National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for manufacturing lithium-ion batteries

  1. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  2. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  3. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  4. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies ...

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... this composite anode exhibits the best performance so far in lithium-ion batteries, while retaining an economical cost and compatibility with existing manufacturing ...

  6. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  7. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence ... improved battery life when used in the fabrication of negative silicon electrodes. ...

  8. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  9. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  10. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  11. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  12. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is ...

  13. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium ion batteries with titaniagraphene anodes Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to ...

  14. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Title: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Functional electrolyte solvents include ...

  15. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Methods for making composite anodes, ...

  16. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  17. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical ... Specifically, the surfaces of lithium-ion battery electrodes evolve simultaneously with ...

  18. Beyond Lithium-Ion Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries beyondlithiumionbatterisaudio JCESR Director George Crabtree and Deputy Director Jeff Chamberlain discuss how JCESR will go beyond lithium ion batteries ...

  19. Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite CarbonTin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National ... Applications and Industries Anodes for lithium ion batteries More InformationFOR MORE ...

  20. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National ... Researchers have developed a new technology to advance the life of lithium-ion batteries. ...

  1. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for lithium-ion battery performance under standard and potentially abusive conditions National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Design. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an expensive and time-intensive process. Testing costs the

  2. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion ...

  3. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. ... calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ionbattery manufacturing process. ...

  4. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf (136.48 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  5. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and ...

  6. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  7. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  8. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  9. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold...

  10. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  11. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  12. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  13. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good ...

  14. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  15. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  16. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  17. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  18. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries ...

  19. Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety. Citation ... presentation at the Advanced Automotive Batteries Conference held February 4-8, 2013 in ...

  20. Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details ... Language: English Subject: energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  1. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 ...

  2. Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries DOE Grant Recipients Arizona ... the need for high-output, long-lasting rechargeable batteries has grown tremendously. ...

  3. Ceramic-Metal Composites for Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ceramic-Metal Composites for Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley ... it desirable for use in rechargeable batteries, but its tendency to form dendrites has ...

  4. Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are ...

  5. CUBICON Materials that Outperform Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CUBICON Materials that Outperform Lithium-Ion Batteries Brookhaven National Laboratory ... Technology Marketing Summary The demand for batteries to meet high-power and high-energy ...

  6. Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: ... and security of batteries Substantially reduces power fade and potential for explosions. ...

  7. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  8. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab

  9. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-02-21

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. Additionally, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMCmore » 532 electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. In conclusion, this study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.« less

  10. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. Additionally, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMC 532 electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. In conclusion, this study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.

  11. Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Guoying Chen and Thomas J. Richardson have invented a new type of separator membrane that prevents dangerous overcharge and overdischarge conditions in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, i.e., exploding lithium ion batteries. This low cost separator, with electroactive polymers

  12. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study highlights the U.S. foothold in automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) production, globally. U.S.-based manufacturers comprise 17% of global production capacity. With increasing demand for...

  13. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)—which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles—is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To...

  14. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: ... A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous ...

  15. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries High Energy Novel Cathode Alloy Automotive Cell Develop & evaluate materials & ...

  16. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress...

  17. Researchers Create Transparent Lithium-Ion Battery - Joint Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory researchers have invented a transparent lithium-ion battery that is also highly flexible. It is comparable in cost to regular ...

  18. Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for Manufacturing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThe lithium ion battery found in electronics like cell phones uses liquid electrolytes ...

  19. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations This Clean ...

  20. Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley ... have invented nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. ...

  1. Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop 2012 2 2 screw eyes 2 No. 14 rubber bands 2 alligator clips 1 plastic gear font 2 steel axles 4 nylon spacers 2 Pitsco GT-R Wheels 2 Pitsco GT-F Wheels 2 balsa wood sheets 1 No. 280 motor Also: Parts List 3 Tools Required 1. Soldering iron 2. Hobby knife or coping saw 3. Glue gun 4. Needlenose pliers 5. 2 C-clamps 6. Ruler 4 1. Using a No. 2 pencil, draw Line A down the center of a balsa sheet. Making the Chassis 5 2. Turn over the balsa sheet and draw Line B

  2. Batteries - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BEYOND LITHIUM ION BREAKOUT Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * 1 - Zn-Air possible either w/ or w/o electric-hybridization; also possible with a solid electrolyte variant * 2 - Multivalent systems (e.g Mg), potentially needing hybrid-battery * 3 - Advanced Li-ion with hybridization @ cell / molecular level for high-energy and high- power * 4 - MH-air, Li-air, Li-S, all show promise * 5 - High-energy density (e.g.

  3. Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries NREL Commercialization & Tech Transfer Webinar March 27, 2011 Gi-Heon Kim gi-heon.kim@nrel.gov John Ireland, Kyu-Jin Lee, Ahmad Pesaran Kandler Smith kandler.smith@nrel.gov Source: A123 Source: GM NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Challenges for Large LIB Systems 2 * Li-ion batteries are flammable, require expensive manufacturing to reduce defects * Small-cell protection devices do not work for large systems * Difficult to detect

  4. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  6. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  7. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  8. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  9. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  10. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  11. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  12. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have

  13. Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries By Sarah Schlieder * August 5, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine a cell a phone that charges in less than an hour and lasts...

  14. Methods for Preparing Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Methods for Preparing Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Process for the preparation of transition metal particles with a gradient concentration from core to the outer layers As applied to Lithium Ion batteries gradient cathode material allows for high energy and improved safety Enables high capacity Ni center with Mn outer layer for improved safety and stability IN-10-036 US 8591774B2 Availability: Technology available for license to

  15. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-09-034) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance (ANL-09-034) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are a critical technology for many applications, including consumer electronics and electric vehicles. As the demand for hybrid and

  16. Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Composite anode material for Lithium Ion Battery High reversible capacity and improved cyclability with minimal volume change with cycling IN-10-013 US 9054373B2 Availability: Technology available for license to organizations with commercial interest. Collaborative research is available under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Contact: 800-627-2596; partners@anl.gov PDF icon Anode Materials

  17. Surface-Modified Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed a new fabrication technique for lithium ion battery electrodes that lowers binder cost without sacrificing performance and reliability. Description The innovative process evaporates a thin polymer coating on the active materials' particles and mixes these coated particles

  18. Materials and Processing for Lithium-Ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Lithium ion battery technology is projected to be the leapfrog technology for the electrification of the drivetrain and to provide stationary storage solutions to enable the effective use of renewable energy sources. The technology is already in use for low-power applications such as consumer electronics and power tools. Extensive research and development has enhanced the technology to a stage where it seems very likely that safe and reliable lithium ion batteries will soon be on board hybrid electric and electric vehicles and connected to solar cells and windmills. However, safety of the technology is still a concern, service life is not yet sufficient, and costs are too high. This paper summarizes the state of the art of lithium ion battery technology for nonexperts. It lists materials and processing for batteries and summarizes the costs associated with them. This paper should foster an overall understanding of materials and processing and the need to overcome the remaining barriers for a successful market introduction.

  19. Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt006_es_pham_2011_p.pdf (566.72 KB) More Documents & Publications Dow/Kokam Cell/Battery Production Facilities Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery

  20. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt020_es_coy_2012_p.pdf (1.72 MB) More Documents & Publications Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities Recycling Hybrid and Elecectric Vehicle Batteries EA-1722: Final Environmental Assessment

  1. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations (Presentation), Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CMAC), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Automo&ve Lithium---ion Ba1ery (LIB) Supply Chain and U.S. Compe&&veness Considera&ons Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, S hriram Santhanagopalan, CEMAC With contribu,ons from experts at the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne Na,onal Laboratory, the Na,onal Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Industry Partners June 2, 2015 NREL/PR---6A50---63354 Contract No. DE---AC36---08GO28308 June 2015 CEMAC ▪ Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center ▪ ManufacturingCleanEnergy.org DISCLAIMER

  2. Better Lithium-Ion Batteries Are On The Way From Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Lithium-ion Battery on the Way Simulations Reveal How New Polymer Absorbs Eight Times the Lithium of Current Designs September 23, 2011 Paul Preuss,...

  3. EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    0: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery Production Facilities near Detroit, MI EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery Production ...

  4. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with ...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Optodot Corporation at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about innovative manufacturing...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Optodot Corporation at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about innovative manufacturing...

  7. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  8. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  9. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  10. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Issues | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pmp_05_gaines.pdf (566.25 KB) More Documents & Publications International Collaboration With a Case Study in Assessment of Worlds Supply of Lithium Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report, Sections 4-6

  11. National Alliance for Advanced Transportation Battery Cell Manufacture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manufacture Product: US-based consortium formed to research, develop, and mass produce lithium ion batteries. References: National Alliance for Advanced Transportation Battery Cell...

  12. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.; White, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells performance.

  13. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  14. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  15. Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  17. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  18. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  19. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  20. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  1. High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Technology Marketing SummaryGao Liu and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have

  2. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-11-06

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and, reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  3. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  4. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood III, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-11-06

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and, reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and amore » standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).« less

  5. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Operating Temperature Range | Department of Energy 26_smart_2012_o.pdf (1.75 MB) More Documents & Publications Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

  6. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operating Temperature Range | Department of Energy Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es026_smart_2013_p.pdf (1.73 MB) More Documents & Publications Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with

  7. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  8. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced ...

  9. Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Porous Power Technologies, partnered with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), developed SYMMETRIX HPX-F, a nanocomposite separator for improved lithium-ion battery technology.

  10. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  11. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Commercialization A123 Systems Inc., the primary industrial partner on the project and one of the leading Li-ion battery developers in the United States, is enabling and ...

  12. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries Compatible with current battery technologies Provides overcharge protection, increased safety and long-term stability PDF icon redox_shuttles_overcharge

  13. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire -MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing -MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the -MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the -MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into -MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the -MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating high

  14. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  15. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  16. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  17. Polymer considerations in rechargeable lithium ion plastic batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gozdz, A.S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Schmutz, C.N.; Warren, P.C.; Gebizlioglu, O.S.; Shokoohi, F.

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymers have been investigated in order to determine their suitability as ionically conductive binders of the active electrode materials and as hybrid electrolyte matrices in plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Hybrid electrolyte films used in this study have been prepared by solvent casting using a 1:1 w/w mixture of the matrix polymer with 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/PC. Based on electrochemical stability, mechanical strength, liquid electrolyte retention, and softening temperature, random copolymers of vinylidene fluoride containing ca. 12 mole % of hexafluoropropylene have been selected for this application.

  18. Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrodes having composite xLi2M'O3*(1-x)LiMO2 structures in which an electrochemically inactive Li2M'O3 component is integrated with an electrochemically active LiMO2 component to provide improved structural and electrochemical stability. Has superior cost features compared with current state-of-the-art LiCoO2 electrodes. Offers high rate of charge/discharge and structural stability

  19. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  20. Prediction of Multi-Physics Behaviors of Large Lithium-Ion Batteries During Internal and External Short Circuit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation describes the multi-physics behaviors of internal and external short circuits in large lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Fact #921: April 18, 2016 Japan Produced the Most Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries by Capacity in 2014- Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Excel file and dataset for Japan Produced the Most Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries by Capacity in 2014

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  3. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL

  4. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  8. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approach | Argonne National Laboratory Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach Technology available for licensing: New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable lithium-ion cells and batteries synthesized by using a novel alternative approach Lowers battery pack cost. Layered cathode material contains low-cost manganese, which operates at high rate and high voltage and results in a high-energy-density battery with improved stability. PDF icon

  9. Evaluation Study for Large Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Designs Using Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2009-05-01

    Addresses battery requirements for electric vehicles using a model that evaluates physical-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries, from atomic variations to vehicle interface controls.

  10. EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Facilities near Detroit, MI | Department of Energy 0: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery Production Facilities near Detroit, MI EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery Production Facilities near Detroit, MI April 1, 2010 EA-1690: Final Environmental Assessment For a Loan and Grant to A123 Systems, Inc., for Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Batteries April 20, 2010 EA-1690: Finding of No

  11. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  12. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  13. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This is illustrated no more clearly than in Michigan and North Carolina. Last week, Secretary Chu toured the A123 Systems advanced battery manufacturing facility in Romulus, ...

  14. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy ... and Innovation at Events Across the Nation A123 Systems Moves From the Lab to the Assembly ...

  16. In the OSTI Collections: Lithium-ion Batteries | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium-ion batteries have high energy per unit of volume and mass, and other chemical ... Pure lithium is, in fact, the lightest and most energy-efficient material for the ...

  17. Lithium-Ion Battery with Higher Charge Capacity - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Battery with Higher Charge Capacity University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Zirconate Based Cathode Material Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) typically use a cobalt compound as the cathode material. Cobalt oxides are relatively expensive and scarce. An innovative zirconate-based cathode material developed at the University of Minnesota has the potential

  18. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North Carolina | Department of Energy Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina July 26, 2011 - 3:15pm Addthis Secretary Chu joins local officials and dignitaries for Celgard's ribbon-cutting. | Photo courtesy of Celgard Secretary Chu joins local officials and dignitaries for Celgard's ribbon-cutting. | Photo courtesy of Celgard Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs

  19. Students to race their innovative solar, hydrogen and lithium ion battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model cars Saturday - News Releases | NREL Students to race their innovative solar, hydrogen and lithium ion battery model cars Saturday May 10, 2012 Middle school students from around the state will participate in the Junior Solar Sprint, Hydrogen Fuel Cell, and Lithium Ion Battery car competitions on Saturday, May 12, at Dakota Ridge High School in Littleton. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the competitions give students the

  20. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite anode material from the collectors, a common result of cyclical

  1. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  2. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nanocomposite_materials_li_ion.pdf (508.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing Grants Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Energy Storage R&D and ARRA

  3. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  4. New Path Forward for Next-Generation Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path Forward for Next-Generation Lithium-Ion Batteries New Path Forward for Next-Generation Lithium-Ion Batteries Berkeley Lab researchers shed light on how lithium-rich cathodes work, opening the door to higher capacity batteries. May 30, 2016 Julie Chao, JHChao@lbl.gov, (510) 486-6491 Ceder group LBNL A new study by Berkeley Lab researchers Dong-Hwa Seo, Alex Urban, Jinhyuk Lee, and Gerd Ceder (from left) sheds light on how lithium-rich cathodes work, opening the door to higher capacity

  5. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  6. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  7. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  8. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Bloom, Ira D.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  9. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion ...

  10. Integrated Lithium-Ion Battery Model Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Scales: An Integrated Computer Simulation Tool for Design and Development of EDV Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the physics of lithium-ion battery systems in different length scales, from atomic scale to system scale.

  11. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The modelmore » development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.« less

  12. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  13. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es025_zhang_2011_p.pdf (443.82 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte

  14. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  15. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  16. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  17. Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication NREL Internal Short Circuit (ISC) Fact Sheet (321 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Energy storage cells (also referred to herein as "cells" or "batteries") sold for

  18. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a material directly influence characteristics relevant to a wide range of prominent applications including rechargeable batteries for energy storage. Structural and/or chemical rearrangements at surfaces determine the way a material interacts with its environment,

  19. In the OSTI Collections: Lithium-ion Batteries | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Lithium-ion Batteries View Past "In the OSTI Collections" Articles. Article Acknowledgement: Dr. William N. Watson, Physicist DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information Chemistry Economics Invention References Research Organizations Reports available through OSTI's SciTech Connect Patent available through OSTI's DOepatents Additional References An electric battery of any kind has two electrodes made of different materials, each

  20. Conductivity degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride composite binder during cycling: Measurements and simulations for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grillet, Anne M.; Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Roberts, Scott A.; Barringer, David A.; Snyder, Chelsea M.; Janvrin, Madison R.; Apblett, Christopher A.

    2016-07-02

    The polymer-composite binder used in lithium-ion battery electrodes must both hold the electrodes together and augment their electrical conductivity while subjected to mechanical stresses caused by active material volume changes due to lithiation and delithiation. We have discovered that cyclic mechanical stresses cause significant degradation in the binder electrical conductivity. After just 160 mechanical cycles, the conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):carbon black binder dropped between 45–75%. This degradation in binder conductivity has been shown to be quite general, occurring over a range of carbon black concentrations, with and without absorbed electrolyte solvent and for different polymer manufacturers. Mechanical cycling ofmore » lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathodes caused a similar degradation, reducing the effective electrical conductivity by 30–40%. Mesoscale simulations on a reconstructed experimental cathode geometry predicted the binder conductivity degradation will have a proportional impact on cathode electrical conductivity, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. Lastly, ohmic resistance measurements were made on complete batteries. Direct comparisons between electrochemical cycling and mechanical cycling show consistent trends in the conductivity decline. This evidence supports a new mechanism for performance decline of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries during operation – electrochemically-induced mechanical stresses that degrade binder conductivity, increasing the internal resistance of the battery with cycling.« less

  1. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimoi, Norihiro Bahena-Garrido, Sharon; Tanaka, Yasumitsu; Qiwu, Zhang

    2015-05-15

    Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si) particles and copper monoxide (CuO) particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g{sup −1} after 200 cycles.

  2. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  3. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: AGM Batteries Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manufactures lithium-ion cells and batteries for AEA Battery Systems Ltd. References: AGM Batteries Ltd1...

  4. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  5. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2015-06-23

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO{sub 4} cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles.

  6. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lowers battery pack cost. Layered cathode material contains low-cost manganese, which operates at high rate and high voltage and results in a high-energy-density battery with ...

  7. Catching Lithium Ions in Action in a Battery Electrode | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Catching Lithium Ions in Action in a Battery Electrode Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.12 Catching Lithium

  8. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GROUP Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Marshall C. Smart B. V. Ratnakumar, F. C. Krause, C. Huang, L. D. Whitcanack , J. Soler , and W. C. West, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology DOE-ABR/BATT Annual Meeting Review Arlington, Virginia May 14, 2013 Project ID = ES026 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES GROUP 2

  9. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  10. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  11. Development of a high-power lithium-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.

    1998-09-02

    Safety is a key concern for a high-power energy storage system such as will be required in a hybrid vehicle. Present lithium-ion technology, which uses a carbon/graphite negative electrode, lacks inherent safety for two main reasons: (1) carbon/graphite intercalates lithium at near lithium potential, and (2) there is no end-of-charge indicator in the voltage profile that can signal the onset of catastrophic oxygen evolution from the cathode (LiCoO{sub 2}). Our approach to solving these safety/life problems is to replace the graphite/carbon negative electrode with an electrode that exhibits stronger two-phase behavior further away from lithium potential, such as Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. Cycle-life and pulse-power capability data are presented in accordance with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) test procedures, as well as a full-scale design based on a spreadsheet model.

  12. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  13. Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smith kandler.smith@nrel.gov Source: A123 Source: GM NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY ... Electrical Current Paths in LIBs 4 1) Battery Electric Power Delivery: Charging...

  14. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    batteries and electronic devices. Inventors: Weng, Wei ; Zhang, Zhengcheng ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2014-11-04 OSTI Identifier: 1163213 Assignee: UChicago Argonne, LLC ...

  15. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop- Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL.

  16. Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Yardney) * D. Abraham (ANL) * M. Smart (NASA JPL) * V. Battaglia (LBNL) Partners ... ion battery electrolytes. * M. Smart (NASA JPL, National Lab, ABRT Program): ...

  17. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... these numbers do not include the Tesla "gigafactory", which at the announced 35 GWh manufacturing capacity will significantly alter the global manufacturing landscape (Tesla 2016). ...

  18. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using leadacid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling and ensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.

  19. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model hasmore » to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.« less

  20. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaines, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using leadacid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling andmoreensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.less

  1. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model has to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.

  2. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  3. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore » in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  4. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  5. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  6. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, S. Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-08-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  7. Nanotube Arrays for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IT industries by 2020. The growing market segments are searching for battery technology that can increase the power and energy densities as well as provide a higher cycle count. ...

  8. Internal Short Circuit Device Helps Improve Lithium-Ion Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.

  9. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  10. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  11. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  12. Silicon-Nanowire Based Lithium Ion Batteries for Vehicles With Double the Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan, Ionel; Cohen, Yehonathan

    2015-03-31

    Amprius researched and developed silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius then built and delivered high-energy lithium-ion cells that met the project’s specific energy goal and exceeded the project’s energy density goal. But Amprius’ cells did not meet the project’s cycle life goal, suggesting additional manufacturing process development is required. With DOE support, Amprius developed a new anode material, silicon, and a new anode structure, nanowire. During the project, Amprius also began to develop a new multi-step manufacturing process that does not involve traditional anode production processes (e.g. mixing, drying and calendaring).

  13. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  14. Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    A new approach and simple method is described to produce macroporous metal sheet as current collector for anode in lithium ion battery. This method, based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides, produces a uniform, macroporous metal sheet. Silicon film sputter-coated on such porous copper substrate shows much higher capacity and longer cycle life than on smooth Cu foil. This methodology produces very limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production.

  15. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  16. Evaluation residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes and its effect on electrode performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; An, Seong Jin

    2016-01-11

    Removing residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes is essential for desired electrochemical performance. In this manuscript, the residual moisture in LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes produced by conventional solvent-based and aqueous processing is characterized and compared. The electrochemical performance has also been investigated for various residual moisture contents. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the residual moisture lowers the first cycle coulombic efficiency, but its effect on short term cycle life is insignificant.

  17. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-04-27

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  18. Anodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Anodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language:

  19. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  20. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  1. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  2. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  3. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  4. Improving the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trung H. Nguyen; Peter Marren; Kevin Gering

    2007-04-20

    The ability for Li-ion batteries to operate at low temperatures is extremely critical for the development of energy storage for electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Currently, Li-ion cells have limited success in operating at temperature below –10 deg C. Electrolyte conductivity at low temperature is not the main cause of the poor performance of Li-ion cells. Rather the formation of a tight interfacial film between the electrolyte and the electrodes has often been an issue that resulted in a progressive capacity fading and limited discharge rate capability. The objective of our Phase I work is to develop novel electrolytes that can form low interfacial resistance solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes. From the results of our Phase I work, we found that the interfacial impedance of Fluoro Ethylene Carbonate (FEC) electrolyte at the low temperature of –20degC is astonishingly low, compared to the baseline 1.2M LiPFEMC:EC:PC:DMC (10:20:10:60) electrolyte. We found that electrolyte formulations with fluorinated carbonate co-solvent have excellent film forming properties and better de-solvation characteristics to decrease the interfacial SEI film resistance and facilitate the Li-ion diffusion across the SEI film. The very overwhelming low interfacial impedance for FEC electrolytes will translate into Li-ion cells with much higher power for cold cranking and high Regen/charge at the low temperature. Further, since the SEI film resistance is low, Li interaction kinetics into the electrode will remain very fast and thus Li plating during Regen/charge period be will less likely to happen.

  5. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Vehicle ...

  6. Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence ... Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium Ion Batteries," Journal of the Electrochemical ...

  7. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries ...

  8. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-manufacturing_b.pdf (117.4 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion

  9. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  10. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details ... Subject: energy storage; flow battery; grid storage; lithium-ion battery; manufacturing ...

  12. Electrodeposited porous metal oxide films with interconnected nanoparticles applied as anode of lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Highly porous NiO film is prepared by a co-electrodeposition method. Porous NiO film is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Porous structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. Porous NiO film shows good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Controllable synthesis of porous metal oxide films is highly desirable for high-performance electrochemical devices. In this work, a highly porous NiO film composed of interconnected nanoparticles is prepared by a simple co-electrodeposition method. The nanoparticles in the NiO film have a size ranging from 30 to 100 nm and construct large-quantity pores of 20120 nm. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the highly porous NiO film electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 700 mA h g{sup ?1} at 0.2 C, as well as good high-rate performance. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, a specific capacitance of 517 mA h g{sup ?1} is attained. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the interconnected porous structure, which facilitates the diffusion of ion and electron, and provides large reaction surface area leading to improved performance.

  13. Multiscale Multiphysics Lithium-Ion Battery Model with Multidomain Modular Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) powering recent wave of personal ubiquitous electronics are also believed to be a key enabler of electrification of vehicle powertrain on the path toward sustainable transportation future. Over the past several years, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed the Multi-Scale Multi-Domain (MSMD) model framework, which is an expandable platform and a generic modularized flexible framework resolving interactions among multiple physics occurring in varied length and time scales in LIB[1]. NREL has continued to enhance the functionality of the framework and to develop constituent models in the context of the MSMD framework responding to U.S. Department of Energy's CAEBAT program objectives. This talk will introduce recent advancements in NREL's LIB modeling research in regards of scale-bridging, multi-physics integration, and numerical scheme developments.

  14. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong; Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C.; Ramabadran, Navaneet

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  15. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center report is intended to provide credible, objective analysis regarding the regional competitiveness contexts of manufacturing lithium-­ion batteries ...

  16. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can be used in ultracapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced lead acid batteries. ... EnerG2 Ribbon Cutting Ceremony for new battery materials plant in Albany, Oregon. Photo ...

  17. High-Power Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Significance and Impact This anode design holds a greater charge than conventional lithium-ion anodes and chargesdischarges more rapidly while maintaining mechanical stability. ...

  18. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Johnson Controls is working to increase energy density of vehicle batteries while reducing manufacturing costs for lithium-ion battery cells.

  19. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use inhybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-06-22

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature.

  20. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Marshall C. Smart B. V. Ratnakumar, W. C. West, L. D. Whitcanack, C. Huang, J. Soler, and F. C. Krause Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology DOE-BATT Review Meeting Washington, D. C. May 9, 2011 Project ID = ES026 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES GROUP 2 Overview * Start Date =

  1. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Marshall C. Smart B. V. Ratnakumar, W. C. West, L. D. Whitcanack, and F. C. Krause Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology DOE-BATT Review Meeting Washington, D. C. June 7, 2010 Project ID = ES026 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES GROUP 2 Overview * Start Date = October 2009 * End Date = October 2014 *

  2. EnerDel Expanding Battery Manufacturing in Indiana | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EnerDel Expanding Battery Manufacturing in Indiana EnerDel Expanding Battery Manufacturing in Indiana October 5, 2010 - 2:00pm Addthis EnerDel is expanding its Mt. Comfort-based factory to produce advanced lithium-ion batteries such as this.| Photo courtesy of EnderDel EnerDel is expanding its Mt. Comfort-based factory to produce advanced lithium-ion batteries such as this.| Photo courtesy of EnderDel Lindsay Gsell What are the key facts? EnerDel uses $118 in Recovery Act funding to expand

  3. Shenzhen Mottcell Battery Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based manufacturer of cylindrical Lithium Iron Phopshate and Lithium ion batteries. References: Shenzhen Mottcell Battery...

  4. Chemical and Electrochemical Lithiation of LiVOPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Katharine L; Bridges, Craig A; Segre, C; VernadoJr, C Daniel; Applestone, Danielle; Bielawski, Christopher W; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical capacity of LiVOPO4 could be increased from 159 to 318 mAh/g with the insertion of a second Li+ ion into the lattice to form Li2VOPO4, significantly enhancing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The changes accompanying the second Li+ insertion into -LiVOPO4 and -LiVOPO4 are presented here at various degrees of lithiation, employing both electrochemical and chemical lithiation. Inductively coupled plasma, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform spectroscopy measurements indicate that a composition of Li2VOPO4 could be realized with an oxidation state of V3+ by the chemical lithiation process. The accompanying structural changes are evidenced by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Spectroscopic and diffraction data collected with the chemically lithiated samples as well as diffraction data on the electrochemically lithiated samples reveal that significant amount of lithium can be inserted into -LiVOPO4 before a more dramatic structural change occurs. In contrast, lithiation of -LiVOPO4 is more consistent with the formation of a two-phase mixture throughout most of the lithiation range. The phases observed with the ambient-temperature lithiation processes presented here are significantly different from those reported in the literature.

  5. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  6. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  7. Reduced order modeling of mechanical degradation induced performance decay in lithium-ion battery porous electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; Chen, Chien -Fan; Kim, Gi -Heon; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-17

    In this paper, a one-dimensional computational framework is developed that can solve for the evolution of voltage and current in a lithium-ion battery electrode under different operating conditions. A reduced order model is specifically constructed to predict the growth of mechanical degradation within the active particles of the carbon anode as a function of particle size and C-rate. Using an effective diffusivity relation, the impact of microcracks on the diffusivity of the active particles has been captured. Reduction in capacity due to formation of microcracks within the negative electrode under different operating conditions (constant current discharge and constant current constant voltage charge) has been investigated. At the beginning of constant current discharge, mechanical damage to electrode particles predominantly occurs near the separator. As the reaction front shifts, mechanical damage spreads across the thickness of the negative electrode and becomes relatively uniform under multiple discharge/charge cycles. Mechanical degradation under different drive cycle conditions has been explored. It is observed that electrodes with larger particle sizes are prone to capacity fade due to microcrack formation. Finally, under drive cycle conditions, small particles close to the separator and large particles close to the current collector can help in reducing the capacity fade due to mechanical degradation.

  8. Reduced order modeling of mechanical degradation induced performance decay in lithium-ion battery porous electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; Chen, Chien -Fan; Kim, Gi -Heon; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-17

    In this paper, a one-dimensional computational framework is developed that can solve for the evolution of voltage and current in a lithium-ion battery electrode under different operating conditions. A reduced order model is specifically constructed to predict the growth of mechanical degradation within the active particles of the carbon anode as a function of particle size and C-rate. Using an effective diffusivity relation, the impact of microcracks on the diffusivity of the active particles has been captured. Reduction in capacity due to formation of microcracks within the negative electrode under different operating conditions (constant current discharge and constant current constantmore » voltage charge) has been investigated. At the beginning of constant current discharge, mechanical damage to electrode particles predominantly occurs near the separator. As the reaction front shifts, mechanical damage spreads across the thickness of the negative electrode and becomes relatively uniform under multiple discharge/charge cycles. Mechanical degradation under different drive cycle conditions has been explored. It is observed that electrodes with larger particle sizes are prone to capacity fade due to microcrack formation. Finally, under drive cycle conditions, small particles close to the separator and large particles close to the current collector can help in reducing the capacity fade due to mechanical degradation.« less

  9. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polat, B. D.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Keles, O; Erdemir, A; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-22

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g-1 capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g-1 (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g-1 as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g-1 capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.

  10. Unravelling the impact of reaction paths on mechanical degradation of intercalation cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Juchuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng; Cheng, Yang -Tse; Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-10-18

    The intercalation compounds are generally considered as ideal electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries thanks to their minimum volume expansion and fast lithium ion diffusion. However, cracking still occurs in those compounds and has been identified as one of the critical issues responsible for their capacity decay and short cycle life, although the diffusion-induced stress and volume expansion are much smaller than those in alloying-type electrodes. Here, we designed a thin-film model system that enables us to tailor the cation ordering in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinels and correlate the stress patterns, phase evolution, and cycle performances. Surprisingly, we found that distinct reaction pathsmore » cause negligible difference in the overall stress patterns but significantly different cracking behaviors and cycling performances: 95% capacity retention for disordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and 48% capacity retention for ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 after 2000 cycles. We were able to pinpoint that the extended solid-solution region with suppressed phase transformation attributed to the superior electrochemical performance of disordered spinel. Furthermore, this work envisions a strategy for rationally designing stable cathodes for lithium-ion batteries through engineering the atomic structure that extends the solid-solution region and suppresses phase transformation.« less

  11. Unravelling the impact of reaction paths on mechanical degradation of intercalation cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Juchuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng; Cheng, Yang -Tse; Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-10-18

    The intercalation compounds are generally considered as ideal electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries thanks to their minimum volume expansion and fast lithium ion diffusion. However, cracking still occurs in those compounds and has been identified as one of the critical issues responsible for their capacity decay and short cycle life, although the diffusion-induced stress and volume expansion are much smaller than those in alloying-type electrodes. Here, we designed a thin-film model system that enables us to tailor the cation ordering in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinels and correlate the stress patterns, phase evolution, and cycle performances. Surprisingly, we found that distinct reaction paths cause negligible difference in the overall stress patterns but significantly different cracking behaviors and cycling performances: 95% capacity retention for disordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and 48% capacity retention for ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 after 2000 cycles. We were able to pinpoint that the extended solid-solution region with suppressed phase transformation attributed to the superior electrochemical performance of disordered spinel. Furthermore, this work envisions a strategy for rationally designing stable cathodes for lithium-ion batteries through engineering the atomic structure that extends the solid-solution region and suppresses phase transformation.

  12. Evaluation of lithium-ion synergetic battery pack as battery charger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M.; Eaves, S.S.

    1999-09-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and a battery charger. In this paper, the authors compare the performance of the Synergetic Battery Pack as a battery charger with several simple conventional battery charging circuits via computer simulation. The factors of comparison were power factor, harmonic distortion, and circuit efficiency. The simulations showed that the SBP is superior to the conventional charging circuits since the power factor is unity and harmonic distortion is negligible.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lithium-ion...

  14. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automo&ve Lithium---ion Ba1ery (LIB) Supply Chain and U.S. Compe&&veness Considera&ons Donald ... of mul,ple cells, controls, thermal management, and physical protec,on. 19 Regional ...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Daikin America at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion...

  16. Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Safe, stable and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries ...

  17. SnCo–CMK nanocomposite with improved electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Deng, Cuilin; Zheng, Cheng; Qiu, Heyuan; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The SnCo–CMK nanocomposite was synthesized using mesoporous carbon as nano-reactor. • Ultrafine SnCo nanoparticles distribute both inside and outside of mesopore channels. • The SnCo–CMK nanocomposite is an alternative anode material for Li-ion intercalation. • A high reversible capacity of 562 mAh g{sup −1} is maintained after 60 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Abstract: In the present work, SnCo–CMK nanocomposite was successfully synthesized for the first time via a simple nanocasting route by using mesoporous carbon as nano-reactor. The nanocomposite was then characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) respectively. Furthermore, the SnCo–CMK nanocomposite exhibited large reversible capacities, excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. A large reversible capacity of 562 mA h g{sup −1} was obtained after 60 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} which is attributed to the structure of ‘meso-nano’ SnCo–CMK composite. This unique structure ensures the intimate contact between CMK and SnCo nanoparticles, buffers the large volume expansion and prevents the aggregation of the SnCo nanoparticles during cycling, leading to the excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability.

  18. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  20. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 ? (1 ? X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles i.e. 1 ? 3(1 ? X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 ? X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  1. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte.more » By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.« less

  3. Optimal Charging Profiles with Minimal Intercalation-Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Pseudo 2-Dimensional Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Northrop, PWC; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-07-30

    This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery by restricting the intercalation-induced stresses to a pre-determined limit estimated using a pseudo 2-dimensional (P2D). model. This paper focuses on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting capacity fade due to intercalation-induced stresses. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage or CC-CV) are not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms, which are not only inefficient in terms of life-time usage of the batteries but are also slower by not taking into account the changing dynamics of the system. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email: oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Expanding U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  7. Conversion Reaction Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries: Study of the Binary Metal Fluoride Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Robert, Rosa; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pereira, Nathalie; Omenya, Fredrick; Badway, Fadwa; Hua, Xiao; Ruotolo, Michael; Zhang, Ruigang; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Su, Dong; Key, Baris; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Grey, Clare P.; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Zhu, Yimei; Graetz, Jason

    2015-10-15

    Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF{sub 2}: M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the large polarization during electrochemical cycling, and why some materials are reversible (e.g., FeF{sub 2}) while others are not (e.g., CuF{sub 2}). In this study, we investigated the conversion reaction of binary metal fluorides, FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2}, using a series of local and bulk probes to better understand the mechanisms underlying their contrasting electrochemical behavior. X-ray pair-distribution-function and magnetization measurements were used to determine changes in short-range ordering, particle size and microstructure, while high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to measure the atomic-level structure of individual particles and map the phase distribution in the initial and fully lithiated electrodes. Both FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2} react with lithium via a direct conversion process with no intercalation step, but there are differences in the conversion process and final phase distribution. During the reaction of Li{sup +} with FeF{sub 2}, small metallic iron nanoparticles (<5 nm in diameter) nucleate in close proximity to the converted LiF phase, as a result of the low diffusivity of iron. The iron nanoparticles are interconnected and form a bicontinuous network, which provides a pathway for local electron transport through the insulating LiF phase. In addition, the massive interface formed between nanoscale solid phases provides a pathway for ionic transport during the conversion process. These results offer the first experimental evidence explaining the origins of the high lithium reversibility in FeF{sub 2}. In contrast

  8. Ultralife Corporation formerly Ultralife Batteries Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    14513 Product: New Jersey-based developer and manufacturer of standard and customised lithium primary, lithium ion and lithium polymer rechargeable batteries. References:...

  9. China BAK Battery Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 518119 Product: Guangdong- based manufacturer of standard and customized Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries. Coordinates: 22.546789, 114.112556 Show Map Loading...

  10. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  11. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  12. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behavior of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.

  13. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behaviormore » of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.« less

  14. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao Chen, Haoxin

    2014-05-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance.

  15. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  16. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, James D.

    2008-12-18

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO{sub 4} is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of such materials has been related to the underlying structure of the

  17. 3D Thermal and Electrochemical Model for Spirally Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-10-14

    In many commercial cells, long tabs at both cell sides, leading to uniform potentials along the spiral direction of wound jelly rolls, are rarely seen because of their high manufacturing cost. More often, several metal strips are welded at discrete locations along both current collector foils. With this design, the difference of electrical potentials is easily built up along current collectors in the spiral direction. Hence, the design features of the tabs, such as number, location and size, can be crucial factors for spiral-shaped battery cells. This paper presents a Li-ion battery cell model having a 3-dimensional spiral mesh involving a wound jellyroll structure. Further results and analysis will be given regarding impacts of tab location, number, and size.

  18. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  19. Advanced Battery Technologies Inc ABAT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: China-based developer, manufacturer and distributer of rechargeable polymer lithium-ion (PLI) batteries. Coordinates: 45.363708, 126.314621 Show Map Loading map......

  20. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

    2014-05-13

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  1. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles and their application for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Zhigang; Zheng, Feng; Yu, Hongchun; Jiang, Ziran; Liu, Kanglian

    2013-02-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles consist of tetragonal nanorods with size readily tunable. Their electrochemical properties and application as anode for lithium-ion battery were evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge testing and cycle voltammetry. SnO{sub 2} nanorod flowers possess improved discharge capacity of 694 mA h g{sup −1} up to 40th cycle at 0.1 C. - Highlights: ► The flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles with tunable size by controlling concentration of SnCl{sub 4}. ► A probable formation mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles has been proposed.

  3. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  4. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  5. Iron and Manganese Pyrophosphates as Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hui; Upreti, Shailesh; Chernova, Natasha A.; Hautier, Geoffroy; Ceder, Gerbrand; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2015-10-15

    The mixed-metal phases, (Li{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 0 {le} y {le} 1), were synthesized using a 'wet method', and found to form a solid solution in the P2{sub 1}/a space group. Both thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the 2+ oxidation state for both the Mn and Fe. The electrochemical capacity improves as the Fe concentration increases, as do the intensities of the redox peaks of the cyclic voltammogram, indicating higher lithium-ion diffusivity in the iron phase. The two Li{sup +} ions in the three-dimensional tunnel structure of the pyrophosphate phase allows for the cycling of more than one lithium per redox center. Cyclic voltammograms show a second oxidation peak at 5 V and 5.3 V, indicative of the extraction of the second lithium ion, in agreement with ab initio computation predictions. Thus, electrochemical capacities exceeding 200 Ah/kg may be achieved if a stable electrolyte is found.

  6. Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors ... milling system for preparation of electrodes for use in a solid state lithium-ion battery. ...

  7. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

    2010-05-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  8. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Zhangxiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Chemistry Department and The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zhao, Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ?2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  9. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-10-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li{sub x}C{sub 6} {vert{underscore}bar} 1 M LiPF{sub 6}, 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) {vert{underscore}bar} LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized.

  10. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  11. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte tomore » the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.« less

  12. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  13. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte | Department of Energy Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Presentation given by Daikin America at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion battery technology - high

  15. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nnovative M anufacturing and M aterials for Low -Cost Lithium -I on Batteries This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information...

  16. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  17. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Han, Kee Sung; Baggetto, Loic; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Custelcean, Radu; Lee, Dr. Eun-Sung; Guo, Bingkun; Bi, Zhonghe; Jiang, Deen; Veith, Gabriel M; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Brown, Gilbert M; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    A new orthochelated salt, lithium bis(monofluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB), has been synthesized and purified for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in the borate anion of LiBFMB increases its oxidation potential and also facilitates ion dissociation, as reflected by the ratio of ionic conductivity measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( exp) and that by ion diffusivity coefficients obtained using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) technique ( NMR). Half-cell tests using 5.0 V lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) as a cathode and EC/DMC/DEC as a solvent reveals that the impedance of the LiBFMB cell is much larger than those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based cells, which results in lower capacity and poor cycling performance of the former. XPS spectra of the cycled cathode electrode suggest that because of the stability of the LiBFMB salt, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the cathode surface is significantly different from those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based electrolytes, resulting in more solvent decomposition and thicker SEI layer. Initial results also indicate that using high dielectric constant solvent PC alters the surface chemistry, reduces the interfacial impedance, and enhances the performance of LiBFMB based 5.0V cell.

  19. Unconventional irreversible structural changes in a high-voltage Li–Mn-rich oxide for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-19

    Making all-electric vehicles (EVs) commonplace in transportation applications will require affordable high-power and high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The quest for suitable cathode materials to meet this end has currently plateaued with the discovery of high-voltage (≥4.7 V vs. Li+), high capacity (~250 mAh/g) lithium–manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite oxides. In spite of the promise of LMR oxides in high-energy-density LIBs, an irreversible structural change has been identified in this work that is governed by the formation of a ‘permanent’ spin-glass type magnetically frustrated phase indicating a dominant AB2O4 (A = Li, B = Mn) type spinel after a short-term lithium deintercalationmore » (charging) and intercalation (discharging) process. Furthermore, reduction of transition metal (Mn) ions from the 4+ state (pristine LMR) to 3+ (cycled LMR), which alters the intercalation redox chemistry and suggests the presence of ‘unfilled’ lithium vacancies and/or oxygen vacancies in the lattice after cycling, has presented a major stumbling block. Finally, these situations result in both loss of capacity and fading of the voltage profile, and these combined effects significantly reduce the high energy density over even short-term cycling.« less

  20. Octahedral core–shell cuprous oxide/carbon with enhanced electrochemical activity and stability as anode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Chen, Zhewei; Wang, Jianming

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Core–shell octahedral Cu{sub 2}O/C is prepared by a one-step method. • Carbon shell is amorphous and uniformly decorated at the Cu{sub 2}O octahedral core. • Core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C exhibits markedly enhanced capability and reversibility. • Carbon shell provides fast ion/electron transfer channel. • Core–shell structure is stable during cycling. - Abstract: Core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C octahedrons are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with the help of carbonization of glucose, which reduces Cu(II) to Cu(I) at low temperature and further forms carbon shell coating at high temperature. SEM and TEM images indicate that the carbon shell is amorphous with thickness of ∼20 nm wrapping the Cu{sub 2}O octahedral core perfectly. As anode of lithium ion batteries, the core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C composite exhibits high and stable columbic efficiency (98%) as well as a reversible capacity of 400 mAh g{sup −1} after 80 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the novel core–shell structure, in which the carbon shell reduces the electrode polarization and promotes the charge transfer at active material/electrolyte interface, and also acts as a stabilizer to keep the octahedral structure integrity during discharge–charge processes.

  1. Tuning charge-discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-12-18

    For LiMO2 (M=Co, Ni, Mn) cathode materials, lattice parameters, a(b), contract during charge. Here we report such changes in opposite directions for lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3). A ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is proposed based on crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxides during charge-discharge. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of the metal-metal bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking metal-oxygen bond as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of molybdenum ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in the early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results may open a new strategy for designing layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  2. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-11-25

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  3. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials.more » The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  4. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  6. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  7. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries: Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  9. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Post-Test Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  11. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop longer-lifetime, lower-cost Li-ion batteries. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are investigating cost-effective...

  12. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  13. Degradation Mechanisms and Lifetime Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries -- A Control Perspective: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-07-29

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery lifetime must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. To complicate matters, Li-ion batteries can experience different degradation trajectories that depend on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. We present a generalized battery life prognostic model framework for battery systems design and control. The model framework consists of trial functions that are statistically regressed to Li-ion cell life datasets wherein the cells have been aged under different levels of stress. Degradation mechanisms and rate laws dependent on temperature, storage, and cycling condition are regressed to the data, with multiple model hypotheses evaluated and the best model down-selected based on statistics. The resulting life prognostic model, implemented in state variable form, is extensible to arbitrary real-world scenarios. The model is applicable in real-time control algorithms to maximize battery life and performance. We discuss efforts to reduce lifetime prediction error and accommodate its inevitable impact in controller design.

  14. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  15. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  16. Lithium and lithium ion batteries towards micro-applications: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Ferrara, Seth A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Batteries employing lithium chemistry have been intensively investigated because of their high energy attributes which may be deployed for vehicle electrification and large-scale energy storage applications. Another important direction of battery research for micro-electronics, however, is relatively less discussed in the field but growing fast in recent years. This paper reviews chemistry and electrochemistry in different microbatteries along with their cell designs to meet the goals of their various applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge and recent progress of microbatteries for emerging micro-electronic devices may shed light on the future development of microbatteries towards high energy density and flexible design.

  17. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  18. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  19. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  20. Surface-Coating Regulated Lithiation Kinetics and Degradation in Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Yang, Hui; Yan, Pengfei; Travis, Jonathan J.; Lee, Younghee; Liu, Nian; Piper, Daniela M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhao, Peng; George, Steven M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Sulin; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-05-26

    Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the chemo-mechanical failure due to the large volume changes of Si during lithiation and delithiation cycles. It has been found nanostructured Si coated with carbon or other functional materials can lead to significantly improved cyclability. However, the underlying mechanism and comparative performance of different coatings remain poorly understood. Herein, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a nanoscale half-cell battery, in combination with chemo-mechanical simulation, we explored the effect of thin (~5 nm) alucone and Al2O3 coatings on the lithiation kinetics of Si nanowires (SiNWs). We observed that the alucone coating leads to a “V-shaped” lithiation front of the SiNWs , while the Al2O3 coating yields an “H-shaped” lithiation front. These observations indicate that the difference between the Li surface diffusivity and bulk diffusivity of the coatings dictates lithiation induced morphological evolution in the nanowires. Our experiments also indicate that the reaction rate in the coating layer can be the limiting step for lithiation and therefore critically influences the rate performance of the battery. Further, the failure mechanism of the Al2O3 coated SiNWs was also explored. Our studies shed light on the design of high capacity, high rate and long cycle life Li-ion batteries.

  1. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; James, Christine; Gaines, Linda; Gallagher, Kevin; Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  2. Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in ...

  3. Student Winners Announced in Solar, Hydrogen and Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three lithium-ion design trophies based on technology, ... Schools, Greeley, "Battery 1," second place; and The ... Academy, "Tommy the Tesla," first place; Lincoln ...

  4. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current ...

  5. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution ... energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  6. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast ...

  7. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in ... Subject: bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  8. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  9. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  10. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  11. A study of perfluorocarboxylate ester solvents for lithium ion battery electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fears, Tyler M; Sacci, Robert L; Winiarz, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Helmut; Taub, H.; Veith, Gabriel M

    2015-01-01

    Several high-purity methyl perfluorocarboxylates were prepared (>99.5% purity by mole) and investigated as potential fluorine-rich electrolyte solvents in Li-ion batteries. The most conductive electrolyte, 0.1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in dimethyl perfluoroglutarate (PF5M2) (ionic conductivity 1.87 102 mS cm1), is investigated in Si thin-film half-cells. The solid-electrolyteinterphase (SEI) formed by the PF5M2 electrolyte is composed of similar organic and inorganic moieties and at comparable concentrations as those formed by ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate electrolytes containing LiPF6 and LiTFSI salts. However, the SEI formed by the PF5M2 electrolyte undergoes reversible electrochemical defluorination, contributing to the reversible capacity of the cell and compensatingmore » in part for capacity fade in the Si electrode. While far from ideal these electrolytes provide an opportunity to further develop predictions of suitable fluorinated molecules for use in battery solvents.« less

  12. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  13. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-24

    Graphene-modified LiFePO{sub 4} composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO{sub 4} primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li{sup +} diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g{sup -1} at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  14. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  15. Efficient Reformulation of Solid Phase Diffusion in Electrochemical-Mechanical Coupled Models for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Effect of Intercalation Induced Stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, S; Suthar, B; Rife, D; Sikha, G; Subramanian, VR

    2013-07-23

    Lithium-ion batteries are typically modeled using porous electrode theory coupled with various transport and reaction mechanisms with an appropriate discretization or approximation for the solid phase diffusion within the electrode particle. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need for simulating solid-phase diffusion in the second radial dimension r within the particle. It increases the complexity of the model as well as the computation time/cost to a great extent. This is Particularly true for the inclusion of pressure induced diffusion inside particles experiencing volume change. A computationally efficient representation for solid-phase diffusion is discussed in this paper. The operating condition has a significant effect on the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of various approximations for the solid-phase transport governed by pressure induced diffusion. This paper introduces efficient methods for solid phase reformulation - (1) parabolic profile approach and (2) a mixed order finite difference method for approximating/representing solid-phase concentration variations within the active materials of porous electrodes for macroscopic models for lithium-ion batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  17. Battery Company Puts New Nanowire Technology into Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A battery company supported by the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has an agreement to manufacture silicon nanowire material for lithium-ion batteries on a commercial scale for the first time....

  18. Porous cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanorods: Facile syntheses, optical property and application in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Rui; Wang Jiawei; Li Qiuyu; Sun Guoying; Wang Enbo; Li Siheng; Gu Jianmin; Ju Mingliang

    2009-11-15

    We developed a facile synthetic route of porous cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanorods via a microemulsion-based method in combination with subsequent calcination process. The porous structure was formed by controlled decomposition of the microemulsion-synthesized precursor CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods without destruction of the original morphology. The as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods, consisting of small nanoparticles with diameter of 80-150 nm, had an average diameter of 200 nm and a length of 3-5 {mu}m. The morphology and structure of synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The phase and composition were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical property of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods was investigated. Moreover, the porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods exhibited high electrochemical performance when applied as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which gives them good potential applications. - Graphical abstract: The porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods synthesized via a microemulsion-based method in combination with subsequent calcination were applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance.

  19. Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream Title Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2014 Journal Batteries International...

  20. Argonne OutLoud: JCESR Goes Beyond the Lithium Ion Frontier ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JCESR Goes Beyond the Lithium Ion Frontier (Nov. 14, 2013) Share At the end of November ... million Energy Innovation Hub to develop next-generation batteries beyond lithium ion. ...

  1. Winners for NREL's 25th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winners for NREL's 25th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races May 16, 2015 Sixty-three teams ... today for the 25th Annual Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium Ion Battery car competitions. ...

  2. Winners for NREL's 24th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winners for NREL's 24th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races May 17, 2014 Indy-500-style ... Solar Sprint and Lithium Ion Battery car competitions for Colorado's middle schoolers. ...

  3. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the batterys components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  4. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  5. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  6. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon esarravt002flicker2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing...

  7. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale ...

  8. Electrochemical performance of polyaniline coated LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode active material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahan, Halil Dokan, Fatma K?l?c Ayd?n, Abdlhamit zdemir, Burcu zdemir, Nazl? Patat, ?aban

    2013-12-16

    LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound are synthesized by combustion method using glycine as a fuel at temperature (T), 800C which was coated by a polyaniline. The goal of this procedure is to promote better electronic conductivity of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in order to improve their electrochemical performance for their application as cathodes in secondary lithium ion batteries. The structures of prepared products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To investigate the effect of polyaniline coating galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling (148 mA g{sup ?1}) studies are made in the voltage range of 3.5-4.5 V vs. Li at room temperature. Electrochemical performance of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} was significantly improved by the polaniline coating.

  9. Secretary Chu Visits Advanced Battery Plant in Michigan, Announces New Army

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partnership | Department of Energy Advanced Battery Plant in Michigan, Announces New Army Partnership Secretary Chu Visits Advanced Battery Plant in Michigan, Announces New Army Partnership July 18, 2011 - 1:09pm Addthis Secretary Chu speaks at the A123 Systems lithium-ion battery manufacturing plant in Romulus, Michigan, while employees look on. | Photo Courtesy of Damien LaVera, Energy Department Secretary Chu speaks at the A123 Systems lithium-ion battery manufacturing plant in Romulus,

  10. AEA Battery Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: KW14 7XW Product: Designs, manufactures and supplies specialist lithium-ion high performance cells and batteries. Coordinates: 36.482929, -94.323563 Show...

  11. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  13. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g{sup −1}, reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} are 201 mAh g{sup −1} and 155.4 mAh g{sup −1} (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g{sup −1} even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%.

  14. Utilizing environmental friendly iron as a substitution element in spinel structured cathode materials for safer high energy lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong -Min; Liu, Yijin; Liu, Jue; Yu, Xiqian; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Khalifah, Peter; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Nam, Kyung -Wan; et al

    2015-12-03

    Suppressing oxygen release from lithium ion battery cathodes during heating is a critical issue for the improvement of the battery safety characteristics because oxygen can exothermically react with the flammable electrolyte and cause thermal runaway. Previous studies have shown that oxygen release can be reduced by the migration of transition metal cations from octahedral sites to tetrahedral sites during heating. Such site-preferred migration is determined by the electronic structure of cations. In addition, taking advantage of the unique electronic structure of the environmental friendly Fe, this is selected as substitution element in a high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to improvemore » the thermal stability. The optimized LiNi0.33Mn1.33Fe0.33O4 material shows significantly improved thermal stability compared with the unsubstituted one, demonstrated by no observed oxygen release at temperatures as high as 500°C. Due to the electrochemical contribution of Fe, the high energy density feature of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is well preserved.« less

  15. Utilizing environmental friendly iron as a substitution element in spinel structured cathode materials for safer high energy lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong -Min; Liu, Yijin; Liu, Jue; Yu, Xiqian; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Khalifah, Peter; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-03

    Suppressing oxygen release from lithium ion battery cathodes during heating is a critical issue for the improvement of the battery safety characteristics because oxygen can exothermically react with the flammable electrolyte and cause thermal runaway. Previous studies have shown that oxygen release can be reduced by the migration of transition metal cations from octahedral sites to tetrahedral sites during heating. Such site-preferred migration is determined by the electronic structure of cations. In addition, taking advantage of the unique electronic structure of the environmental friendly Fe, this is selected as substitution element in a high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to improve the thermal stability. The optimized LiNi0.33Mn1.33Fe0.33O4 material shows significantly improved thermal stability compared with the unsubstituted one, demonstrated by no observed oxygen release at temperatures as high as 500°C. Due to the electrochemical contribution of Fe, the high energy density feature of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is well preserved.

  16. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  17. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  18. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  19. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  20. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internalmore » combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.« less

  1. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  2. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low?Cost, High?Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries through Modified Surface and Microstructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  4. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATTs products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATTs work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  5. Modification of Ni-Rich FCG NMC and NCA Cathodes by Atomic Layer Deposition: Preventing Surface Phase Transitions for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Dahlberg, Kevin; King, David M.; David, Lamuel A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus; Dhar, Subhash; Mahajan, Vishal; Lee, Myongjai; et al

    2016-05-26

    The energy density of current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on layered LiMO2 cathodes (M=Ni, Mn, Co: NMC; M=Ni, Co, Al: NCA) needs to be improved significantly in order to compete with internal combustion engines and allow for widespread implementation of electric vehicles (EVs). In this report, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich FCG NMC and NCA active material particles could substantially improve LIB performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging, which delivers significantly increased specific energy utilization. Our results show that Al2O3 coating improved the NMC cyclingmore » performance by 40% and the NCA cycling performance by 34% at 1C/₋1C with respectively 4.35V and 4.4V UCV in 2Ah pouch cells. High resolution TEM/SAED structural characterization revealed that Al2O3 coatings prevented surface-initiated layered-to-spinel phase transitions in coated materials which were prevalent in uncoated materials. Lastly, EIS confirmed that Al2O3-coated materials had significantly lower increase in the charge transfer component of impedance during cycling. In conclusion, the ability to mitigate degradation mechanisms for Ni-rich NMC and NCA illustrated in this report provides insight into a method to enable the performance of high-voltage LIBs.« less

  6. Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites: Towards cost-effective and high performance binder free lithium ion batteries anode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, Y.; Wong, J. I.; Shi, Y. M.; Huang, Z. X.; Yang, H. Y.; Li, S.

    2014-10-06

    Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile thermal annealing method on Cu foils. Compared to pristine CuO and SnO{sub 2} nanostructures, hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced electrochemical performances as the anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The binder free CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites deliver a specific capacity of 718 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 500?mA g{sup ?1} even after 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and CuO nanoarchitectures. Such hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites could open up a new route for the development of next-generation high-performance and cost-effective binder free anode material of LIBs for mass production.

  7. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  8. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidationreduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chlorideethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  9. Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  10. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  11. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  13. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt014esoleary2011

  14. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt014_es_oleary_2011_p.pdf (438.12

  15. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt014esoleary2012

  19. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  20. Modification of carbon nanotubes by CuO-doped NiO nanocomposite for use as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Tajammul Hussain, Syed; Ali, Saqib; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Nisar; Abbas, Saghir; Ali, Zulfiqar

    2013-06-15

    CuO-doped NiO (CuNiO) with porous hexagonal morphology is fabricated via a modified in-situ co-precipitation method and its nanocomposite is prepared with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electrochemical properties of CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic chargedischarge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Since Cu can both act as conductor and a catalyst, the CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite exhibits higher initial coulombic efficiency (82.7% of the 2nd cycle) and better capacity retention (78.6% on 50th cycle) than bare CuNiO (78.9% of the 2nd cycle), CuO/CNT (76.8% of the 2nd cycle) and NiO/CNT (77.7% of the 2nd cycle) at the current density of 100 mA /g. This high capacity and good cycling ability is attributed to the partial substitution of Cu{sup +2} for Ni{sup +2}, resulting in an increase of holes concentration, and therefore improved p-type conductivity along with an intimate interaction with CNTs providing large surface area, excellent conduction, mechanical strength and chemical stability. - Graphical abstract: The porous CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: CuO doped NiO/CNTs nano composite is achieved via a simple co-precipitation method. Monodispersity, shape and sizes of sample particles is specifically controlled. Good quality adhesion between CNTs and CuNiO is visible from TEM image. High electrochemical performance is achieved. Discharge capacity of 686 mA h/g after 50 cycles with coulombic efficiency (82.5%)

  1. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  2. Gas-solid interfacial modification of oxygen activity in layered oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qiu, Bao; Zhang, Minghao; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Jun; Xia, Yonggao; Qian, Danna; Liu, Haodong; Chen, Yan; An, Ke; Zhu, Yimei; et al

    2016-07-01

    Lattice oxygen can play an intriguing role in electrochemical processes, not only maintaining structural stability, but also influencing electron and ion transport properties in high-capacity oxide cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the design of a gas–solid interface reaction to achieve delicate control of oxygen activity through uniformly creating oxygen vacancies without affecting structural integrity of Li-rich layered oxides. Theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations demonstrate that oxygen vacancies provide a favourable ionic diffusion environment in the bulk and significantly suppress gas release from the surface. The target material is achievable in delivering a discharge capacity as high asmore » 301 mAh g–1 with initial Coulombic efficiency of 93.2%. After 100 cycles, a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g–1 still remains without any obvious decay in voltage. Lastly, this study sheds light on the comprehensive design and control of oxygen activity in transition-metal-oxide systems for next-generation Li-ion batteries.« less

  3. How voltage drops are manifested by lithium ion configurations at interfaces and in thin films on battery electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 1-50 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrode–surface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the “electric double layer” (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We proposemore » that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the “lithium cohesive energy”-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.« less

  4. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 150 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrodesurface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the electric double layer (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We propose that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the lithium cohesive energy-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.

  5. How voltage drops are manifested by lithium ion configurations at interfaces and in thin films on battery electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 1-50 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrode–surface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the “electric double layer” (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We propose that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the “lithium cohesive energy”-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.

  6. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  7. Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Johnson Controls Project Improving battery manufacturing processes can help make plug-in electric vehicles more affordable and convenient. This will help meet the government's EV...

  8. Investigation of carbon-coated lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Mengjie; Zhang, Lin; Gong, Lijun; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Yuxi

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C with pre-stored active Li ions has been synthesized. • The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C is over 100%. • Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C displays excellent cyclic stability and capacity retention. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and carbon coating are necessary for formation of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. - Abstract: Carbon-coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode materials have been synthesized using nanosized anatase TiO{sub 2} and commercial TiO{sub 2} with mixed structure as Ti sources, respectively. Microstructural investigation indicates that Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are covered by amorphous carbon layers with thickness of 2–3 nm. Their electrochemical performance has been evaluated, which indicates that an amount of active Li ions have been pre-stored in the Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} lattice during solid-state synthesis, resulting in its first-cycle coulombic efficiency over 100%. Further, Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C exhibits higher cyclic capacities than Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C at different current density. The reversible charge capacity retention of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C reaches 98.5% after 100 cycles, which indicates that Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C is promising candidate anode material for long lifetime lithium-ion batteries. The formation mechanism of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C has been discussed, in which the nanosized anatase TiO{sub 2} with high chemical activity and the carbon coating play key roles for the formation of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C.

  9. Fact #921: April 18, 2016 Japan Produced the Most Automotive Lithium-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries by Capacity in 2014 | Department of Energy 1: April 18, 2016 Japan Produced the Most Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries by Capacity in 2014 Fact #921: April 18, 2016 Japan Produced the Most Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries by Capacity in 2014 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Japan produced about 2 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of automotive lithium-ion battery cells in 2014, which is more than any other country/region. In 2014, China had the greatest potential for increased production with

  10. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a negative electrode for nonaqueous lithium electrochemical cells and batteries Enhances stability at a reduced cost. Materials operate by lithium insertion, metal displacement reactions, or both. Materials have higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity, and improve battery

  11. characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers characterizing lithium-ion electrode ...

  12. Combustion synthesized nanocrystalline Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathiya, K.; Bhuvaneswari, D.; Gangulibabu; Kalaiselvi, N.

    2012-12-15

    the extraction of third lithium at 4.6 V. An appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g{sup −1} and better capacity retention upon high rate applications have been exhibited by Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathode, thus demonstrating the suitability of the same for lithium-ion battery applications.

  13. Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0manufacturing the same. Such an active material is manufactured by employing either a solid state reaction method or an aqueous solution method or a sol-gel method which is followed by a rapid quenching from high temperatures into liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  14. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Qingyun Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}, and 523 mAh g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g{sup −1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup −1} and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport.

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  16. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  17. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  18. Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F) as cathode materials for lithium ion battery from atomistic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sanghun Park, Sung Soo

    2013-08-15

    Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) have been investigated from atomistic simulation. In order to predict the characteristics of these materials as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, structural property, defect chemistry, and Li{sup +} ion transportation property are characterized. The coreshell model with empirical force fields is employed to reproduce the unit-cell parameters of crystal structure, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the formation energies of intrinsic defects (Frenkel and antisite) are determined by energetics calculation. From migration energy calculations, it is found that these flurophosphates have a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network forecasting good Li{sup +} ion conducting performances. Accordingly, we expect that this study provides an atomic scale insight as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F). Display Omitted - Highlights: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) are investigated from classical atomistic simulation. The unit-cell parameters from experimental studies are reproduced by the coreshell model. Li{sup +} ion conducting Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F has a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network. It is predicted that Li/Co or Li/Ni antisite defects are well-formed at a substantial concentration level.

  19. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion ... Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes

  20. Multi-Dimensional Electrochemical-Thermal Coupled Model of Large Format Cylindrical Lithium Ion Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Smith, K.

    2007-10-01

    Presentation on 3-D modeling of lithium-ion cells used in plug-in hyybrid electric vehicle batteries. 3-D models provide better understanding of cell design, operation, and management.

  1. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and ...

  2. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  3. John B. Goodenough, Cathode Materials, and Rechargeable Lithium-ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries John B. Goodenough, Cathode Materials, and Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries Resources with Additional Information * Awards * Patents John B. Goodenough Photo Credit: Courtesy of The University of Texas at Austin Cockrell School of Engineering On September 17, 2009, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu named John B. Goodenough as a winner of the Enrico Fermi Award ' in recognition for his lasting contributions to materials science and technology, especially the science underlying

  4. Morphological effects on the electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes, prepared by electrospinning technique, for lithium-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ji Won; Kalathil, Abdul Kareem; Yim, Chul Jin; Im, Won Bin

    2014-06-01

    Li-rich Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.17}Co{sub 0.17}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cathode materials were synthesized by electrospinning technique with different polymers, and their structural, morphological, and electrochemical performances were investigated. It was found that the electrospinning process leads to the formation of a fiber and flower-like morphology, by using different polymers and heat treatment conditions. The nanostructured morphology provided these materials with high initial discharge capacity. The cycling stability was improved with agglomerated nano-particles, as compared with porous materials. - Highlights: • Fiber and flower-like Li-rich cathode was synthesized by simple electrospinning. • Polymer dependent morphology and electrochemical performance was investigated. • Well-organized porous structure facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions. • Technique could be applicable to other cathode materials as well.

  5. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized π electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-π type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  6. Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program Argonne's Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) supports the laboratory's Advanced Battery Materials...

  7. Battery and Electric Drive Manufacturing Distribution Map - American...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Distribution Map - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding Battery ... and their components and to expand battery recycling capacity 500 million in grants ...

  8. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancements in high capacity and high density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Key Result Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using ALD and MLD

  9. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  10. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  11. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  13. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Lithium-ion battery ...

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  15. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research ... We develop more robust, safer and higher-energy density lithium-ion batteries, while using ...

  16. Identifying surface structural changes in layered Li-excess nickel manganese oxides in high voltage lithium ion batteries: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Bo; Fell, Christopher R.; Chi, Miaofang; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2011-09-06

    High voltage cathode materials Li-excess layered oxide compounds Li[Ni{sub x}Li{sub 1/3-2x/3}Mn{sub 2/3-x/3}]O{sub 2} (0 < x < 1/2) are investigated in a joint study combining both computational and experimental methods. The bulk and surface structures of pristine and cycled samples of Li[Ni{sub 1/5}Li{sub 1/5}Mn{sub 3/5}]O{sub 2} are characterized by synchrotron X-Ray diffraction together with aberration corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (a-S/TEM). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) is carried out to investigate the surface changes of the samples before/after electrochemical cycling. Combining first principles computational investigation with our experimental observations, a detailed lithium de-intercalation mechanism is proposed for this family of Li-excess layered oxides. The most striking characteristics in these high voltage high energy density cathode materials are (1) formation of tetrahedral lithium ions at voltage less than 4.45 V and (2) the transition metal (TM) ions migration leading to phase transformation on the surface of the materials. We show clear evidence of a new spinel-like solid phase formed on the surface of the electrode materials after high-voltage cycling. It is proposed that such surface phase transformation is one of the factors contributing to the first cycle irreversible capacity and the main reason for the intrinsic poor rate capability of these materials.

  17. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  18. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  19. Prieto Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80526 Product: Colorado-based startup company that is developing lithium ion batteries based on nano-structured materials. References: Prieto Battery1 This...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  1. EERE Success Story-Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Project | Department of Energy Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls Project EERE Success Story-Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls Project August 6, 2015 - 1:51pm Addthis EERE Success Story—Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls Project Improving battery manufacturing processes can help make plug-in electric vehicles more affordable and convenient. This will help meet the government's EV Everywhere goal of producing

  2. Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Ion Conducting ... electrolytes which combine lithium salts with high molecular weight anionic polymers. ...

  3. Argonne OutLoud: Energy Storage - JCESR Goes Beyond the Lithium Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research November 18, 2013, Videos Argonne OutLoud: Energy Storage - JCESR Goes Beyond the Lithium Ion Frontier Director George Crabtree discusses a new paradigm for battery research, integrating discovery science, battery design and pre-commercial prototyping in one interactive organization. This talk presents the vision and strategy of JCESR

  4. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  5. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Battery Thermal Modeling ...

  6. BatPRO: Battery Manufacturing Cost Estimation | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BatPRO: Battery Manufacturing Cost Estimation BatPRO models a stiff prismatic pouch-type cell battery pack with cells linked in series. BatPRO models a stiff prismatic pouch-type ...

  7. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;"><em><font

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Making Strides in Oregon | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Advanced Battery Manufacturing Making Strides in Oregon Advanced Battery Manufacturing Making Strides in Oregon February 16, 2012 - 12:09pm Addthis EnerG2 Ribbon Cutting Ceremony for new battery materials plant in Albany, Oregon. Photo courtesy of the Vehicle Technologies Program EnerG2 Ribbon Cutting Ceremony for new battery materials plant in Albany, Oregon. Photo courtesy of the Vehicle Technologies Program What are the key facts? Through the Recovery Act, the Department has

  9. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  10. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  11. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, ...

  12. Battery and Electric Drive Manufacturing Distribution Map - American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding | Department of Energy Manufacturing Distribution Map - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding Battery and Electric Drive Manufacturing Distribution Map - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding This is a map of the following awardees from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: $1.5 billion in grants to United States-based manufacturers to produce batteries and their components and to expand battery recycling capacity $500 million in

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  17. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  19. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  20. High Cyclability of Ionic Liquid-Produced TiO2 Nanotube Arrays As an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaqing; Martha, Surendra K; Unocic, Raymond R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) are considered as a potential SEI-free anode material for Li-ion batteries to offer enhanced safety. Organic solutions, dominatingly ethylene glycol (EG)-based, have widely been used for synthesizing TiO{sub 2} NTs via anodization because of their ability to generate long tubes and well-aligned structures. However, it has been revealed that the EG-produced NTs are composited with carbonaceous decomposition products of EG, release of which during the tube crystallization process inevitably causes nano-scale porosity and cracks. These microstructural defects significantly deteriorate the NTs charge transport efficiency and mechanical strength/toughness. Here we report using ionic liquids (ILs) to anodize titanium to grow low-defect TiO{sub 2} NTs by reducing the electrolyte decomposition rate (less IR drop due to higher electrical conductivity) as well as the chance of the decomposition products mixing into the TiO{sub 2} matrix (organic cations repelled away). Promising electrochemical results have been achieved when using the IL-produced TiO{sub 2} NTs as an anode for Li-ion batteries. The ILNTs demonstrated excellent capacity retention without microstructural damage for nearly 1200 cycles of charge-discharge, while the NTs grown in a conventional EG solution totally pulverized in cycling, resulting in significant capacity fade.

  1. Structure tracking aided design and synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals as high-power cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Liping; Bai, Jianming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoya; Looney, J. Patrick; Wang, Feng

    2015-07-30

    In this study, preparing new electrode materials with synthetic control of phases and electrochemical properties is desirable for battery applications but hardly achievable without knowing how the synthesis reaction proceeds. Herein, we report on structure tracking-aided design and synthesis of single-crystalline Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with extremely high rate capability. A comprehensive investigation was made to the local structural orderings of the involved phases and their evolution toward forming LVP phase using in situ/ex situ synchrotron X-ray and electron-beam diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. The results shed light on the thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis reactions and enabled the design ofmore » a cost-efficient synthesis protocol to make nanocrystalline LVP, wherein solvothermal treatment is a crucial step leading to an amorphous intermediate with local structural ordering resembling that of LVP, which, upon calcination at moderate temperatures, rapidly transforms into the desired LVP phase. The obtained LVP particles are about 50 nm, coated with a thin layer of amorphous carbon and featured with excellent cycling stability and rate capability – 95% capacity retention after 200 cycles and 66% theoretical capacity even at a current rate of 10 C. The structure tracking based method we developed in this work offers a new way of designing battery electrodes with synthetic control of material phases and properties.« less

  2. CRADA Final Report for NFE-08-01826: Development and application of processing and processcontrol for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, C.; Armstrong, B.; Maxey, C.; Sabau, A.; Wang, H.; Hagans, P.; and Babinec, S.

    2012-12-15

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System’s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other

  3. Final Report - Recovery Act - Development and application of processing and process control for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Armstrong, Beth L; Maxey, L Curt; Sabau, Adrian S; Wang, Hsin; Hagans, Patrick; Babinec, Sue

    2013-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other

  4. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  5. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Print Wednesday, 23 January 2013 16:59 toyota battery a) Cross-section of the in situ electrochemical/XAS cell with annotations. b) Drawing and c) photograph of the assembled cell. Alternatives to the current lithium-ion-based car batteries are at the forefront of the automotive industry's research agenda-manufacturers want to build cars with longer battery life, and to do that they're going to have to find

  6. Simulated annealing reconstruction and characterization of the three-dimensional microstructure of a LiCoO{sub 2} Lithium-ion battery cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Fangming

    2013-06-15

    We adapt the simulated annealing approach for reconstruction of the 3D microstructure of a LiCoO{sub 2} cathode from a commercial Li-ion battery. The real size distribution curve of LiCoO{sub 2} particles is applied to regulate the reconstruction process. By discretizing a 40 × 40 × 40 μm cathode volume with 8,000,000 numerical cubes, the cathode involving three individual phases: 1) LiCoO{sub 2} as active material, 2) pores or electrolyte, and 3) additives (polyvinylidene fluoride + carbon black) is reconstructed. The microstructural statistical properties required in the reconstruction process are extracted from 2D focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy images or obtained by analyzing the powder mixture used to make the cathode. Characterization of the reconstructed cathode gives important structural and transport properties including the two-point correlation functions, volume-specific surface area between phases, tortuosity and geometrical connectivity of individual phase. - Highlights: • Simulated annealing approach is adapted for 3D reconstruction of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode. • Real size distribution of LiCoO{sub 2} particles is applied in reconstruction process. • Reconstructed cathode accords with real one at important statistical properties. • Effective electrode-characterization approaches have been established. • Extensive characterization gives important structural properties, say, tortuosity.

  7. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO 4 and Nanocomposite C- LiFePO 4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure limore » thium iron phosphate ( LiFePO 4 ) and carbon-coated LiFePO 4 (C- LiFePO 4 ) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO 4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C- LiFePO 4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms of LiFePO 4 and C- LiFePO 4 showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively for LiFePO 4 where as in case of C- LiFePO 4 that were 163, 144, 118, and 70 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pure LiFePO 4 was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C- LiFePO 4 was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.« less

  8. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of PureLiFePO4and Nanocomposite C-LiFePO4Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and carbon-coatedLiFePO4(C-LiFePO4) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating onLiFePO4particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C-LiFePO4at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms ofLiFePO4and C-LiFePO4showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13?mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively forLiFePO4where as in case of C-LiFePO4that were 163, 144,more118, and 70?mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pureLiFePO4was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C-LiFePO4was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.less

  9. An Update on Advanced Battery Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Battery Manufacturing An Update on Advanced Battery Manufacturing October 16, 2012 - 9:41am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The advanced battery market is expanding dramatically in the U.S. and around the world -- from $5 billion in 2010 to nearly $50 billion in 2020, an average annual growth rate of roughly 25 percent. The Department of Energy, with strong bipartisan support, awarded $2 billion in grants to 29

  10. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

  11. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performance of Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Bonan; Ru, Qiang; Hu, Shejun; Song, Xiong; Li, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM of Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite and the discharge curves of pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite. - Highlights: • Novel Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite has been prepared by simple co-precipitation method. • Small spherical nanocrystals adhering to the surface of large polyhedral particles. • Formation mechanism is relate to solubility of Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2−} in high concentration OH{sup −} . • The composite shows better electrochemical performance than Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} - Abstract: A novel dispersed structure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite has been successfully synthesized by a conventional co-precipitation method with certain amount of NaOH concentration. The obtained composite exhibits dispersed structure with small spherical nanocrystals adhering to the surface of large polyhedral particles, which has been studied as an anode material in lithium-ion battery. Galvanostatic charge–discharge and cyclic voltammetry has been conducted to measure the electrochemical properties of the material. The results show that Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite demonstrates good reversible capacity of 702.5 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA h g{sup −1}, much better than that of pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (375.1 mA h g{sup −1}) and pure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} (194.1 mA h g{sup −1}). This material also presents improved rate performance with capacity retention of 71.1% when the current ranges from 100 mA g{sup −1} to 1000 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared dispersed structure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite could be attributed to the good dispersibility of nanoparticles which can effectively alleviate the volume expansion and improve the conductivity, thus enhance the cycling stability.

  12. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2016-03-22

    An electrolyte may include compounds of general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y, and at least one of R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 is other than H.

  13. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one aromatic ring with 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents, at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted methoxy group, at least one of which is a tert-butyl group and at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted polyether or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) group bonded through oxygen to the aromatic ring, are provided.

  14. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Sun, Xiao-Guang ; Dai, Sheng ; Liao, Chen Publication Date: 2016-03-29 OSTI ... Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 ...

  18. Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  19. Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  20. Argonne continues to pave way to improved battery performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    continues to pave way to improved battery performance testing By Angela Hardin * March 31, ... of information that can be extracted from lithium-ion battery cells during cycling. ...

  1. High-Power Batteries | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Batteries Our goal is to develop and apply a new biologically inspired, low cost, ... exceptionally high power and stability as anodes and cathodes for lithium ion batteries. ...

  2. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries ...

  3. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  4. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; et al

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-levelmore » outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less

  5. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  6. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  7. Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Improving battery manufacturing processes can help make plug-in electric vehicles more affordable and convenient. This will help meet the governments EV Everywhere goal of producing by 2022 plug...

  8. Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture Technology available for licensing: A unique method for anode and cathode manufacture A one-step, solvent-free reaction for producing unique electrode materials that do not need further chemical processing treatment Offers the ability to smooth current distribution at the anode surface when charging Li-ion batteries, thereby reducing the risk of lithium dendrites, short circuits and resulting fire PDF icon

  9. Nevada manufacturer installing geothermal power plant | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nevada manufacturer installing geothermal power plant Nevada manufacturer installing geothermal power plant August 26, 2010 - 4:45pm Addthis Chemetall extracts lithium carbonate, a powder, from brine, a salty solution from within the earth. | Photo courtesy Chemetall Chemetall extracts lithium carbonate, a powder, from brine, a salty solution from within the earth. | Photo courtesy Chemetall Joshua DeLung Chemetall supplies materials for lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles

  10. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  11. Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte upon Reversible Li+H+ Exchange in Aqueous Solutions Title: Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid ...

  12. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Coda Battery Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Connecticut Sector: Vehicles Product: Connecticut-based joint venture producing lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. Coordinates: 36.181032, -77.662805 Show Map...

  14. Manufacturing Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    70%. August 19, 2013 Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award Porous Power Technologies, partnered with Oak Ridge...

  15. Batteries - Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performance safety * Organic solvent vs. dry ... Areas Being Discussed * Li metal manufacturing * Variability ... establish a transparent framework for an open forum ...

  16. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE-supported company, EnerG2, built a new plant to produce nano-engineered carbon materials for batteries and other energy storage devices that can be used in hybrid, electric, plug-in hybrid, and all-electric vehicles.

  17. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babinec, Susan

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  18. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  19. Comment submitted by Energizer Battery Manufacturing, Inc. regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by Energizer Battery Manufacturing, Inc. regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  20. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. ... conductivity; suitable; lithium; batteries; electrochromic; devices; ...

  1. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the EERE QC Workshop held December 9-10, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll

  2. Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface from First Principles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte Interface from First ...

  3. Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte Interface from First Principles Authors: Ong, M T ; Lordi, V ; Draeger, E W ; Pask, J E Publication Date: ...

  4. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; Draeger, E ...

  5. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic ...

  6. Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte upon Reversible Li+H+ Exchange in Aqueous Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Excellent ...

  7. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. ...

  8. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mitigating Performance Degradation of High-Energy Lithium-Ion Cells Diagnostic studies on Li-battery cells and cell components Cell Fabrication Facility Team Production and ...

  9. NREL Bolsters Batteries with Nanotubes - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approach represents an exciting opportunity-improving the performance of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries while make them last longer," Pesaran said. "Increasing the life and...

  10. TransForum - Special Issue: Batteries - August 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greater than conventional capacitors and a power density hundreds of times greater than lithium-ion batteries. "Ultracapacitors give an electric vehicle the initial boost it...

  11. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  12. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about utilization of UV or...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the utilization of UV...

  15. Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: IR Thermography as a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Tool for Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about IR thermography...

  17. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 5_es_wise_2012_p.pdf (321.02 KB) More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  18. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt001_es_koo_2012_p.pdf (2.94 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

  3. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  4. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  5. Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    Shows results of an empirical model capturing effects of both storage and cycling and developed the lithium ion nickel cobalt aluminum advanced battery chemistry.

  6. Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, Kevin G.; Trask, Stephen E.; Bauer, Christoph; Woehrle, Thomas; Lux, Simon; Tschech, Matthias; Polzin, Bryant J.; Ha, Seungbum; Long, Brandon R.; Wu, Qingliu; Lu, Wenquan; Dees, Dennis W.; Jansen, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the areal capacity or electrode thickness in lithium ion batteries is one possible means to increase pack level energy density while simultaneously lowering cost. The physics that limit use of high areal capacity as a function of battery power to energy ratio are poorly understood and thus most currently produced automotive lithium ion cells utilize modest loadings to ensure long life over the vehicle battery operation. Here we show electrolyte transport limits the utilization of the positive electrode at critical C-rates during discharge; whereas, a combination of electrolyte transport and polarization lead to lithium plating in the graphite electrode during charge. Experimental measurements are compared with theoretical predictions based on concentrated solution and porous electrode theories. An analytical expression is derived to provide design criteria for long lived operation based on the physical properties of the electrode and electrolyte. Finally, a guideline is proposed that graphite cells should avoid charge current densities near or above 4 mA/cm2 unless additional precautions have been made to avoid deleterious side reaction.

  7. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop 2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode Production QC State-of-the-Art * In-Line Measurement - Conventional in-line thickness and/or areal weight by beta transmission gauge: * Thickness measurement precision of ±0.2% over 2-1000 µm * But expensive equipment (several hundred thousand dollars or more) * And ionizing radiation hazard

  8. Structure tracking aided design and synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals as high-power cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liping; Bai, Jianming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoya; Looney, J. Patrick; Wang, Feng

    2015-07-30

    In this study, preparing new electrode materials with synthetic control of phases and electrochemical properties is desirable for battery applications but hardly achievable without knowing how the synthesis reaction proceeds. Herein, we report on structure tracking-aided design and synthesis of single-crystalline Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with extremely high rate capability. A comprehensive investigation was made to the local structural orderings of the involved phases and their evolution toward forming LVP phase using in situ/ex situ synchrotron X-ray and electron-beam diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. The results shed light on the thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis reactions and enabled the design of a cost-efficient synthesis protocol to make nanocrystalline LVP, wherein solvothermal treatment is a crucial step leading to an amorphous intermediate with local structural ordering resembling that of LVP, which, upon calcination at moderate temperatures, rapidly transforms into the desired LVP phase. The obtained LVP particles are about 50 nm, coated with a thin layer of amorphous carbon and featured with excellent cycling stability and rate capability – 95% capacity retention after 200 cycles and 66% theoretical capacity even at a current rate of 10 C. The structure tracking based method we developed in this work offers a new way of designing battery electrodes with synthetic control of material phases and properties.

  9. Microsoft Word - RelaxedBattery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode Particles Lithium ion batteries are used ubiquitously for portable energy storage in today's modern electronic devices and have served in that capacity for decades. Recently, budding energy storage markets - such as those of electric vehicles, large-scale renewable energy storage, and grid balancing - have emerged that require storage capabilities that are beyond what today's lithium ion technologies currently provide.

  10. Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres: Solvothermal synthesis and lithium ion storage performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhen Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Fan, Fan; Wang, Chenyan; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres via solvothermal reaction. The formation process was investigated in detail. The obtained hierarchical SnS microspheres exhibit superior capacity (1650 mAh g{sup ?1}) when used as lithium battery for the hierarchical microsphere structure. - Abstract: Hierarchical SnS microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a mild solvothermal process using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as surfactant in this work. The morphology and composition of the microspheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of reaction parameters, such as sulfur sources, reaction temperature and the concentration of PVP, on the final morphology of the products are investigated. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, the growth mechanism has also been proposed. The specific surface area of the 3D hierarchitectured SnS microspheres were investigated by using nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. Lithium ion storage performances of the synthesized materials as anodes for Lithium-ion battery were investigated in detail and it exhibits excellent electrochemical properties.

  11. ZhuHai Coslight Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co., Ltd. Place: China Product: China-based subsidiary of the Coslight Group making Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries. References: ZhuHai Coslight Battery Co., Ltd.1 This article...

  12. Axeon Power Limited formerly Advanced Batteries Ltd ABL | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advanced Batteries Ltd (ABL)) Place: Dundee, United Kingdom Zip: DD2 4UH Product: Lithium ion battery pack developer. Coordinates: 45.27939, -123.009669 Show Map Loading...

  13. Guangzhou Wintonic Battery Magnet Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Province, China Zip: 510800 Product: Guangzhou City - based producer of NiMH, NiCd and Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries. References: Guangzhou Wintonic Battery & Magnet Co Ltd1...

  14. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion ...

  15. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply ... As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, ...

  16. NREL Bolsters Batteries with Nanotubes - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Scientist Chunmei Ban assembles a lithium-ion battery in the materials lab at the ... If successful, the batteries will last longer and perform better, leading to a cost ...

  17. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  18. The characteristic of carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4} as cathode material for lithium ion battery synthesized by sol-gel process in one step heating and varied pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triwibowo, J.; Yuniarti, E.; Suharyadi, E.

    2014-09-25

    This research has been done on the synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO{sub 4} through sol-gel process. Carbon layer serves for improving electronic conductivity, while the variation of pH in the sol-gel process is intended to obtain the morphology of the material that may improve battery performance. LiFePO{sub 4}/C precursors are Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and citric acid. In the synthesis process, consisting of a colloidal suspension FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and distilled water mixed with a colloidal suspension consisting of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and distilled water. Variations addition of citric acid is used to control the pH of the gel formed by mixing two colloidal suspensions. Sol in this study had a pH of 5, 5.4 and 5.8. The obtained wet gel is further dried in the oven and then sintered at a temperature 700C for 10 hours. The resulting material is further characterized by XRD to determine the phases formed. The resulting powder morphology is observed through SEM. Specific surface area of the powder was tested by BET, while the electronic conductivity characterized with EIS.

  19. Organic-Acid-Assisted Fabrication of Low-Cost Li-Rich Cathode Material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2) for Lithium-Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-24

    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2 (0.4Li(2)MnO(3-)0.6LiFe(1/3)Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2)) was synthesized by a solgel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical alpha-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3 m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.54.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the solgel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Liion batteries.

  20. Simulation of Electrolyte Composition Effects on High Energy Lithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Gering

    2014-09-01

    An important feature of the DUALFOIL model for simulation of lithium-ion cells [1,2] is rigorous accounting for non-ideal electrolyte properties. Unfortunately, data are available on only a few electrolytes [3,4]. However, K. Gering has developed a model for estimation of electrolyte properties [5] and recently generated complete property sets (density, conductivity, activity coefficient, diffusivity, transport number) as a function of temperature and salt concentration. Here we use these properties in an enhanced version of the DUALFOIL model called DISTNP, available in Battery Design Studio [6], to examine the effect of different electrolytes on cell performance. Specifically, the behavior of a high energy LiCoO2/graphite 18650-size cell is simulated. The ability of Battery Design Studio to si