Sample records for manufacturing plants coal

  1. Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North

  2. Proceedings: EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum covered a range of topics related to remediation and management of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, with emphasis on technological advances and current issues associated with site cleanup. In specific, the forum covered MGP coal-tar delineation, soil and groundwater remediation technologies, improvements in air monitoring, and ecological risk characterization/risk management tools.

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  7. Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit states that an income taxpayer that makes a qualified investment in a new integrated coal gasification power plant or in the expansion of an existing...

  8. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  9. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This...

  10. Improving pulverized coal plant performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A major deliverable of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

  11. Materials performance in coal gasification pilot plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Bradley, R.A.

    1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of several materials testing projects which were conducted in operating coal gasification pilot plants in the United States. These projects were designed to test potential materials of construction for commercial plants under actual operating conditions. Pilot plants included in the overall test program included the Hygas, Conoco Coal, Synthane, Bi-Gas, Peatgas (Hygas operating with peat), Battelle, U-Gas, Westinghouse (now KRW), General Electric (Gegas), and Mountain Fuel Resources plants. Test results for a large variety of alloys are discussed and conclusions regarding applicability of these materials in coal gasification environments are presented. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  13. Optimized Pump Systems Save Coal Preparation Plant Money and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    study describes how Peabody Holding Company was able to improve the performance of a coal slurry pumping system at its Randolph Coal Preparation plant. Using a systematic...

  14. Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    permits. To improve the aesthetic qualities of the effluent, coal ash (from local power plants_mill_discharge.jpg 2. Coal Power Plant http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/2008Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power

  15. The H-Coal pilot plant and the Breckinridge Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigglesworth, T.H.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large coal-liquefaction pilot plant is in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, expanding on the H-Coal technology. The pilot plant operated very successfully during 1981, confirming research yield data on eastern bituminous coal, demonstrating operability of the process, and resulting in a significant accumulation of engineering data. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Bechtel Petroleum, Inc., are developing the Breckinridge Project, a commercial coal-liquefaction plant proposed for Breckinridge County, Kentucky, based on the H-Coal technology.

  16. Arch Coal upgrades a classic West Virginia prep plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethell, P.J.; Waine, C.

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Holden No. 22 coal preparation plant evolves from 1970s 'by zero' technology to modern, efficient fine coal recovery that includes a de-slime dense-media cyclone, compound spiral circuit. 3 figs.

  17. Coal system improvements at Union Electric's Labadie Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, D.; Mahr, D.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Union Electric's Labadie Plant is a 2,400 MWe (4 x 600) coal-fired power generating station. It is located 35 miles west of St. Louis. The four units were commissioned between 1970 and 1973. Units No. 1 and 2 have individual stacks, while Units No. 3 and 4 have a common stack. In response to the lower sulfur requirements of Clean Air Act Amendments, a fuel switching project was implemented in 1991. The plant was originally designed to burn a bituminous, Midwestern coal from the Illinois Basin. This fuel is characterized as a relatively high Btu, high sulfur coal. To met sulfur emission standards, Union Electric modified the boilers, precipitators, and coal handling system to accommodate Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. PRB coal has a lower heating value, 8,500 Btu/lb, versus 12,000 Btu/lb. for the Illinois coal. It is more economical than the available high Btu, low sulfur coals. A switch from Illinois coal to PRB coal has helped the Labadie Plant meet new air quality standards and minimize fuel cost. The increased belt speeds and inherent characteristics of PRB coal amplified handling problems. Dust, spillage increased and the impact on plant operations was more severe. To combat these problems, Union Electric implemented an ongoing improvement program. As experienced was gained, a number of solutions were initiated through several engineering/construction programs and a number of solutions contributed by coal yard personnel. While many of these improvements were a direct result of the switch to PRB coal, they would also be useful on systems handling bituminous coal. New ideas were needed to meet plant objectives of doing more with fewer people. The improvement at Labadie is apparent throughout the coal yard, in access, safety, and cleanliness. Plant improvement is a continuing task. Additional areas within the coal yard are being more closely examined to determine if they can benefit from new techniques that might be applied.

  18. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  19. Performance and risks of advanced pulverized-coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalbandian, H. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is based on an in-depth report of the same title published by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/135 (see Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2008 00535). It discusses the commercial, developmental and future status of pulverized fuel power plants including subcritical supercritical and ultra supercritical systems of pulverized coal combustion, the most widely used technology in coal-fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  3. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  4. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  7. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate · Coal-fired Power Plant: Supercritical pulverized coal (SC PC) Illinois #6 Coal Capacity Factor 75

  10. An Energy Conservation Program at a Large Cable Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reale, P. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atlanta Works is the largest telephone cable manufacturing plant in the world plus the manufacturing center for fiber optic cable for the Western Electric Company and exemplifies how an effective energy conservation program can work...

  11. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

  12. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA)); Khan, L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Yang, D. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering the coal fines which are currently disposed of with plant effluent streams in order to produce a fine clean coal product. This product can then be blended with the coarse clean coal from the preparation plant. Recovery of carbonaceous material from the effluent streams will be effected by means of Michigan Technological University's static tube flotation process in conjunction with pyrite depressants. This process has been successfully demonstrated on a number of coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the Btu value. The process parameters will be modified to accept preparation plant effluents in order to produce a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal product that at a minimum is compatible with the quality requirements of the plant clean coal. This report covers the first quarter of the project. The main activities during this period were the drafting of a project work plan and the collection of four coal preparation plant effluent samples for testing. Effluent slurry samples were collected from four operating preparation plants in Illinois and shipped to Michigan Technological University for experimental work.

  13. DOE Offers Support for Innovative Manufacturing Plant That Will...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of traditional polysilicon purification processes, which will reduce the overall cost of solar modules and panels. At full production, the manufacturing plant is expected to...

  14. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  15. Accelerating the deployment of cleaner coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dearth of commercial operating experience for advanced coal-fired facilities is forcing their early adopters and builders to use long development cycles and pay high costs for unique engineering design studies. A broad-based industry collaborative effort fostered by EPRI to address this issue (CoalFleet for Tomorrow) is beginning to show results. 3 figs.

  16. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  17. Characterization of feed coal and coal combustion products from power plants in Indiana and Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; O'Connor, J.T.; Brownfield, I.K.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with Indiana and Kentucky utilities to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCP) from three coal-fired power plants. These three plants are designated as Units K1, K2, and I1 and burn high-, moderate-, and low-sulfur coals, respectively. Over 200 samples of feed coal and CCP were analyzed by various chemical and mineralogical methods to determine mode of occurrence and distribution of trace elements in the CCP. Generally, feed coals from all 3 Units contain mostly well-crystallized kaolinite and quartz. Comparatively, Unit K1 feed coals have higher amounts of carbonates, pyrite and sphalerite. Unit K2 feed coals contain higher kaolinite and illite/muscovite when compared to Unit K1 coals. Unit I1 feed coals contain beta-form quartz and alumino-phosphates with minor amounts of calcite, micas, anatase, and zircon when compared to K1 and K2 feed coals. Mineralogy of feed coals indicate that the coal sources for Units K1 and K2 are highly variable, with Unit K1 displaying the greatest mineralogic variability; Unit I1 feed coal however, displayed little mineralogic variation supporting a single source. Similarly, element contents of Units K1 and K2 feed coals show more variability than those of Unit I1. Fly ash samples from Units K1 and K2 consist mostly of glass, mullite, quartz, and spines group minerals. Minor amounts of illite/muscovite, sulfates, hematite, and corundum are also present. Spinel group minerals identified include magnetite, franklinite, magnesioferrite, trevorite, jacobisite, and zincochromite. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis reveals that most of the spinel minerals are dendritic intergrowths within aluminum silicate glass. Unit I1 fly ash samples contain glass, quartz, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, and apatite with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, carbonates, pyroxenes, and spinels. The abundant Ca mineral phases in the Unit I1 fly ashes are attributed to the presence of carbonate, clay and phosphate minerals in the coal.

  18. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  19. Capture-ready coal plants--Options, technologies and Mark C. Bohm a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture-ready coal plants--Options, technologies and economics Mark C. Bohm a , Howard J. Herzog a. Introduction Interest in the construction of coal-fired power generation has increased significantly in recent the construction of coal-fired plants. Worldwide, the installed capacity of coal-fired plants is expected

  20. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  1. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  2. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  3. (Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA)); Khan, L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Yang, D. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines which are currently disposed of with plant effluent streams, in order to produce a fine clean coal product. This product can then be blended with the coarse clean coal from the preparation plant. Recovery of coal from the effluent stream samples will be effected by means of Michigan Technological University's static tube flotation process. This process has been successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. The process parameters will be modified so that this technology can be applied to preparation plant effluents in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced from the preparation plant. The main activities during this period were setting up the static tube test unit to conduct the experimental work as outlined in the project work plan. The first of four effluent slurry samples collected from four operating Illinois preparation plants was tested at Michigan Technological University. The first batch of tests resulted in a clean coal containing 7.5% ash at 94.5% combustible matter recovery. Another test aimed at lowering the ash further analyzed at 3.0% ash and 0.92% total sulfur. In addition, analyses of particle size distribution and sink-float testing of the +200 mesh material were undertaken as a part of the effluent characterization work. 5 tabs.

  4. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  5. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

  6. Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options Xi Liang, Jia supercritical pulverized coal power plant in China, using a cash flow model with Monte-Carlo simulations Defense Council) O&M (Operating & Maintenance) PC Power Plant (Pulverized Coal Fired Power Plant) ROA

  7. Coal Power Plant Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFundCo-benefits EvaluationCoalCoal

  8. Efficiency and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Restructuring on Coal-fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficiency and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Restructuring on Coal-fired Power Plants Hei efficiency, cost of coal purchases, and utilization among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from recent years allows us to examine longer term impacts of restructuring; (2) the focus on coal-fired power

  9. Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

  10. Method of operating a coal predrying and heating plant in connection with a coking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocsanczy, J.; Knappstein, J.; Stalherm, D.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing and delivering coal to a coking plant comprises conveying the coal to the plant on a moving conveyor while an inert combustion gas is directed over the coal being conveyed. The combustion gas is generated by burning a fuel with air to produce a substantially inert combustion gas which is passed over the coal during its conveying and, thereafter, passed through a cooler for removing the moisture which has been picked up from the coal by the gas. The heating and predrying inert gases are advantageously generated by the direct combustion of air and fuel which are passed through flash dryer tubes and one or more separate separator systems and then delivered into a conveyor pipeline through which the coal is conveyed. A portion of the gases which are generated are also directed with a return gas to a filter for removal of any coal therefrom and to a cooler for removing the moisture picked up from the coal and then back into the stream for delivery to the conveyor for the coal. The inert gas may also be a gas which is circulated in heat exchange relationship with combustion gases which are generated by a combustion of the coal itself. In such a system, a portion of the combustion gases generated are also passed through a condenser or cooler and the cooled and dried waste gases are circulated over the coal being conveyed to the coking oven or its bunkers.

  11. Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

  12. Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

  13. Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc.

  14. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

  15. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashadi, Sarah (Sarah Omer)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Post-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO 2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. Much of the literature proposes using power from the existing coal plant and thermal ...

  16. Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals...

  17. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Lew, D.; Kumar, N.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  18. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models for different source categories, NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants are analyzed in this #12;2 paper

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar less expensive (pre-investment IGCC). All coal-fired power plants can be retrofitted to capture CO2

  20. A Unique Ductless H and V System for Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McReynolds, C.J.

    The 33 year-old Ford plant at Sandusky, Ohio, had been expanded many times over the years and presently manufactures a variety of metal and plastic automotive parts such as plastic heater housings. As more plastic extruders were added, the plant...

  1. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); DeVaux, George R. (Princeton, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: manufacturing plant factory logic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant factory logic model Sandia Participated in AMII to Support American-Made Wind-Turbine Blades On December 3, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Materials...

  3. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE-supported

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in US DOE-supported demonstration plants for the gasification and liquefaction of coal is reported: company, contract number, process description and flowsheet, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects involve coal feeders, lock hoppers, values, etc. for feeding coal into high pressure systems, coal grinding equipment and measuring and process control instrumentation. (LTN)

  4. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  5. Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

  6. Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury? Dana K. Sackett · D. Derek+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract Much of the mercury contamination in aquatic biota originates from coal of contaminated fish. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of proximity to coal-fired power plants

  7. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  8. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  9. Characterization of the chemical variation of feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low sulfur Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affolter, R.H.; Brownfield, M.E.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, in collaboration with an Indiana utility, are studying a coal-fired power plant burning Powder River Basin coal. This investigation involves a systematic study of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a 1,300-megawatt (MW) power unit. The main goal of this study is to characterize the temporal chemical variability of the feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash by looking at the major-, minor-, and trace-element compositions and their associations with the feed coal mineralogy. Emphasis is also placed on the abundance and modes of occurrence of elements of potential environmental concern that may affect the utilization of these CCPs and coals.

  10. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  11. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

  12. Assessment of the Flue Gas Recycle Strategies on Oxy-Coal Power Plants using an Exergy-based Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessment of the Flue Gas Recycle Strategies on Oxy- Coal Power Plants using an Exergy to be competitive with post-combustion for carbon capture on coal-fired power plants. In order to achieve is produced from coal (IEA 2012b), the development of CO2 capture technology on coal-fired power plants

  13. Mercury control for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, P.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    On 15 March 2005 the US Environmental Protection Agency issued its Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMP) to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPRI is working with the US Department of Energy and the power industry to develop mercury control technologies needed to meet the final 2018 emission limits. Some improvements can be made by modifying existing SO{sub 2} or NOx control devices. Precombustion cleaning reduces mercury content of eastern coals by about one third. Adding a little halogen is another technology being researched - this promotes oxidation improving short-term mercury capture. EPRI is developing the TOXECON{trademark} technology to address a major problem of using sorbents to control mercury emissions: contamination of fly ash. 5 figs.

  14. Innovative coal gas cleaning at Sparrows Point Coal Chemical Plant, Maryland for Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antrobus, K.; Platts, M. (Davy/Still Otto, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Harbold, L. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA)); Kornosky, R. (Office of Clean Coal Technology, US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the Clean Coal II solicitation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) submitted a proposal to the DOE in May 1988. The proposal submitted by BSC describes a Unique integration of commercial technologies developed by Davy/Still Otto to clean coke oven gas being produced at its Sparrows Point, Maryland steel plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines secondary gas cooling with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia recovery, ammonia destruction and sulfur recovery to produce a cleaner fuel gas for plant use. The primary environmental benefit associated with employing this innovative coke oven gas cleaning system is realized when the fuel gas is burned within the steel plant. Emissions of sulfur dioxide are reduced by more than 60 percent. The removal, recovery and destruction of ammonia eliminates the disposal problems associated with an unmarketable ammonium sulfate by-product. Significant reduction in benzene and hydrogen cyanide emissions are also obtained.

  15. Energy 42 (2012) 486-496 Thermoeconomic operation optimization of a coal-fired power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luh, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    optimization of a coal-fired power plant Jie Xiong a, Haibo Zhao a.*, Chao Zhang a, Chuguang Zheng a, Peter B optimization on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant located in Yiyang (Hunan Province, China) is accomplished based, are succes- sively realized on the power plant. Both strategies aim to minimize the total annual cost ofthe

  16. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  17. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

  18. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

  19. Coal-fired open cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant emissions and energy efficiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruhl, Jim

    This study is a review of projected emissions and energy efficiencies of coal-fired open cycle MHD power plants. Ideally one

  20. Capture-Ready Coal Plants -Options, Technologies and Economics Mark C. Bohm1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Capture-Ready Coal Plants - Options, Technologies and Economics Mark C. Bohm1 , Howard J. Herzog1 be employed during the initial design and construction of a both pulverized coal and integrated gasification the Internet in the summer of 2006 [7]. Introduction Interest in the construction of coal-fired power

  1. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis

  2. Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

  3. Speciation of chromium in feed coals and ash byproducts from Canadian power plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fariborz Goodarzi; Frank E. Huggins [Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants were examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents, chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely, Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+}, but in some cases, it is slightly lessand varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantlyCr{sup 3+}. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium, similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy for speciation determination. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants when coal power plants are retired. These models estimate the order in which existing power plants

  5. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Phase Ito restrict SO 2 emissions from coal-burning power plants (Coal-fired Power Plant (after Weber et al. , 1996) .42 Hazardous Organic Compounds in Combined Stack Emissions

  6. Planning for coal power plant transition : lessons learned from communities in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nochur, Aditya Kumar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As coal-fired power plants across the U.S. are retiring in increasing numbers - a trend likely to continue in the years ahead - the communities that host these plants will play a critical role in balancing local concerns ...

  7. Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Xi; Reiner, David; Gibbons, Jon; Li, Jia

    investors diversify risk, and offer global warming investors an alternative investment opportunity. As a detailed case study, we assess the value of a Capture Option and Capture Ready plant for a 600 MW supercritical pulverized coal power plant in China...

  8. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  9. Mortality study of employees at a synthetic rubber manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, T.M.; Buffler, P.A.; Holguin, A.H.; Hsi, B.P.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mortality follow-up study was conducted of workers employed at a synthetic rubber manufacturing plant in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Interest in the potential health effects of exposure to methyl chloride, one of the substances used in the manufacturing process, provided the impetus for this study. The study cohort consisted of 852 male process workers who had worked at least 1 month during the period from startup of operations in 1943 through December 31, 1978. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected when compared with the U.S. male population. No excess mortality from any specific cause of death was found in the study population after analysis by level and duration of exposure.

  10. Incorporating Undesirable Outputs into Malmquist TFP Index: Environmental Performance Growth of Chinese Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hongliang; Pollitt, Michael G.

    potential remains with regards to the efficiency improvement and emissions control in Chinese coal-fired power plants....

  11. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    2009 Keywords: Corbicula fluminea Coal-fired power plant Selenium Mercury Glutathione Condition index Bioaccumulation a b s t r a c t Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have, 1993, 1997, 2002; Rowe et al., 2002). For example, coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges have been

  12. Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant I coal-fired power plant. Aknowledgements: French environment agency ADEME (Contract number 04-74-C0018 that was carried out in March 2006 at a 600-MWe coal-fired power plant. 51 ineris-00973267,version1-4Apr2014 Author

  13. Plant coal conveyor is protected all along its length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, T.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At Brandon Shores, the newest of Baltimore Gas & Electric`s 10 power plants, a 5,000-foot coal conveyor is protected against fire by a detection and suppression system that guards every inch of the belt system. The heat-detection cables consist of two current-carrying wires separated by heat-sensitive insulation. The cables are installed in the area between the idlers and the rollers, and are supported by messenger wire. The complete system includes control panels, power supplies, deluge valve controls, alarm initiating devices, conduit, wire, fittings and all accessories required for a complete operating system. Besides the inch-by-inch protection of the cabling, automatic ionization smoke detectors provide area protection. They are designed to initiate the fire alarm detection loop upon detecting products of combustion.

  14. Italsim: A Knowledge-Based Simulation of a PCB Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaren, Bruce Martin

    Italsim: A Knowledge-Based Simulation of a PCB Manufacturing Plant Claudio Brancaleoni, Luca Bugno and simulate a printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing plant. The primary contribution of the system is its be executed by loading, as a starting state, a snapshot of a dynamic plant configuration. Italsim is currently

  15. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  16. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  17. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  18. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  20. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  1. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NOx emission samples

  2. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashadi, Sarah O.

    Adding post-combustion capture technology to existing coal-fired power plants is being considered as a near-term option for mitigating CO[subscript 2] emissions. To supply the thermal energy needed for CO[subscript 2] ...

  3. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered...

  4. Future Carbon Regulations and Current Investments in Alternative Coal-Fired Power Plant Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekar, Ram C.

    This paper assesses the role of uncertainty over future U.S. carbon regulations in shaping the current choice of which type of power plant to build. The pulverized coal technology (PC) still offer the lowest cost power— ...

  5. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gould, L. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Botros, P. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  6. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  7. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from combustion and gasification of coal – an equilibriumHolysh, M. 2005. Coke Gasification: Advanced technology forfrom a Coal-Fired Gasification Plant. Final Report, December

  8. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN COAL POWER PLANT PLUMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Program Area of Interest: No.5--Environmental and Water Resources. The project team includes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as the contractor and the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Frontier Geosciences as subcontractors. Wisconsin Energies and its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant acted as host for the field-testing portion of the research. The project is aimed at clarifying the role, rates, and end results of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. Mercury emitted from power plants emerges in either its elemental, divalent, or particulate-bound form. Deposition of the divalent form is more likely to occur closer to the source than that of the other two forms, due to its solubility in water. Thus, if chemical transformations occur in the stack emissions plume, measurements in the stack may mischaracterize the fate of the material. Initial field and pilot plant measurements have shown significant and rapid chemical reduction of divalent to elemental mercury may occur in these plumes. Mercury models currently assume that the chemical form of mercury occurring in stacks is the same as that which enters the free atmosphere, with no alteration occurring in the emissions plume. Recent data indicate otherwise, but need to be evaluated at full operating scale under field conditions. Prestbo and others have demonstrated the likelihood of significant mercury chemical reactions occurring in power plant plumes (Prestbo et al., 1999; MDNR-PPRP, 2000; EERC, 2001). This experiment will thus increase our understanding of mercury atmospheric chemistry, allowing informed decisions regarding source attribution. The experiment was carried out during the period August 22-September 5, 2003. The experimental site was the Pleasant Prairie Power Plant in Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. The experiment involved using an aircraft to capture emissions and document chemistry changes in the plume. While using the airplane for sampling, supplemental fast-response sensors for NOx, connected to data loggers, were used to gauge entry and exit times and transect intervals through plume emissions material. The Frontier Geosciences Static Plume Dilution Chamber (SPDC) was employed simultaneously adjacent to the stack to correlate its findings with the aircraft sampling, as well as providing evaluation of the SPDC as a rapid, less costly sampler for mercury chemistry. A complementary stack plume method, the Dynamic Plume Dilution (DPD) was used in the latter portion of the experiment to measure mercury speciation to observe any mercury reduction reaction with respect to both the reaction time (5 to 30 seconds) and dilution ratio. In addition, stack sampling using the ''Ontario Hydro'' wet chemistry method and continuous mercury monitors (CMM) were used to establish the baseline chemistry in the stack. Comparisons among stack, SPDC, DPD and aircraft measurements allow establishment of whether significant chemical changes to mercury occur in the plume, and of the verisimilitude of the SPDC and DPD methods. This progress report summarizes activities during a period of results review from the stack/aircraft subcontractor, data analysis and synthesis, and preparation and presentation of preliminary results to technical and oversight meetings.

  9. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  10. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    favors IGCC technology over existing power plant designs (technologies either retrofitted to existing power plants, ortechnologies that could either be retrofitted to existing coal-fired power plants,

  11. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program: commercial plant economic analysis (Task 1. 6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program are to evaluate the Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power plant conceptual design and to conduct supporting development programs for pressurized fluidized bed technology advancement in combustion/steam generator, gas turbine and hot gas cleanup technologies. The Coal-Fired Combined Cycle is the unique power plant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined-cycle power plant. The advantages of the combined cycle for higher efficiency and the potential of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor improvements in emissions could offer a new and attractive option to the electric utility industry. The CFCC approach provides for cooling the fluid bed combustor through the use of steam tubes in the bed which supply a steam turbine generator. The partially cooled combustion gases drive a gas turbine generator after passing through a hot gas cleanup train. The Conceptual CFCC Commercial Plant has been defined in Report No. Fe-2357-28. This design, being conceptual in nature, has not been improved through the formal cost reduction iteration/design program. An economic analysis of this baseline plant is provided in this report. The General Electric Company believes that the combustion of coal by the pressurized fluidized bed process is one of the most effective and efficient means for the utilization of coal with respect to both environmental considerations and the cost of electricity.

  12. Bio-Manufacturing: A Strategic clean energy manufacturing opportunity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Better Plants Challenge Manufacturing R&D Facilities Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Manufacturing Institutes National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute - Pilot Now...

  13. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  14. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Experimental data were obtained during this last quarter on the effects of particle size on drying rate for a North Dakota lignite. Other experiments looked at drying a PRB coal. The tests comparing drying rates with lignite particles of different diameters were carried out with particle top sizes from 2 to 9.5 mm and covered a range of air velocities. The results show that drying rate increased with air velocity, but that, within the accuracy of the data, the data for all four particle size distributions follow the same curve. This suggests the higher drying rates associated with the larger particles are due to higher air velocities and not to any inherently different drying rates due to particle size. The drying data with the PRB coal show qualitatively similar behavior to that observed with lignite. However, quantitative comparisons of the drying rate data obtained so far for the two coals show the PRB dried at rates which were 14 to 20 percent lower than the lignite, for comparable process conditions. The equilibrium relationship between relative humidity and coal moisture was refined using a correction for temperature. This reduced the scatter in the coal moisture versus relative humidity data and improved the predictions made with the first principle drying model.

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants Fred Clark Energy/GHG Advisor BP Aromatics & Acetyls Naperville, Illinois BP is the world?s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid...

  16. The Technical and Economic Potential for Electricity Energy Efficiency in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, A. H. W.; Golden, J. W.; Zarnikau, J. W.

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry. The declining prices for semiconductor products has prompted semiconductor manufacturing plants to control costs so as to maintain profitability...

  17. CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

  18. PRB coal safety design considerations for new greenfield plants: an EPCC's perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, J.H. [Fluor Power (United States)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article reviews the design and safety aspects to consider in a new greenfield Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired power plant such as the 200 MW TS Power Plant (TSPP) in Nevada that Fluor is working on as an engineering, procurement and construction contractor (EPCC). PRB coals can become fragmented and form coal dust that is highly volatile and easily self-ignited. Coal handling systems incorporate features to minimise dust, such as totally enclosed chute works, 'spoon drops' to reduce impact turbulence, and overflow hoods. Conveyors have extended skirtboards and tight clearances between the wear plates and the belts. Storage piles are designed to have high compaction to deprive oxygen and dust suppression monitor hydrants to minimise dust and assist in compaction. The coal silo filling bay is designed to minimise dust once the coal is crushed, and attention is paid to cleaning and lighting. The silos are designed to ensure mass flow to the feeder and incorporate a carbon monoxide monitor and an F-500 fire suppressant. 3 photos.

  19. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  20. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  1. Certifying U.S. Manufacturing Plants for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheihing, P.; Schultz, S.; Almaguer, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and demonstrate continual improvement in energy intensity. Certification of plants would provide strong incentive and recognition for effective plant energy management and would lay the groundwork for energy efficiency and carbon reduction that would favorably...

  2. Certifying U.S. Manufacturing Plants for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheihing, P.; Schultz, S.; Almaguer, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and demonstrate continual improvement in energy intensity. Certification of plants would provide strong incentive and recognition for effective plant energy management and would lay the groundwork for energy efficiency and carbon reduction that would favorably...

  3. DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. M. Wu

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  4. EA-1870: Utah Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant, Kanab, Kane County, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared an Environmental Assessment to evaluate the potential impacts of providing financial assistance to Viresco Energy, LLC, for its construction and operation of a Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant, which would be located in Kanab, Utah.

  5. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  6. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal-to-hydrogen plant capital costs .Capital cost of pulverized coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost ofIGCC coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost of repowering PC plant

  7. Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in Coal, Petroleum and Nuclear Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    and energy efficiency, and has declined for fossil fuel and nuclear technology. The 2005 federal budget of return to research and development (R&D) in the energy manufacturing industry. Our model tries from the OECD STAN database we are able to obtain results suggesting that R&D has a positive

  8. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  9. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  10. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  11. Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Energy's patented technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed-efficient technology represented by the coal-substitute technology. The same technology will be deployed by DIGGDigital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel Digital

  12. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the US DOE demonstration program is to demonstrate and verify second-generation technologies and validate the economic, environmental and productive capacity of a near commercial-size plant by integrating and operating a modular unit using commercial size equipment. These facilities are the final stage in the RD and D process aimed at accelerating and reducing the risks of industrial process implementation. Under the DOE program, contracts for the design, construction, and operation of the demonstration plants are awarded through competitive procedures and are cost shared with the industrial partner. The conceptual design phase is funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded between industry and the government. The government share of the cost involved for a demonstration plant depends on the plant size, location, and the desirability and risk of the process to be demonstrated. The various plants and programs are discussed: Description and status, funding, history, flowsheet and progress during the current quarter. (LTN)

  13. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

  14. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study therefore determines the steam cycle parameters and combustion technology that would yield the lowest cost of electricity (COE) for the next generation of coal-fired steam power plants. The second part of the study (Repowering) explores the means of upgrading the efficiency and output of an older existing coal fired steam power plant. There are currently more than 1,400 coal-fired units in operation in the United States generating about 54 percent of the electricity consumed. Many of these are modern units are clean and efficient. Additionally, there are many older units in excellent condition and still in service that could benefit from this repowering technology. The study evaluates the technical feasibility, thermal performance, and economic viability of this repowering concept.

  15. Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Michael R.

    This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate ...

  16. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Robert L.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

  17. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr...

  18. Aerosol dispersion and coagulation from a coal-fired power plant: a three dimensional numerical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckholtz, H.T.; Biermann, A.H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational model to simulate the dispersion and coagulation of aerosols emitted from coal-fired power plants was constructed. In modeling the dispersion of the aerosol, turbulent diffusion and wind-driven advection are treated by a finite-difference method. Molecular coagulation is incorporated in the model to follow shifts in the particle-size distribution. Particulate coagulation is mathematically described by Timiskii's equation. The relevent semi-empirical work of Smirnov is incorporated in the model to provide for the coagultion constant. Input for the model is a bimodal, particle-size distribution measured at an operating coal-fired power plant. Simulations indicate that dispersion competes against coagulation mechanisms to maintain the bimodal shaped distribution for 32 km. Turbulence and particle settling tend to enchance coagulation effects. The size-dependent spatial segregation of particles within the plume is predicted.

  19. assumed, with no inter-district transport.) If the conventional technology coal-fired power plant is used

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assumed, with no inter-district transport.) If the conventional technology coal-fired power plant-fired power plant is used for comparison, then lower SO2, NOx or particulate emissions can be expected in 9. A final option considered was to retrofit emission controls for captive power plants at an additional cost

  20. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

  1. Quarterly Coal Report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the second quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. Additional historical data can also be found in the following EIA publications : Annual Energy Review 1993 (DOE/EIA-0384(93)), Monthly Energy Review (DOE/EIA-0035), and Coal Data: A Reference (DOE/EIA-0064(90)). The historical data in this report are collected by the EIA in three quarterly coal surveys (coal consumption at manufacturing plants, coal distribution, and coal consumption at coke plants), one annual coal production survey, and two monthly surveys of electric utilities. All data shown for 1993 and previous years are final. Data for 1994 are preliminary.

  2. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  3. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  4. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (Dry Basis) Installed Plant Cost,Plant Cost, MM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis)Cost increments fora 25246 ton coal per day SRC plant are

  5. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  6. Fine coal flotation plant waste comparison--column vs. sub-a cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to compare results from a small commercially sized Deister Flotaire column flotation cell with the subaeration cells at Kerr-McGee's Galatia plant during side by side testing of feed splits from the same sources. Typical cell criteria for both cells are included in the appendix. The project involved the activities of three organizations: the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, the Deister Concentrator Company, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. Their roles were as follows: Kerr-McGee installed the Deister column with sample splitter and tailings volume measuring cell in the Galatia Coal Preparation Plant to treat a representative split of their flotation feed; Deister provided a 30 inch diameter {times} 35{prime} high Deister Flotaire Column Flotation Cell capable of treating nominally one ton per hour or slightly over 1% of the plant feed. Deister additionally provided the sample splitter and the tailings volume measuring cell. ISGS personnel worked with both companies on the installation, conducted laboratory tests to direct the early plant test reagent practice, attended all of the plant runs cutting representative samples of feed, measuring slurry and reagent flows, preparing samples and writing reports.

  7. Abdel-Aziz, A. and H.C. Frey, "Quantification of Hourly Variability in Hourly Activity and NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Emissions for Baseload Coal- Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management for Baseload Coal Fired Power Plants Paper No. 69572 Amr Abdel-Aziz and H. Christopher Frey Department of Civil emission factors from coal-fired power plants vary over time due to variation in coal composition fed

  8. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

  9. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  10. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Commercial plant requirements definition update (Task 1. 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power system thermodynamic cycle is illustrated schematically. Pressurized air supplied at the discharge of gas turbine compressors is ducted to the pressure vessel of pressurized, fluidized-bed, combustor-steam generator modules. The air is introduced in parallel to the beds, entering through distribution grids beneath each bed. Steam generation tubes are buried within the beds and are also arranged as membrane tube walls enclosing the four sides. Crushed coal (1/4 inch x 0) is pneumatically fed at locations just above the air inlet grids at the bottom of each bed. Dolomite is similarly fed to the individual beds. The coal is burned at a temperature below the ash fusion point. Sulfur is removed in the fluid beds through reaction of the SO/sub 2/ with CaCO/sub 3/ and O/sub 2/ to form solid CaSO/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ gas. The combustion gases leave the beds at a temperature in the range of 1400/sup 0/F to 1750/sup 0/F, depending upon the plant load fraction, and combustion heat is also transferred from the bed to the steam generation tubes. For the PFB combustor at full load, approximately 39% of the heating value of the coal appears i the exhaust gas, 57% appears in the steam, and 4% is apportioned among various losses. The steam circuitry is the supercritical once-through type. Steam is generated at 3500 psi and 1000/sup 0/F and is reheated to 1000/sup 0/F after expansion through the high pressure section of the steam turbine. The exhaust gases from the fluidized beds, which entrain a high percentage of the coal ash as well as dolomite fines, are ducted to conventional cyclones and then to electrocyclones before being admitted to the gas turbine.

  11. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  12. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Recovery of coal from preparation plant effluents using a packed column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V.; Khan, L.; Yang, D.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of recovering coal from coal preparation plant waste (or effluent) streams at the pilot scale using the packed column flotation process is demonstrated. In Phase I of the project, a total of four effluent samples were tested at the bench scale with the objective of recovering low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal products that were, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal produced by the preparation plants supplying the waste stream samples. Phase II of the project comprised demonstration of the technology at the pilot scale using a 4-in. I.D. {times} 20-ft tall column installed at the Applied Laboratory of the Illinois State Geological Survey. A large effluent sample was conducted, consisting of particle size distribution, proximate and complete analyses, and batch froth flotation testing. Ash, total and pyritic sulfur, and calorific value of the effluent sample were also determined. The effluent feed sample contained 50-55% ash and 2.2% total sulfur. Confirmatory tests were conducted at Michigan Technological University using a bench-scale packed column. A product containing 5.4% ash was obtained at 97.5% ash rejection and 71.8% combustible matter recovery. Changing the process operating parameters allowed the quality of the product to be controlled such that its ash content ranged between 6 and 10%, with combustible matter recoveries in the 71-77% range. Pilot testing was conducted using a test matrix designed to study the effects of primary variables (feed rate, percent solids, and reagent dosage) and operating variables (air rate, wash water, and pulp level) with the objective of optimizing the process performance. Feed rates of 20-108 lb/hour were tested, with very good performance being obtained at a feed rate of 32 lb/hour (374 lb/h/ft{sup 2}).

  14. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida) are oversupplied as well. While the total US demand for ultrafine pozzolan is currently equal to demand, there is no reason to expect a significant increase in demand. Despite the technical merits identified in the pilot plant work with regard to beneficiating the entire pond ash stream, market developments in the Ohio River Valley area during 2006-2007 were not conducive to demonstrating the project at the scale proposed in the Cooperative Agreement. As a result, Cemex withdrew from the project in 2006 citing unfavorable local market conditions in the foreseeable future at the demonstration site. During the Budget Period 1 extensions provided by the DOE, CAER has contacted several other companies, including cement producers and ash marketing concerns for private cost share. Based on the prevailing demand-supply situation, these companies had expressed interest only in limited product lines, rather than the entire ash beneficiation product stream. Although CAER had generated interest in the technology, a financial commitment to proceed to Budget Period 2 could not be obtained from private companies. Furthermore, the prospects of any decisions being reached within a reasonable time frame were dim. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007. The activities presented in this report were carried out during the Cooperative Agreement period 08 November 2004 through 31 March 2007.

  15. COAL DERIVED MATRIX PITCHES FOR CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE/PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND COMPOSITES FROM COAL-BASED PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter G. Stansberry; John W. Zondlo

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory continue with the development of innovative technologies that will allow coal or coal-derived feedstocks to be used in the production of value-added carbon materials. In addition to supporting eleven independent projects during budget period 3, three meetings were held at two separate locations for the membership. The first was held at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort on May 15-16, 2000. This was followed by two meetings at Penn State, a tutorial on August 11, 2000 and a technical progress meeting on October 26-27.

  16. A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

  17. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  18. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot-spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples; however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot-spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that n

  19. The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, Eric Jon

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the hot gases flow into a condenser where they are (1-3, 7) cooled and the liquid sulfur 1s removed. The final steps 1n the gasif1cation process are to compr ess the methanated gas from appr oximately 140 psig to pipel1ne pr essure of 1000 psig...THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS(PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment...

  20. PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  2. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  3. Fine coal flotation of plant waste: An in-plant comparison - columns vs. sub-A cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.M.; Kohlenberger, L.; Rapp, D.M. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Stephenson, J.; Zipperian, D. (Deister Machine Co., Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)); Sterner, R.M.; Norris, D. (Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to compare the flotation effectiveness of the column flotation and the sub-aeration technology to clean very fine ({minus}100 mesh) coal in the waste streams of coal washing plants. Good concentrate grades along with a high recovery of energy content have been achieved while rejecting a large percentage of the ash forming minerals and pyrite. However, comparative data of columns vs. sub-aeration cells is not available from a single plant. This project was developed to install a small commercial size Deister Column beside the existing sub-aeration flotation cells at Kerr-McGee's Galatia Plant so that a comparison of the flotation results can be made. A representative split of the fines which normally goes to sub-aeration cells can be diverted without reagent, to the column for continuous side by side flotation testing over an extended period. The Deister Column was installed during the quarter along with the sampling system and tailings volume measuring apparatus. Parts of several weeks were spent in assuring that realistic goals could be obtained. During the de-bugging period it was found that water pressure and air pressure within the plant was not constant due to cleanup hoses which were on the same fresh water line to assure constant water and air pressure to the column during testing periods. Most of the shakedown testing was completed in April and May. Preliminary tests have been run in which high grade concentrates have been made but with low Btu recoveries. Additional tests with increased reagent rates are planned to increase Btu recoveries and will be reported at the Contractors Conference and in the final report. 24 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  5. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  6. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74. Any coal application (coal gasification, coal combustionFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for RetrofittingPower Plants Employing Coal Gasification," Bergman, P. D. ,

  7. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  9. Optimal Synthesis of a Pulverized Coal Power Plant with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash R. Kotecha; Juan M. Salazar; Stephen Zitney

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal constitutes an important source of fuel for the production of power in the United States. For instance, in January 2009, pulverized coal (PC) power plants alone contributed to over 45 percent of the Nation's total electric power production. However, PC power plants also contribute to increased emissions of greenhouse gases principally carbon-dioxide (CO2). Recently, various carbon capture strategies have been under active investigation so as to make these plants compete with the more environmental friendly renewable energy sources. One such technology that has received considerable success is the capture of CO2 by an amine-based solvent extraction process. However, an aqueous absorption/stripping technology when used in a PC power plant can reduce the net power output of the plant by as much as 20-40%. The energy penalty comes from heating up the solvent in the regenerator, balancing the enthalpy of reaction, and water stripping. This energy penalty poses considerable limitations on commercial viability of the solvent extraction process and, as a result, various energy-saving modifications have been proposed in the literature ranging from the use of hybrid solvents to novel stripper configurations. In this paper, we show that the energy penalty can be further reduced by heat integration of various PC plant components with the carbon capture system. In addition to the release of greenhouse gases to the environment, PC plants also consume a large amount of freshwater. It is estimated that subcritical and supercritical PC plants have water losses of 714 gal/MWh and 639 gal/MWh, respectively. Water loss is based on an overall balance of the plant source and exit streams. This includes coal moisture, air humidity, process makeup, cooling tower makeup (equivalent to evaporation plus blowdown), process losses (including losses through reactions, solids entrainment, and process makeup/blowdown) and flue gas losses. The primary source of water used in PC power plants is the closed-loop steam-based (Rankine) power cycles. These plants need to condense large quantities of low-pressure steam back to water so that it can be reused to produce high pressure steam. However, this requires the removal of large quantities of heat from the low pressure steam in the condensation process. This is usually done by transferring the heat to cooling water, which in turn transfers this heat to the environment by evaporation to the atmosphere. Also, the inclusion of a carbon capture process can increase the raw water usage by as much as 95 percent. In this work, we use heat exchanger network synthesis followed by an optimization approach to process synthesis for developing strategies for reducing water use in a supercritical PC power plant with a carbon capture and compression system. Uncertainties associated with dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and demand will also be considered in this analysis.

  10. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

  12. Distinguishing Weak and Strong Disposability among Undesireable Outputs in DEA: The Example of the Environmental Efficiency of Chinese Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hongliang; Pollitt, Michael G.

    of the sample power plants is 211.71GW. The total annual generation is 1117.59 TWh. Data, such as installed capacity, annual fuel consumption (coal and oil), number of employees, annual electricity generation, heat rates, and quality of fuel, were collected... , the lower the amount of coal consumed. Therefore, in order to make the final efficiency evaluation accurate and a comparison between plants meaningful, all coal, oil, and gas consumption are converted to energy (or heat) input which is measured...

  13. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity from MEA production and the impact of increased coal use including the increased generation of NOx from combustion and transportation, impacts of increased mining of coal and limestone, and the disposal of toxic fly ash and boiler ash waste streams. Overall, the implementing CCS technology could contribute to a dramatic decrease in global GHG emissions, while most other environmental and human health impact categories increase only slightly on a global scale. However, the impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity have not been studied as extensively and could have more severe impacts on a regional or local scale. More research is needed to draw strong conclusions with respect to the specific relative impact of different CCS technologies. Specifically, a more robust data set that disaggregates data in terms of component processes and treats a more comprehensive set of environmental impacts categories from a life-cycle perspective is needed. In addition, the current LCA framework lacks the required temporal and spatial scales to determine the risk of environmental impact from carbon sequestration. Appropriate factors to use when assessing the risk of water acidification (groundwater/oceans/aquifers depending on sequestration site), risk of increased human toxicity impact from large accidental releases from pipeline or wells, and the legal and public policy risk associated with licensing CO2 sequestration sites are also not currently addressed. In addition to identifying potential environmental, social, or risk-related issues that could impede the large-scale deployment of CCS, performing LCA-based studies on energy generation technologies can suggest places to focus our efforts to achieve technically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally conscious energy generation technologies for maximum impact.

  14. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  15. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingfarms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingin the stand-alone coal generation option (IGCC+CCS plant)

  16. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and l

  17. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  18. Elemental Modes of Occurrence in an Illinois #6 Coal and Fractions Prepared by Physical Separation Techniques at a Coal Preparation Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.; Seidu, L; Shah, N; Huffman, G; Honaker, R; Kyger, J; Higgins, B; Robertson, J; Pal, S; Seehra, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois No.6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({approx} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser amounts associated with illite and a third form yet to be conclusively identified. The non-sulfide zinc forms are removed predominantly by the first stage of separation (rotary breaker), whereas the sphalerite is removed by the second stage (heavy media). Germanium is the only trace element determined to have a predominantly organic association.

  19. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  20. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be significant shortages in supply if response to new demand is not well-timed.

  1. Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit : HindustanTimes.com http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/5922_1646830,001500250000000... 1 of 2 3/10/2006 7:45 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit : HindustanTimes.com http 1 Front » Story Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit HT Correspondent Kanpur, March that coal based thermal power plants are the main source for air pollution. The fact came to the fore during

  2. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

  3. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

  4. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  5. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

  6. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr-Oliver/E.Keeler...

  7. Investigation of feasibility of injecting power plant waste gases for enhanced coalbed methane recovery from low rank coals in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saugier, Luke Duncan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    such as power plants. CO2 emissions can be offset by sequestration of produced CO2 in natural reservoirs such as coal seams, which may initially contain methane. Production of coalbed methane can be enhanced through CO2 injection, providing an opportunity...

  8. 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

  9. Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

  10. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  11. Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Patsky O.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University (TAMU) demonstrated that cofiring coal with feedlot biomass (FB) in conventional burners produced lower or similar levels of NOx but increased CO. The present research deals with i) construction of a small scale 29.31 kW (100,000 BTU/hr) LNB...

  12. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  13. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  14. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone IGCC+CCS Coal Plant The levelized cost of electricitythan advanced coal plants and hence their cost estimates areestimates of the costs of an advanced coal plant, since they

  15. Testing Kentucky Coal to Set Design Criteria for a Lurgi Gasification Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roeger, A., III; Jones, J. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tri-State Synfuels Company, in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky, undertook a comprehensive coal testing program to support the development of an indirect coal liquefaction project. One of the major elements of the program was a...

  16. Carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants : a real potions analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekar, Ram Chandra

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal ...

  17. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their respective coal liquefaction plants; these costs areof Coal-Fired Power Plant Installation Costs - 1000 MwEstimates of Coal-Fired Power Plant Installation Costs 1000

  18. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

  19. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  1. From plant to dealer : improving route optimization for outbound vehicle distribution at an automobile manufacturer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katcoff, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With rising fuel costs and increasing rates among specialized shipping carriers, cost mitigation in outbound distribution is increasingly important for automobile manufacturers. Many manufacturers have turned to specialized, ...

  2. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Jay Apt [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been cancelled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO{sub 2} reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies. 50 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy RegulatoryPlants Due to Coal Shortages”, Federal Energy RegulatoryCouncil (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, Volume

  4. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of total electricity generation is because coal plants haveplants come to play an important role in the electricity generationplants will be built in the years around 2020, thereby increasing coal’s share of electricity generation

  5. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  6. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  7. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  8. Evolution of particulate emissions from a coal-fired power plant. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckholtz, H.T.Y.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model has been developed for the dispersal of aerosols downwind from a coal-fired power plant. The main goals were to evaluate with a mathematical simulation the evolution of the spatial extent and particle size distribution of the aerosol material and to predict settling rates affecting the surface environment in the downwind path. The hot air plume coming out of the power plant stack includes a large quantity of aerosol particles. The plume rises with initial upward emission speed until it reaches thermal and kinetic equilibria with the ambient air, then it is transported by the wind current. The plume disperses vertically and horizontally by wind turbulence. In the model particulate coagulation is mathematically described by Timiskii's equation. The relevant semi-empirical work of Smirnov is incorporated to provide the coagulation constant. Because of coagulation, the concentrations of different sizes of aerosol particles in the plume are changed. The numerical simulation studies the importance of particulate coagulation and turbulent dispersion on the downwind plume profile. The downwind transport of the aerosol particles is described by Fick's diffusion equation with the Brownian diffusion coefficient replaced by the turbulent diffusion coefficient. Particle sedimentation is incorporated into the diffusion equation as a first-order differential term. The transport equation is solved by an unconditionally stable finite difference method. At 20 miles downwind, most of the particles with diameter larger than 10 ..mu..m have settled to the ground. The size distribution is still bimodal. The distribution of larger particles remains almost unchanged, except for the departure of the super-micronic particles, because coagulation losses are approximately balanced by coagulation gains.

  9. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  10. Materials Analyst -Federal-Mogul Corporation -Skokie Plant The Material Analyst is responsible for procuring materials to support the manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Materials Analyst - Federal-Mogul Corporation - Skokie Plant The Material Analyst is responsible for procuring materials to support the manufacturing function by maintaining raw material levels that ensure and utilize inventory system to analyze material requirements to ensure proper inventory levels. 2. Place

  11. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  12. Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2011 NRELDOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop Report Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications...

  13. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : improvement of Kanban policy and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wu, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the application of the principles of lean manufacturing and supply chain planning at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates. Varian is a manufacturer of ion implantation machines, and supplies and ...

  14. Environmental Analysis of the Coal-based Power Production with Amine-based Carbon Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Based on LCA methodology the study examines the operation of six coal power plants, which differ by the expected efficiency parameters for the year 2020: (1) Coal plant2005: pulverized coal power plant already operating in 2005 (2) Coal plant2010: pulverized coal power plant installed in 2010 (3) Coal plant2020

  15. ASPEN simulation of the SNG production process in an indirect coal-liquefaction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bistline, J E; Shafer, T B

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthetic natural gas (SNG) production process (methanation, CO-shift, and hydrogen removal) in an indirect coal-liquefaction plant was simulated using the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN). The simulation of the methanation unit agreed to within 12% of Fluor's design for converting carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. A parametric study examined the effect of four important operating parameters on product composition, process thermal efficiency, and outlet temperature from the second methanation reactor. The molar split of gas feed to the CO-shift unit before methanation was varied from 0.2 to 0.6; variations of molar recycle ratio (0.01 - 0.67), molar steam-to-feed ratio (0.04 - 0.19), and feed temperature (478 - 533 K, 400-500/sup 0/F) to the first methanation reactor were also studied. A 50%-lower split improved thermal efficiency by 6%, but the mole % hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the product SNG required to meet pipeline-quality standards and temperature constraints were not met. Increasing the steam-to-feed ratio from 0.04 to 0.19 improved product quality but decreased thermal efficiency by 8%. By decreasing the feed temperature from 533 to 477 K (500 to 400/sup 0/F), product specifications and temperature constraints were met with no effect on thermal efficiency. However, it may be impractical to operate the reactor at 477 K (400/sup 0/F) because the kinetics are too slow. Increasing the recycle ratio from 0.4 to 0.67 had no effect on thermal efficiency, and temperature constraints and product specifications were met. The SNG production process should be optimized at recycle ratios above 0.67.

  16. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

  17. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Generation Technology Conventional Coal-Fired PowerPlants Advanced Coal-Electric Plants OperatingCharacteristics for Conventional Coal- Fired Power

  18. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  19. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)] [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)] [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  20. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning ...

  1. The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, Eric Jon

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sources. Technologies with some promise of fulfilling this need include solar power, laser fusion, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, geothermal power, wind power, wave power, hydr oelectric power, oil shale, tar sands, and coal conversion. Although...

  2. Design study of a coal-fired thermionic (THX) topped power plant. Volume IV. Thermionic heat exchanger design and costing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.S.; Britt, E.J.

    1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume deals with the details of how thermionic conversion works, and how it is used in a coal-fired furnace to achieve power plant efficiencies of 45%, and overall costs of 36.3 mills/kWh. A review of the fundamental technical aspects of thermionic conversion is given. The overall Thermionic Heat Exchanger (THX) design, the heat pipe design, and the interaction of the heat pipes with the furnace are presented. Also, the operational characteristics of thermionic converters are described. Details on the computer program used to perform the parametric study are given. The overall program flow is reviewed along with the specifics of how the THX subroutine designed the converter to match the conditions imposed. Also, input costs and variables effecting the THX's performance are detailed. The efficiencies of the various power plants studied are given as a function of the air preheat temperature, size of the power plant, and thermionic level of performance.

  3. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  4. Exergy method of power plant systems analysis and its application to a pressurized fluidized bed coal-fired combined-cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghamarian, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis surveys the concepts of exergy and extends the exergy method of analysis from the standpoint of its applications to the power plant systems. After a brief historical review of exergy concepts, the general exergy equation is derived from the combined equation of First and Second Law, and it is shown that any special case of exergy equation is a simplified form of the general exergy equation. The mathematical method for the exergy analysis of a steady-state, steady-flow system, analogous to that of the First Law, is given. The exergy losses in a power plant are discussed. Then in order to examine these losses, the Second Law performance of major processes of combustion, compression, heat transfer, mixing and throttling have been analyzed analytically, and the exergy efficiencies are defined that accurately assess the thermodynamic performance of the corresponding processes. The methods for computation of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are given and simplified for practical cases of the corresponding processes. Analytical methods for evaluating the exergy of coal, pure substances (air and water), and combustion gases are presented and the energy-exergy tables for corresponding working substances are constructed. Finally, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis, with emphasis on the Second Law (exergy) consideration, of an actual coal-fired, combined-cycle (CFCC) power plant, being designed by the General Electric Company, is carried out and suggestions are made as to what (and where), if any, improvement might be made in the design.

  5. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  6. MANUFACTURING Manufacturing and Biomanufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    process improvements to manufacturing. In addition, the critical national need area of Manufacturing hasMANUFACTURING Manufacturing and Biomanufacturing: Materials Advances and Critical Processes NATIONAL NEED The proposed topics within "Manufacturing and Biomanufacturing: Materials Advances

  7. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel; Browers, Bruce

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO2 capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO2 by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO2 capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO2 and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO2/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO2/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO2 and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO2 capture achieved using the 2-bed configuration with recirculation in both beds was 65-70% with a high flue gas CO2 loading (~7%) and up to 85% with a low flue gas CO2 loading (~4%). A sorbent regenerator system consisting of a pre-heater, desorber, and cooler is used to heat the CO2-rich sorbent with direct and indirect steam producing a nearly 100% pure stream of CO2. Parametric testing of the regenerator system demonstrated the impact of process conditions on both desorption rate and the heat of regeneration. Clear evidence of the use of specific process conditions that lower the overall energy of desorption was identified. This observation validates measurements made at the laboratory-scale. Several longer-term continuous tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the sorbent/process as a function of time. Using a 2-bed configuration, sustained capture efficiency of 40-60% with a high flue gas CO2 loading (~8%) and 70-80% with a low flue gas CO2 loading (~4%) were achieved. However, sorbent working capacity was found to be considerably lower than laboratory-scale measurements. The low working capacity is attributed to insufficient sorbent/gas contact time in the adsorber. Sorbent properties that had a significant impact on CO2 capture performance were identified. The results show that controlling these sorbent properties substantially improves CO2 capture performance, with preliminary estimates indicating that relative improvement of ~30% is possible. Testing culminated with an operationally trouble-free test of 15 hours with sustainable performance. Overall, several practical strategies to increase performance of the sorbent and process were identified. The initial technical and economic assessment of the CACHYS™ process estimated the cost of CO2 capture was $36.19/ton with a 48.6% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the 550 MWe net plant. Using additional data gathered over the course of the project, and with revised technical and economic assumptions, the estimated cost of CO2 capture with the CACHYS™ process is $39/ton (only includes the cost of the CO2 capture system

  8. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  9. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  10. Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Detailed Coal Specificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity, Revision 2 CO2 Capture Ready Coal Power Plants Assessment of Hydrogen Production...

  11. Application of the SELECS methodology to evaluate socioeconomic and environmental impacts of commercial-scale coal liquefaction plants at six potential sites in Kentucky. Final report from the study on development of environmental guidelines for the selection of sites for fossil energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northrop, G. M.; D'Ambra, C. A.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and socioeconomic impacts likely to occur during the operational phase of two coal liquefaction processes have been evaluated with SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) for each of six potential sites in Kentucky for commercial scale facilities capable of processing about 26,000 tons of coal per stream day. The processes considered in this evaluation are SRC-I, a direct liquefaction route with solid boiler fuel as the principal product, and Coal-to-Methanol-to-Gasoline, an indirect liquefaction route with transportation fuel as the primary product. For comparative purposes, the impacts of a 2-gigawatt coal-fired steam-electric power plant (with coal requirements comparable to the liquefaction facilities) and an automobile parts manufacturing plant (with employment requirements of 849, comparable to the liquefaction facilities) have also been evaluated at each site. At each site, impacts have been evaluated for one or two nearby cities or towns and four to six counties where significant impacts might be expected. The SELECS methodology affords a well-organized and efficient approach to collecting and assessing a large volume of data needed to comprehensively determine the potential socioeconomic and environmental impacts resulting from the implementation of commercial scale synfuel and other energy conversion facilities. This study has also shown that SELECS is equally applicable to determine the impacts of other facilities, such as automobile parts manufacturing. In brief, the SELECS methodology serves the purpose of objectively screening sites in order to choose one at which adverse impacts will be least, and/or to determine what aspect of a proposed facility might be modified to lessen impacts at a specific site.

  12. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : improved efficiencies in raw material presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daneshmand, Moojan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the application of the principles of lean manufacturing at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates (VSEA). The company faces the challenges of highly customized assembly as well as fluctuating ...

  13. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : inventory correction and shortage measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raykar, Sumant (Sumant Shreechandra)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the application of the principles of lean manufacturing and supply chain planning at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates. The company's products are highly customizable, and the production ...

  14. Operations improvement in a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant : component level and assembly level inventory management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yiming, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor capital equipment is manufactured in a high-mix and low-volume environment at Varian Semiconductor Equipment business unit of Applied Materials. Due to the demand growth over the past years, Varian has been ...

  15. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...

  16. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. The approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. In the first two quarters the authors designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, analyzed the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. They retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and required no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample required from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity. This report covers the third quarter of the project. The authors produced the CSS-FBC mixtures, analyzed the soil fertility parameters of the mixtures,, planted the crops, and monitored their growth. All mixtures support at least some plant growth, although some plants did better than others. It is too early to analyze the results statistically. Next quarter the plants will be harvested, yields calculated, mineral uptake evaluated, and a final report will be written on plant response to CSS-FBC mixtures.

  17. REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    , comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas, and metals. Tar resid- uals were produced from the vola- tiIe component of bituminous coals in coal

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal electricity generation efficiency also varies by plantplants. The unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationelectricity generation is comparatively low in China due to the prevalence of small, outdated coal-fired power plants.

  19. Advanced intelligent coordinated control of coal fired power plant based on fuzzy reasoning and auto-tuning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The load following operation of coal-fired boiler-turbine unit in power plants can lead to changes in operating points, and it results in nonlinear variations of the plant variables and parameters. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. PID-type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. Moreover, PID-type controllers can be auto-tuned to achieve a better control performance in the whole operating range and to reject the unmeasurable disturbances. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, namely the Gaussian partition system with evenly spaced midpoints, is also proposed to auto-tune the PID controller in the main steam pressure loop based on the error signal and its first difference to overcome uncertainties caused by changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors, etc. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process.

  20. Testing Kentucky Coal to Set Design Criteria for a Lurgi Gasification Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roeger, A., III; Jones, J. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's subcontractors, the Commonwealth of Kentucky or any agency thereof, or the United States Government or any agency thereof. INTRODUCTION Tri-State Synfuels Project Tri-State Synfuels Company, a partnershi of Texas Eastern Corporation and Texas Gas Transmis...Eion Corporat ion affiliates, proposes to produce li~Uid transportation fuels and substitute natural gas rom coal using the indirect liquefaction appr ach (Reference 1). The proj ect is sited in Hende son County, Kentucky and will, if built, use COIer...

  1. Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

  2. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  3. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  4. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  5. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal-gasification plant. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglar, A. F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste in preparation for dischage to the environment. Most wastewater was recycled for scrubbing and cooling the product gas, with the excess requiring disposal found to be an average of only 1170 gallons per day (53 gallons per ton of coal, as received, and 366 gallons per million cubic feet of product gas). Analysis indicated that the waste was warm, high in alkaline material, especially ammonia, high in organic material, especially phenols, and also contaminated with other substances. Sulfides and thiocyanates were especially high in concentration. It was found that pretreatment could be accomplished by stripping (air injection) at high pH, removal of grease and oil (by pH suppression and light aeration) and neutralizatin. Equations were developed to describe the first two steps. Biological treatment through activated sludge was found to be successful, but effected only a moderate degree of treatment, and was troubled with frequent process upset. Attempts to improve treatment efficiency and stability are described. The data indicated the need to study aerated waste stabilization ponds as an alternative to activated sludge. Biological reaction kinetics were studied for activated sludge. Evaluation of the application of granular activated carbon suggested that this could be an effective practical tertiary treatment.

  6. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  7. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  8. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  9. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plants. Only one coal slurry pipeline is currently operatinggenerally agreed that new coal slurry pipelines may have amade in railroad capacity, coal-slurry pipelines or expanded

  10. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1973, Chapter 5. "Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, IIReactions jn Coal Gasification/Combination Atmosphen~s,"

  11. Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.P.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

  12. Impact of Advanced Turbine Systems on coal-based power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The advanced power-generation products currently under development in our program show great promise for ultimate commercial use. Four of these products are referred to in this paper: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC), and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC). Three of these products, IGCC, PFBC, and EFCC, rely on advanced gas turbines as a key enabling technology and the foundation for efficiencies in the range of 52 to 55 percent. DOE is funding the development of advanced gas turbines in the newly instituted Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, one of DOE`s highest priority natural gas initiatives. The turbines, which will have natural gas efficiencies of 60 percent, are being evaluated for coal gas compatibility as part of that program.

  13. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  14. Oxidation of byproduct calcium sulfite hemihydrate from coal-fired power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Sandeep

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flue gas desulfurization by-product from the TU Electric Martin Lake power plant near Tatum, Texas was characterized using thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, microprobe and infrared spectroscopy. The byproduct, called gypsite, consisted of a...

  15. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  16. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Safety audits of pilot plants and PDU's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Lee, M.D.; Miller, G.R.; Bernard, D.M.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.W. Kellogg (formerly Pullmann Kellogg) was requested by DOE to investigate and to evaluate normal and emergency operating procedures and the drawing record systems of the coal gasification pilot plants and process development units (PDU). The purpose of this Safety Audit was to identify deficiencies in operating policies or procedures which could lead to potential hazards. The evaluation of safety-related documentation at the pilot plants and PDU's was also included in the audit. The safety audit visits and meetings were conducted at the following research sites: Bell Aerosopace, BCR BI-GAS, Exxon, IGT Hygas/Peatgas, Rockwell International, and Westinghouse. Kellogg conducted the safety audits requested by DOE. These reviews show the developers as possessing very sincere, positive attitudes toward safety and as being committed to ongoing safety programs. Kellogg found that (in general) all of the developers: use written statements of objectives, operating procedures and check lists; have some form of formal safety training for operators; review equipment and procedural revisions with operators; and maintain timely and accurate drawing records.

  17. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

  18. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmody, R.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

  19. Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency at U.S. Plastics Manufacturing Plants: Summary Report and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Programs BestPractices report based on a comprehensive plant assessment project with ITP's Industrial Assessment Center, The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and several of its member companies.

  1. Significant Improvement in Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing at Rohm and Haas’ Kankakee, Illinois, Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkley, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant improvement in energy efficiency was achieved at Rohm and Haas’ Kankakee, Illinois facility last year through the combined efforts of all plant personnel. In total, a 24% reduction in energy requirements per pound of product produced...

  2. Significant Improvement in Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing at Rohm and Haas’ Kankakee, Illinois, Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkley, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant improvement in energy efficiency was achieved at Rohm and Haas’ Kankakee, Illinois facility last year through the combined efforts of all plant personnel. In total, a 24% reduction in energy requirements per pound of product produced...

  3. Mercury speciation in coal-fired power plant plumes observed at three surface sites in the southeastern U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric S. Edgerton; Benjamin E. Hartsell; John J. Jansen [Atmospheric Research & Analysis, Inc., Cary, NC (United States)

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) and fine particulate Hg (Hg{sub P}) were measured intermittently at three sites in the southeastern U.S. from June 2001 through November 2004. Simultaneous measurements of SO{sub 2} and NOy were used to identify plumes from coal fired power plants (CFPPs). Emission signatures and back trajectories were used to identity specific CFPPs, and to compare observed (i.e., at the site) versus expected (i.e., at the stack) Hg speciation. Results for 41 precipitation-free plume events show that observed RGM:SO{sub 2} is substantially lower (by a factor of 2-4) than expected RGM:SO{sub 2}. Hg{sub P} represented 2%, or less, of total-Hg in CFPP plumes, in general agreement with emission estimates. Results for 21 events, where both RGM and Hg{sup 0} could be estimated, show that total-Hg (i.e., RGM + Hg{sup 0}) was essentially conserved from the point of emission to the site, and that Hg{sup 0} was the dominant form (average 84%). Emission estimates, based on coal analyses and the EPRI-ICR Hg speciation model, indicate that Hg{sup 0} should represent about 42% of Hg in the observed plumes. Possible explanations for these differences include, but are not limited to, in-plume reduction of RGM to Hg{sub 0}, measurement error, errors in emission estimates, and depositional losses. Further work is needed to confirm these results and to determine if they apply to CFPPs in general, or the limited set of observed CFPPs. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammesfahr, F.W.; Winter, P.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities. The concept that existing surface facilities, currently or potentially gas-capable, might contribute to the development of underground coal gasification technology by providing a low cost industrial application for the gas produced in a multi-module test appears valid. To further test the concept, three industries were reviewed in depth. These were the electric utility, natural gas, and petroleum industries. When looking at a fuel substitution of the type proposed, each industry had its special perspective. These are discussed in detail in the report.

  5. Coal briquetting in Haiti: A market and business assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.; Jean-Poix, C.; Medina, N.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation evaluated potential market size, financial viability, consumer acceptance, and the government policy role in promoting the manufacture and sale of briquettes in Haiti. Our results show a large and growing charcoal market in Port-au-Prince of 100,000 to 120,000 tonnes per year in 1985, much larger than previous estimates. This would support a 50,000 tonne per year coal briquetting plant. Wood users buying in lots of 100 pieces or less would provide a smaller, secondary market of about 6000 tonnes of charcoal equivalent per year. The size and competitive nature of the current charcoal transportation, wholesale, and retail distribution chain make it easily capable of distributing the coal briquettes. We investigated three coal briquetting options, each based on a different coal source: (1) Maissade lignite, (2) L'Azile lignite, and (3) imported coal. Financial analyses compare capital and operating costs with potential returns. Results indicate that the Maissade lignite is not economically viable in competition with charcoal at current charcoal prices. Both the L'Azile and imported coal options hold more promise. The investment incentives provided by Haitian government are very favorable to a coal briquetting venture. An increased tax on charcoal, currently priced below its social cost, is recommended.

  6. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  7. Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742Coalbed20112011 StateChanges

  8. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station.

  9. Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with back pressure steam turbine. The capital cost of the MEA unit is estimated using the Aspen Icarus integration of its supercritical steam cycle with the stripper reboiler to supply the energy needed gas plant technologies. The three technologies assessed are the gas turbine (GT) with heat recovery

  10. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants in Coal- Fired Power Plants Emission Factors forPollutants in Coal-Fired Power Plants(a) Emissions Fly-ash(for a summary. "Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants: a

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  12. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elements During Coal Gasification 1 Element Participatingconsistency with the coal gasification process. n.m. = notthose occurring during coal gasification. The composition of

  13. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The demonstration unit was hauled to the test site on trailers that were place on a test pad located adjacent to the ash pond and re-assembled. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities. Representative feed ash for the operation of the filed testing unit was excavated from a location within the lower ash pond determined from coring activities. Approximately 150 tons of ash was excavated and pre-screened to remove +3/8 inch material that could cause plugging problems during operation of the demonstration unit.

  14. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

  15. ccpi-multi-product-coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Advanced Multi-Product...

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-based Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels and stack revealed that the planner fuel cell stack is not suitable for operation with carbon and coal fuels due to lack of mechanical strength and difficulty in sealing. We have developed scalable processes for manufacturing of process for planner and tubular cells. Our studies suggested that tubular cell stack could be the only option for scaling up the coal-based fuel cell. Although the direct feeding of coal into fuel cell can significantly simplify the fuel cell system, the durability of the fuel cell needs to be further improved before scaling up. We are developing a tubular fuel cell stack with a coal injection and a CO2 recycling unit.

  17. A new coordinated control strategy for boiler-turbine system of coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the new development of the boiler-turbine coordinated control strategy using fuzzy reasoning and autotuning techniques. The boiler-turbine system is a very complex process that is a multivariable, nonlinear, slowly time-varying plant with large settling time and a lot of uncertainties. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. Proportional-integral derivative (PID) type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, called the Gaussian partition with evenly (GPE) spaced midpoints systems, is used to self-tune the main steam pressure PID controller's parameters online based on the error signal and its first difference, aimed at overcoming the uncertainties due to changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors. For the large variation of operating condition, a supervisory control level has been developed by autotuning technique. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process. Indeed, better control performance and economic benefit have been achieved.

  18. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Jackura; John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The market study for the products of the processing plant (Subtask 1.6), conducted by Cemex, is reported herein. The study incorporated simplifying assumptions and focused only on pozzolan and ultra fine fly ash (UFFA). It found that the market for pozzolan in the Ghent area was oversupplied, with resultant poor pricing structure. Reachable export markets for the Ghent pozzolan market were mostly locally served with the exception of Florida. It was concluded that a beneficiated material for that market may be at a long term disadvantage. The market for the UFFA was more complex as this material would compete with other beneficiated ash and potential metakaolin and silica fume as well. The study concluded that this market represented about 100,000 tons of sales per year and, although lucrative, represented a widely dispersed niche market.

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  20. Fine coal flotation plant waste comparison--column vs. sub-a cells. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to compare results from a small commercially sized Deister Flotaire column flotation cell with the subaeration cells at Kerr-McGee`s Galatia plant during side by side testing of feed splits from the same sources. Typical cell criteria for both cells are included in the appendix. The project involved the activities of three organizations: the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, the Deister Concentrator Company, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. Their roles were as follows: Kerr-McGee installed the Deister column with sample splitter and tailings volume measuring cell in the Galatia Coal Preparation Plant to treat a representative split of their flotation feed; Deister provided a 30 inch diameter {times} 35{prime} high Deister Flotaire Column Flotation Cell capable of treating nominally one ton per hour or slightly over 1% of the plant feed. Deister additionally provided the sample splitter and the tailings volume measuring cell. ISGS personnel worked with both companies on the installation, conducted laboratory tests to direct the early plant test reagent practice, attended all of the plant runs cutting representative samples of feed, measuring slurry and reagent flows, preparing samples and writing reports.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  2. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.

  3. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    advanced coal-wind hybrid combined cycle power plant naturalwhen the wind generation drops, the power plant needs toa CSP plant, a wind plant produces power during all hours of

  4. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

  5. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. Phase 1 was completed successfully, but the project did not continue on to Phase 2 due to withdrawal of CEMEX from the project. Attempts at replacing CEMEX were not successful. Problematic to the continuation of the project was its location in the Ohio Valley which is oversupplied and has low prices for fly ash and the change in CEMEX priorities due to merger and acquisitions. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007.

  6. FROM PLANT AND LOGISTICS CONTROL TO MULTI-ENTERPRISE COLLABORATION: Milestone report of the Manufacturing & Logistics Systems Coordinating Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , product life cycles shrink, and profit margins decrease. In addition, the capital costs of manufacturing of the Manufacturing & Logistics Systems Coordinating Committee S.Y. Nofa* , G. Morelb , L. Monostoric , A. Molinad , F-765-494-1299 Abstract: Current and emerging manufacturing and logistics systems are posing new challenges

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  8. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  9. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  10. advanced coal conversion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the coal plant is transmitted over the transmission lines, Phadke, Amol 2008-01-01 7 Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration CiteSeer Summary:...

  11. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture environmental pollutants in the gaseous state and co-inject them with the CO2, in order to mitigate problems associated with solid waste disposal in surface impoundments. Under such conditions, the injected pollutant concentrations could be roughly equivalent to their concentrations in the coal feed. The fate of the injected contaminants can only be determined through further testing and geochemical modeling. However, the concentrations of inadvertent contaminants in the injected CO2 would probably be comparable to their ambient concentrations in confining shales of the injection zone. In general, the aqueous concentrations of hazardous constituents in distal parts of the injection zone, regardless of source, are likely to be limited by equilibrium with respect to coexisting solid phases under the acid conditions induced by the dissolved high pressure CO2, rather than by the initial concentrations of injected contaminants. Therefore, even if a deliberate policy of contaminant recovery and injection were to be pursued, water quality in USDWs would more likely depend on thermodynamic controls governing aqueous contaminant concentrations in the presence of high pressure CO2 rather than in the injected CO2. The conclusions reached in this report are preliminary, and should be confirmed through more comprehensive data evaluation and supporting geochemical modeling.

  12. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  13. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are provided to provide the basis for examining the impacts of local deposition. A section that covers modeling of local deposition of mercury emitted from coal power plants follows. The code ISCST3 was used with mercury emissions data from two power plants and local meteorological conditions to assess local deposition. The deposition modeling results were used to estimate the potential increase in mercury deposition that could occur in the vicinity of the plant. Increased deposition was assumed to lead to a linearly proportional increase in mercury concentrations in fish in local water bodies. Fish are the major pathway for human health impacts and the potential for increased mercury exposure was evaluated and the risks of such exposure estimated. Based on the findings recommendations for future work and conclusions are provided. Mercury is receiving substantial attention in a number of areas including: understanding of mercury deposition, bioaccumulation, and transport through the atmosphere, and improvements to the understanding of health impacts created by exposure to mercury. A literature review of key articles is presented as Appendix A.

  14. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. Climate VISION: Events - Advanced Clean Coal Workshop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Secretary Kyle McSlarrow, DOE, and Jim Rogers, CEO Chairman, Cinergy 10:15 Break 10:30 Case Studies on Clean Coal Projects Case StudiesLessons Learned on Clean Coal Plants (to...

  16. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  17. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  18. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  19. PRELIMINARY CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  20. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the present fouling experiments for three different cases: no treatment, PWT coil only, and PWT coil plus self-cleaning filter. Fouling resistances decreased by 59-72% for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter compared with the values for no-treatment cases. SEM photographs showed much smaller particle sizes for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter as larger particles were continuously removed from circulating water by the filter. The x-ray diffraction data showed calcite crystal structures for all three cases.

  1. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

  2. A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The models of coal-to-hydrogen plant costs given by Kreutzof the capital cost of coal-to-hydrogen plants as a function

  3. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of limestone to the coal slurry feed. Although not disclosedi.e. , pulverized or as a coal-water slurry The nature andform (PC), or as a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF). The trace

  4. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  5. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Quarterly progress report, [April 1, 1988--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

  6. Industrial Utilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, J. E.; Hawkins, G. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-oil mixtures (COM) are receiving increasing interest as economical alternatives to residual fuel oil and natural gas used in heavy industrial and utility applications. Four basic approaches are currently employed in the manufacture of COM...

  7. Pathways to the Future: A Manufacturer's Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power plants, coal gasification, fuel cells, membrane separation technology Material systems with improved stability and reliability, optimized for use under extreme conditions, lead to higher technical

  8. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  9. Energy Center Center for Coal Technology Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    Energy Center Center for Coal Technology Research http://www.purdue.edu/dp/energy/CCTR/ Consumption Production Gasification Power Plants Coking Liquid Fuels Environment Oxyfuels Byproducts Legislation, 500 Central Drive West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022 #12;INDIANA COAL REPORT 2009 Center for Coal

  10. Studies on the reduction kinetics of hematite iron ore pellets with noncoking coals for sponge iron plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, M.; Mohapatra, P.; Patel, S.K. [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present investigation, fired pellets were made by mixing hematite iron ore fines of -100, -16+18, and -8+10 mesh size in different ratios and studies on their reduction kinetics in Lakhanpur, Orient OC-2 and Belpahar coals were carried out at temperatures ranging from 850{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C with a view toward promoting the massive utilization of fines in ironmaking. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with an increase in temperature up to 1000{sup o}C, and it was more intense in the first 30min. The values of activation energy, calculated from integral and differential approaches, for the reduction of fired pellets (prepared from iron ore fines of -100 mesh size) in coals were found to be in the range 131-148 and 130-181 kJ mol{sup -1} (for =0.2 to 0.8), indicating the process is controlled by a carbon gasification reaction. The addition of selected larger size particles in the matrix of -100 mesh size fines up to the extent studied decreased the activation energy and slightly increased the reduction rates of resultant fired pellets. In comparison to coal, the reduction of fired pellets in char was characterized by significantly lower reduction rates and higher activation energy.

  11. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  13. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' in 1981 and won the 'energy conservation award' for 1983. The decision to install and operate a coal gasification plant was based on severe natural gas curtailments at York with continuing supply interruptions. This paper will present a detailed...

  14. A Comparison of Demand Side Management Data Assessment Procedures for Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matheidas, M. T.; Heffington, W. M.

    ). Systematic errors are introduced when the operating time length consistently is greater or less than that of the plant....

  15. Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

  16. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized Coal Installed Capacity (GW) World - subcriticalPulverized Coal Installed Capacity (GW) U.S. - subcriticalred plants’ annual installed capacity (in GW/year) by type

  17. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  18. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  19. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  20. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  1. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  2. Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nesuhoff, J [NBL; Cratto, P [NBL; Pfennigwerth, G [Y12 NATIONAL SEC. COMPLEX; Mikhailenko, A [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Maliutina, I [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Nations, J [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

  3. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

  4. Characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongqi Lu; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Ramsay Chang; Carl Richardson; Jennifer Paradis [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine fly ash samples were collected from the particulate collection devices of four full-scale pulverized coal utility boilers burning eastern bituminous coals and three cyclone utility boilers burning either Powder River Basin coals or PRB blends. As-received fly ash samples were mechanically sieved to obtain six size fractions. Unburned carbon content, mercury content, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of as-received fly ashes and their size fractions were measured. In addition, UBC particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, and thermogravimetry to obtain information on their surface morphology, structure, and oxidation reactivity. It was found that the UBC particles contained amorphous carbon, ribbon-shaped graphitic carbon, and highly ordered graphite structures. The mercury contents of the UBCs in raw ash samples were comparable to those of the UBC-enriched samples, indicating that mercury was mainly adsorbed on the UBC in fly ash. The UBC content decreased with a decreasing particle size range for all nine ashes. The mercury content of the UBCs in each size fraction, however, generally increased with a decreasing particle size for the nine ashes. The mercury contents and surface areas of the UBCs in the PRB-CYC ashes were about 8 and 3 times higher than UBCs in the EB-PC ashes, respectively. It appeared that both the particle size and surface area of UBC could contribute to mercury capture. The particle size of the UBC in PRB-CYC ash and thus the external mass transfer was found to be the major factor impacting the mercury adsorption. Both the particle size and surface reactivity of the UBC in EB-PC ash, which generally had a lower carbon oxidation reactivity than the PRB-PC ashes, appeared to be important for the mercury adsorption. 26 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. PNW Coal Closure Study Resource Adequacy Advisory Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNW Coal Closure Study 1 y Resource Adequacy Advisory Committee Steering Committee Meeting outage calculations)100 MW (for forced outage calculations) #12;Coal Replacement Plans 4 Coal Replacement Plans · Boardman ­ 601 MW · The 2016 PGE IRP process will include the Boardman coal plant replacement

  6. PRB Coal Users' Group grapples with supply chain challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettier, R.

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An account is given of issues addressed at the Powder River Basin Coal Users' Group annual meeting, held in conjunction with the Electric Power 2007 conference. Transportation, buying equipment for switching plants burn PRB coal, finding and fighting fires in a coal silo, and coal handling were amongst the topics discussed. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  7. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  8. About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up to one of the leading producers of steam coal in the Illinois Basin. The company specializes in providing custom-blended coal to meet the needs of electric power plants throughout the region. Controlling

  9. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reduction in NO x emissions from coal-fired power plants tocombustion of coal, emissions from coal-fired power plantsemission control technologies now required on all new coal-fired power

  10. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  11. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Simulation of the Visual Effects of Power Plant Plumes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    -fired power plant with six 500 MW coal-fired power plants located at hypothetical sites in southeastern Utah coal-fired power plants are greater than those from oil or natural gas. If we must use more coal, how in a comparison of large and small coal-fired power plants in the West. Using hypothetical power plants

  13. Progress in estimation of power plant emissions from satellite retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    increase in SO2 emissions from Indian coal-fired power plants during 2005­2012 2 #12;Zifeng Lu, Progress doubled since 1996 ­ No SO2 emission control in Indian coal-fired power plants The latitude of India captive coal-fired power plants Improved Indian coal-fired power plant database ­ 165 plants, >720 units

  14. Supercritical Pulverized Coal and Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Supplement: Sensitivity to CO 2 Capture Rate in Coal-Fired Power Plants June 22, 2015 DOENETL-20151720 OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

  15. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  16. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botero, Cristina

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

  17. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations Since 1985, we have helped fund commercial-scale clean coal technology demonstration projects. ICCS | CCPI | PPII | CCTDP | FutureGen...

  18. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  19. Incorporating Both Undesirable Outputs and Uncontrollable Variables into DEA: the Performance of Chinese Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hongliang; Pollitt, Michael G.

    generated by the steam turbine, and the net heat rate is based on the amount of electricity sent to the grid from a power plant. The difference between these two accounts for the electricity consumed within the power plant itself to run auxiliary... or an exponential function model, is preferable. This model is easy to use and easy to interpret, and is also capable of accommodating both continuous and categorical uncontrollable variables without increasing the number of efficient DMUs. Furthermore, it does...

  20. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they contain will be lost.

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  2. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley Region.

  7. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  8. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  9. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This is accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results were compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory’s monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions provides critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  10. New Clean Coal Cycle Optimized Using Pinch Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, A. P.; O'Donnell, J. J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport reaction technology, developed originally for Fluid Catalytic Cracking plants, is used in the coal conversion steps; and pulverized limestone is circulated with the coal to capture the sulfur that is released during this process. Both gas turbines...

  11. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology, (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

  12. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  13. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It is the first volume of the two-volume final report and summarizes Budget Period 1 accomplishments under Tasks 1-5 of the project, including the selection of four solvent formulations for further study.

  14. Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

  15. Objective assessment of manufacturing technology investments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Craig Jeremy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amgen is a biotechnology company with manufacturing plants throughout the world. New manufacturing technologies are constantly being developed and implemented in order to address cost, quality, regulation, and competitive ...

  16. Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part I: The reduction plants and coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavoue, J.; Gerin, M.; Cote, J.; Lapointe, R. [University of Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the exposure assessment and job-exposure matrix (JEM) used to estimate coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure for a study of mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum smelter workers in Quebec, Canada. Historical CTPV exposure was assessed by estimating benzene-soluble material (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) levels for combinations of job and time period. Estimates were derived by using several procedures including averaging measurement data, a deterministic mathematical model using process-related correction factors, and expert-based extrapolation. The JEM comprised 28,910 jobs, covering 7 facilities from 1916 to 1999. Estimated exposures ranged from 0.01 {mu} g/m{sup 3} to 68.08 {mu} g/m{sup 3} (B(a)P) and 0.01 mg/m{sup 3} to 3.64 mg/m{sup 3} (BSW) and were lowest before 1940 and after 1980. This methodology constitutes an improvement compared with methods used for previous studies of the Quebec cohort.

  17. Assessment of environmental effects of the coal used in the Seyitomer thermal power plant (Turkey) on white willow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, A.; Koparal, A.S. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Applied Research Center for Environmental Problems

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal power plants increase local pollution through SOx, NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and oils containing primarily particulates (including heavy metals) and increase global pollution through CO{sub 2}, the greenhouse gas that causes global warming. These strong pollutants have harmful effects on living organisms and the entire ecosystem. In this study, we analysed the heavy metals iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and sulfur (S) induced by sulfur dioxide found in both the washed and unwashed leaves of Salix alba L. tree, grown in six distinct localities in the vicinity of the Seyitomer thermal power plant, to assess the environmental impact. All parameters were examined in the surface soils (0-30 cm), and the most intense concentration of the pollutants in both soils and leaves was observed to be in the direction of the prevailing wind.

  18. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

  19. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  20. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  1. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition, the coking coal market began to deteriorateits permeability. Bituminous, or coking coal, is blended andmerchant coke plants, coking coal is heated in a low-oxygen,

  4. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  5. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

  6. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  7. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Automobile Manufacturers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resources & Links Software Tools DOE BestPractices Software Tools DOE BestPractices offers a range of software tools and databases that help manufacturers assess their plant's...

  8. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11. Average coal steam plant non-fuel O&M cost (adjusted forU.S. coal-burning power plants found that real capital costnon-fuel O&M cost 4 per kW h for coal plants fell by 32% at

  9. Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    's studies have determined that mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants pose significant hazards to public health and must be reduced. Coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction and reduce Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA is proposing two alternatives that include

  10. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different field sites. ADA designed and fabricated a slipstream pilot to allow an evaluation of the kinetic behavior of sorbents and provide some flexibility for the physical characteristics of the materials. The design incorporated a transport reactor for the adsorber (co-current reactor) and a fluidized-bed in the regenerator. This combination achieved the sorbent characterization goals and provided an opportunity to evaluate whether the potential cost savings associated with a relatively simple process design could overcome the sacrifices inherent in a co-current separation process. The system was installed at two field sites during the project, Luminant's Martin Lake Steam Electric Station and Xcel Energy's Sherburne County Generating Station (Sherco). Although the system could not maintain continuous 90% CO{sub 2} removal with the sorbents evaluated under this program, it was useful to compare the CO{sub 2} removal properties of several different sorbents on actual flue gas. One of the supported amine materials, sorbent R, was evaluated at both Martin Lake and Sherco. The 1 kWe pilot was operated in continuous mode as well as batch mode. In continuous mode, the sorbent performance could not overcome the limitations of the cocurrent adsorbent design. In batch mode, sorbent R was able to remove up to 90% CO{sub 2} for several cycles. Approximately 50% of the total removal occurred in the first three feet of the adsorption reactor, which was a transport reactor. During continuous testing at Sherco, CO{sub 2} removal decreased to approximately 20% at steady state. The lack of continuous removal was due primarily to the combination of a co-current adsorption system with a fluidized bed for regeneration, a combination which did not provide an adequate driving force to maintain an acceptable working CO{sub 2} capacity. In addition, because sorbent R consisted of a polymeric amine coated on a silica substrate, it was believed that the 50% amine loaded resulted in mass diffusion limitations related to the CO{sub 2} uptake rate. Three additional supported amine materials, so

  11. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different field sites. ADA designed and fabricated a slipstream pilot to allow an evaluation of the kinetic behavior of sorbents and provide some flexibility for the physical characteristics of the materials. The design incorporated a transport reactor for the adsorber (co-current reactor) and a fluidized-bed in the regenerator. This combination achieved the sorbent characterization goals and provided an opportunity to evaluate whether the potential cost savings associated with a relatively simple process design could overcome the sacrifices inherent in a co-current separation process. The system was installed at two field sites during the project, Luminant’s Martin Lake Steam Electric Station and Xcel Energy’s Sherburne County Generating Station (Sherco). Although the system could not maintain continuous 90% CO{sub 2} removal with the sorbents evaluated under this program, it was useful to compare the CO{sub 2} removal properties of several different sorbents on actual flue gas. One of the supported amine materials, sorbent R, was evaluated at both Martin Lake and Sherco. The 1 kWe pilot was operated in continuous mode as well as batch mode. In continuous mode, the sorbent performance could not overcome the limitations of the co-current adsorbent design. In batch mode, sorbent R was able to remove up to 90% CO{sub 2} for several cycles. Approximately 50% of the total removal occurred in the first three feet of the adsorption reactor, which was a transport reactor. During continuous testing at Sherco, CO{sub 2} removal decreased to approximately 20% at steady state. The lack of continuous removal was due primarily to the combination of a co-current adsorption system with a fluidized bed for regeneration, a combination which did not provide an adequate driving force to maintain an acceptable working CO{sub 2} capacity. In addition, because sorbent R consisted of a polymeric amine coated on a silica substrate, it was believed that the 50% amine loaded resulted in mass diffusion limitations related to the CO{sub 2} uptake rate. Three additional supported amine materials,

  12. Coal contracting strategies for a deregulated market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, T.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants provide the most competitive source of electricity in most power markets. This presentation will identify changes that have been occurring in regional coal markets during the 1980s and the 1990s, the evolution of purchasing practices and strategies resulting from these and the impact that utility deregulation will have on future purchasing.

  13. Cleantech: Innovative Lab Partnership Reduces Emissions from Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the National Energy Technology Laboratory is working to reduce the emission of pollutants from existing coal-fired power plants.

  14. NPDES Rule for Coal Mining Facilities (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule establishes requirements implementing the powers, duties, and responsibilities of State's Water Pollution Control Act with respect to all coal mines, preparation plants and all refuse and...

  15. air coal franklin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H.C. Frey, "Quantification of Hourly Variability in Hourly Activity and NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

  16. FACT SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    power plants improve generation efficiency, use less coal and release less carbon pollution. The implementation of AUSC boilers requires materials with high-temperature...

  17. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica/silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed

  18. Survey of air-cure experience on dust control system design for PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, M.R.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes major changes required in features for coal dust control systems when existing coal fired power plants switch to PRB (Powder River Basin) coal. It encompasses all transfer points within the coal handling system from receiving to the plant bunkers or silos. It provides a comparison of bituminous and PRB coal from a dust collection aspect, the major features required for reliability and safety and the reasons for implementation.

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  3. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  4. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  5. Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesko, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic analysis of the construction and operation of by-product electric power and steam/power cogeneration systems in coal fired fluidized-bed steam cycles, located at individual industrial sites analyzed by the author, is being presented...

  6. Commercializing the H-Coal Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVaux, G. R.; Dutkiewicz, B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The H-Coal Process is being demonstrated in commercial equipment at the Catlettsburg, Kentucky plant. A program is being developed for further operations including several tests for specific commercial projects and a long-term test. Over the last...

  7. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  10. Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

  11. Evaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly AshSoil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    from coal-fired power plants, which burn over 1 billion t of coal annually (Kim 2006). This generationEvaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly Ash­Soil Mixtures Jason Becker: Beneficial reuse of coal combustion byproducts, e.g., in highway construction, requires an evaluation

  12. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  13. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayagh, Hossein

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ?25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating multiple stack building blocks of scaled-up cells, suitable for integration into a large-scale fuel cell power module. Activities in Phase II also included the development of the baseline system, factory cost estimate for the baseline plant’s power block, and conceptual design of a natural gas fueled sub-MW system to be used for testing and verification of the fuel cell stacks in a system environment. The specific objective for Phase III was the validation of the performance and robustness of stacks and scaled stack arrays suitable for use in large-scale power generation systems such as an IGFC with reliable, fail-safe operation being of paramount importance. The work culminated in the verification tests of a 60 kW SOFC stack module in a power plant facility. This final technical report summarizes the progress made during the project period. Significant progress was made in the areas of cell and stack technology development, stack module design, sub-scale module tests, Baseline Power Plant system development and Proof-of- Concept Module unit design. The development of this technology will significantly advance the nation’s energy security and independence interests while simultaneously addressing environmental concerns, including greenhouse gas emissions and water usage.

  14. Seca Coal-Based Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Alinger

    2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made during the August 1, 2006 - May 31, 2008 award period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled 'SECA Coal Based Systems'. The initial overall objective of this program was to design, develop, and demonstrate multi-MW integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants with >50% overall efficiency from coal (HHV) to AC power. The focus of the program was to develop low-cost, high performance, modular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to support coal gas IGFC power systems. After a detailed GE internal review of the SOFC technology, the program was de-scoped at GE's request. The primary objective of this program was then focused on developing a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). There were two initial major objectives in this program. These were: (1) Develop and optimize a design of a >100 MWe integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plant; (2) Resolve identified barrier issues concerning the long-term economic performance of SOFC. The program focused on designing and cost estimating the IGFC system and resolving technical and economic barrier issues relating to SOFC. In doing so, manufacturing options for SOFC cells were evaluated, options for constructing stacks based upon various cell configurations identified, and key performance characteristics were identified. Key factors affecting SOFC performance degradation for cells in contact with metallic interconnects were be studied and a fundamental understanding of associated mechanisms was developed using a fixed materials set. Experiments and modeling were carried out to identify key processes/steps affecting cell performance degradation under SOFC operating conditions. Interfacial microstructural and elemental changes were characterized, and their relationships to observed degradation identified. Mitigation strategies, including innovative coatings and bond layers, were developed, evaluated and down-selected to improve degradation rates. Focus was on microstructural stabilization and minimization of the ASR contribution from Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale growth and other interactions at electrode/interconnect interfaces evaluated during electrochemical testing and advanced microstructural characterization. Novel long-term and accelerated testing techniques were developed and conducted under standard operating conditions to demonstrate capability to meet targeted degradation rates.

  15. Additive Manufacturing: Implications on Research and Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Additive Manufacturing: Implications on Research and Manufacturing With recent developments, etc.), additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to become a transformative technology in innovation-based manufacturing. Agencies such as the Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation

  16. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  17. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  19. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  20. Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

  1. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  2. JB RISOE 20-05-2003 Advanced 700C PF Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prices of imported coal · Security of supply is threatened without coal · Clean Coal Technology in efficiency of Elsam's coal-fired power plants 1950 19701960 19901980 20202000 2010 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 of Coal Based Power Generation · Abundant reserves · Many independent producers of coal · Low and stable

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  4. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  5. Tracking Progress Last updated 6/2/2014 Current and Expected Energy From Coal for California 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in California load during 2012. A little over 93 percent of this coal-based energy came from power plants of this coal-based energy came from power plants located outside California. Nearly all these energy imports 2007 to 2012, energy from in-state coal and petroleum (pet) coke plants declined by 62 percent

  6. Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    Addition of halogens or halides has been reported to promote mercury removal in coal-fired power plants in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic (CAMR) to regulate Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants through a cap-and- trade approach.2 However

  7. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    working paper "CO2 Regulations and Electricity Prices: Cost Estimates for Coal-Fired Power Plants." We capabilities at new coal-fired power plants. The corresponding break-even values for natural gas plants source of CO2 emissions. For the U.S. alone, coal-fired and natural gas power plants contributed more

  9. Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Presentation on...

  10. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    website from Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc. , (plant operated by Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc. , and

  11. Coal Mining (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

  12. Trace elements in Illinois coals before and after conventional coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, I.; Harvey, R.D.; Ruch, R.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Responding to recent technological advances and renewed environmental concerns requires improved characterization of Illinois and other US coals. Much of the existing trace element data on Illinois coals are on channel samples; these data need to be supplemented with data on an-shipped coals. Such data will provide a factual basis for the assessment of noxious emissions at coal-fired electric power plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the trace element concentration in as-shipped coals from Illinois mines, and compare the results to data on channel samples thast represent coal in place prior to mining. Radioactivity of the as-shipped samples was calculated from concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium in the samples.

  13. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide CaptureSee the Foundry'sMcGuireNETLCareersCoal

  14. Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulverized Coal Jet Flame -Effect of Oxygen Concentration on NOx formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than those by using other fossil fuels [1]. It is therefore important to develop clean coal technology for pulverized coal fired power plants, in order to control such emissions and to reduce the environmental impact. Regarding the reduction...

  15. The Use of English Coal in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swain, Gregory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1997. [7] de Zeeuw, J. W. “Peat and the Dutch Golden Age:for the Dutch Golden Age: Peat, Wind, and Coal. ” Researchthe advantage of coal over peat (partially decayed plant

  16. Evaluation of sorbents for the cleanup of coal-derived synthesis gas at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Couling, David Joseph

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture is a promising technology to produce electricity from coal at a higher efficiency than with traditional subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plants. ...

  17. Present coal potential of Turkey and coal usage in electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, A.O. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total coal reserve (hard coal + lignite) in the world is 984 billion tons. While hard coal constitutes 52% of the total reserve, lignite constitutes 48% of it. Turkey has only 0.1% of world hard coal reserve and 1.5% of world lignite reserves. Turkey has 9th order in lignite reserve, 8th order in lignite production, and 12th order in total coal (hard coal and lignite) consumption. While hard coal production meets only 13% of its consumption, lignite production meets lignite consumption in Turkey. Sixty-five percent of produced hard coal and 78% of produced lignite are used for electricity generation. Lignites are generally used for electricity generation due to their low quality. As of 2003, total installed capacity of Turkey was 35,587 MW, 19% (6,774 MW) of which is produced from coal-based thermal power plants. Recently, use of natural gas in electricity generation has increased. While the share of coal in electricity generation was about 50% for 1986, it is replaced by natural gas today.

  18. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  19. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)]|[DESTEC Energy (United States)]|[Williams Technology, (United States)]|[Illinois Coal Association (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

  20. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOECoach Compliance Form MyCoal

  1. Nine clean coal projects chosen by DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 25, 1986 the US Department of Energy announced the nine projects selected as DOE's top choices in their Clean Coal Technology Program. The projects are: pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle utility retrofit; extended tests of limestone injection multi-stage burner plus sorbent duct injection; slagging combustor with sorbent injection into combustor; gas reburning and sorbent injection retrofit into 3 utility boilers; steeply dipping bed underground coal gasification integrated with indirect liquefaction; integrated coal gasification steam injection gas turbine demonstration plants (2) with hot gas cleanup; coal-oil coprocessing liquefaction; fluidized bed gasification with hot gas cleanup integrated combined cycle demonstration plant; and direct iron ore reduction to replace coke oven/blast furnace for steelmaking. A table lists the 14 runner-up projects any of which could be selected if cooperative agreements are not reached with any of the nine companies selected. Brief descriptions are given of the nine selected projects.

  2. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  3. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effluent steam from a conventional power plant. However,Steam Cycle Parameters Total turbine generator output Total auxiliary power Net plantpower plants provide a substantial improvement in thermodynamic efficiency over that possible with conventional steam

  4. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Station","Coal","Wisconsin Electric Power Co",1268 2,"Point Beach Nuclear Plant","Nuclear","NextEra Energy Point Beach LLC",1197 3,"Pleasant Prairie","Coal","Wisconsin...

  5. Inbound freight consolidation for US manufacturers at China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Yi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, China has become the world factory for a sizable portion of products. Most manufacturing conglomerates in the United States now have contract manufacturing plants in China. Because many of these US companies ...

  6. Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  9. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  10. Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

    Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

  11. Coal ash by-product reutilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muncy, J. [Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States); Miller, B. [DYNA Corp., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has as part of its vision and value statement that, ``We are responsible stewards of environmental and corporate resources.`` With this moral imperative in mind, a project team was charged with initiating the Coal Pile Liner Project--installing a membrane liner under the existing coal storage pile at the Morgantown Generating Station. The existing coal yard facilities were constructed prior to the current environmental regulations, and it became necessary to upgrade the storage facilities to be environmentally friendly. The project team had two objectives in this project: (1) prevent coal pile leachate from entering the groundwater system; (2) test the viability of using coal ash by-products as an aggregate substitute for concrete applications. Both objectives were met, and two additional benefits were achieved as well: (1) the use of coal ash by-products as a coal liner produced significant cost savings to the project directly; (2) the use of coal ash by-products reduced plant operation and maintenance expenses.

  12. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  13. Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOECoach Compliance Form MyCoalCoal

  14. H-Coal Pilot Plant. Volume I. 1. 0 - executive summary and general project description, 2. 0 - general reference section. Final report. [Contains titles and abstracts of 42 topical reports and titles of relevant reports issued by associated organizations (Chevron, Conoco, EPRI, HRI, Mobil, and ORNL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Report documents the Phase III operations of the H-Coal direct liquefaction Pilot Plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. The project was initiated in 1965 under the Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior Contract No. 14-32-0002-154 with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., and was completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-76ET10143 with Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Data generated by HRI's Bench Scale and 3-ton per day Process Development Units were used as the design basis for the Pilot Plant. Subsequent Pilot Plant operations confirmed the validity of the data base. This report contains process, mechanical and environmental assessments of the Pilot Plant germane to commercial scale-up.

  15. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  16. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  17. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  18. coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Technologies for Coal Storage and Feed Preparation AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility DOE Supported R&D for CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification...

  19. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  20. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  1. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  2. DOE studies on coal-to-liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

  3. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  4. 2005 clean coal and power conference. Conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of the conference was 'The paradox: today's coal technologies versus tomorrow's promise'. The sessions covered: today's technologies, tomorrow's potential; economic stability; energy security; transition to sustainable energy future; new coal power technologies leading to zero emission coal; existing power plants - improved performance through use of new technology; and carbon capture and storage R & D - challenges and opportunities. Some of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads.

  5. Big coal: the dirty secret behind America's energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Goodell

    2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Veteran journalist Jeff Goodell argues that coal is bad for the economy, bad for public health and especially bad for the environment, yet its future looks quite bright. It is relatively cheap. It is plentiful, and Americans, who get half their electric power from coal-burning generators, are addicted to it. As of 2005, more than 120 new coal-burning plants were either planned or under construction in the United States.

  6. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  7. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Units Current Plant MEA CO 2 Recovery O 2 fired, Direct CO 2 Compression` MEA/MDEA CO 2 Recovery Steam

  8. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NO x ) in a flue gas desulphurization system. The ventedscrubbing in a flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plant usingx , e.g. , flue gas desulphurization (FGD) through injection

  9. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  10. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. This project will bring the expertise of four organizations together to perform the various tasks. The Illinois Coal Association will help direct the project to be the most beneficial to the Illinois coal industry. DESTEC Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technology will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handlability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals. As reported earlier, a variety of possible samples of coal have been analyzed and the gasification performance evaluation reported. Additionally, commercial sized samples of -28 mesh {times} 100 mesh coal -100 {times} 0 coal were subjected to pumpability testing. Neither the coarse product nor the fine product by themselves proved to be good candidates for trouble free pumping, but the mix of the two proved to be a very acceptable product

  11. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

  12. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  13. Level schedule implementation in unstable manufacturing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López de Haro, Santiago

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American Axle & Manufacturing Inc. (AAM), headquartered in Detroit (MI) is one of the major Tier 1 suppliers in the automotive industry. The main challenge in AAM plant 2 is production rate unstability due to downtime, ...

  14. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  15. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  16. Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

  17. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  18. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  20. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  1. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  2. Would Tondu power plant trade health for jobs? From the August 28, 2005, issue of the South Bend Tribune

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    Corp. coal gasification plant proposed for New Carlisle. It would bring both electricity and 70 new-waste sites. Although it is cleaner than conventional coal -- the dirtiest electricity source -- "clean- coal" gasification is not clean. Coal plants release more airborne pollutants. Gasification plants shift more

  3. Overview of the Electrical Energy Segment of the Energy Information Administration/ Manufacturing Consumption Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockhead, S.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , liquefied petroleum gas, coke and breeze, coal, and electricity, only the electricity segment is overviewed. Along with pure electrical energy consumption information, newly available data covers methods that manufacturers used to purchase and modify...

  4. Overview of the Electrical Energy Segment of the Energy Information Administration/ Manufacturing Consumption Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockhead, S.

    , liquefied petroleum gas, coke and breeze, coal, and electricity, only the electricity segment is overviewed. Along with pure electrical energy consumption information, newly available data covers methods that manufacturers used to purchase and modify...

  5. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  6. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  7. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  9. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment existing coal power plants to gas and renewable power under a carbon budget. It solves a model of polluting, exhaustible resources with capacity constraints and adjustment costs (to build coal, gas, and renewable power

  11. Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution being used for coal ash deposits. Pollutants present in the ash can contaminate water resources and soil its research on the thermo-electric plant (TEP) and associated coal ash sites at Tuzla, Bosnia

  12. TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I -PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    coal or by ex- haust clean up technology. For the power plants, the simplest solution is the preventive- ity well into the 21st century. This dependency on coal calls for better technologies to reduceTURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

  13. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant - without coking (lb/hr) Feed Coal* Hydrogen YieldsCoking Summary Cost Estimates for Solvent Refining of Five U.S. CoalsCoal Handling and Preparation Preheaters and Dissolvers Mineral Separation (Filters) Solvent Recovery Gas Recovery Mineral Residue Processing and Storage Coking

  14. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  15. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  16. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  17. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  18. Technology Data for Energy Plants June 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................... 35 03 Rebuilding Coal Power Plants to Biomass.......................................................................................................................... 27 01 Advanced Pulverized Fuel Power PlantTechnology Data for Energy Plants June 2010 #12;ISBNwww: 978-87-7844-857-6 #12;2 Table of contents

  19. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. Quarterly report, March 16--June 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-line coal analyzer is being developed as a joint venture between the French company SODERN which specializes in the manufacturing of neutron generators and associated electronics and the John B. Long Company which specializes in coal sampling equipment. Progress this quarter is summarized under the following topical headings: Measurement layout; Detector temperature stabilization; Raw coal library; and Determination of Btu content from elemental concentrations.

  20. Illinois SB 1987: the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On January 12, 2009, Governor Rod Blagojevich signed SB 1987, the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law. The legislation establishes emission standards for new coal-fueled power plants power plants that use coal as their primary feedstock. From 2009-2015, new coal-fueled power plants must capture and store 50 percent of the carbon emissions that the facility would otherwise emit; from 2016-2017, 70 percent must be captured and stored; and after 2017, 90 percent must be captured and stored. SB 1987 also establishes a goal of having 25 percent of electricity used in the state to come from cost-effective coal-fueled power plants that capture and store carbon emissions by 2025. Illinois is the first state to establish a goal for producing electricity from coal-fueled power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To support the commercial development of CCS technology, the legislation guarantees purchase agreements for the first Illinois coal facility with CCS technology, the Taylorville Energy Center (TEC); Illinois utilities are required to purchase at least 5 percent of their electricity supply from the TEC, provided that customer rates experience only modest increases. The TEC is expected to be completed in 2014 with the ability to capture and store at least 50 percent of its carbon emissions.

  1. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Facing the transition. [Retrofitting vessels for burning coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, environmental regulations prohibiting black smoke in port and marine disposal of ashes caused many coal-burning vessels in the Great Lakes shipping industry to convert to oil-burning systems. With a return to coal-burning plants on-board, these problems and others are being addressed. Improvements are being made in stack emission control. The need for monitoring devices is discussed. Mechanisms are described which will help control dust, heat, noise and ash. To reduce the need for excessive stockpiles of various grades of coal, equipment is being designed which will burn a range of coals available in many ports. (JMT)

  3. Combining Nuclear Power With Coal-to-Gasoline Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, H.J.; Jaeger, Walter; Termuehlen, Heinz

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With coal representing 95% and oil only 2.5% of the US fossil fuel reserves and with the abundant nuclear fuel reserves in the US, such combined plants should be built in the near future. (authors)

  4. Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

    Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (“syn-gas”). To date, however, no fuel cell...

  5. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

  6. Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications-fired power plants work to create cleaner skies, they'll likely fill up landfills with millions more tons.05 0.05 #12;6 Challenge: Mercury Controls One approach to reducing mercury emissions from power plants

  7. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  8. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  9. Manufacturing Innovation in the DOE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Robert McEwan GE America Makes The National Accelerator for Additive Manufacturing & 3D Printing Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) manufacturing.energy.gov 13 Manufacturing...

  10. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  11. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  12. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  13. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  14. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthracite, lignite and brown coal. While bituminous coal isproduction of lignite and brown coal, which also increasedtonnes. Whereas lignite and brown coal accounted for 4% of

  15. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  16. Voidage and pressure profile characteristics of sand-iron ore-coal-FCC single-particle systems in the riser of a pilot plant circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, M.; Meikap, B.C.; Saha, R.K. [Indian Institute for Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrodynamic behaviors of single system of particles were investigated in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit. Particles belonging to Geldart groups A and B like sand of various sizes (90, 300, 417, 522, 599, and 622 mu m), FCC catalyst (120 mu m), iron ore (166 and 140 {mu} m), and coal (335 and 168 {mu} m) were used to study the hydrodynamic characteristics. Superficial air velocity used in the present study ranged between 2.01 and 4.681 m/s and corresponding mass fluxes were 12.5-50 kg/(m{sup 2} s). A CFB needs the creation of some special hydrodynamic conditions, namely a certain combination of superficial gas velocity, solids circulation rate, particle diameter, density of particle, etc. which can give rise to a state wherein the solid particles are subjected to an upward velocity greater than the terminal or free fall velocity of the majority of the individual particles. The hydrodynamics of the bed was investigated in depth and theoretical analysis is presented to support the findings. Based on gas-solid momentum balance in the riser, a distinction between apparent and real voidage has been made. The effects of acceleration and friction on the real voidage have been estimated. Results indicated a 0.995 voidage for higher superficial gas velocity of 4.681. m/s.

  17. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  18. Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakkestad, B. (ed.)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

  19. Energy Conservation Opportunities in Hydrocarbon Resin Manufacturing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganji, A. R.; Hackett, B.; Chow, S.; Lonergan, R.; Wimer, J.

    "The results of a plant-wide assessment of the manufacturing facilities of Neville Chemical Company, a manufacturer of hydrocarbon resins will be presented in this paper. The project was co-funded by US Department of Energy under its Plant...

  20. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.