National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for manzanita prius thunder

  1. Manzanita Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trisha Frank

    2004-09-30

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. Manzanita has explored the wind resource potential on tribal land and developed a business plan by means of this wind energy feasibility project, which enables Manzanita to make informed decisions when considering the benefits and risks of encouraging large-scale wind power development on their lands. Technical consultant to the project has been SeaWest Consulting, LLC, an established wind power consulting company. The technical scope of the project covered the full range of feasibility assessment activities from site selection through completion of a business plan for implementation. The primary objectives of this feasibility study were to: (1) document the quality and suitability of the Manzanita Reservation as a site for installation and long-term operation of a commercially viable utility-scale wind power project; and, (2) develop a comprehensive and financeable business plan.

  2. Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trisha Frank

    2005-03-31

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

  3. Creating Thunder: The Western Rain-Making Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkman, E. Breck

    1993-01-01

    stone balls were used to send thunder and lightning againstballs were rolled about in order to create thunder and lightning (

  4. Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-02-11

    In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

  5. AVTA: 2013 Toyota Prius PHEV Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a Toyota Prius PHEV 2013. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). The reports for download here are based on research done at Idaho National Laboratory. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  6. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N.; Burress, B.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  7. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H; Ayers, Curtis William; Chiasson, J. N.; Burress, Timothy A; Marlino, Laura D

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  8. AVTA: 2010 Toyota Prius Gen III HEV Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Toyota Prius III hybrid-electric vehicle. Baseline data, which provides a point of comparison for the other test results, was collected at two different research laboratories. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  9. Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burress, Timothy A; Campbell, Steven L; Coomer, Chester; Ayers, Curtis William; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Cunningham, Joseph Philip; Marlino, Laura D; Seiber, Larry Eugene; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2011-03-01

    Subsystems of the 2010 Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  10. BLACK THUNDER COAL MINE AND LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BLACK THUNDER COAL MINE AND LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SEISMIC ENERGY of Explosive Engineers, 2-5 Feb 97, Las Vegas, NV #12;BLACK THUNDER COAL MINE AND LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL and David Gross Thunder Basin Coal Company Post Office Box 406 Wright, Wyoming 82732 D. Craig Pearson

  11. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, C.W.

    2004-11-23

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  12. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electic Drive System Interim Report - Revised

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, C.W.; Hsu, J.S.; Marlino, L.D.; Miller, C.W.; Ott, G.W., Jr.; Oland, C.B.; Burress, T.A.

    2007-07-31

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Both of these motive power sources are capable of providing mechanical drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak power output of 50 kW at 1300 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  13. Model year 2010 (Gen 3) Toyota Prius level 1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rask, E.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Bocci, D.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-24

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Toyota Prius (Generation 3) was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of 'Level 1' testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network connection, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D{sup 3}). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from the exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and minimal CAN bus data such as engine speed and pedal position. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Prius over standard regulatory cycles.

  14. Lightning Ball (Ball Lightning) Created by Thunder, Shock-Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domokos Tar

    2010-07-20

    Following his observation the author has described in the papers [1] to [4] the formation of a Lightning Ball (LB)with the help of a new theory of symmetry breaking of the vortex ring. In the frame of this theory he emphasizes the primordial rule of the thunder (shock-wave) during the lightning strike in the creation of the LB. The shock-waves and the sound waves propagate very fast but the subsequent enlargement of the vortex ring (air masses) is very slow. This is the reason why the rotating air ring (cylinder) only appeared some seconds later in the observation because of the great inertia of the system. As a consequence of the stationary Mach shock-waves reflections theory the stable distance of the LB to the ground and its very stable horizontal path, in spite of strong winds and rain can be explained.

  15. Lightning Ball (Ball Lightning) Created by Thunder, Shock-Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tar, Domokos

    2010-01-01

    Following his observation the author has described in the papers [1] to [4] the formation of a Lightning Ball (LB)with the help of a new theory of symmetry breaking of the vortex ring. In the frame of this theory he emphasizes the primordial rule of the thunder (shock-wave) during the lightning strike in the creation of the LB. The shock-waves and the sound waves propagate very fast but the subsequent enlargement of the vortex ring (air masses) is very slow. This is the reason why the rotating air ring (cylinder) only appeared some seconds later in the observation because of the great inertia of the system. As a consequence of the stationary Mach shock-waves reflections theory the stable distance of the LB to the ground and its very stable horizontal path, in spite of strong winds and rain can be explained.

  16. Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SunLine Transit Agency Report details the six-month evaluation of the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency. sunlinereport.pdf More Documents...

  17. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN: JTDKN3DU2A5010462). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. The neutron 'thunder' accompanying the extensive air shower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Erlykin

    2007-01-22

    Simulations show that neutrons are the most abundant component among extensive air shower hadrons. However, multiple neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core ('neutron thunder') are mostly not the neutrons of the shower, but have a secondary origin. The bulk of them is produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. The delays are due to the termalization and diffusion of neutrons in the moderator and reflector of the monitor accompanied by the production of secondary gamma-quanta. This conclusion raises the important problem of the interaction of EAS with the ground, the stuff of the detectors and their environment since they have often hydrogen containing materials like polyethilene in neutron monitors. Such interaction can give an additional contribution to the signal in the EAS detectors. It can be particularly important for the signals from scintillator or water tank detectors at km-long distances from the EAS core where neutrons of the shower become the dominant component after a few mcsec behind the EAS front.

  20. The Effect of Driving Intensity and Incomplete Charging on the Fuel Economy of a Hymotion Prius PHEV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Barney Carlson

    2009-10-01

    On-road testing was conducted on a Hymotion Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) at the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation in Phoenix, Arizona. The tests were comprised of on-road urban and highway driving during charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operation. Determining real-world effectiveness of PHEVs at reducing petroleum consumption in real world driving was the main focus of the study. Throughout testing, several factors that affect fuel consumption of PHEVs were identified. This report discusses two of these factors: driving intensity (i.e., driving aggressiveness) and battery charging completeness. These two factors are unrelated, yet both significantly impact the vehicle’s fuel economy. Driving intensity was shown to decrease fuel economy by up to half. Charging completeness, which was affected by human factors and ambient temperature conditions, also showed to have great impact on fuel economy for the Hymotion Prius. These tests were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Program, is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation.

  1. Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Iu; John Smart

    2009-04-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

  2. Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John G. Smart; Huang Iu

    2009-05-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

  3. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  4. Rolling Thunder -- Integration of the Solo 161 Stirling engine with the CPG-460 solar concentrator at Ft. Huachuca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, R.B.; Moss, T.A.; Goldberg, V.; Thomas, G.; Beaudet, A.

    1998-09-01

    Project Rolling Thunder is a dish/Stirling demonstration project at Ft. Huachuca, a US Army fort in southeastern Arizona (Huachuca means rolling thunder in Apache). It has been supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a cooperative program between the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a 1992 SERDP project, Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) installed a CPG 7 kW(c) dish/Stirling system at the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) in Ft. Huachuca, Arizona. The primary objective of the SERDP Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications project was to demonstrate a CPG 7-kW(c) dish/Stirling system at a military facility. Unfortunately, Cummins Engine Company decided to divest its solar operations. As a direct result of Ft. Huachuca`s interest in the Cummins dish/Stirling technology, Sandia explored the possibility of installing a SOLO 161 Stirling power conversion unit (PCU) on the Ft. Huachuca CPG-460. In January 1997, a decision was made to retrofit a SOLO 161 Stirling engine on the CPG-460 at Ft. Huachuca. Project Rolling Thunder. The SOLO 161 Demonstration at Ft. Huachuca has been a challenge. Although, the SOLO 161 PCU has operated nearly flawlessly and the CPG-460 has been, for the most part, a solid and reliable component, integration of the SOLO PCU with the CPG-460 has required significant attention. In this paper, the integration issues and technical approaches of project Rolling Thunder are presented. Lessons of the project are also discussed.

  5. Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5TransportManitouChange | Open

  6. AVTA: 2012 Toyota Prius PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  7. Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in my trunk, and smoothly drove off. Nestled in my vehicle's spare tire well, a 200-pound lithium-ion battery pack allowed me to go up to 30 miles on electric power before...

  8. Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSofNewsletterGuidingUpdate Webinar Slides HomeHomeServices

  9. Thunder Sky Energy Group Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute JumpWashSolar USAThumb

  10. Gamma Shield Thunder Exercise Concludes | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunities Nuclear PhysicsGE GlobalGetting&Tools

  11. ATOC/CHEM 5151 Fall 2014 Factcheck: Mercedes E250 versus a Prius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ...most regular gasoline contains 10% ethanol in order to further reduce pollutants like carbon monoxide. We on 71 lbs of diesel Assuming that the amount of chemical energy from combustion from a lb of gasoline an internet search engine to determine the amount of CO2 produced by combustion of a gallon of gasoline

  12. Microsoft Word - TM-2010-253 - 2010 Prius Report - 26 - Tim - edited 2-16-2011

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFromJune 2013 DOE/NV--325-Rev.11

  13. NOT EVERY HYBRID BECOMES ANOT EVERY HYBRID BECOMES A PRIUS: THE CASE AGAINST THEPRIUS: THE CASE AGAINST THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the expansion of nuclear energyof nuclear energy ·· Waste ManagementWaste Management ·· Fuel Resource Management solutions to the waste management and fuel resource issues. #12;1111 Status Of Fusion as an Energy ITS HYBRID CAR CALLED THE NUCLEON WITH NUCLEAR DRIVECALLED THE NUCLEON WITH NUCLEAR DRIVE #12;Past

  14. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Which is more fuel efficient, a Mercedes E250 or a Prius?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    pollutants like carbon monoxide. We really need to account for the even lighter weight of 90%/10% gasoline, which traveled 410 miles on 71 lbs of diesel Assuming that the amount of chemical energy from combustion by combustion of a gallon of gasoline and a gallon of diesel. On the basis of CO2 emissions, which vehicle

  15. "American Indian Freedom Controversy:" Political and Social Activism by Southern California Mission Indians, 1934-1958

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, Heather Marie

    2012-01-01

    Manzanita: Jinks Elliott (Spokesman) and Thomas Osway (Vincent Paipa Thomas Lucas Ben Amago Tom Siva Jinks Elliott

  16. A Dynamic Hysteresis Model for THUNDER Transducers Brian L. Ball 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the piezoceramic patch. A free energy based hysteretic stress-strain relation is employed to model hysteresis inherent to the PZT. A finite element method and Crank-Nicholson scheme are developed to discretize of numerical methods is also addressed and the accuracy of the resulting finite dimensional models

  17. Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel CellMaterials

  18. A Dynamic Hysteresis Model for THUNDER Transducers Brian L. Ball 1 , Ralph C. Smith 2 and Zoubeida Ounaies 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the piezoceramic patch. A free energy based hysteretic stress­strain relation is employed to model hysteresis inherent to the PZT. A finite element method and Crank­Nicholson scheme are developed to discretize of numerical methods is also addressed and the accuracy of the resulting finite dimensional models

  19. Case Files of the California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division: Blue Thunder Ingestion: Methanol, Nitromethane, and Elevated Creatinine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngo, Adeline Su-Yin; Rowley, Freda; Olson, Kent R.

    2010-01-01

    Files of the California Poison Control System, San FranciscoK. R. Olson California Poison Control System, San Franciscoreported to the Drug and Poison Information Center in Izmir,

  20. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subin, Z.M.

    2012-01-01

    shrub Whiteleaf manzanita (EGS) Mountain misery Ceanothustemperate coniferous forest 17% EGS; 18% BG Red fir forestmosaic 36% TEGC; 15% EGS; 9% Temperate conifer xeromorphic

  1. STRUCTURE AND ROTATION OF THE SOLAR INTERIOR: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE MDI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schou, Jesper

    ­30/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304. P.N. MILFORD Parallel Rules, Inc. 41 Manzanita Ave., Los Gatos

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2014 BMW i3-REX 2013 Chevrolet Volt 2013 Ford Cmax Energi 2013 Ford Fusion Energi 2013 Toyota Prius 2012 Chevrolet Volt 2012 Toyota Prius Electric...

  3. Title: Satellite Streetview: Ontario Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (2009), Greater Sudbury, Thunder Bay (2012), Toronto (2009), GTA (2005), Windsor-Detroit (2005, 2008 Ste. Marie; St. Catherines; Greater Sudbury; Thunder Bay; Toronto; GTA; Windsor; Detroit; Keywords

  4. Lightning -"When thunder roars..." Nearly 400 people in the United States are struck by lightning each year. On average, 60 people will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside a vehicle than outside equipment, do so well before the storm arrives. Avoid contact with plumbing. Do not wash your hands, do not take a shower, do not wash dishes, and do not do laundry. Stay away from windows and doors, and stay

  5. EHRS Impact on Engine Warm-up and Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an investigation performed on a Toyota Prius III with the objective to quantify and demonstrate the benefits of current exhaust heat recovery technologies

  6. We All Share One Planet: Comparative Case Studies in Education for Sustainable Development in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arribas Layton, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    celebrities sporting the eco-friendly Prius or other hybrideveryone wants to seem eco-friendly (Lafferty 1996). In acompost production, eco- friendly rural infrastructures,

  7. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01

    production of further hybrid cars. ” Similarly, Larry Rhodesbuying Priuses as commute cars—hybrids were “fairly popularhybrid vehicles are being made available to (predominately new-car

  8. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    combustion Prius, Eco Fuel CNG Hybrid Escape, and Solara methanol vehicle, and a CNG vehicle. The participants werewas predominately the CNG vehicle. The authors explain the

  9. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    combustion Prius, Eco Fuel CNG Hybrid Escape, and Solara methanol vehicle, and a CNG vehicle. The participants werewas predominately the CNG vehicle. The authors explain the

  10. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity” Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D

    2007-01-01

    combustion Prius, Eco Fuel CNG Hybrid Escape, and Solara methanol vehicle, and a CNG vehicle. The participants werewas predominately the CNG vehicle. The authors explain the

  11. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    and Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for Compactand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options. (EPRI: PaloEvaluation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Toyota’s Prius vs.

  12. National Parks Clean Up with Alternative Fuels | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel vehicles and infrastructure (including biodiesel, compressed natural gas, E85-ethanol, and propane). As a result of industry partnerships, Toyota donated 23 Prius...

  13. Cross-linguistic studies of lexical access and processing in monolingual English and bilingual Hind?-English speakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Gowri Krovi

    2006-01-01

    tiger letter/papers lightbulb lightning/thunder switch lionleaf leopard/cheetah lightbulb lion lips lipstick lock log

  14. EA-1603: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

  15. SAVE A NAPKIN SAVE A TREE: THE ROLE OF METAPHORS IN PRODUCT DESIGN TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    dispenser and study the effect on napkin consumption rate in an actual retail location. Before presenting environmental impact. For example, in the Prius automobile from Toyota Motor Company, an instantaneous fuel

  16. In the Viewpoints section, academics, practitioners and experts share their perspectives on policy questions relevant to sustainable development. In this issue, experts address the question

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    " house, buying lots of environmentally sustainable products, driving his/her Prius 20,000 miles a year, cultural and ecological criteria, and how "business-as-usual" development and more sustainable alternatives

  17. Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean Cities Coordinators across the country highlight the benefits of plug-in hybrids and help collect valuable usage data as part of a demonstration project for the upcoming plug-in hybrid model of the Toyota Prius.

  18. Essays in Behavioral Economics and Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sexton, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    flex-fuel fleet), and hybrid cars (like the Prius, the HondaStates; 48% of the 290,271 hybrid cars sold in the U.S. indescribed by Khan, with hybrid cars enjoying greater market

  19. September 10, 2009

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    enables consumers to receive near-real time usage data and adjust their behavior to lower their monthly electric bill. Known as the Prius effect, smart grid pilot projects have...

  20. An Update on Advanced Battery Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    50 billion in 2020, an average annual growth rate of roughly 25 percent. Earlier this year, the Toyota Prius became the third best-selling vehicle in the world. Virtually every...

  1. Fact #815: February 3, 2014 Global Sales of Top 10 Plug-In Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sales overall and led among plug-in hybrid vehicles with sales of about 25,000. As a proportion of sales, the Nissan Leaf and Toyota Prius Plug-in hybrid had the most even...

  2. Quenching China's Thirst for Renewable Power: Water Implications of China's Renewable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2014-01-01

    rare earth metal mining on water and air quality are gainingrare earth metal mining on water and air quality are gainingeven Priuses, severe air and water pollution problems with

  3. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 were the Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, Toyota Prius PHEV, and Ford Fusion Energi. From the first plug-in vehicle sales in 2011 to 2014 about 287 million...

  4. A study in hybrid vehicle architectures : comparing efficiency and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotter, Gavin M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of performance and efficiencies for four vehicle power architectures; the internal combustion engine (ICE), the parallel hybrid (i.e. Toyota Prius), the serial hybrid (i.e. Chevrolet Volt), ...

  5. Reuse of hybrid car power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkby, Nicholas (Nicholas J.)

    2015-01-01

    Used hybrid car power systems are inexpensive and capable of tens of kilowatts of power throughput. This paper documents a process for using the second generation Toyota Prius inverter module to drive a three phase permanent ...

  6. Thomas L. Shaw, President LOOP LLC Before Public Meeting on the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Gulf Coast, primarily Corpus Christi, Texas. LOOP also receives crude oil through pipelines from the Mars and Thunder Horse offshore production platforms. These production...

  7. A collaborative program for earthquake fault hazard characterization and community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    profiles 10.5 km nees@UTexas minivib I #12;Truckee River Profiles W E Vertical exaggeration 2:1 #12;Truckee River Profiles W E Vertical exaggeration 2:1 #12;Manzanita Lane Profile E E W W Vertical exaggeration 2:1 #12;U. of Nevada - BSU Collaboration March 2010 5 high-resolution seismic profiles 3.5 km

  8. Antibacterial activity of northern Ontario medicinal plant extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    Antibacterial activity of northern Ontario medicinal plant extracts Haider M. Hassan1 , Zi University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1; and 2 Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario Canada P7B 5E1. Received 7 August 2013, accepted 19

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the plug-in hybrid electric version of the following vehicles is available: 2013 Ford Fusion Energi, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi Fleet, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi, 2012 Chevrolet Volt, 2012 Toyota Prius, 2013 Toyota Prius, 2013 Chevrolet Volt, 2011 Chrysler Town & Country, 2010 Quantum Escape, and 2010 Ford Escape Advanced Research Vehicle.

  10. Preprint of a paper which appeared in the proceedings of "RoboCup International Symposium 2008" (Suzhou, China, July 15-18 2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stryk, Oskar von

    , who tries to grab and shoot the ball while being attacked by opponent players. Usually, this leads to a thunderstorm by counting the seconds between lightning and thunder. Note, that the frequencies used in our

  11. Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    an increasing thunder- storm frequency associated with increased population growth within these cities (Balling and Brazel 1987; Jaurequi and Romales 1996). Urban regions have also been observed to enhance lightning

  12. VERY LOW FREQUENCY RADIO SIGNATURES OF TRANSIENT LUMINOUS EVENTS ABOVE THUNDERSTORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VERY LOW FREQUENCY RADIO SIGNATURES OF TRANSIENT LUMINOUS EVENTS ABOVE THUNDERSTORMS A DISSERTATION and acoustic energy, in the form of lightning and thunder, respectively, but a large amount of energy

  13. FINAL DRAFT 2011 March NNSA NEWS 2011.pmd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    thank you to the people working hard to support emergency response efforts in Japan. Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) MedKnight Thunder, the 89th and latest in the...

  14. 2011 March NNSA News Viewable.pmd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    thank you to the people working hard to support emergency response efforts in Japan. Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) MedKnight Thunder, the 89th and latest in the...

  15. Patterson: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2911)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Dan Patterson finding that the "ThunderHead" showerhead basic model manufactured by ET Industries, Inc. and imported by Dan Patterson does not comport with the water conservation standards.

  16. A Language Model Approach to Keyphrase Extraction Takashi Tomokiyo and Matthew Hurst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of hybrid cars may harvest messages from online fo- rums. They may then want to rapidly construct a hi car example, the result of this pro- cess is a set of phrases like that shown in Figure 1. 1 civic hybrid 2 honda civic hybrid 3 toyota prius 4 electric motor 5 honda civic 6 fuel cell 7 hybrid cars 8

  17. ZEV Ac'onable Science Webinar Series Presenta-on 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    valuable than increasing the size of the battery pack Franke, et al, August 2011 #12;PHEVs only complicate-fuel options: n Gasoline vs. electric consumption n When will driver recharge the vehicle? 13 #12;The Prius-depleting range o EV, "Blended" & CS operation modes 14 Photo: Toyota ESQ #12;Electricity consumption varies

  18. Double Planetary Gear (PG) power-split hybrid powertrains have been used in production vehicles from Toyota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    ABSTRACT Double Planetary Gear (PG) power-split hybrid powertrains have been used in production are power-split type [3], which utilizes one or more planetary gears as the transmission device. Toyota Prius, Ford Fusion and Chevrolet Volt are all power-split hybrid vehicles. The planetary gears

  19. Electric Propulsion for Cars: New Directions for Energy Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    a Prius 220 gal/year #12;Substitute Alternative Fuels for Gasoline Electricity Natural gas Methanol ? Bio: CEC, EIA 2003 CA US Natural Gas 37% 17% Large Hydro 16% 7% Coal 21% 51% Nuclear 15% 20% Eligible is used in: US 2005 · petrochemicals 7% · freight and aviation 32% · light vehicles 51% 90% #12;Oil Use vs

  20. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    manufacturers to focus on high fuel-economy cars. And Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid are wonderful, or oil resources. Nor would the anticipated 40 mpg Ford Escape hybrid in the "small SUV" class Cycle (UDC) for representative cars and light trucks.1 The horizontal axis shows measured emissions

  1. 912 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2011 Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    , Senior Member, IEEE, and Burak Ozpineci, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The application of silicon carbide and weight and the vehicle's fuel economy. Two types of HEVs are considered. One is the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV carbide (SiC). I. INTRODUCTION AS THE issues of natural resource depletion and en- vironmental impacts

  2. UCDavis University of California A California Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    · Market Segments · Fleet Operation · Energy Savings Battery studies · Benchmark Testing · 2nd use · End-in Prius Battery kWh: Charge Time: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 All Electric Range: Price: 3hrs/110v (15A) 1 rebate program (CCSE) · Data collected on February-March 2012 Survey Leaf Volt Tesla San Diego 312 24 0

  3. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 53395346, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/5339/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    - ning FTP-75 and typical driving cycles for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius in car technology to en- ter the market is the gas-electric hybrid car. It has become a realistic way: Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car

  4. 17 June 2010 About GCC Contact RSS Subscribe Twitter headlines UNEP: Existing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Pledges "Unlikely" To Hold Warming To 2 C Or Less By Mid-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Oil Sands Synthetic Crude Output to 425,000 Barrels per Day by 2020 » Print this post New Institute-size engines. Vinay Patwardhan, the company's director of group planning and development and a merchant ship will be the principal investigators. From the Dashboard Prius Tops Japan Sales for Third Month in a Row in July

  5. Diesel Futures Forget the black soot and smoke. Modern diesel-powered cars are quiet, clean and fast.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passenger-car importer, Volkswagen, with new models of their own. As of now, only the VW Jetta/Golf/Beetle 1Diesel Futures Forget the black soot and smoke. Modern diesel-powered cars are quiet, clean, and be within a gnat's whisker of a gasoline hybrid like the Prius. The studies of total energy consumption

  6. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings companies now offer to convert HEVs (such as the Toyota Prius and Ford Escape models) into PHEVs and plan

  7. Chap. 4-6. ATP, glycogen, protein Page 1 of 40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Kim

    to be aerobic, meaning that it uses O2. The hybrid car has another power system; this system is electrical.1 The human body has a duel power system In hybrid cars, such as a PriusTM , power is supplied by two systems in metabolism: C,H (gasoline in cars, food in people) + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy The above reaction is said

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. This page provides data on the hybrid electric versions of the Volkswagen Jetta, Ford C-Max, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Hyundai Sonata, Honda CRZ, Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery, Mercedes Benz, Toyota Prius Gen III, Ford Fusion, Honda Insight and Honda CR-Z.

  9. Technology and Cost of the Model Year (MY) 2007 Toyota Camry HEV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2007-09-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides research and development (R&D) support to the Department of Energy on issues related to the cost and performance of hybrid vehicles. ORNL frequently benchmarks its own research against commercially available hybrid components currently used in the market. In 2005 we completed a detailed review of the cost of the second generation Prius hybrid. This study examines the new 2007 Camry hybrid model for changes in technology and cost relative to the Prius. The work effort involved a detailed review of the Camry hybrid and the system control strategy to identify the hybrid components used in the drive train. Section 2 provides this review while Section 3 presents our detailed evaluation of the specific drive train components and their cost estimates. Section 3 also provides a summary of the total electrical drive train cost for the Camry hybrid vehicle and contrasts these estimates to the costs for the second generation Prius that we estimated in 2005. Most of the information on cost and performance were derived from meetings with the technical staff of Toyota, Nissan, and some key Tier I suppliers like Hitachi and Panasonic Electric Vehicle Energy (PEVE) and we thank these companies for their kind cooperation.

  10. Technology and Cost of the MY 2007 toyota Camry HEV -- A Subcontract Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides research and development (R&D) support to the Department of Energy on issues related to the cost and performance of hybrid vehicles. ORNL frequently benchmarks its own research against commercially available hybrid components currently used in the market. In 2005 we completed a detailed review of the cost of the second generation Prius hybrid. This study examines the new 2007 Camry hybrid model for changes in technology and cost relative to the Prius. The work effort involved a detailed review of the Camry hybrid and the system control strategy to identify the hybrid components used in the drive train. Section 2 provides this review while Section 3 presents our detailed evaluation of the specific drive train components and their cost estimates. Section 3 also provides a summary of the total electrical drive train cost for the Camry hybrid vehicle and contrasts these estimates to the costs for the second generation Prius that we estimated in 2005. Most of the information on cost and performance were derived from meetings with the technical staff of Toyota, Nissan, and some key Tier I suppliers like Hitachi and Panasonic Electric Vehicle Energy (PEVE) and we thank these companies for their kind cooperation.

  11. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator-beam transport, laser-plasma acceleration, permanent magnet quadrupole, beam-position monitor PACS: 52.38.Kd, 41. Traditionally, in conventional radio-frequency accelerator facilities these magnetic fields are generated

  12. Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Thunder race car. Prof. Settles hopes the car, which his team has fielded as a systems architectingDaniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering University of Southern California Engineering Leaders--The most successful engineering professionals rely on a combination of technical depth

  13. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  14. Anthropology Graduate Degree Program Page 1 of 2 Last Updated 09/18/13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosmides, Leda

    State University Modesto Junior College New Mexico State University, Las Cruces Northern Arizona University The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The New Media Studio The Story Coach/Wind & Thunder Productions Vegas University of New Mexico University of North Carolina University of Oregon University of San

  15. ANALYSIS OF MINING EXPLOSION PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    ANALYSIS OF MINING EXPLOSION PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE SENSOR DATA AND PHYSICAL MODELS Brian W Martin Thunder Basin Coal Company Wright, Wyoming #12;Analysis of Mining Explosion Performance 2 1 to Different Types of Mining Explosions · Single Shot · Cast Blast · Coal Fragmentation #12;Analysis of Mining

  16. CURRICULUM VITA Cornelis Folkert de Hoop May 22, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems. SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS * Research in worker safety, biomass energy and environmental lobbyists. * Marketed timber under competitive bids. * Overall coordination of data processing-1976 Abitibi Paper Co., Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. 1974-1975 US Forest Service, London, KY. #12;COURSES

  17. Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1 , Zi-Hua Jiang2 , Tarannum A. Syed3 Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1; 2 Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1; and 3 Department of Biology, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr., Peterborough, Ontario

  18. New constraints on the Slate Islands impact structure, Ontario, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrick, Robert R.

    New constraints on the Slate Islands impact structure, Ontario, Canada Virgil L. Sharpton Lunar Bernie Schnieders Ontario Geological Survey, 435 South James Street, Thunder Bay, Ontario, P7E 6E3 km south of Terrace Bay, Ontario (Fig. 1). Numerous shatter cones (observed first by R. Sage during

  19. MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR THIN BEAMS Ralph C. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University #12;APPLICATIONS (c) (d) PVDF (b) Polyimide (a) Note: (a) Thin beam with surface-mounted PZT and polyimide presently considered for pressure sensing and flow control. (c) Curved THUNDER transducer whose shutter. #12;FORCE AND MOMENT BALANCING +x (x)M +x( )M x x + x x+xQ( )Q(x) x Polyimide PVDF xx w f w f

  20. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEISMIC AND INFRASOUND SIGNALS FROM MINING EXPLOSIONS a) Explosion Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    are illustrated below. Type 1 - Coal overburden casting (Black Thunder) where explosions are designed to expose coal. Type 2 - Rock fragmentation for copper recovery (Morenci) where explosions are designed to break Carlsbad Seismic ~ 20 km #1 #2 #3 infrasound infrasound infrasound seismic UNUSUAL EVENTS TYPES OF MINING

  1. Louisiana Forest Products Lab 1 Accidents in the Primary &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Forest Products Lab 1 Accidents in the Primary & Secondary Forest Products Industry Center #12;Louisiana Forest Products Lab 2 Abitibi Paper Co. Camp 40 Thunder Bay, Ontario #12;Louisiana Forest Products Lab 3 Accidents in Forest Products Industry Accident Statistics Primary industry

  2. Lightning Safety for You and Your Family

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    information on weather-related deaths to learn how to prevent these tragedies. Many lightning victims say after you hear the last thunder clap. Finally, some victims were struck inside homes or buildings while disabilities. While a small percentage of lightning strike victims die, many survivors must learn to live

  3. 05/29/2007 09:55 AMScientist hopes Oregon will catch the wave Page 1 of 6http://www.dailyastorian.info/main.asp?SectionID=2&SubSectionID=398&ArticleID=42662&TM=33888.27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    swimmer, the Oregon State University professor described advances in renewable energy development and what in the U.S. The unprecedented project would give a substantial boost to the country's renewable energy in developing renewable wave power. Thanks to the coast's thunderous waves, OSU's advanced resources and support

  4. The search for Titan lightning radio emissions G. Fischer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    the existence of Titan lightning were found. Great care is needed in the interpretation of bursty signals since al. [2006] found no thunder clap recorded by the acoustic sensor and reported the observation of an electric signal at 36 Hz throughout the descent. However, it could not be confirmed if this emission

  5. Selective DF Relaying in Multi-Relay Networks With Different Modulation Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    , Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Department of Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada E-mail: {husokun, akram, halim}@sce.carleton.ca, sikki@lakeheadu.ca Abstract--Despite the rich literature on cooperative networks, employment of different modulation levels by the source

  6. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  7. The Fermat and Mersenne Numbers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowlin, W. D.

    1960-01-01

    . (Throughout this thesis, F will always denote a Feraat nmaber and M a Mersenne nuuber. ) The problea of deternining p which of the Fernat and Mersenne nmabers are prius has concerned uany matheuaticians during the last two centuries. This research has... or a Fermat, number. Next? Froth~a theorem, of which Pepin's test is a special case, is stated and proved. In the last section the theory of recurring series is used to establish primality tests of the Lucas type for both the Fermat and Mersenne...

  8. NREL: Transportation Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12WorkingSolarTechnologiesSilver Toyota Prius being

  9. NREL: Water Power Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12WorkingSolarTechnologiesSilver Toyota Prius

  10. NREL: Wind Research - Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12WorkingSolarTechnologiesSilver Toyota PriusAwards

  11. Solarnorth '81 by Tymura Solardesigns: diverse residential, commercial and industrial projects at and above the 48th parallel in Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tymura, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Solar Energy Heating Applications are On the Rise in and above the Northwestern City of Thunder Bay, on the northern shore of Lake Superior. Unique in their diversifications, the architectural commissions range from pure passive residential design thru hybrid systems; residential Greenhouse-Solarium active swimming pool and commercial hotel pool to inexpensive hybrid system for Canada's First Commercial Solar Lumber Drying Kiln; as well as combined earth sheltered with solar system design for a dormitory complex and shopping center. By May 1981, 7 buildings designed by Tymura Solardesigns in the Thunder Bay area will have been subjected to the Extreme Canadian climate (10,500/sup 0/F degree days, yearly temperature maximums from -41/sup 0/F to 90/sup 0/F, and solar fractions vary from 50% to 75%, with economic payback periods ranging between 7 and 10 years.

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Wireless Power Transfer Development for Sustainable Campus Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Campbell, Steven L; Coomer, Chester; White, Cliff P; Seiber, Larry Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a convenient, safe, and autonomous means for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging that has seen rapid growth in recent years for stationary applications. WPT does not require bulky contacts, plugs, and wires, is not affected by dirt or weather conditions, and is as efficient as conventional charging systems. This study summarizes some of the recent Sustainable Campus Initiative activities of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in WPT charging of an on-campus vehicle (a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle). Laboratory development of the WPT coils, high-frequency power inverter, and overall systems integration are discussed. Results cover the coil performance testing at different operating frequencies, airgaps, and misalignments. Some of the experimental results of insertion loss due to roadway surfacing materials in the air-gap are presented. Experimental lessons learned are also covered in this study.

  13. Improving Battery Design with Electro-Thermal Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Kim, G.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Operating temperature greatly affects the performance and life of batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles. Increased attention is necessary to battery thermal management. Electrochemical models and finite element analysis tools are available for predicting the thermal performance of batteries, but each has limitations. In this study we describe an electro-thermal finite element approach that predicts the thermal performance of a cell or module with realistic geometry. To illustrate the process, we simulated the thermal performance of two generations of Panasonic prismatic nickel-metal-hydride modules used in the Toyota Prius. The model showed why the new generation of Panasonic modules had better thermal performance. Thermal images from two battery modules under constant current discharge indicate that the model predicts the experimental trend reasonably well.

  14. Ritual, Mimesis and the Animal World in Early China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterckx, Roel

    2014-01-01

    ’ sensory prescience of thunder, rain, lightning or earthquakes (Huainanzi, 10.337, 18.618, 20.663). Zhang Heng's (AD 78-139) 20 famous bronze seismograph illustrates the idea. It allegedly had an outer surface that was decorated with designs... of mountains, turtles, birds and beasts. A bronze ball dropping from a dragon mouth into a toad underneath indicated a movement of the earth. The choice of reptiles and amphibians on the domed cover and body of the seismograph was inspired by the idea...

  15. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Hughes; D. Tillman

    2000-07-01

    During the period of April 1, 2000 through June 30, 2000, alternatives for relocating the Seward Generating Station cofiring project were investigated. A test was conducted at Bailly Generating Station of Northern Indiana Public Service Co., firing a blend of Black Thunder (Powder River Basin) coal and Illinois basin coal, in cyclone boiler designed for Illinois basin coal. This test at Bailly was designed to determine the technical feasibility of cofiring at that station using PRB coals. This report summarizes the activities during the second calendar quarter in 2000 of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of construction and testing activities at these generating stations.

  16. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  17. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  18. Highly dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction. Phase 1 final report, August 23--November 22, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Ghaly, O.

    1995-03-22

    The ultimate goal of this project is to develop novel processes for making the conversion of coal into distillable liquids competitive to that of petroleum products in the range of $25/bbl. The objectives of Phase 1 were to determine the utility of new precursors to highly dispersed catalysts for use of syngas atmospheres in coal liquefaction, and to estimate the effect of such implementation on the cost of the final product. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Tasks 1 and 2 are the analyses and liquefaction experiments, respectively, and Task 3 deals with the economic effects of using these methods during coal liquefaction. Results are presented on the following: Analytical Support--screening tests and second-stage conversions; Laboratory-Scale Operations--catalysts, coal conversion in synthetic solvents, Black Thunder screening studies, and two-stage liquefaction experiments; and Technical and economic Assessment--commercial liquefaction plant description, liquefaction plant cost; and economic analysis.

  19. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  20. Beam transport and monitoring for laser plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.; Sokollik, T.; Tilborg, J. van; Gonsalves, A. J.; Shaw, B.; Shiraishi, S.; Mittal, R.; De Santis, S.; Byrd, J. M.; Leemans, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    The controlled transport and imaging of relativistic electron beams from laser plasma accelerators (LPAs) are critical for their diagnostics and applications. Here we present the design and progress in the implementation of the transport and monitoring system for an undulator based electron beam diagnostic. Miniature permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are employed to realize controlled transport of the LPA electron beams, and cavity based electron beam position monitors for non-invasive beam position detection. Also presented is PMQ calibration by using LPA electron beams with broadband energy spectrum. The results show promising performance for both transporting and monitoring. With the proper transport system, XUV-photon spectra from THUNDER will provide the momentum distribution of the electron beam with the resolution above what can be achieved by the magnetic spectrometer currently used in the LOASIS facility.

  1. A wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) gate driver for high-temperature and high-voltage applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamichhane, Ranjan [University of Arkansas; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven Shane [ORNL; BRITTONJr., CHARLES L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Matt [APEI, Inc.; Shepherd, Dr. Paul [University of Arkansas; Glover, Dr. Michael [University of Arkansas; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Perez, M [University of Arkansas; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    Limitations of silicon (Si) based power electronic devices can be overcome with Silicon Carbide (SiC) because of its remarkable material properties. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with larger bandgap, lower leakage currents, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity, which promotes higher switching frequencies for high power applications, higher temperature operation, and results in higher power density devices relative to Si [1]. The proposed work is focused on design of a SiC gate driver to drive a SiC power MOSFET, on a Cree SiC process, with rise/fall times (less than 100 ns) suitable for 500 kHz to 1 MHz switching frequency applications. A process optimized gate driver topology design which is significantly different from generic Si circuit design is proposed. The ultimate goal of the project is to integrate this gate driver into a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger module. The application of this high frequency charger will result in lighter, smaller, cheaper, and a more efficient power electronics system.

  2. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H; Hsu, John S; Starke, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  3. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  4. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The eighth bench scale test of POC program, Run PB-08, was successfully completed from August 8 to August 26, 1997. A total of five operating conditions were tested aiming at evaluating the reactivity of different pyrolysis oils in liquefaction of a Wyoming sub-bituminous coal (Black Thunder coal). For the first time, water soluble promoters were incorporated into the iron-based GelCat to improve the dispersion of the promoter metals in the feed blend. The concentration of the active metals, Mo and Fe, was 100 and 1000 ppm of moisture-free coal, respectively. Black Thunder coal used in this run was the same batch as tested in HTI?s Run POC-02. Similar to Runs PB-01 through 7, this run employed two back mixed slurry reactors, an interstage gas/slurry separator and a direct-coupled hydrotreater. In addition to the hot vapor from the second stage separator, the first stage separator overhead liquid was also fed to the hydrotreater, which was packed with Criterion C-411 hydrotreating catalyst. Pyrolysis oil was produced off-line from a pyrolysis unit acquired from University of Wyoming. Solids rejection was achieved by purging out pressure filter solid. The recycle solvents consisted of O-6 separator bottoms and pressure filter liquid (PFL). The Run PB-08 proceeded very smoothly without any interruptions. Coal conversion consistently above 90W% was achieved. High resid conversion and distillate yield have been obtained from co-processing of coal and 343°C+ (650°F+) pyrolysis oil. Light gas (C1-C3 ) yield was minimized and hydrogen consumption was reduced due to the introduction of pyrolysis oil, compared with conventional coal-derived solvent. Catalytic activity was improved by incorporating a promoter metal into the iron-based GelCat. It seemed that lowering the first stage temperature to 435°C might increase the hydrogenation function of the promoter metal. In comparison with previous coal-waste coprocessing run (PB-06), significant improvements in the process performance were achieved due to catalyst modification and integration of pyrolysis technique into liquefaction.

  5. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Evaluation in a Full-Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-11-01

    The cost of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) (e.g., Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid) remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost-benefit relationship, which would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with a United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Workgroup to analyze trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL's analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than previous targets, which prompted the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies, including high-power batteries or ultracapacitors. NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform and in-vehicle evaluation results using a lithium-ion capacitor ESS-an asymmetric electrochemical energy storage device possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). Further efforts include testing other ultracapacitor technologies in the HEV test platform.

  6. Extensive Air Showers and the Physics of High Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Erlykin

    2007-03-20

    Extensive Air Showers are still the only source of information on primary cosmic rays and their interactions at energies above PeV. However, this information is hidden inside the multiplicative character of the cascading process. Inspite of the great experimental and theoretical efforts the results of different studies are often ambiguous and even conflicting. These controversies can partly be referred to imperfections of our models of high energy interactions. The first part of the paper is concerned with this problem. The author thinks that the present models should be corrected to give slightly deeper penetration of the cascade into the atmosphere. In this respect the modification suggested by the QGSJET-II model seems to be the step in the right direction. The Sibyll 2.1 model provides a similar penetrating properties. However, this modification is not enough and a small additional transfer of the energy from EAS hadrons to the electromagnetic component is needed too. As a possible candidate for such a process the inelastic charge exchange of pions is discussed. In the second part of the paper the author discusses the need to account for the interaction of EAS with the stuff of detectors, their environment and the ground in the light of the 'neutron thunder' phenomenon, discovered recently.

  7. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1993-12-31

    Six runs on the bench unit were successfully completed this quarter. The runs covered twenty five different operating conditions and yield periods, and involved 336 hours of operation. In the bench unit, increased temperature of first stage operation (410{degree}C) and direct addition of the powdered solid sodium aluminate to the feed as first stage catalyst improved both coal and carbon monoxide conversion. To achieve 90%+ overall coal conversion, temperatures of 430{degree}C+ were required in the second stage. Oil yields (pentane soluble liquid product) in excess of 65 wt % based on MAF Black Thunder coal, were achieved both with iron oxide/dimethyl disulfide and ammonium molybdate/carbon disulfide second stage catalysts. C{sub l}-C{sub 3} hydrogen gas yields were modest, generally 7-8 wt % on MAF coal, and overall hydrogen consumption (including first stage shift hydrogen) was in the order of 7-8 wt % on MAF coal. The ammonium molybdate catalyst system appeared to give slightly higher oil yields and hydrogen consumption, as was expected, but the differences may not be significant.

  8. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Taylor, Rob D

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk initially released their findings. In this brief review, the team has looked at factors that might contribute to a consumer choosing to not purchase a hybrid; including the increase in manufacture s overall vehicle mpg and the percentage of the vehicle market owned by hybrids.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon) -- and electrochemical double-layer capacitors.

  10. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

    1998-06-09

    CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

  11. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: Bench Run 05 (227-97). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results Bench Run PB-05, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept - Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-05 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and included the evaluation of the effect of using dispersed slurry catalyst in direct liquefaction of a high volatile bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and in combined coprocessing of coal with organic wastes, such as heavy petroleum resid, MSW plastics, and auto-shredder residue. PB-05 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. Coprocessing of waste plastics with Illinois No. 6 coal did not result in the improvement observed earlier with a subbituminous coal. In particular, decreases in light gas yield and hydrogen consumption were not observed with Illinois No. 6 coal as they were with Black Thunder Mine coal. The higher thermal severity during PB-05 is a possible reason for this discrepancy, plastics being more sensitive to temperatures (cracking) than either coal or heavy resid. The ASR material was poorer than MSW plastics in terms of increasing conversions and yields. HTI`s new dispersed catalyst formulation, containing phosphorus-promoted iron gel, was highly effective for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal under the reaction conditions employed; over 95% coal conversion was obtained, along with over 85% residuum conversion and over 73% distillate yields.

  12. Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluskey, F. P.

    2007-04-30

    Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been advancing has been the development of electronics that can operate in the high temperature environments present in hybrid vehicles. The temperatures under the hood for a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle are comparable to those for traditional internal combustion engines. This is known to be a difficult environment with respect to commercial-grade electronics, as there are surface and ambient temperatures ranging from 125 C to 175 C. In addition, some hybrid drive electronics are placed in even harsher environments, such as on or near the brakes, where temperatures can reach 250 C. Furthermore, number of temperature cycles experienced by electronics in a hybrid vehicle is different from that experienced in a traditional vehicle. A traditional internal combustion vehicle will have the engine running for longer periods, whereas a mild or micro-hybrid engine will experience many more starts and stops.[3] This means that hybrid automotive electronics will undergo more cycles of a potential wider temperature cycle than standard automotive electronics, which in turn see temperature cycles of 2 to 3 times the magnitude of the {Delta}T = 50 C-75 C experienced by commercial-grade electronics. This study will discuss the effects of these harsh environments on the failure mechanisms and ultimate reliability of electronic systems developed for gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles. In addition, it will suggest technologies and components that can reasonably be expected to perform well in these environments. Finally, it will suggest areas where further research is needed or desirable. Areas for further research will be highlighted in bold, italic type. It should be noted that the first area where further research is desirable is in developing a clearer understanding of the actual hybrid automotive electronics environment and how to simulate it through accelerated testing, thus: Developing specific mission profiles and accelerated testing protocols for the underhood environment for hybrid cars, as has previously been done for gasoline-powered vehicles, is an important area for further st

  13. The California greenhouse gas initiative and its implications to the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B. C.; Miller, R. T.; Center for Automotive Research

    2006-05-31

    CAR undertook this investigation to better understand the costs and challenges of a local (state) regulation necessitating the implementation of alternative or advanced powertrain technology. CAR will attempt to add insight into the challenges that local regulations present to the automotive industry, and to contribute further to the discussion of how advanced powertrain technology may be used to meet such regulation. Any local law that (directly or indirectly) affects light duty motor vehicle fuel economy creates what in effect is a specialty market for powertrain technology. As such these small markets present significant challenges for automotive manufacturers. First, a small market with unique standards presents significant challenges to an industry that has sustained growth by relying on large volumes to achieve scale economies and deliver products at a cost acceptable to the consumer. Further, the challenges of the additional technology make it likely that any powertrain capable of meeting the stringent emissions standards will include costly additional components, and thus will be more costly to manufacture. It is likely that manufacturers would consider the following actions as steps to deliver products to meet the pending California regulatory requirements anticipated as a result of prior California legislation: (1) Substituting more fuel efficient vehicles: Bring in more efficient vehicles from global operations, while likely dropping existing domestic products. (2) Substituting powertrains: Add existing downsized engines (i.e. turbocharged versions, etc.) into California market-bound vehicles. (3) Powertrain enhancements: Add technology to current engine and transmission offerings to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. (4) Incorporating alternative powertrains into existing vehicle platforms: Develop a hybrid or other type of powertrain for an existing vehicle. (5) New powertrains and new platforms: Develop vehicles specifically intended to incorporate new powertrain technologies, materials and/or design (e.g. the General Motors EV1 or the Toyota Prius). These five actions represent the gamut from the least complicated solution to the most complex. They also generally represent the least expensive response to the most expensive. It is possible that the least expensive responses may be least likely to meet market demands while achieving required GHG emission limits. At the same time, the most expensive option may produce a vehicle that satisfies the GHG reduction requirements and meets some consumer requirements, but is far too costly to manufacture and sell profitably. The response of a manufacturer would certainly have to take market size, consumer acceptance, technology implication and cost, as well as internal capacities and constraints, into consideration. It is important to understand that individual companies may respond differently in the short term. However, it is probable that there would be a more consistent industry-wide response in the longer term. Options 1 and 2 present the simplest responses. A company may reach into its global portfolio to deliver vehicles that are more fuel-efficient. These vehicles are usually much smaller and significantly less powerful than current U.S. offerings. Industry respondents indicated that such a strategy may be possible but would likely be met with less than positive reaction from the buying public. A general estimate for the cost to homologize a vehicle--that is, to prepare an existing vehicle for entry into the United States provided all business conditions were met (reasonable product, capacity availability, etc.), would be approximately $50 million. Assuming an estimated cost for homologation to meet U.S. standards of $50 million and a 20,000 vehicle per year sales volume in California, the company would then incur a $2,500 per-vehicle cost to bring them into the market. A manufacturer may also choose to incorporate a more efficient powertrain into a vehicle already sold in the market. The costs associated with such a strategy would include reengineering

  14. Institutional Computing Executive Group Review of Multi-programmatic & Institutional Computing, Fiscal Year 2005 and 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, S; Rotman, D; Schwegler, E; Folta, P; Gee, R; White, D

    2006-12-18

    The Institutional Computing Executive Group (ICEG) review of FY05-06 Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M and IC) activities is presented in the attached report. In summary, we find that the M and IC staff does an outstanding job of acquiring and supporting a wide range of institutional computing resources to meet the programmatic and scientific goals of LLNL. The responsiveness and high quality of support given to users and the programs investing in M and IC reflects the dedication and skill of the M and IC staff. M and IC has successfully managed serial capacity, parallel capacity, and capability computing resources. Serial capacity computing supports a wide range of scientific projects which require access to a few high performance processors within a shared memory computer. Parallel capacity computing supports scientific projects that require a moderate number of processors (up to roughly 1000) on a parallel computer. Capability computing supports parallel jobs that push the limits of simulation science. M and IC has worked closely with Stockpile Stewardship, and together they have made LLNL a premier institution for computational and simulation science. Such a standing is vital to the continued success of laboratory science programs and to the recruitment and retention of top scientists. This report provides recommendations to build on M and IC's accomplishments and improve simulation capabilities at LLNL. We recommend that institution fully fund (1) operation of the atlas cluster purchased in FY06 to support a few large projects; (2) operation of the thunder and zeus clusters to enable 'mid-range' parallel capacity simulations during normal operation and a limited number of large simulations during dedicated application time; (3) operation of the new yana cluster to support a wide range of serial capacity simulations; (4) improvements to the reliability and performance of the Lustre parallel file system; (5) support for the new GDO petabyte-class storage facility on the green network for use in data intensive external collaborations; and (6) continued support for visualization and other methods for analyzing large simulations. We also recommend that M and IC begin planning in FY07 for the next upgrade of its parallel clusters. LLNL investments in M and IC have resulted in a world-class simulation capability leading to innovative science. We thank the LLNL management for its continued support and thank the M and IC staff for its vision and dedicated efforts to make it all happen.

  15. 2012 SARA Students Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briccetti, Angelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lorei, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yonkings, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lorio, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    The Service Academy Research Associates (SARA) program provides an opportunity for Midshipmen and Cadets from US Service Academies to participate in research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory for several weeks during the summer as part of their summer training assignments. During the summer of 2012, three Midshipmen were assigned to work with the XCP Division at LANL for approximately 5-6 weeks. As one of the nation's top national security science laboratories, LANL stretches across 36 square miles, has over 2,100 facilities, and employs over 9,000 individuals including a significant number of students and postdocs. LANL's mission is to 'apply science and technology to: ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent, reduce global threats, and solve other emerging national security challenges.' While LANL officially operates under the US Department of Energy (DoE), fulfilling this mission requires mutual cooperation with the US Department of Defense (DoD) as well. LANL's high concentration of knowledge and experience provides interns a chance to perform research in many disciplines, and its connection with the DoD in both operation and personnel gives SARA students insight to career possibilities both during and after military service. SARA students have plenty of opportunity to enjoy hiking, camping, the Los Alamos YMCA, and many other outdoor activities in New Mexico while staying at the Buffalo Thunder Resort, located 20 miles east of the lab. XCP Division is the Computational Physics division of LANL's Weapons Department. Working with XCP Division requires individuals to be Q cleared by the DoE. This means it is significantly more convenient for SARA students to be assigned to XCP Division than their civilian counterparts as the DoD CNWDI clearance held by SARA students is easily transferred to the lab prior to the students arriving at the start of the summer. SARA students working with XCP Division were given a comprehensive introduction into nuclear engineering and physics, nuclear weapons, and radiation transport and detection via texts and lectures at various classification levels. Students also attended tours of several prominent facilities at LANL including TA-41 Ice House, TA-55 PF-4 plutonium facility, the Nicholas C. Metropolis Center for Modeling and Simulation, also known as the Secure Computing Center (SCC), and the Dual-Axis Radiological Hydro Test (DARHT) facility; in addition, SARA students accompanied by LANL staff traveled to Minot AFB in North Dakota for tours of the 5th Bomb Wing and 91st Missile Wing facilities. Students participated in a week long class on the Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code to supplement their understanding of radiation transport simulations. SARA students were then tasked with using this knowledge to model radiation detectors and use MCNP to compare their models to experimental data and previously accepted models.