). Thirty-nine SLMs were deployed across a 20 km x 24 km area collecting 2-s time interval data mid-April to July resulting in over 350 000 hr of data. Time-history profiles could be used to attribute many events to sources reliably when SNR exceeded the background by 5-10 dB. The events were categorized as biotic (insects and chorusing birds) thunder regional commercial jet aircraft and local air traffic (recreational and firefighting). Measured by the proportion of 2-s samples with LAeq > 60 dB biotic sources and thunder were the most important. Regional commercial jet traffic was the most significant anthropogenic source accounting for 2% of the total. Based on cumulative sound exposure thunder was the greatest contributor. Regression techniques were used to relate owl reproductive success to noise metrics by source. Biotic noise was the only significant correlate highly and positively related to owl reproductive success. The most reasonable interpretation was a strong relationship between biotic noise and owl prey base [Work supported by U.S. Air Force ACC/CEVP.

Ann E. Bowles; Samuel L. Denes; Chris Hobbs; Kenneth J. Plotkin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Can a Hybrid Save Me Money?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Can a Hybrid Save Me Money? Can a Hybrid Save Me Money? Step 1: Show me a hybrid. I want to compare... 2013 Acura ILX Hybrid 2013 Acura ILX Hybrid Tech Pkg 2014 Buick LaCrosse eAssist 2013 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 2WD 2013 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 4WD 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco 2SA 2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid 2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid Titanium 2013 GMC Yukon Denali Hybrid 2WD 2013 GMC Yukon Denali Hybrid 4WD 2013 Honda Insight 2013 Honda Civic Hybrid 2013 Honda Civic Hybrid w/ Nav 2013 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid 2013 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid Limited 2013 Infiniti M35h 2014 Infiniti Q50 Hybrid Premium 2014 Infiniti Q50 Hybrid Premium AWD 2013 Kia Optima Hybrid 2013 Lexus ES 300h 2013 Lexus GS 450h 2013 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid 2013 Toyota Avalon Hybrid XLE Touring 2013 Toyota Avalon Hybrid Limited 2014 Toyota Camry Hybrid LE 2014 Toyota Camry Hybrid XLE 2013 Toyota Highlander Hybrid 4WD 2013 Toyota Prius c One 2013 Toyota Prius Two

107

INEX modeling of the Boeing ring optical resonator free electron laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present new results from the integrated numerical model of the accelerator/beam transport system and ring optical resonator of the Boeing free electron laser experiment. Modifications of the electron-beam transport have been included in a previously developed PARMELA model and are shown to reduce dramatically emittance growth in the 180 bend. The new numerically generated electron beam is used in the 3D FEL simulation code FELEX to calculate expected laser characteristics with the ring optical resonator and the 5 m untapered THUNDER wiggler. Performance sensitivity to optical cavity misalignments is studied.

J.C. Goldstein; R.L. Tokar; B.D. McVey; C.J. Elliott; D.H. Dowell; M.L. Laucks; A.R. Lowrey

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 12820 of 31,917 results. 11 - 12820 of 31,917 results. Article Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Clean Cities Coordinators across the country highlight the benefits of plug-in hybrids and help collect valuable usage data as part of a demonstration project for the upcoming plug-in hybrid model of the Toyota Prius. http://energy.gov/articles/plug-demo-charges-clean-cities-coalitions Article Secretary Chu Highlights More Than 1,800 Electric Vehicle Chargers Installed Under the Recovery Act Investments in Electric Vehicles Helping to Reduce America's Reliance on Imported Oil http://energy.gov/articles/secretary-chu-highlights-more-1800-electric-vehicle-chargers-installed-under-recovery-act Download U.S. Department of Energy Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Final Agenda, October 19 and 20, 2011

109

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - NREL to Showcase Two Advanced Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Showcase Two Advanced Vehicles at Estes Park Coolest Car Show on to Showcase Two Advanced Vehicles at Estes Park Coolest Car Show on July 4 July 1, 2013 The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will showcase two advanced Toyota vehicles -- a Highlander fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV-adv) and a plug-in Prius hybrid electric vehicle -- at The Coolest Car Show in Colorado in Estes Park on July 4. Representatives from NREL will be on hand to answer questions about the vehicles on display and provide information and educational literature about alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. "We like to reach out to the community and provide information on alternative vehicle technologies and this is a great event to do that with all of the vehicle enthusiasts," said NREL's Melanie Caton. The car show, which is hosted by Estes Park Museum Friends and Foundation,

110

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Comparison of operating and incremental costs of battery electric vehicles 1. Comparison of operating and incremental costs of battery electric vehicles and conventional gasoline vehicles Characteristics Hybrid electric vehicle (Prius) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (Volt) Plug-in electric vehicle (Leaf) Fuel efficiency (mpg equivalent) 45 38 (charge-sustaining mode) 94 (charge-depleting mode) 99 (charge-depleting mode) Annual vehicle miles traveled 12,500 Percent vehicle miles traveled electric only 0 58 100 Fuel savings vs. conventional gasoline ICE vehicle (at $3.50 per gallon)a $1,169 $2,036 $3,314 Fuel savings vs. conventional gasoline ICE vehicle (at $6.00 per gallon)a $2,004 $4,340 $7,071 Incremental vehicle cost (2010 dollars) relative to cost of 35-mpg conventional gasoline ICE vehicleb $7,000 $20,000 $20,000

111

VIA Motors electric vehicle platform  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Extended-Range Electric Trucks Extended-Range Electric Trucks The fuel economy of a Prius with the payload of a pickup VIA's E-REV powertrain is ideal for America's fleets, cutting fuel costs by up to 75%, while dramatically reducing petroleum consumption and emissions- electricity costs an average of 60 cents per equivalent gallon. Recharging daily, the average driver could expect to refill the gas tank less than 10 times a year rather than once a week. It offers all the advantages of an electric vehicle, without range limitations. Working with vehicle manufacturers, VIA plans to begin delivering E-REV trucks to government and utility fleets in 2011. The onboard generator provides a work site with 15 kW of exportable power Up to 40 miles in all-electric mode and up to 300 miles using the range extender

112

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 169 Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System Burress, Timothy A [ORNL]; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL]; Coomer, Chester [ORNL]; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL]; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL]; Cunningham, Joseph Philip [ORNL]; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL]; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL]; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL] (2011) 116 Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Syneregy Drive System Burress, T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Seiber, L.E.; Marlino, L.D.; Staunton, R.H.; Cunningham, J.P. (2008) 102 A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design

113

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 16940 of 28,905 results. 31 - 16940 of 28,905 results. Article Energy Department Announces New Mapping Initiative to Advance North American Carbon Storage Efforts New Atlas Shows Potential for 500 Years of Carbon Dioxide Storage http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-announces-new-mapping-initiative-advance-north-american-carbon-storage Article Sailing into the Mainstream of Energy and Water Efficiency, Affordably One Energy Saver blogger shares their experience from staying in energy-efficient lodging during vacation. http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/sailing-mainstream-energy-and-water-efficiency-affordably Article Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? An unexpected snowfall in late March prompted me to take my two daughters, Paloma and Ava, for a memorable afternoon of sledding and hot chocolate.

114

Alternative Fuel News Volume 4 No 3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

05 05 Bus Futures Bus Futures A look at the choices for transit agencies Plus: Refuse Haulers Carry More Than Trash Inside: Prius hits U.S. market ALTERNATIVE FUEL NEWS U. S. D E P A R T M E N T o f E N E R G Y Vol. 4 - No. 3 An Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center From the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ear Clean Cities Stakeholders: As we head into fall and the temperatures start to cool, the energy industry is heating up. The high price of oil and our nation's dependence on imports continue to make headlines, and for the first time in a long while, the issue of a national energy policy is making waves. October was also Energy Awareness Month, and Secretary Richardson kicked off the celebration at a press event at

115

Fuel Economy in the News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Economy in the News Fuel Economy in the News Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the following articles belong to the original authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of the U.S. Department of Energy or the Environmental Protection Agency. May 31, 2013 Drive On: Ford rocks hybrid sales - USA Today 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel: Could this be the anti-TDI? - Car and Driver Tips for Buying and Servicing a Used Hybrid Car - The New York Times May 30, 2013 Mercedes' GLK250 joins fuel efficiency with luxury - The Detroit News Honda Fit EV lease drops to $259 with no down payment, unlimited miles - Autoblog Tesla tripling supercharger network for LA to NY trip - CNN May 29, 2013 Musk sticking to plan for 'affordable' Tesla model - Autoblog 2015 Toyota Prius Spy Shots: Next-Gen Hybrid Breaks Cover - Green

116

CX-002382: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

382: Categorical Exclusion Determination 382: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002382: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alternative Energy Workforce Applications Training Program CX(s) Applied: B3.6, A9, B5.1 Date: 05/17/2010 Location(s): Cuyahoga County, Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office For the Automotive Technology Lab, the college will renovate an existing classroom and lab on campus. The College will purchase three alternative fuel vehicles and a Toyota Prius cutaway training model with corresponding training software. The College will install a vehicle dynamometer for testing vehicle performance along with other diagnostic equipment, scan tools and Information Technology equipment as well as a 5.5 kilowatt Direct Grid-Tie Solar Photovoltaic System. The solar panels will be installed

117

Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis August 24, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The taxi, the icon of the bustling city, is getting a makeover. Cities nationwide are encouraging taxi fleets to turn over a new leaf and reduce their petroleum consumption. As taxis average more than 55,000 miles a year, reducing one taxi's gasoline consumption can make a big difference. Fortunately, there are a number of ways fleets can improve their sustainability, including adopting hybrid, natural gas, or propane vehicles. Although many people associate the Ford Crown Victoria with taxis, an increasing number of taxi operators are driving hybrid Toyota Priuses,

118

CX-002030: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2030: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2030: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002030: Categorical Exclusion Determination Solar Array and Charging Stations - Administration Building/Cathcart CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 04/22/2010 Location(s): Snohomish County, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Snohomish County, Washington proposes to use $278,880.00 of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant funds to support their solar carports and Prius conversion project, DOE funding will primarily be used to connect a 75 kilowatt (kW) solar array that will be roof mounted on an the existing County Administrative Building to approximately 15 electrical charging stations in Level B of the nearby County parking lot area. Further funding will be used to design/build a 20kW solar array on the roof an

119

Argonne Transportation - Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Capabilities at Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Capabilities at Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory Prius testing by Argonne researchers. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program is actively evaluating plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology and researching the most critical technical barriers to commercializing PHEVs. Argonne National Laboratory, working together with Idaho National Laboratory, leads DOE's efforts to evaluate PHEVs and PHEV technology with the nation’s best vehicle technology evaluation tools and expertise. These two national laboratories are Centers for Excellence that combine state-of-the-art facilities; world-class expertise; long-term collaborative relationships with other DOE national laboratories, industry, and academia;

120

Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis August 24, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The taxi, the icon of the bustling city, is getting a makeover. Cities nationwide are encouraging taxi fleets to turn over a new leaf and reduce their petroleum consumption. As taxis average more than 55,000 miles a year, reducing one taxi's gasoline consumption can make a big difference. Fortunately, there are a number of ways fleets can improve their sustainability, including adopting hybrid, natural gas, or propane vehicles. Although many people associate the Ford Crown Victoria with taxis, an increasing number of taxi operators are driving hybrid Toyota Priuses,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - NREL to Showcase Renewable Electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL to Showcase Renewable Electricity Generation Systems and Advanced NREL to Showcase Renewable Electricity Generation Systems and Advanced Vehicles at Denver Earth Day Fair April 18, 2013 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will showcase two mobile renewable electricity generation systems and three advanced vehicles-a Toyota Highlander fuel cell electric vehicle, a plug-in Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle, and a Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric vehicle-at the Denver Earth Day Fair on April 22. The larger of NREL's two renewable electricity generation systems features a 12 kilowatt biodiesel-powered back-up generator as well as a 1.8 kilowatt photovoltaic array that taps into energy from the sun to produce renewable electricity, which will power the fair. The smaller system includes a 384

122

California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31, 2011 31, 2011 The Breakthrough Behind a 300% Increase in Photosynthesis Productivity A look at how an innovative breakthrough in light absorption and utilization could effectively triple the productivity of photosynthesis. January 31, 2011 CX-005191: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radiation Portal Monitor CX(s) Applied: B2.2 Date: 01/31/2011 Location(s): Menlo Park, California Office(s): Stanford Linear Accelerator Site Office January 27, 2011 Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Clean Cities Coordinators across the country highlight the benefits of plug-in hybrids and help collect valuable usage data as part of a demonstration project for the upcoming plug-in hybrid model of the Toyota Prius. January 27, 2011 CX-005068: Categorical Exclusion Determination

123

Slide 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Vehicles Forum Electric Vehicles Forum Beijing, China Economics of EV Market/Future of EV Industry Brian P. Wynne President September 29, 2009 Officers: RP Associates EDTA Board of Directors The Future of Electrified Transportation ● Vehicles and fuels need to develop in parallel. ● Vehicle electrification is well underway. Vehicle Perspective Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: 2009 Fisker Karma S Plug-in Hybrid 2009 Toyota Plug-in Hybrid 2011 BYD F3DM Plug-in Hybrid 2012 Bright Automotive IDEA Plug-in Hybrid 2012 Ford Plug-in Hybrid 2012 Volvo Plug-in Hybrid Hybrid Electric Vehicles: 2010 Mercedes S400 Hybrid 2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Honda Insight Hybrid 2010 Hyundai-Kia Hybrid 2010 Lexus HS 250h 2010 Mercedes E Class Hybrid 2010 Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid 2010 Toyota Camry Hybrid 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid

124

Hybrid options for light-duty vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in US and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials. The potential for fuel economy gains due to vehicle hybridization can be estimated almost exclusively on the basis of three elements: the reducibility of engine idling operation, the recoverability of braking energy losses, and the capability of improving engine load profiles to gain efficiency associated with specific HEV configurations and control strategies. Specifically, we evaluate the energy efficiencies and fuel economies of a baseline MY97 Corolla-like conventional vehicle (CV), a hypothetical Corolla-based minimal hybrid vehicle (MHV), and a MY98 Prius-like full hybrid vehicle (FHV). We then estimate energy benefits of both MHVs and FHVs over CVs on a performance-equivalent basis. We conclude that the energy benefits of hybridization vary not only with test cycles, but also with performance requirements. The hybrid benefits are greater for ''Corolla (high) performance-equivalent'' vehicles than for ''Prius (low) performance-equivalent'' vehicles. An increasing acceleration requirement would result in larger fuel economy benefits from vehicle hybridization.

An, F., Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.

1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

125

Biomethane CNG hybrid: A reduction by more than 80% of the greenhouse gases emissions compared to gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results of GDF SUEZ Research and Innovation Division (RID) activities on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles are depicted in this paper: The prototype Toyota Prius II Hybrid CNG Vehicle, developed with IFP Energies Nouvelles, combines a natural gas thermal engine with a hybrid electric motorization. After optimization, CO2 emissions, measured on chassis dynamometer, were 76g/km on NEDC cycle. The use of raw biogas in CNG Vehicle has been explored. These tests have shown that raw biogas (not upgraded) can be used as a fuel, if blended with natural gas. In fact, the use of raw biogas can be envisaged in dedicated CNG engines, if new engine technologies (lean CNG combustion) are developed. In such a case natural gas can be blended with up to 70% volume of not upgraded biogas. The potential reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions related both to the optimization of the CNG vehicle and to the use of biomethane as a vehicle fuel has been evaluated. GHG emissions from CNG vehicles (mono-fuel and hybrid) may be significantly lower than emissions of gasoline vehicles: around 17% lower in the case of dedicated CNG Vehicle and up to 51% lower in the case of hybrid CNG vehicles. In addition, biomethane (from the anaerobic digestion of waste) brings the GHG emission levels, over the course of the life cycle, down to more than 80% compared to a gasoline vehicle. Emission levels are lowered by 87% in the case of the Toyota Prius CNG Hybrid prototype fuelled by biomethane produced from waste (in comparison to a gasoline vehicle). Thus, biomethane allows a reduction of GHG emissions far below the minimum required by the European Directive on the Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources (2009/28/EC). These results have shown that the combination of optimized and innovative engines with the use of biomethane as a fuel permits to significantly reduce the GHG emissions.

Olivier Bordelanne; Micheline Montero; Frdrique Bravin; Anne Prieur-Vernat; Olga Oliveti-Selmi; Hlne Pierre; Marion Papadopoulo; Thomas Muller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins. Quarterly report, January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has suggested that using a more effective hydrogen donor solvent in the low severity coal liquefaction reaction improves coal conversion. In order to understand the results of these methods, both independently and combined, a factorial experiment was designed. Pretreating coal with hydrochloric and sulfurous acid solutions in both water and methanol is compared with pretreating coal using only methanol and with no pretreatment. The effects of these pretreatments on coal liquefaction behavior are contrasted with the ammonium acetate pretreatment. Within each of these, individual reactions are performed with the hydroaromatic 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, TET) and the cyclic olefin 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene (isotetralin, ISO). The final aspect of the factorial experiment is the comparison of Wyodak subbituminous coal (WY) from the Argonne Premium Sample Bank and Black Thunder subbituminous coal (BT) provided by Amoco. Half of the reactions in the matrix have now been completed. In all but one case, Black Thunder-HCl/H{sub 2}O, the ISO proved to be more reactive than TET. After the other four reactions using this combination are complete, the average conversion may be greater with the cyclic olefin. The second part of this paper describes the current and future work with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The objective of this work is to determine the kinetics of reaction of isotetralin at high temperatures and pressures. This quarter combinations of three products typically produced from isotetralin were used in spectral subtraction.

Curtis, C.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Five barrels of a Wilsonville process derived solvent (V-1074) from Black Thunder coal were obtained. This material boils within the preferred gas oil range, is more aromatic than previous solvents, and will therefore be used for the bench unit studies. Several repeat runs were performed in the autoclave to confirm the results of the matrix study. In addition, runs were carried out with different catalysts, with agglomerates and with the V-1074 solvent. The results of the autoclave runs were analyzed with respect to coal conversion, CO conversion, oil yield, hydrogen consumption and oxygen removal. It was concluded that the best operating conditions for the first stage operation was a temperature of at least 390{degrees}C, residence time of at least 30 minutes, cold CO pressure of at least 600 psig and potassium carbonate catalyst (2% wt on total feed). The data also indicated however, that the coal conversion goes through a maximum, and too high a severity leads to retrograde reaction and lower coal solubilization. The scope for increasing temperature and time is therefore limited. Petrographic examination of the THF insoluble resids from the autoclave program indicated a maximum coal conversion of about 90% for Black Thunder coal. The bench unit construction was also essentially completed and the bench unit program to be carded out in the next twelve months was defined.

Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. [Canadian Energy Development, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Rate enhancement for catalytic upgrading coal naphthas. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, hydrotreatment of the Black Thunder naphtha sample was carried out using two commercial catalysts. Also, the Illinois No. 6 naphtha were hydrotreated using unsupported transition metal sulfides. Each reaction condition was maintained for 24 hours and three steady state samples were taken in the last 6 hours of the 24 hours period to calculate the removal of the heteroatoms for each condition. Prior to G.C. analysis, the samples were washed three times with distilled water to remove dissolved H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Two commercial catalysts, a Co-Mo on alumina (American Cyanamid HDS-1442A, 1/16in. {times} 1/4in. pellets) and a Ni-W on alumina (Harshaw Catalyst, Ni-4301, E 1/12, Lot 16, Drum 29) were employed in the processing of the Black Thunder naphtha samples. Analytical data for these catalysts are presented in Table 1. Unsupported transition metal sulfides were prepared following the procedure published by Chianelli et al.

Davis, B.H.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Day  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs » Programs » Laboratory Directed Research & Development » Laboratory Directed R&D Day Laboratory Directed Research and Development Day National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Contact Andrea Maestas LDRD Program (505) 667-1230 Email LDRD Day 2012 Learn how LDRD innovations benefit our nation Los Alamos National Laboratory hosted its fourth annual Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Day on October 23, 2012, at Buffalo Thunder in Pojoaque, New Mexico. More than 30 scientists and engineers from the Lab presented posters about their LDRD projects, answering questions and

131

ET Industries, Inc.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ET Industries, Inc. ET Industries, Inc. (showerheads) Issued: May 24, 2013 BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2012-SE-2902 AMENDED NOTICE OF NONCOMPLIANCE DETERMINATION 1 Manufacturers (including importers) are prohibited from distributing covered products in the United States that do not comply with applicable federal water conservation standards. See 10 C.F.R. §§ 429.5, 429.102; 42 U.S.C. §§ 6291(10), 6302. On April 3, 2012, DOE tested one unit of the "ThunderHead" showerhead basic model ("basic model TH-1 " 2 ), which ET Industries, Inc. ("ET") imported into the United States. On April 24, 2012, DOE completed testing of three additional units of basic model TH-1, also imported into

132

Dinosaur behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinosaur behavior Dinosaur behavior Name: kevv Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Did the movie Jurassic Park accurately reflect the known behavior of dinosaurs? Replies: Well, since we do not have an accurate record of that time period (Man showed up about ten million years after T-rex thundered across the plains of Antarctica *grin*) so we cannot say for certain WHAT the dinosaurs did. However, since they were wild animals, we can extrapolate from their modern contemporaries and from our knowledge of their individual anatomies what kind of behaviors they exhibited. A predator with large claws probably hunts by slashing and by piercing and holding on to prey. An herbivore with large spikes growing on its tail probably used them to fend off attackers like a spiked club -- I do not think it was much of a fashion statement

133

Patterson: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2911) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patterson: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2911) Patterson: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2911) Patterson: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2911) July 12, 2013 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Dan Patterson finding that the "ThunderHead" showerhead basic model manufactured by ET Industries, Inc. and imported by Dan Patterson does not comport with the water conservation standards. DOE determined the product was noncompliant based on DOE testing. Patterson must immediately notify each person (or company) to whom Patterson distributed the noncompliant products that the product does not meet Federal standards. In addition, Patterson must provide to DOE documents and records showing the number of units Patterson distributed and to whom. The manufacturer and/or private labeler of the

134

BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ET Industries, Inc. ET Industries, Inc. ( showerheads) ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2012-SE-2902 NOTICE OF PROPOSED CIVIL PENAL TY Date issued: May 24, 2013 Number of alleged violations: 974 Maximum possible assessment: $194,800 Proposed civil penalty: $194,800 The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") Office of the General Counsel, Office of Enforcement, alleges that ET Industries Inc. ("ET") has violated cettain provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. § 6291 et seq. ("the Act"), and 10 C.F.R. Patts 429 and 430. Specifically, DOE alleges: 1. Since March 1, 2010, ET has distributed in commerce in the United States 97 4 units of the "ThunderHead" showerhead ("basic model TH-1 " 1 ). 2. Basic model TH-1 is a "covered product" as defined in 42 U.S.C. § 6292(a)(l5) and

135

UNDULATOR-BASED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR ELECTRON BEAM DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

to couple the THUNDER undulator to the LOASIS Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Currently the LWFA has achieved quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energies up to 1 GeV. These ultra-short, high-peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (FEL). Understanding the electron beam properties such as the energy spread and emittance is critical for achieving high quality light sources with high brightness. By using an insertion device such as an undulator and observing changes in the spontaneous emission spectrum, the electron beam energy spread and emittance can be measured with high precision. The initial experiments will use spontaneous emission from 1.5 m of undulator. Later experiments will use up to 5 m of undulator with a goal of a high gain, XUV FEL.

Bakeman, M.S.; Fawley, W.M.; Leemans, W. P.; Nakamura, K.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, C.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

136

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquification of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Technical report, July 1995--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

In 1994 extensive tests were conducted in the Exxon Research and Engineering Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The work conducted in 1994 explored a variety of dispersed iron molybdenum promoted catalyst systems for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide subbituminus coal. The goal was to identify the preferred iron system. We learned that among the catalysts tested, all were effective; however, none showed a large process advantage over the others. In 1995, we tested dispersed molybdenum catalysts systems for direct coal liquefaction on a second subbituminous coal, Black Thunder. Catalyst properties are shown in Table 1. We also checked a molybdenum promoted iron case, as well as the impact of process variables, such as sulfur type, hydrogen treat rate, and catalyst addition rate, as shown in Table 2. In 1995, we ran 18 material balances over a 7 week period, covering 7 conditions. This report covers the 1995 operations and results.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

137

INEX simulations of the Boeing FEL system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The INEX (integrated numerical experiment) numerical model is applied to the 0.6 ?m FEL oscillator at the Boeing laboratory in Seattle, WA. This sytem consists of a 110 MeV L-band rf linac, a beam transport line from the accelerator to the entrance of the wiggler, the 5.0 m THUNDER variable-taper wiggler, and a near-concentric two-mirror optical oscillator. Many aspects of the model for the electron beam accelerator and transport line agree with experimental measurements. Predictions for lasing performance are compared with data obtained in May and June 1989, using a mild-tapered wiggler. We obtain good agreement with the achieved extraction efficiency, while ID pulse simulations reproduce the observed sideband instability.

R.L. Tokar; L.M. Young; A.H. Lumpkin; B.D. McVey; L.E. Thode; S.C. Bender; K.C.D. Chan; A.D. Yeremian; D.H. Dowell; A.R. Lowrey; D.C. Quimby

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Microsoft Word - TEC - STG Minutes - 9-14-06.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TRANSPORTATION EXTERNAL COORDINATION (TEC) WORKING GROUP TRANSPORTATION EXTERNAL COORDINATION (TEC) WORKING GROUP SECURITY TOPIC GROUP MEETING MINUTES SEPTEMBER 14, 2006 INTRODUCTION The Security Topic Group (STG) of the Transportation External Coordination (TEC) Working Group met in the afternoon of September 14, 2006 in Thunder Bay, Wisconsin. On behalf of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), the Chairman of the STG, Mr. Alexander Thrower of the Office of Logistics Management (RW-10), presided over the meeting. At the outset, Mr. Thrower introduced himself and the STG members participating. The STG agreed that the meeting agenda would include confirmation of conference notes from August 17, 2006 and discussion of the STG Work Plan. AUGUST 17, 2006 CONFERENCE CALL

140

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [FWDC (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "manzanita prius thunder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Testing of advanced liquefaction concepts in HTI Run ALC-1: Coal cleaning and recycle solvent treatment  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Liquefaction Concepts Program to promote the development of new and emerging technology that has potential to reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. Laboratory research performed by researchers at CAER, CONSOL, Sandia, and LDP Associates in Phase I is being developed further and tested at the bench scale at HTI. HTI Run ALC-1, conducted in the spring of 1996, was the first of four planned tests. In Run ALC-1, feed coal ash reduction (coal cleaning) by oil agglomeration, and recycle solvent quality improvement through dewaxing and hydrotreatment of the recycle distillate were evaluated. HTI`s bench liquefaction Run ALC-1 consisted of 25 days of operation. Major accomplishments were: 1) oil agglomeration reduced the ash content of Black Thunder Mine coal by 40%, from 5.5% to 3.3%; 2) excellent coal conversion of 98% was obtained with oil agglomerated coal, about 3% higher than the raw Black Thunder Mine coal, increasing the potential product yield by 2-3% on an MAF coal basis; 3) agglomerates were liquefied with no handling problems; 4) fresh catalyst make-up rate was decreased by 30%, with no apparent detrimental operating characteristics, both when agglomerates were fed and when raw coal was fed (with solvent dewaxing and hydrotreating); 5) recycle solvent treatment by dewaxing and hydrotreating was demonstrated, but steady-state operation was not achieved; and 6) there was some success in achieving extinction recycle of the heaviest liquid products. Performance data have not been finalized; they will be available for full evaluation in the new future.

Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P. [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.] [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Derbyshire, F.L.; Givens, E.N. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Hu, J.; Lee, T.L.K. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States); Miller, J.E.; Stephens, H.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peluso, M. [LDP Associates, Hamilton Square, NJ (United States)] [LDP Associates, Hamilton Square, NJ (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program. Finaltopical report, Bench Run 4 (227-95)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-04, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept-Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The Bench Run PB-04 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. Bench Run PB-04 had multiple goals. These included the evaluation of the effects of dispersed slurry catalyst system on the performance of direct liquefaction of a subbituminous Wyoming Black Thunder mine coal under extinction recycle (454{degrees}C+ recycle) condition; another goal was to investigate the effects of the combined processing of automobile shredder residue (auto-fluff) with coal and other organic waste materials. PB-04 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. The HTI`s newly modified P/Fe catalyst was very effective for direct liquefaction and coprocessing of Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal with Hondo resid and auto-fluff; during `coal-only` liquefaction mode, over 93% maf coal conversion was obtained with about 90% residuum conversion and as high as 67% light distillate (C{sub 4}-975 F) yield, while during `coprocessing` mode of operation, distillate yields varied between 58 and 69%; the residuum conversions varied between 74 and 89% maf. Overall, it is concluded, based upon the yield data available from PB-04, that auto-effective as MSW plastics in improving coal hydroconversion process performance. Auto-fluff did not increase light distillate yields nor decrease light gas make and chemical hydrogen consumption in coal liquefaction, as was observed to occur with MSW plastics.

Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K. [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of work conducted under the DOE Proof-of-Concept Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, from February 1994 through April 1995. The work includes modifications to HRI`s existing 3 ton per day Process Development Unit (PDU) and completion of the second PDU run (POC Run 2) under the Program. The 45-day POC Run 2 demonstrated scale up of the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL Process) for a subbituminous Wyoming Black Thunder Mine coal to produce distillate liquid products at a rate of up to 4 barrels per ton of moisture-ash-free coal. The combined processing of organic hydrocarbon wastes, such as waste plastics and used tire rubber, with coal was also successfully demonstrated during the last nine days of operations of Run POC-02. Prior to the first PDU run (POC-01) in this program, a major effort was made to modify the PDU to improve reliability and to provide the flexibility to operate in several alternative modes. The Kerr McGee Rose-SR{sup SM} unit from Wilsonville, Alabama, was redesigned and installed next to the U.S. Filter installation to allow a comparison of the two solids removal systems. The 45-day CTSL Wyoming Black Thunder Mine coal demonstration run achieved several milestones in the effort to further reduce the cost of liquid fuels from coal. The primary objective of PDU Run POC-02 was to scale-up the CTSL extinction recycle process for subbituminous coal to produce a total distillate product using an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. Of major concern was whether calcium-carbon deposits would occur in the system as has happened in other low rank coal conversion processes. An additional objective of major importance was to study the co-liquefaction of plastics with coal and waste tire rubber with coal.

Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R. [and others

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Microsoft Word - Document1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS 4 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS Make/Model Eng./Cyl. Transmission Fuel Type City/Highway MPG Two Seater Cars Honda Insight 1L, 3 cyl. Man (5) Regular (hybrid-electric) 60/66 Minicompact Cars BMW Mini Cooper 1.6L, 4 cyl. Man (5) Premium 28/37 Subcompact Cars Volkswagen New Beetle 1.9L, 4 cyl. Man (5) Diesel 38/46 Compact Cars Honda Civic Hybrid 1.3L, 4 cyl. Auto (Alean burn@) Regular (hybrid-electric) 48/47 Midsize Cars Toyota Prius 1.5L, 4 cyl. Auto Regular (hybrid-electric 59/51 Large Cars Chevrolet Malibu Maxx 3.5L, 6 cyl. Auto Regular 22/30 Small Station Wagons Volkswagen Jetta Wagon 1.9L, 4 cyl. Man (5) Diesel 36/47 Midsize Station Wagons Ford Focus Station Wagon 2L, 4 cyl. Man (5) Regular 26/33

145

A wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) gate driver for high-temperature and high-voltage applications  

SciTech Connect

Limitations of silicon (Si) based power electronic devices can be overcome with Silicon Carbide (SiC) because of its remarkable material properties. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with larger bandgap, lower leakage currents, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity, which promotes higher switching frequencies for high power applications, higher temperature operation, and results in higher power density devices relative to Si [1]. The proposed work is focused on design of a SiC gate driver to drive a SiC power MOSFET, on a Cree SiC process, with rise/fall times (less than 100 ns) suitable for 500 kHz to 1 MHz switching frequency applications. A process optimized gate driver topology design which is significantly different from generic Si circuit design is proposed. The ultimate goal of the project is to integrate this gate driver into a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger module. The application of this high frequency charger will result in lighter, smaller, cheaper, and a more efficient power electronics system.

Lamichhane, Ranjan [University of Arkansas; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven Shane [ORNL; BRITTONJr., CHARLES L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Matt [APEI, Inc.; Shepherd, Dr. Paul [University of Arkansas; Glover, Dr. Michael [University of Arkansas; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Perez, M [University of Arkansas; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Title Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors McMeeking, Gavin R., Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Stephen Baker, Christian M. Carrico, Judith C. Chow, Jeffrey Collett L. Jr., Wei Min Hao, Amanda S. Holden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, William C. Malm, Hans Moosmuller, Amy P. Sullivan, and Cyle E. Wold Journal Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 114 Abstract We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 2, NO3, Cl, Na+, K+, and NH4 + generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

147

DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF OF CONCEPT  

SciTech Connect

The eighth bench scale test of POC program, Run PB-08, was successfully completed from August 8 to August 26, 1997. A total of five operating conditions were tested aiming at evaluating the reactivity of different pyrolysis oils in liquefaction of a Wyoming sub-bituminous coal (Black Thunder coal). For the first time, water soluble promoters were incorporated into the iron-based GelCat to improve the dispersion of the promoter metals in the feed blend. The concentration of the active metals, Mo and Fe, was 100 and 1000 ppm of moisture-free coal, respectively. Black Thunder coal used in this run was the same batch as tested in HTI?s Run POC-02. Similar to Runs PB-01 through 7, this run employed two back mixed slurry reactors, an interstage gas/slurry separator and a direct-coupled hydrotreater. In addition to the hot vapor from the second stage separator, the first stage separator overhead liquid was also fed to the hydrotreater, which was packed with Criterion C-411 hydrotreating catalyst. Pyrolysis oil was produced off-line from a pyrolysis unit acquired from University of Wyoming. Solids rejection was achieved by purging out pressure filter solid. The recycle solvents consisted of O-6 separator bottoms and pressure filter liquid (PFL). The Run PB-08 proceeded very smoothly without any interruptions. Coal conversion consistently above 90W% was achieved. High resid conversion and distillate yield have been obtained from co-processing of coal and 343C+ (650F+) pyrolysis oil. Light gas (C1-C3 ) yield was minimized and hydrogen consumption was reduced due to the introduction of pyrolysis oil, compared with conventional coal-derived solvent. Catalytic activity was improved by incorporating a promoter metal into the iron-based GelCat. It seemed that lowering the first stage temperature to 435C might increase the hydrogenation function of the promoter metal. In comparison with previous coal-waste coprocessing run (PB-06), significant improvements in the process performance were achieved due to catalyst modification and integration of pyrolysis technique into liquefaction.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Evaluation in a Full-Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The cost of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) (e.g., Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid) remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost-benefit relationship, which would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with a United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Workgroup to analyze trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL's analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than previous targets, which prompted the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies, including high-power batteries or ultracapacitors. NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform and in-vehicle evaluation results using a lithium-ion capacitor ESS-an asymmetric electrochemical energy storage device possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). Further efforts include testing other ultracapacitor technologies in the HEV test platform.

Cosgrove, J.; Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July 24, 2013 July 24, 2013 By applying pressure to the generator, one is able to generate about six nanoamperes of current and 400 millivolts of potential -- roughly a quarter of the voltage of a AAA battery and enough to flash a number on the small LCD screen. | Photo courtesy of Seung-Wuk Lee's lab at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. R&D 100: Battery Technology Goes Viral Learn how Energy Department researchers are harnessing power from an unlikely source -- viruses. July 24, 2013 If you've ever heard the thunderous sound of a sonic boom, you've experienced the shock waves in the air created by an object traveling faster than the speed of sound. But what happens when an object travels faster than the speed of light? At Jefferson Laboratory, construction is underway to upgrade the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the CEABF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) at Hall B. During the experiments, the accelerator will shoot electrons at speeds faster than the speed at which light travels in the same medium, creating shock waves that emit a blue light, known as Cherenkov light -- this light is equivalent to the sonic boom. By recording data from Cherenkov light, scientists will be able to map a nucleon's three-dimensional spin.

152

ARM facility captures rare tornado data [EVS News]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM facility captures rare tornado data ARM facility captures rare tornado data June 13, 2013 Every spring, tornadoes thunder across five states, from Kansas to Texas, and alerts are common. However, by Monday, May 20, it was clear that this time the alert had a different urgency to it. The turn of events leading up to the EF-5 tornado that wreaked havoc in Moore, Oklahoma, provided a unique opportunity for scientists to sample the environment preceding a severe weather event. Read more about how EVS scientist, Donna Holdridge, supported the ARM program in the full article. Raw data from the additional radiosonde launches preceding the severe weather events of May 20 in Oklahoma. The blue line identifies the temperature, which decreases with increasing altitude. The red line is the dew point, the temperature at which the air is 100% saturated with its water vapor content. Where the dew point approaches the actual temperature, the air is nearing 100% relative humidity near the ground-ideal conditions for tornado events.

153

Photo of the Week: Faster than the Speed of Light | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photo of the Week: Faster than the Speed of Light Photo of the Week: Faster than the Speed of Light Photo of the Week: Faster than the Speed of Light July 24, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis If you've ever heard the thunderous sound of a sonic boom, you've experienced the shock waves in the air created by an object traveling faster than the speed of sound. But what happens when an object travels faster than the speed of light? At Jefferson Laboratory, construction is underway to upgrade the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the CEABF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) at Hall B. During the experiments, the accelerator will shoot electrons at speeds faster than the speed at which light travels in the same medium, creating shock waves that emit a blue light, known as Cherenkov light -- this light is equivalent to the sonic boom. By recording data from Cherenkov light, scientists will be able to map a nucleon's three-dimensional spin.

154

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sound Pitch and Distance Travelled Sound Pitch and Distance Travelled Name: Chris Status: educator Grade: 4-5 Location: MI Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Do high pitched sounds travel farther than low pitched sounds? Replies: Sorry Chris, it is the other way around. If you are near lightening you hear a crack or bang which is a high frequency sound. But far away from the lightening you hear thunder as a low pitch, rolling, boom. The high frequency sound from the crack you hear close up does not made it very far from the lightening (which is the cause of the noise). Hope this helps. R. W. "Mr. A." Avakian Quite the opposite. Low pitched sounds attenuate more slowly with distance. Fog-horns are an evolutionary example of the point. Of course, they are meant to operate in elevated humidity, which adds another loss factor. I will try to tell you more later. On the other hand, it is quite possible for high-pitched sounds to be _more_noticeable_ to a given being in a given noise background.

155

Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

24, 2013 24, 2013 By applying pressure to the generator, one is able to generate about six nanoamperes of current and 400 millivolts of potential -- roughly a quarter of the voltage of a AAA battery and enough to flash a number on the small LCD screen. | Photo courtesy of Seung-Wuk Lee's lab at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. R&D 100: Battery Technology Goes Viral Learn how Energy Department researchers are harnessing power from an unlikely source -- viruses. July 24, 2013 If you've ever heard the thunderous sound of a sonic boom, you've experienced the shock waves in the air created by an object traveling faster than the speed of sound. But what happens when an object travels faster than the speed of light? At Jefferson Laboratory, construction is underway to upgrade the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the CEABF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) at Hall B. During the experiments, the accelerator will shoot electrons at speeds faster than the speed at which light travels in the same medium, creating shock waves that emit a blue light, known as Cherenkov light -- this light is equivalent to the sonic boom. By recording data from Cherenkov light, scientists will be able to map a nucleon's three-dimensional spin.

156

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM Facility Captures Rare Tornado Data ARM Facility Captures Rare Tornado Data Bookmark and Share Every spring, tornadoes thunder across five states, from Kansas to Texas, and alerts are common. However, by Monday, May 20, it was clear that this time the alert had a different urgency to it. The turn of events leading up to the EF-5 tornado that wreaked havoc in Moore, Oklahoma, provided a unique opportunity for scientists to sample the environment preceding a severe weather event. Raw data from the additional radiosonde launches preceding the severe weather events of May 20 in Oklahoma. The blue line identifies the temperature, which decreases with increasing altitude (decreasing pressure). The red line is the dew point; dew point-also expressed as a temperature-is the temperature at which the air is 100% saturated with its water vapor content (low values of the dew point represent low relative humidity). Where the dew point approaches the actual temperature, the air is nearing 100% relative humidity, or saturation, near the ground-ideal conditions for tornado events.

157

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

A proposed visible FEL Facility at Boeing  

SciTech Connect

A 1-kW average power, visible wavelength FEL is described, based on a 120-MeV, 0.1. A macropulse average current linac operating at a duty factor of 0. 6% and having average beam power of 70 kW. The accelerator will employ a demonstrated photoinjector, 18-MeV, 433-MHz linac as an injector, followed by a 1300-MHz longitudinal phase space {open_quotes} linearizer,{close_quotes} a magnetic buncher chicane, and seven 1300-MHz, pulsed traveling wave linac sections. The magnets used to transport the beam from the linac to the FEL centerline, the 5-m THUNDER wiggler, and the optical resonator will be reclaimed from previous FEL demonstration experiments. We expect to attain pulse lengths of 7 ps for 3.5 nC, with minimal distortion of the pulse profile and normalized rms emittance of 7.5 {+-} 2.5 {pi} mm-mr. FELEX projects a laser conversion efficiency of 4.3 %, yielding average output of 3 kW.

Dowell, D.H.; Adamski, J.L.; Hayward, T.D. [Boeing Defense & Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Lateral loading and response for a tall building in the non-seismic doldrums  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The situation for building design against wind and earthquake effects in Singapore is apparently unique. There is no seismic design code as there is no local seismicity, yet the effects of significant regional earthquakes are frequently felt in many high rise buildings in Singapore. Whereas it has become clear that the strongest winds in Singapore originate from storms and squalls, design for wind by law requires use of an arbitrary design wind speed applied in a British loading code geared to cyclonic wind systems. A decade of monitoring of a 280m office tower has shown that distant strong earthquakes generate dynamic response typically an order of magnitude greater than due to the strongest winds occurring during the same period. The effect is greater for high rise apartment blocks and it is becoming clear that for extreme events with similar return periods, earthquake effects should govern design for lateral load in terms of dynamic base shears under such conditions. For the present, building control authorities take code provisions for accidental eccentricity to be adequate in covering seismic loads. While there have been moves towards a more rational local code, there remains an open question about the relationship of static and dynamic effects due to wind for both cyclonic and (thunder)storm winds. In this paper, the evidence concerning the nature of the two forms of loading is presented, and the various existing and potential code provisions examined.

James M.W. Brownjohn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A techno-economic analysis of cost savings for retrofitting industrial aerial coolers with variable frequency drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A techno-economic model was created in order to develop curves that show the typical annual energy savings, rate of return, and payback for retrofitting aerial coolers with variable frequency drives (VFDs) for up to 50motors, motor sizes from 4 to 186kW (5250hp), and varying climate conditions. The cost savings due to installing a VFD depends on the reduction in energy used, as well as the reduction in power demand, the capital cost of the VFD, installation cost of the VFD, change in operating cost, and cost of electricity. The geographic locations examined in this report were Fort McMurray, Calgary, Vancouver, and Thunder Bay. This study found that the IRR increases rapidly with motor size, becomes greater than 10% at a motor size of approximately 15kW, and may be as high as 220% (for the case of fifty, 186kW motors). The IRR is sensitive to the number of fan motors retrofitted with VFDs, however the sensitivity rapidly declines as the number of motors is increased beyond five. The simple payback period becomes less than 1year and nearly independent of number of motors and motor size for motors larger than 90kW. Ambient temperature and geographic location affect the profitability of the investment, although the IRR only changes by approximately 4%.

Patrick Miller; Babatunde Olateju; Amit Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership  

SciTech Connect

In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk initially released their findings. In this brief review, the team has looked at factors that might contribute to a consumer choosing to not purchase a hybrid; including the increase in manufacture s overall vehicle mpg and the percentage of the vehicle market owned by hybrids.

Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL] [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL] [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL] [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

166

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.  

SciTech Connect

Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

167

Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: POC bench option run 01 (227-90). Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-01, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept-Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The Bench Run PB-01 was the first of nine runs planned under the POC Bench Option Contract between the US DOE and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. The primary goal of this bench run was to evaluate the most successful of the process improvements concepts, evolving out of the earlier CMSL Project, for conventional direct liquefaction as well as coprocessing of a sub-bituminous Black Thunder mine coal with waste organics such as waste plastics and heavy resid. The interstage separation of light ends and gases was indeed found to reduce the overall light gas-make from the liquefaction process. The organic waste feeds such as mixed plastics and vacuum resid, employed during Bench Run PB-01, in combined processing with coal, resulted in making the overall process more hydrogen efficient by virtue of reducing the light gas make and also decreasing the hydrogen consumption from the process, while at the same time improving the yields and quality of the distillate products. A definite synergy was found during the combined processing of coal with mixtures of vacuum resid and mixed waste plastics. The application of an all dispersed catalyst conversion reactor resulted in higher feed throughput at equivalent process performance, but also necessitated the use of an in-line hydrotreater for improving the quality of IBP-400{degrees}C distillate products. The combination of HTI`s iron gel catalyst and Molyvan-A was found very effective in achieving high levels of process performance; although, in recycled form, these catalysts were not as effective as the freshly added precursors.

Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: Bench Run 05 (227-97). Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results Bench Run PB-05, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept - Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-05 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and included the evaluation of the effect of using dispersed slurry catalyst in direct liquefaction of a high volatile bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and in combined coprocessing of coal with organic wastes, such as heavy petroleum resid, MSW plastics, and auto-shredder residue. PB-05 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. Coprocessing of waste plastics with Illinois No. 6 coal did not result in the improvement observed earlier with a subbituminous coal. In particular, decreases in light gas yield and hydrogen consumption were not observed with Illinois No. 6 coal as they were with Black Thunder Mine coal. The higher thermal severity during PB-05 is a possible reason for this discrepancy, plastics being more sensitive to temperatures (cracking) than either coal or heavy resid. The ASR material was poorer than MSW plastics in terms of increasing conversions and yields. HTI`s new dispersed catalyst formulation, containing phosphorus-promoted iron gel, was highly effective for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal under the reaction conditions employed; over 95% coal conversion was obtained, along with over 85% residuum conversion and over 73% distillate yields.

Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the Technical Progress Report for the eleventh quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1997. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. These results are described in the Results and Discussion section of this report. (2) Oil assays were completed on the HT I Run PB-05 product blend. Background information is presented in the Results and Discussion section of this report. The results are presented in Appendix 1. (3) Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. Background information is presented in the Results and Discussion section of this report. The results are presented in Appendix 2. (4) CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. Those results are described briefly in the Results and Discussion section of this report. The full report is presented in Appendix 3. (5) At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. These activities are described in Appendix 4. (6) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. A summary of Delaware's progress is provided in the Results and Discussion section. (7) The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL (Appendix 5). (8) The University of Delaware submitted a paper on the resid reactivity work for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997 in San Francisco, California. The paper, ''Kinetics of Hydroprocessing of Coal-Derived Vacuum Resids'', is appended (Appendix 6).

G.A. Robbins; G.W. Heunisch; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Inspection of integrated two-stage liquefaction products as petroleum refining feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of the specific technology used to produce transportation fuels from coal, the net product of the liquefaction process will have to undergo additional refining to make finished products. Consequently, there is a need to characterize the material that exits the liquefaction plant as net product and enters the refinery as feed. The net product of the Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) process, as practiced at the 6 ton/day (5.5 tonne/day) Wilsonville, Alabama (USA) plant, is a distillable liquid boiling predominantly below 650{degrees}F (343{degrees}C). Products from ITSL operations at the Wilsonville plant were evaluated through the use of standard petroleum tests on several occasions. However, those evaluations were performed on materials generated much earlier in the ITSL campaign and, thus, may not be representative of products generated from the process as it is currently configured. For this work, net products were obtained for analysis from ITSL operations during fully lined-out material balance operating periods.Samples were taken fro Run 259G, which was operated with Ireland Mine coal (hvAb, Pittsburgh seam, West Virginia, USA) and from Run 260D, which was operated with Black Thunder Mine coal (subbituminous, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA). A complete suite of light crude oil assay tests was performed on each sample. These assays included tests on the whole coal liquid, and the separated naphtha (<380{degrees}F/193{degrees}C), jet fuel or kerosene (380{degrees}F/193{degrees}C {times} 510{degrees}F/266{degrees}C), and diesel fuel (>510{degrees}F/266{degrees}C) fractions. The results of the assays were compared against typical petroleum product specifications. The discussion will concentrate on the test results of the bituminous coal product.

Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P. [Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States); Zhou, P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 17-day bench run CMSL-6 (227-83), on Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and with an approximate space velocity of 481 kg/hr/m{sup 3} (30 lb/hr/ft{sup 3}), tested the performance of a dispersed slurry catalyst in powdered form added to the first stage thermal reactor. This catalyst, based on molybdenum-containing sulfated iron oxide prepared at HTI, had about 15% moisture, 43% Fe and 7% Mo with a BET surface area of about 40 m{sup 2}/g. The second stage reactor had a partially deactivated Shell S-317 catalyst (initial age=520 kg-coal/kg-catalyst) to make the effects of the slurry catalyst more apparent and to attain a realistic equilibrium catalyst age sooner. An in-line hydrotreater was successfully employed during this run to treat atmospheric still overhead and separator overhead products. No interstage product separator was utilized in this run. For the first run condition, the catalyst additive rate was 1400-4300 ppm (of coal) Fe with 200-700 ppm Mo using a slurrying oil recycle consisting of 60% of filtered product slurry and 40% of ashy recycle (unfiltered product slurry) at a relatively low severity with first and second stage temperatures of 427{degrees}C and 413{degrees}C (800{degrees}F and 775{degrees}F), respectively. After that the additive rate was lowered to 700 ppm Fe with 100 ppm of Mo and the severity was increased with first and second stage temperatures of 441{degrees}C and 427{degrees}C (825{degrees}F and 800{degrees}F) respectively. The proportion of ashy recycle was maintained at 40% in Condition 2, and it was lowered to 25% in Condition 3. In Condition 4, the proportion of ashy recycle was set at 50%, but, because of slowing of the product slurry filtration, vacuum distillate recycle (and makeup oil) was substituted for the filtered liquid constituent of the recycled oil. With the changes of the proportion of ashy recycle the total slurry catalyst in the system (added and recycled) ranged from 860 to 6345 ppm Fe with 140 to 1030 ppm Mo.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Institutional Computing Executive Group Review of Multi-programmatic & Institutional Computing, Fiscal Year 2005 and 2006  

SciTech Connect

The Institutional Computing Executive Group (ICEG) review of FY05-06 Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M and IC) activities is presented in the attached report. In summary, we find that the M and IC staff does an outstanding job of acquiring and supporting a wide range of institutional computing resources to meet the programmatic and scientific goals of LLNL. The responsiveness and high quality of support given to users and the programs investing in M and IC reflects the dedication and skill of the M and IC staff. M and IC has successfully managed serial capacity, parallel capacity, and capability computing resources. Serial capacity computing supports a wide range of scientific projects which require access to a few high performance processors within a shared memory computer. Parallel capacity computing supports scientific projects that require a moderate number of processors (up to roughly 1000) on a parallel computer. Capability computing supports parallel jobs that push the limits of simulation science. M and IC has worked closely with Stockpile Stewardship, and together they have made LLNL a premier institution for computational and simulation science. Such a standing is vital to the continued success of laboratory science programs and to the recruitment and retention of top scientists. This report provides recommendations to build on M and IC's accomplishments and improve simulation capabilities at LLNL. We recommend that institution fully fund (1) operation of the atlas cluster purchased in FY06 to support a few large projects; (2) operation of the thunder and zeus clusters to enable 'mid-range' parallel capacity simulations during normal operation and a limited number of large simulations during dedicated application time; (3) operation of the new yana cluster to support a wide range of serial capacity simulations; (4) improvements to the reliability and performance of the Lustre parallel file system; (5) support for the new GDO petabyte-class storage facility on the green network for use in data intensive external collaborations; and (6) continued support for visualization and other methods for analyzing large simulations. We also recommend that M and IC begin planning in FY07 for the next upgrade of its parallel clusters. LLNL investments in M and IC have resulted in a world-class simulation capability leading to innovative science. We thank the LLNL management for its continued support and thank the M and IC staff for its vision and dedicated efforts to make it all happen.

Langer, S; Rotman, D; Schwegler, E; Folta, P; Gee, R; White, D

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been advancing has been the development of electronics that can operate in the high temperature environments present in hybrid vehicles. The temperatures under the hood for a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle are comparable to those for traditional internal combustion engines. This is known to be a difficult environment with respect to commercial-grade electronics, as there are surface and ambient temperatures ranging from 125 C to 175 C. In addition, some hybrid drive electronics are placed in even harsher environments, such as on or near the brakes, where temperatures can reach 250 C. Furthermore, number of temperature cycles experienced by electronics in a hybrid vehicle is different from that experienced in a traditional vehicle. A traditional internal combustion vehicle will have the engine running for longer periods, whereas a mild or micro-hybrid engine will experience many more starts and stops.[3] This means that hybrid automotive electronics will undergo more cycles of a potential wider temperature cycle than standard automotive electronics, which in turn see temperature cycles of 2 to 3 times the magnitude of the {Delta}T = 50 C-75 C experienced by commercial-grade electronics. This study will discuss the effects of these harsh environments on the failure mechanisms and ultimate reliability of electronic systems developed for gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles. In addition, it will suggest technologies and components that can reasonably be expected to perform well in these environments. Finally, it will suggest areas where further research is needed or desirable. Areas for further research will be highlighted in bold, italic type. It should be noted that the first area where further research is desirable is in developing a clearer understanding of the actual hybrid automotive electronics environment and how to simulate it through accelerated testing, thus: Developing specific mission profiles and accelerated testing protocols for the underhood environment for hybrid cars, as has previously been done for gasoline-powered vehicles, is an important area for further st

McCluskey, F. P.

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

The California greenhouse gas initiative and its implications to the automotive industry  

SciTech Connect

CAR undertook this investigation to better understand the costs and challenges of a local (state) regulation necessitating the implementation of alternative or advanced powertrain technology. CAR will attempt to add insight into the challenges that local regulations present to the automotive industry, and to contribute further to the discussion of how advanced powertrain technology may be used to meet such regulation. Any local law that (directly or indirectly) affects light duty motor vehicle fuel economy creates what in effect is a specialty market for powertrain technology. As such these small markets present significant challenges for automotive manufacturers. First, a small market with unique standards presents significant challenges to an industry that has sustained growth by relying on large volumes to achieve scale economies and deliver products at a cost acceptable to the consumer. Further, the challenges of the additional technology make it likely that any powertrain capable of meeting the stringent emissions standards will include costly additional components, and thus will be more costly to manufacture. It is likely that manufacturers would consider the following actions as steps to deliver products to meet the pending California regulatory requirements anticipated as a result of prior California legislation: (1) Substituting more fuel efficient vehicles: Bring in more efficient vehicles from global operations, while likely dropping existing domestic products. (2) Substituting powertrains: Add existing downsized engines (i.e. turbocharged versions, etc.) into California market-bound vehicles. (3) Powertrain enhancements: Add technology to current engine and transmission offerings to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. (4) Incorporating alternative powertrains into existing vehicle platforms: Develop a hybrid or other type of powertrain for an existing vehicle. (5) New powertrains and new platforms: Develop vehicles specifically intended to incorporate new powertrain technologies, materials and/or design (e.g. the General Motors EV1 or the Toyota Prius). These five actions represent the gamut from the least complicated solution to the most complex. They also generally represent the least expensive response to the most expensive. It is possible that the least expensive responses may be least likely to meet market demands while achieving required GHG emission limits. At the same time, the most expensive option may produce a vehicle that satisfies the GHG reduction requirements and meets some consumer requirements, but is far too costly to manufacture and sell profitably. The response of a manufacturer would certainly have to take market size, consumer acceptance, technology implication and cost, as well as internal capacities and constraints, into consideration. It is important to understand that individual companies may respond differently in the short term. However, it is probable that there would be a more consistent industry-wide response in the longer term. Options 1 and 2 present the simplest responses. A company may reach into its global portfolio to deliver vehicles that are more fuel-efficient. These vehicles are usually much smaller and significantly less powerful than current U.S. offerings. Industry respondents indicated that such a strategy may be possible but would likely be met with less than positive reaction from the buying public. A general estimate for the cost to homologize a vehicle--that is, to prepare an existing vehicle for entry into the United States provided all business conditions were met (reasonable product, capacity availability, etc.), would be approximately $50 million. Assuming an estimated cost for homologation to meet U.S. standards of $50 million and a 20,000 vehicle per year sales volume in California, the company would then incur a $2,500 per-vehicle cost to bring them into the market. A manufacturer may also choose to incorporate a more efficient powertrain into a vehicle already sold in the market. The costs associated with such a strategy would include reengineering

Smith, B. C.; Miller, R. T.; Center for Automotive Research

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.13.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial effects would be more pronounced. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions (Elgowainy et al 2010). The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model. Two PHEV designs are investigated through a Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model: the power-split configuration (e.g. the current Toyota Prius model with Hymotion conversion), and a future series configuration where the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle. Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation (e.g., Illinois marginal mix) produce GHG emissions comparable to those of baseline gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (with a range from ?15% to +10%) but significantly higher than those of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (with a range from +20% to +60%). In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions. In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at various fuel and vehicle technologies. Three chapters are of particular interest from the

Deniz Karman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z