Sample records for manufacturing equipment refrigerators

  1. COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I Fishery Leaflet 427 Washington 25, D. C. June 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART em; COlD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT By Charles Butler (Section 1), Joseph W. Slavin (Sections 1, 2, and 3), Max Patashnik

  2. Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have the refrigerant recovered in accordance with EPA's requirements for servicing. However, equipment that typically

  3. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

  7. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  8. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina:Cooking Equipment

  10. Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Equipment Manufacturers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Resource Equipment Manufacturing Facilities was enacted as a part of Oregon's Business Energy Tax Credit (BETC) in July 2007, with the passage of HB 3201. The ...

  11. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic...

  12. Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industry

  13. Multiple-Zone Variable Refrigerant Flow System Modeling and Equipment Performance Mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) vapor compression system model, which has five indoor units, one outdoor unit and one water heater. The VRF system can run simultaneous space conditioning (cooling or heating) and water heating. The indoor units and outdoor unit use fin-&-tube coil heat exchangers, and the water heater uses a tube-in-tube heat exchanger. The fin-&-tube coil heat exchangers are modeled using a segment-by-segment approach and the tube-in-tube water heater is modeled using a phase-by-phase approach. The compressor used is a variable-speed rotary design. We calibrated our model against a manufacturer s product literature. Based on the vapor compression system model, we investigated the methodology for generating VRF equipment performance maps, which can be used for energy simulations in TRNSYS and EnergyPlus, etc. In the study, the major independent variables for mapping are identified and the deviations between the simplified performance map and the actual equipment system simulation are quantified.

  14. Directory of manufacturers of small hydropower equipment. Third edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inversin, A.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic information on manufacturers of hydraulic turbines in the 1-100 kW power range and on their product lines is provided in this two-section directory. An introduction makes general comments on cost trends in relation both to the magnitude of the operating head and to unit capacity, although no specific cost figures are given for equipment packages. The section also describes various cost-reduction techniques (the use of load control, the use of pumps as turbines, and the integration of turbine equipment with other functions). The second section comprises the bulk of the document and is composed of 28 entries on turbine manufacturers, 20 of them in the United States, the others in Nepal (2), the Philippines, Colombia, Indonesia, India, Canada, and Puerto Rico.

  15. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

  16. Reliability of Manufacturing Equipment in Complex Environments Jeffrey P. Kharoufeh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharoufeh, Jeffrey P.

    Reliability of Manufacturing Equipment in Complex Environments Jeffrey P. Kharoufeh1 Department stochastic failure models for the reliability evaluation of manufacturing equipment that degrades due to its environment of the manufacturing equipment can significantly impact the rate at which tools (or other critical

  17. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  18. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  19. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 4. Refrigeration process comparison;f g p p process equipment needs, reliability, ease of operation cture:http://1 6.11.2012 Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow open screw Va Typical equipment and compressor type ranges (source: S90) -80 6.11.2012 Åbo Akademi Univ

  20. Advanced Manufacturing and Engineering Equipment at the University of Southern Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Zane Windsor [University of Southern Indiana; Gordon, Scott Allen [University of Southern Indiana

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy grant DE-SC0005231was awarded to the University of Southern Indiana for the purchase of Advanced Manufacturing and Engineering equipment.

  1. Operations improvement in a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant : component level and assembly level inventory management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yiming, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor capital equipment is manufactured in a high-mix and low-volume environment at Varian Semiconductor Equipment business unit of Applied Materials. Due to the demand growth over the past years, Varian has been ...

  2. Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

  3. Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

    Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

  4. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    information Energy & Environmental Solutions Alternative Energy Products Overview 2 Cost of manufacturing Cycling lifetime of high capacity materials Prismatic cell...

  5. Refrigerated Equipment Decontamination Checklist If this is not possible, or if the equipment is beyond its useful life, then it must be disposed via the University appointed supplier for the disposal of WEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Refrigerated Equipment Decontamination Checklist If this is not possible, or if the equipment & decontaminated prior to transfer or disposal Upon decomissioning & decontamination a 'Safe for disposal' notice. Equipment has been completely decontaminated and presents no chemical/biological/radiological or other

  6. The design and manufacture of mass production equipment for a pencil with a seed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Castillo, Eric A. (Eric Anthony)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autosprout is the mass manufacturing equipment envisioned to produce Sprout, a pencil with a seed. This pencil concept was developed by MIT students a successful round of funding and first production run through Kickstarter. ...

  7. Superior Processes at Industrial Equipment Manufacturers Benchmark best practices and performances for next-generation success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Superior Processes at Industrial Equipment Manufacturers Benchmark best practices and performances invest time, effort and resources in establishing the best practices, technology systems and solutions at a pace faster than the competition. · Engaged people/human capital acquisition, development

  8. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  9. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  10. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  13. Particle dispersing system and method for testing semiconductor manufacturing equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandrachood, Madhavi (Sunnyvale, CA); Ghanayem, Steve G. (Sunnyvale, CA); Cantwell, Nancy (Milpitas, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Geller, Anthony S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The system and method prepare a gas stream comprising particles at a known concentration using a particle disperser for moving particles from a reservoir of particles into a stream of flowing carrier gas. The electrostatic charges on the particles entrained in the carrier gas are then neutralized or otherwise altered, and the resulting particle-laden gas stream is then diluted to provide an acceptable particle concentration. The diluted gas stream is then split into a calibration stream and the desired output stream. The particles in the calibration stream are detected to provide an indication of the actual size distribution and concentration of particles in the output stream that is supplied to a process chamber being analyzed. Particles flowing out of the process chamber within a vacuum pumping system are detected, and the output particle size distribution and concentration are compared with the particle size distribution and concentration of the calibration stream in order to determine the particle transport characteristics of a process chamber, or to determine the number of particles lodged in the process chamber as a function of manufacturing process parameters such as pressure, flowrate, temperature, process chamber geometry, particle size, particle charge, and gas composition.

  14. Comment submitted by the North American Association of Food Equipment Manufacturers (NAFEM) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the North American Association of Food Equipment Manufacturers (NAFEM) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  15. U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood Todd F. Shupe treated wood might cut life short for our children. "EPA chops down potential killer", 24 Hour News 8, Florida, after his bill to ban arsenic-treated wood from Florida's public playgrounds failed to pass

  16. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This...

  17. Food equipment manufacturer takes a slice out of its scrap rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, D.; Hannahs, J. [PMI Food Equipment Group, Troy, OH (United States); Carter, M. [MicroWeld Engineering, Worthington, OH (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PMI Food Equipment Group began manufacturing circular slicer knives for its commercial Hobart line of slicers in the early 1930s. The company manufacturers the only cast knife in the food industry. The cast knives offer superior edge retention and overall corrosion resistance. The slicer knives are cast in PMI`s foundry. The casting process sometimes produces shrinkage voids or gas bubbles in the knife blank. Surface discontinuities often do not appear until rough cutting or final machining, i.e., after several hours of value-added manufacturing. Knife blanks with these discontinuities were scrapped and sent back to the foundry for remelting. To scrap the knives at that point meant the cost for casting plus the value-added machining added up to a considerable amount. Weld repair allows the recovery of casting and machining expenses equal to a significant percentage of the total manufacturing cost of slicer knives. Repair costs include welding, grinding, shipping, surface finishing and material handling. Other good applications for this GMAW-P process include repair of jet engine components, rotating process industry equipment, and hardfacing of cutting tools and dies. In addition, dissimilar metals and any material that is heat treated to develop its properties such as precision investment castings are excellent applications. The low resultant distortion, elimination of postweld heat treatment and non-line-of-site welding capability solves thin wall, limited access and precision machined component repair challenges.

  18. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive lighting equipment and accessories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischman, M.; Couch, B.; Handmaker, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Looby, G.P. [University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  19. 2014-12-22 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, refrigeration, and water heating equipment , as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 22, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  20. Save with Hybrid Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, C. W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configuration, advantages and utility consumption, equipment cost and direct field cost comparisons of such a hybrid refrigeration unit over its counterpart, a cascading MCR...

  1. Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form Service ID: Owner: Work Order #: Building: Date: Issued: Completed: Equipment ID: Technicians: Location: Model: Manufact: Serial #: Refrigerant Type Minor Maintenance Recovery Vacuum: __________Inches Dispose of Unit Refrigerant Conversion Major

  2. Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

  3. Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

    This paper describes a new family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for application in manufacturing and facilities operations. Due to the Montreal Protocol and subsequent environmental regulations, CFC...

  4. Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2012 Equipment Jack Manufacturing Process Improvement at CIU -Global Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    it to the current system's capacity Perform FMEA to conclude the top events critical to quality for the assembly collection for both EWMA, FMEA, and manufacturing systems Outcomes New, standardized process increased forecast schedules, orders, and capabilities. FMEA illustrates assembly steps that are crucial to quality

  5. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  6. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  7. 2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  8. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  9. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  10. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  11. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing indoor space, or 5) waste heat from a process or device http://www.fos device COPHP ~ TH / (THRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron

  12. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  13. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    fluids along with thermophysical properties that yield high energy efficiency in refrigeration equipment. NIST cannot make the determination of the optimal fluid for any given...

  14. assemblies equipment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capital equipment manufacturing plant : component level and assembly level inventory management MIT - DSpace Summary: Semiconductor capital equipment is manufactured in...

  15. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    - compression cycle Sources for "cheap heat" could be waste heat from power generation or steamp g plants processes: i l ffi iexpensive, spacy, low efficiency, requires large cooling towers for waste heat, a refrigeration cycle can be driven by heat (preferably 100-200°C) The replaces the compressor in a vapour

  16. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Los Alamos, NM); Buchwald, Melvin I. (Santa Fe, NM); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  17. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  18. Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

  19. Electrical Equipment Inventory and Inspection Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrical Equipment Inventory and Inspection Information APS Non-NRTL Electrical Equipment Inventory Spreadsheet ANL Recognized Reputable Electrical Equipment Manufacturer List as...

  20. Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Martinez, M.S. [ENVEST-SCE, Irwindale, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was designed to develop and test a procedure to measure the electrical consumption of ice making in domestic refrigerators. The Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure was modified to include the energy used for icemaking in conventional refrigerators and those equipped with automatic icemakers. The procedure assumed that 500 grams of ice would be produced daily. Using the new test procedure and the existing DOE test (as a benchmark), four refrigerators equipped with automatic icemakers were tested for ice-making energy use. With the revised test, gross electricity consumption increased about 10% (100 kWh/yr) due to automatic icemaking but about 5% (55 kWh/yr) could be attributed to the special features of the automatic icemaker. The test also confirmed the feasibility of establishing procedures for measuring energy use of specific loads and other activities related to domestic refrigerators. Field testing and subsequent retesting revealed a 14% increase in energy use.

  1. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  2. The New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority -- 1997 savings evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the estimation of the annual energy savings achieved from the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models in 1997. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pays NYCHA`s electricity bills, and agreed to reimburse NYCHA for the cost of the refrigerator installations. Energy savings over the lifetime of the refrigerators accrue to HUD. Savings were demonstrated by a metering project and are the subject of the analysis reported here. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) identified the refrigerator with the lowest life-cycle cost, including energy consumption over its expected lifetime, through a request for proposals (RFP) issued to manufacturers for a bulk purchase of 20,000 units in 1997. The procurement was won by Maytag with a 15-ft{sup 3} top-freezer automatic-defrost refrigerator rated at 437 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr). NYCHA then contracted with NYPA to purchase, finance, and install the new refrigerators, and demanufacture and recycle materials from the replaced units. The US Department of Energy (DOE) helped develop and plan the project through the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey used in 1997, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data collected by NYPA. The objective of the 1997 metering study was to achieve a general understanding of savings as a function of refrigerator label ratings, occupant effects, indoor and compartment temperatures, and characteristics (such as size, defrost features, and vintage). The data collected in 1997 was used to construct models of refrigerator energy consumption as a function of key refrigerator and occupant characteristics.

  3. Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on alternate refrigerants. One major manufacturer announced a formation of black smudge on internal surfaces of field trial units using HFCs. Several causes were suggested but none were published. Reports of capillary tube plugging were wide spread. Polyol...

  4. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air in refrigeration equipment and mobile air conditioners, or as the blowing agent in foam insulations. When again accounted for _ 40 %of the potential risk to the environment. Refrigeration, mobile air

  5. Optimal refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armen E. Allahverdyan; Karen Hovhannisyan; Guenter Mahler

    2010-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two $n$-level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures $T_h$ and $T_c$, respectively ($\\theta\\equiv T_c/T_hrefrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and {\\it vice versa}. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two system. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{1-\\theta}}-1$ (an analogue of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency $\\zeta_{\\rm C} = \\frac{1}{1-\\theta}-1$. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit $\\theta\\to 1$. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for $\\ln n\\gg 1$. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}$ and converges to it for $n\\gg 1$.

  6. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. DepartmentEnergy This partAs the DepartmentSchools InstitutionalAn

  7. Save with Hybrid Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, C. W.

    SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

  8. International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Awards for Appliance Manufacturers and Retailers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. , Hwong, H. (Air Conditioning, Heating, and RefrigerationSplit?System Air?Conditioning and Heating Equipment VerySplit?System Air?Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  9. 12.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/32 4. Refrigeration process comparison;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    . Refrigeration process comparison; process equipment Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Themal and Flow") Refrigeration course # 424503.0 v. 2014 ÅA 424503 Refrigeration / Kylteknik 12.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/32 4.1 Refrigeration process comparison #12;12.11.2014Åbo

  10. Energy Savings in Refrigerated Walk-In Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Tom

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this technical brief is to provide an overview of the results of an assessment of a technique for saving energy in refrigerated walk-in coolers, and to evaluate the potential for this technology in Federal facilities. The focus of this study was on a single manufacturer of the technology, Nevada Energy Control Systems, Inc. (Necsi); no other vendors for this technology could be found. Previous studies were inconclusive about the overall efficacy of this technique due to uncertainties in a number of areas. [1] Previous evaluations also lacked the benefit of the results from recent manufacturer sponsored tests and did not address some fundamental issues about the overall efficacy of this technology that are critical to understanding its potential. The primary objective of this assessment was to determine if the previous studies combined with recent vendor sponsored test results substantiate the manufacturer's claims that this is a cost effective energy saving technique with significant potential in Federal facilities. Secondary objectives included evaluation of intangible benefits such as equipment life and reliability issues, and humidity and airflow effects on product.

  11. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

  12. Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

  13. Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    integrators - Original equipment manufacturers * Development of processes, process optimization, manufacturing schemes, materials improvements, diagnostics, and production yield...

  14. @ GW Regulatory Studies Center | www.RegulatoryStudies.gwu.edu | Follow us @RegStudies DOE's Proposed Commercial Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, William R.

    's Proposed Commercial Refrigeration Rule Claims to Save Retailers Money by Reducing their Choices Sofie E a proposed rule setting energy efficiency standards for 49 different types of commercial refrigeration equipment, establishing maximum allowable energy usage standards as a function of either refrigerated volume

  15. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  16. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  17. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  18. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  19. Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional buildings. To receive the...

  20. MANUFACTURING Manufacturing and Biomanufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    process improvements to manufacturing. In addition, the critical national need area of Manufacturing hasMANUFACTURING Manufacturing and Biomanufacturing: Materials Advances and Critical Processes NATIONAL NEED The proposed topics within "Manufacturing and Biomanufacturing: Materials Advances

  1. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Materials at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about modular process equipment...

  3. Stirling-cycle refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting heat exchange between working gases in the circuits. The heat exchanger may comprise a countercurrent heat exchanger, and the Stirling-cycle refrigerator units are operated in cycles which are 180/sup 0/ out of phase with each other.

  4. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000...

  5. Refrigerant Compliance Updated: July 12, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Refrigerant Compliance Policy Updated: July 12, 2012 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS The official version ........................................................................................................ 3 A. Refrigerant Compliance Manager (RCM).................................................................. 3 B. Refrigerant Inventory Coordinator (RIC

  6. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  7. Refrigerants in Transition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stouppe, D. E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    great that a meeting was held in 1987 to address the problem. A treaty was the result of this meeting. Legislation on the production and use of these chemicals followed. Industry has responded by testing replacement refrigerants. This paper describes...

  8. Helium dilution refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Thomas Raymond

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 13 Methods of dilution and recirculation. 14 3. L'. Successful refrigeration. . . , . 15 CONTINUOUS DILUTION CYCLE, . ~ , ~ ~ 17 0. 1. Important components. 4. 2. 4. 3. Add. ition of He to the concentrated phase Cooling, and removal of' 3... the dilution was to occur by the diffusion down a tube containing a concentration gradient and. the second by diffusion of the solvent thru a semipermeable membrane into the concentrated mixture. Two methods of refrigeration were thoroughly discussed...

  9. Refrigerants in Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stouppe, D. E.

    .E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a class of chemicals called fluorocarbons..., Gordon, "Forty Years Research on Atmospheric Ozone at Oxford: A !Iistory," Applied Optics, March t968, pp. 387-405. 4. Downing, R., "Development of Chloro fluorocarbon Refrigerants," CFCs: Time of Transition, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1989...

  10. A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF outdoor 08, 80°F DB167"F WB indoor) is generally acceptable depending upon the manufacturer's design specifications. TJess than this could result in a refrigerant floodback situation. More than this can cause premature com- pressor motor... best be defined as either a refrigerant overcharge or undercharge when compared with the manufacturer's charging specifications, at standard ARI rating conditions. Either condition will have a detrimental effect on the system, both in terms...

  11. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, H. Z.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

  13. IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS BY THE APPLICATION OF REFRIGERANT MIXTURES*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS BY THE APPLICATION OF REFRIGERANT.S. and foreign literature on the use of a mixture of refrigerants rather than a single one in a refrigeration-evaporator refrigerator typical of domestic refrigerators showed an energy savings of 12 percent. By acceptance

  14. Refrigeration monitor and alarm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

    1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

  15. Magnetic refrigeration for spacecraft systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigerators, i.e., those that use the magnetocaloric effect of a magnetic working material in a thermodynamic cycle, offer potentially reliable, and efficient refrigeration over a variety of temperature ranges and cooling powers. A descriptive analysis of magnetic refrigeration systems is performed with particular emphasis on more efficient infrared detector cooling. Three types of magnetic refrigerator designs are introduced to illustrate some of the possibilities.

  16. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  17. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  18. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C K; Sand, J R

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  19. Model Based Control Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems Ph.D. Thesis Lars Finn Sloth Larsen Central R & D University, Denmark. The work has been carried out at the Central R&D - Refrigeration and Air Conditioning The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers

  20. Exergy analysis of magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Umberto

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main challenges of the industry today is to face its impact on global warming considering that the greenhouse effect problem is not be solved completely yet. Magnetic refrigeration represents an environment-safe refrigeration technology. The magnetic refrigeration is analysed using the second law analysis and introducing exergy in order to obtain a model for engineering application.

  1. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  2. Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well...

  3. China Refrigerator Information Label

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy by the United States Gov- ernment. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither

  4. Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

  5. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

  6. BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the BER and CAC Ed Murphy, PE Chief Engineer / Manager is a heating process. Refrigeration is an engineered "cycle" where the refrigerant is made to evaporate) to the cycle. Refrigerants are the "working fluids" in refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumping systems

  7. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  8. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  9. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  10. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  11. Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

  12. STATE OF CALIFORNIA REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CEC-RWH-INST (Revised 08 # BUILDING TYPE Refrigerated Warehouse PHASE OF CONSTRUCTION New Construction Addition Alteration If more By the Enforcement Agency #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CEC

  13. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature," said Frank Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. Developed over the past decade, these new magnetocaloric...

  14. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  15. New Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Reduce Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Traditional supermarket refrigeration systems found in most grocery stores across the country are vulnerable to issues which can cause significant refrigerant leakage – especially with older...

  16. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  17. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  18. Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Incentive Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Clean energy manufacturer" is defined as a biofuel producer, a manufacturer of renewable energy or nuclear equipment/products, or "products used for energy conservation, storage, or grid efficie...

  20. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  1. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  2. Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

  3. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle Heat flows in direction a low-temperature to high-temperature requires a refrigerator and/or heat pump. Refrigerators and heat of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of coefficient of performance (COP): innet H HP innet L R W Q

  4. Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    LAB SAFETY Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure temperature of the refrigerator rises. This results in an increase in the concentration of flammable vapors within the refrigerator's interior. When power is restored, a spark generated by the refrigerator light

  5. DOE/AHAM advanced refrigerator technology development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.K.; Linkous, R.L.; Hardin, C.V.; Bohman, R.H.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the effort to improve residential energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed domestic refrigerator-freezer. The program goal was to reduce the energy consumption of a 20-ft{sup 3} (570-L) top-mount refrigerator-freeze to 1.00 kWh/d, a 50% reduction from the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard. The options--such as improved cabinet and door insulation, a high-efficiency compressor, a low-wattage fan, a large counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control--were incorporated into prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinets and refrigeration systems. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used as a replacement for CFC-12. The baseline energy performance of the production refrigerator-freezers, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The project consisted of three main phases: (1) an evaluation of energy-efficient design options using computer simulation models and experimental testing, (2) design and testing of an initial prototype unit, and (3) energy and economic analyses of a final prototype. The final prototype achieved an energy consumption level of 0.93 kWh/d--an improvement of 45% over the baseline unit and 54% over the 1993 NAECA standard for 20-fg{sup 3} (570-L) units. The manufacturer`s cost for those improvements was estimated at $134; assuming that cost is doubled for the consumer, it would take about 11.4 years to pay for the design changes. Since the payback period was thought to be unfeasible, a second, more cost-effective design was also tested. Its energy consumption level was 1.16 kWh/d, a 42% energy savings, at a manufacturer`s cost increase of $53. Again assuming a 100% markup, the payback for this unit would be 6.6 years.

  6. Report of Refrigerated Medication Loss UConn Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Report of Refrigerated Medication Loss UConn Health Please complete form & return to John Dempsey Other (Specify): Phone: E-mail: Address: Location of Refrigerator Affected: Date/time refrigerator was out of temperature range: Describe the event below: How long was the refrigerator out of range (hours

  7. Proceedings: Tenth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced monitoring and diagnostic sensors and systems are needed to provide reliable and accurate information for determining the condition of major transmission substation equipment. The tenth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference highlighted the work of researchers, universities, manufacturers, and utilities in producing advanced monitoring and diagnostic equipment for substations.

  8. Proceedings: Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference IX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced monitoring and diagnostic sensors and systems are needed to provide reliable and accurate information for determining the condition of major transmission substation equipment. The ninth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference highlighted the work of researchers, universities, manufacturers, and utilities in producing advanced monitoring and diagnostic equipment for substations.

  9. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  10. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

  11. Adaptive Optimization of Central Chiller Plant Equipment Sequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    and outside air conditions and it insures that the central refrigeration system operates with the lowest possible energy cost at all times. PROBLEM BACKGROUND The specific industrial plant for which the control algorithm was developed is the Texas... was developed to select the optimal sequence of central refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in an industrial plant. The control algorithm adapts the optimal equipaent sequence to reflect changes in the plant's cooling load...

  12. Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    schematic of a basic two-stage re frigeration system. It shows six of the seven basic components in a refrigeration system; the evaporator, booster or low-stage compressor, intercooler, com pressor or high-stage compressor, condenser and an expansion... the evaporator coils. Air from the refriger ated space is forced over the coils and loses thennal energy to the refrigerant The liquid refrigerant evaporates as it absorbs the them1al energy. The re frigerant leaves the evaporator and enters the booster as a...

  13. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract... Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in refrigeration cycles as an economically viable alternative to CFC refrigerants. Complex compound refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present refrigeration...

  14. Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherell, W. D.

    of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help faci I itate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout fhe industry. This paper presents the resul ts... custaner's specifications. Most systems fall into two broad categories: Vapor Canpression Refrigeration Cycles - Mechanical or Steam Jet Canpression Systems Absorption Refrigeration Cycles - Heat Operated Cycles As shown in Table I, refrigerations...

  15. The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  16. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  17. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  18. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  19. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, Walter F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  20. Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lines by five chilled water primary pumps totaling 625 horsepower and two ohilled water booster pumps totaling 200 horsepower. Heat liberated by the chillers' vapor compression cycles is rejected to the atmosphere by five cooling towers totaling... STATES Description 0x100 HP C W Booster Pumps 1x100 tIP C W Booster Pumps 2x100 HP C W Booster Pumps 0x125 HP C K Primary Pumps 1x125 HP C W Primary Pumps 2x125 HP C K Primary Pumps 3x125 IIP C W Primary Pumps 4x125 HP C W Primary Pumps 5x125 MP...

  1. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire Solar541,9337, 2011R - 445 CU - 2 3NewNew3 NewNewCut

  2. List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouse SolarIList of Clothes

  3. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREof Energy Investigates Port

  4. GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

  5. Project Sponsor: An Original Equipment Manufacturer (confidential)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    . The main consumers are the air separation, the CO2 purification and the CO2 compression units. Flue gas air into the boiler, a downstream CO2purification step (cryogenic) is required to meet of air to coal burners in order to generate a flue gas that has a high concentration of CO2 that can

  6. Processing and Manufacturing Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergyInformation toPowerPrinceton PublicTODO: Add description

  7. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated aging

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartment of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel

  9. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartment of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and

  10. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  11. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  12. Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Residential Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 - v2.8.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and...

  13. Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our-compression/expansion refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration exhibits the advantages of high energy efficiency and environment

  14. Research Study - Global Enterprise VoIP Equipment Market Forecasts...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    policy and plan, Enterprise VoIP Equipment product specification, manufacturing process, cost structure etc. Then we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that...

  15. Reducing variability in equipment availability at Intel using systems optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwong, William W. M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment management is an important driver behind operational efficiency, since capital equipment makes up about 40% of the average semiconductor manufacturer's total assets. The main goal of this project is to reduce ...

  16. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the manufacturer for a specific indoor and outdoor temperatures. Once the full charge was determined, the unit was subjected to 40%, 30%, 20%, 15%, 10%, and 5% undercharging and 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% overcharging of refrigerant by mass. The fully charged tests were... CONDITION All tests were performed on a split system central air conditioner provided by the Trane company. To determine the proper amount of refrigerant charge needed in the system and the unit's corresponding performance, charging specifications...

  17. FIELD TEST OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC-DEFROST REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;FIELD TEST OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC- DEFROST REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER By Richard F. Topping and manufacture pre-production units for home usage tests. The purpose of the field test and the associated market been promising. The first five months of field test data have shown an average 57% decrease in energy

  18. IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat diameter implies a refrigerant distribution much more penalizing for these exchangers than for round tube

  19. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  20. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  1. Loveland Water and Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator...

  2. Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  4. Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

  5. Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and time phases, and isolate the refrigeration from waste heat rejection at the two ambient heat exchangers

  6. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  7. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  8. Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

  9. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  10. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  11. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  12. Experimental and cost analyses of a one kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past ten years, government regulations for energy standards, coupled with the utility industry`s promotion of energy-efficient appliances, have prompted appliance manufacturers to reduce energy consumption in refrigerator-freezers by approximately 40%. Global concerns over ozone depletion have also required the appliance industry to eliminate CFC-12 and CFC-11 while concurrently improving energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse emissions. In response to expected future regulations that will be more stringent, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as cabinet and door insulation improvements and a high-efficiency compressor were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system. Baseline energy consumption of the original 1996 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The goal for the project was to achieve an energy consumption that is 50% below in 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard for 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) units. Based on discussions with manufacturers to determine the most promising energy-saving options, a laboratory prototype was fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the energy consumption of a unit with vacuum insulation around the freezer, increased door thicknesses, a high-efficiency compressor, a low wattage condenser fan, a larger counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control.

  13. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  14. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S. [AL-AT, 2 rue de Clémencières, 38360 Sassenage (France); Baguer, G. M. Gistau [CRYOGUY, 44, chemin de la Buisse, 38330 Biviers (France)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  15. 1. Check to make sure all electrical appliances, such as curling irons, toasters, etc. are unplugged. Exceptions are clocks and refrigerators. Keep your refrigerator plugged in!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    . are unplugged. Exceptions are clocks and refrigerators. Keep your refrigerator plugged in! 2. Secure windows

  16. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  17. Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

    A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial...

  18. Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, D.C.H.

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

  19. ARTI Refrigerant Database. [Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1993-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-227ea, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyol ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  20. Operational history of Fermilab's 1500 W refrigerator used for energy saver magnet production testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchi, A.J.; Barger, R.K.; Johnson, F.B.; McGuire, K.J.; Pinyan, K.D.; Wilson, F.W.; Cooper, W.E.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1500 W helium refrigerator system utilizes two oil-injected screw compressors staged to feed a liquid nitrogen pre-cooled cold box. Refrigeration is provided by two Sulzer TGL-22 magnetic/gas bearing turbines. The refrigerator feeds six magnet test stands via a 10,000 L dewar and subcooler equipped distribution box. The design of the controls has permitted the system to be routinely operated 24 hours/day, seven days/week with only five operators. It has operated approximately 90% of the 4-1/2 years prior to shutting down in 1984 for a period of one year to move the compressor skid. Scheduled maintenance, failures, repairs and holidays are about equal to the 10% off time. The equipment described was used to test approximately 1200 superconducting magnets for the Fermilab accelerator ring. The seven year operating experience is presented as an equipment and technique review. Compressor hours currently exceed 42,000 and turbine hours exceed 39,000 each. Failure rates, causes, preventive maintenance, monitoring practices and equipment, and modifications are examined along with notes on some of the more successful applications of technique and equipment. 4 refs.

  1. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

  2. Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from existing use due to additional equipment or operating hours. Alternately, in the post-event scenario, Lean Manufacturing techniques enable production gains without increasing operating hours or adding manufacturing equipment. Hence.... The Lean Manufacturing techniques listed above improve productivity in several ways, which may or may not have impacts on energy use. Additionally, Lean Manufacturing techniques can also improve energy use in ways that have no relation to productivity...

  3. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  4. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH); Middleton, Marc G. (West Jefferson, OH)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  5. Evaluation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. it is one of the first examples of large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}) in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville`s) service territory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for Bonneville. This study includes the process evaluation, preliminary impact evaluation, and market transformation assessment. It is based on site visits and interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, industry data, and Bonneville information. Results from this study are compared with those from a parallel study that examines the Program across the 24 participating utilities.

  6. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log Specimen Refrigerator Log

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log ­ Specimen Refrigerator Log Month / Year Clinical ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: 31 ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: If the refrigerator temperature falls out refrigerator. This record must be kept for one year and then destroyed per State requirement

  8. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel...............................................447 16.2.1 Studies in Domestic Refrigerators...................................................................................... 451 16.3 Cold Production System in Domestic Refrigerators

  9. Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

  10. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR product specification applies to new and remanufactured indoor (i.e., glass front) and indooroutdoor (i.e., solid front) refrigerated beverage vending machines....

  11. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  12. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

  13. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis New...

  14. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Lead Performer: S-RAM -...

  15. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  16. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    energy savings of 407 TBtuyear when implemented in both residential and commercial refrigeration. The first proof of concept will be in a residential refrigerator....

  17. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

  18. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

  19. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products;...

  20. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review...

  1. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

  2. Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions Lalit Chordia, PhD, Marc Portnoff 150.thargeo.com Thar Geothermal, LLC © 2013 All Rights Reserved CO2MFORT ADVANTAGE Nature's Talk Outline · Introduction to Thar Geothermal · Carbon Dioxide (R744) the Environmentally Exceptional Refrigerant · Thar

  3. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  6. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  7. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  8. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  9. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  10. Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a constant adiabatic measure for all the cycle segments. We have identified a family of quantized frictionless cycles with increasing cycle times. These cycles minimize the entropy production. Such frictionless cycles are able to cool to $T_c=0$. External noise on the controls eliminates these frictionless cycles. The influence of phase and amplitude noise on the demagnetization and magnetization segments is explicitly derived. An extensive numerical study of optimal cooling cycles was carried out which showed that at sufficiently low temperature the noise always dominates restricting the minimum temperature.

  11. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  12. Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation PON successful applicants after the Notice of Proposed Awards to confirm this role and obtain any additional definition of "manufacturing equipment?" For example, would purchases of tooling or assembly line equipment

  13. New York Power Authority/New York City Housing Authority refrigerator replacement program, first program year evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinney, L.F.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States); Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acting as an energy services provider, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) has initiated a long-term project through which 20,000 refrigerators per year will be replaced with the most energy-efficient units possible in apartments managed by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA). Using bulk purchasing as an incentive to appliance manufacturers to produce energy-efficient refrigerators suitable for use in apartments, replaced in the first year of the program, which ended in December 1996. These units, kWh per year. Savings were determined by field testing and laboratory testing of 220 existing refrigerators and 56 newly-installed units. In the next program year, a 15.0-cubic-foot Maytag refrigerator, newly-designed in response to bulk purchasing incentives, is being installed. The new unit has a label rating of 437 kWh per year, 31 percent better than 1993 energy standards. Old refrigerators removed from apartments are {open_quotes}demanufactured{close_quotes} in an environmentally-appropriate way and both metals and refrigerants are recovered for reuse.

  14. Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

  15. Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles and Selection of Refrigerants, University Park, PA 16802 The optimal synthesis of the refrigeration configuration and the selection of the best refrigerants that satisfy a set of process cooling duties at different temperatures is ad- dressed

  16. Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs, The Cadmus Group, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Refrigerator Description Refrigerator recycling programs are designed to save energy through the removal of old-but- operable refrigerators from service. By offering free pick-up, providing incentives, and disseminating

  17. USDA Food Safety News Alert Cleaning the Office Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    USDA Food Safety News Alert Cleaning the Office Refrigerator When it comes to safe food handling, everything that comes in contact with food must be kept clean -- including the refrigerator. You probably keep your refrigerator at home clean, but the office refrigerator may be a problem because it

  18. Additive Manufacturing: Implications on Research and Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Additive Manufacturing: Implications on Research and Manufacturing With recent developments, etc.), additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to become a transformative technology in innovation-based manufacturing. Agencies such as the Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation

  19. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  20. Computer-Aided Design & Applications, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2005, pp 747-758 Geometric Optimization Algorithms in Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Kai

    . 1. INTRODUCTION With the advances of manufacturing equipments such as CNC machines and laser Algorithms in Manufacturing Kai Tang Department of Mechanical Engineering Hong Kong University of Science algorithms for several geometric optimization problems in manufacturing processes. We first describe

  1. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  2. Manufacturing Technical Assistance Program FY 2014 Guidelines The University of Connecticut (UConn), a public research university with an academic health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    . Applications for projects to be undertaken at UConn must be in the area of Additive Manufacturing only and equipment, including the state-of the-art additive manufacturing equipment at the new Additive Manufacturing with additive manufacturing challenges are especially encouraged to apply. Applications must (a) outline

  3. ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants on climate change drive the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants on climate change drive the need to look at new cooling and refrigeration options that are sustainable" refrigerants through papers, presentations and panel discussions. This is the fourth jointly sponsored

  4. Refrigerator Magnets It seems that, these days, the home refrigerator was invented primarily as a venue for displaying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    1 Refrigerator Magnets Ken Connor It seems that, these days, the home refrigerator was invented creativity, some very bright person conceived of the refrigerator magnet. Most homes have at least several. Refrigerator magnets and other simple applications of electromagnetic phenomena can be very helpful

  5. Magnetic refrigeration: Materials, design, and applications. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning cryogenics using magnetic refrigerants. Refrigerant properties, magnetic materials, and thermal characteristics are discussed. Magnetic refrigerators are used for helium liquefaction, cooling superconductors, and superfluid helium production. Carnot-cycle refrigerators, reciprocating refrigerators, parasitic refrigerators, Ericsson refrigerators, and Stirling cycle refrigerators are among the types of magnetic refrigerators evaluated. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Magnetic refrigeration: Materials, design, and applications. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning cryogenics using magnetic refrigerants. Refrigerant properties, magnetic materials, and thermal characteristics are discussed. Magnetic refrigerators are used for helium liquefaction, cooling superconductors, and superfluid helium production. Carnot-cycle refrigerators, reciprocating refrigerators, parasitic refrigerators, Ericsson refrigerators, and Stirling cycle refrigerators are among the types of magnetic refrigerators evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 118 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Quantum refrigerator driven by current noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Xin Chen; Sheng-Wen Li

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed a scheme to implement a self-contained quantum refrigerator system composed of three rf-SQUID qubits, or rather, flux-biased phase qubits. The three qubits play the roles of the target, the refrigerator and the heat engine respectively. We provide different effective temperatures for the three qubits, by imposing external current noises of different strengths. The differences of effective temperatures give rise to the flow of free energy and that drives the refrigerator system to cool down the target. We also show that the efficiency of the system approaches the Carnot efficiency.

  8. Performance testing of a commercially produced cryogenic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshock, E.G. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Murphy, R.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A commercially available cryogenic refrigeration unit, model M-20, (3-phase, 60-Hz, 230-V) manufactured by Cryodynamics, Inc., was subjected to laboratory testing to measure some of its performance characteristics. Comparisons were made with those performance characteristics given in manufacturer literature for the M-20 unit (3-phase, 400-Hz, 208-V). At 77 K, the measured cooling capacity of the 60-Hz/230-V unit was very nearly the same (<2% difference) as the specified capacity (110 W) of the 400-Hz/208-V unit. At temperature levels higher than 77 K, measured cooling capacities exceeded the manufacturer product data sheet values. Coefficients of performance (COP) based on the experimental measurements ranged from about 0.37 at 250 K to 0.03 at 70 K. Comparison of measured to ideal (Carnot cycle) COPs yielded values ranging from about 8 to 18%, with broad maximum occurring between approximately 100 and 150 K. Finally, the measured cool-down time from room temperature to 77 K was about 10 minutes compared with a specification sheet value of 7.4 minutes. This difference may be attributed to lower thermal mass (without heater block) and higher operating frequency conditions associated with the specification. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  10. Program management systems for the semiconductor processing capital equipment supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, Thomas B. (Thomas Brian), 1970-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Capital Equipment Procurement group of Intel Corporation is responsible for developing and procuring the semiconductor processing capital equipment that is used throughout all of the company's development and manufacturing ...

  11. Valuation of procurement flexibility in the machinery and equipment industry using the real option approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Valuation of procurement flexibility in the machinery and equipment industry using the real option situation of production networks of machine tool and equipment manufacturers will be described. Secondly reliability, flexibility, procurement, real options. 1 Introduction Besides the general market fluctuations

  12. Analysis and sourcing of the mechanical equipment required for a ceramic pot filter production facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getachew, Julian (Julian B.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was done into identifying and sourcing the mechanical equipment required for manufacturing ceramic pot filters, specifically for use in the Pure Home Water factory in Northern Ghana. The pieces of equipment ...

  13. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  14. Improving reuse of semiconductor equipment through benchmarking, standardization, and automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silber, Jacob B. (Jacob Bradley)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 6D program at Intel® Corporation was set up to improve operations around capital equipment reuse, primarily in their semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The company was faced with a number of challenges, including ...

  15. Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

  16. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  17. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  18. Intra-molecular refrigeration in enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans J. Briegel; Sandu Popescu

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple mechanism for intra-molecular refrigeration, where parts of a molecule are actively cooled below the environmental temperature. We discuss the potential role and applications of such a mechanism in biology, in particular in enzymatic reactions.

  19. Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

  20. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, T. L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

  2. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  3. Test and Test Equipment Joshua Lottich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Chintan

    Test and Test Equipment Joshua Lottich CMPE 640 11/23/05 #12;Testing Verifies that manufactured chip meets design specifications. Cannot test for every potential defect. Modeling defects as faults allows for passing and failing of chips. Ideal test would capture all defects and pass only chips

  4. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  5. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  6. HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Comfort by Design Steve Jones Commercial Sales Manager for Mitsubishi Southwest Business Unit HVAC?s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology HVAC Industry Overview HVAC Market Dollar Volume $18 Billion Source:;NABH Research... Moveable Ductless 5 VRF Technology Overview 6 What is VRF Technology? Variable Refrigerant Flow More Comfort, Less Energy Usage 8 INVERTER-driven Compressor Time R oo m T em pe ra tur e ? Enables capacity operation as low as 4% ? Sizing...

  7. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  8. Bio-Manufacturing: A Strategic clean energy manufacturing opportunity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Better Plants Challenge Manufacturing R&D Facilities Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Manufacturing Institutes National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute - Pilot Now...

  9. Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Presentation on...

  10. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

  11. Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.

  12. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  13. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  14. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: Continuous devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronnie Kosloff; Amikam Levy

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to the level of a single few level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three;a hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power;where the gain is obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principle. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimisation of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters where the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analysing refrigerators special attention is devoted to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when approaching the absolute zero are obtained by optimising the cooling current. At low temperature all refrigerators show universal behavior. Restrictions on the system imposed by the dynamical version of the third law are studied.

  15. Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, M.R.

    2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

  16. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : improvement of Kanban policy and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wu, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the application of the principles of lean manufacturing and supply chain planning at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates. Varian is a manufacturer of ion implantation machines, and supplies and ...

  17. Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Salamon

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Faster, more powerful and dense computing hardware generates significant heat and imposes considerable data center cooling requirements. Traditional computer room air conditioning (CRAC) cooling methods are proving increasingly cost-ineffective and inefficient. Studies show that using the volume of room air as a heat exchange medium is wasteful and allows for substantial mixing of hot and cold air. Further, it limits cabinet/frame/rack density because it cannot effectively cool high heat density equipment that is spaced closely together. A more cost-effective, efficient solution for maximizing heat transfer and enabling higher heat density equipment frames can be accomplished by utilizing properly positioned �¢����phase change�¢��� or �¢����two-phase�¢��� pumped refrigerant cooling methods. Pumping low pressure, oil-free phase changing refrigerant through microchannel heat exchangers can provide up to 90% less energy consumption for the primary cooling loop within the room. The primary benefits of such a solution include reduced energy requirements, optimized utilization of data center space, and lower OPEX and CAPEX. Alcatel-Lucent recently developed a modular cooling technology based on a pumped two-phase refrigerant that removes heat directly at the shelf level of equipment racks. The key elements that comprise the modular cooling technology consist of the following. A pump delivers liquid refrigerant to finned microchannel heat exchangers mounted on the back of equipment racks. Fans drive air through the equipment shelf, where the air gains heat dissipated by the electronic components therein. Prior to exiting the rack, the heated air passes through the heat exchangers, where it is cooled back down to the temperature level of the air entering the frame by vaporization of the refrigerant, which is subsequently returned to a condenser where it is liquefied and recirculated by the pump. All the cooling air enters and leaves the shelves/racks at nominally the same temperature. Results of a 100 kW prototype data center installation of the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology were dramatic in terms of energy efficiency and the ability to cool high-heat-density equipment. The prototype data center installation consisted of 10 racks each loaded with 10 kW of high-heat-density IT equipment with the racks arranged in a standard hot-aisle/cold-aisle configuration with standard cabinet spacing. A typical chilled-water CRAC unit would require approximately 16 kW to cool such a heat load. In contrast, the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology required only 2.3 kW of power for the refrigerant pump and shelf-level fans, a reduction of 85 percent. Differences in hot-aisle and cold-aisle temperature were also substantially reduced, mitigating many issues that arise in purely air-based cooling systems, such as mixing of hot and cold air streams, or from placing high-heat-density equipment in close proximity. The technology is also such that it is able to retro-fit live equipment without service interruption, which is particularly important to the large installed ICT customer base, thereby providing a means of mitigating reliability and performance concerns during the installation, training and validation phases of product integration. Moreover, the refrigerant used in our approach, R134a, is a widely-used, non-toxic dielectric liquid which, unlike water, is non-conducting and non-corrosive and will not damage electronics in the case of a leak�¢����a triple-play win over alternative water-based liquid coolant technologies. Finally, through use of a pumped refrigerant, pressures are modest (~60 psi), and toxic lubricants and oils are not required, in contrast to compressorized refrigerant systems�¢����another environmental win. Project Activities - The ARCTIC project goal was to further develop an

  18. adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refrigeration, steam... Zuo, Z.; Hu, W. 2006-01-01 287 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  19. absorption-recompression refrigeration cycle: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refrigeration, steam... Zuo, Z.; Hu, W. 2006-01-01 70 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  20. DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 (RIN) 1904-AC19 DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 (RIN) 1904-AC19 In today's...

  1. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to fully use the compression heat of refrigerator, reduces the pipeline, Saves the investment. The workshop best arrangement is take refrigeration workshop and the soft water workshop as the center, various workshops around them, chart 4 shows...

  2. Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

  3. Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

    the thermodynamic properties of ten fluorocarbon refrigerants, (Rll, R12, R13, R14, R22, R23, Rl13, Rl14, R500, R502) and ammonia in the sub-cooled, saturation, 2-phase, and superheat regions. In the sec tions which follow, the theoretical basis... for each fluorocarbon refrigerant, represent curve fits to existing tabular property data. For both ammonia and the fluorocarbon refrigerants, the equations for the following four basic properties of refrigerants are used. - Liquid density as a...

  4. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  5. Notice Type: Presolicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Set Aside: N/A Set Aside: N/A Classification Code: 41 -- Refrigeration, air-conditioning & air Heating Equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing Synopsis: Added: Nov

  6. Notice Type: Presolicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /A Set Aside: N/A Classification Code: 41 -- Refrigeration, air-conditioning & air circulating equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing Synopsis: Added: Jun 09, 2014 7:49 am

  7. Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

  8. Short Time Cycles of Purely Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Four stroke Otto refrigerator cycles with no classical analogue are studied. Extremely short cycle times with respect to the internal time scale of the working medium characterize these refrigerators. Therefore these cycles are termed sudden. The sudden cycles are characterized by the stable limit cycle which is the invariant of the global cycle propagator. During their operation the state of the working medium possesses significant coherence which is not erased in the equilibration segments due to the very short time allocated. This characteristic is reflected in a difference between the energy entropy and the Von Neumann entropy of the working medium. A classification scheme for sudden refrigerators is developed allowing simple approximations for the cooling power and coefficient of performance.

  9. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  10. Screening analysis for EPACT-covered commercial HVAC and water-heating equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S Somasundaram; PR Armstrong; DB Belzer; SC Gaines; DL Hadley; S Katipumula; DL Smith; DW Winiarski

    2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    EPCA requirements state that if the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) amends efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90.1-1989, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in amended Standard 90.1. However, DOE can establish higher efficiency levels if it can show through clear and convincing evidence that a higher efficiency level, that is technologically feasible and economically justified, would produce significant additional energy savings. On October 29, 1999, ASHRAE approved the amended Standard 90.1, which increases the minimum efficiency levels for some of the commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment covered by EPCA 92. DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential of the efficiency levels listed in Standard 90.1-1999. The analysis estimates the annual national energy consumption and the potential for energy savings that would result if the EPACT-covered products were required to meet these efficiency levels. The analysis also estimates additional energy-savings potential for the EPACT-covered products if they were to exceed the efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90-1-1999. In addition, a simple life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was performed for some alternative efficiency levels. This paper will describe the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis. The magnitude of HVAC and SWH loads imposed on equipment depends on the building's physical and operational characteristics and prevailing climatic conditions. To address this variation in energy use, coil loads for 7 representative building types at 11 climate locations were estimated based on a whole-building simulation.

  11. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  12. page 1 of 5 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 5 TkF Värmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven Exam 11-2-2009 4 questions. A two-stage vapour-compression process, using refrigerant R-22, operates between the temperatures 36 °C and -58°C, with intermediate temperature 0°C. The refrigerant mass streams through the high temperature

  13. Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki) Francesco Giazotto (SNS Pisa) Yuri Pashkin (NEC) #12;Outline Electronic refrigeration Classical vs quantum (electromagnetic) heat transport Cooling at the quantum limit: experiments RF refrigeration in a single

  14. HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH -PART 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 2 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH 428 Washington 25, D, C. December 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART TWO HANDLING FRESH FISH By Charles in a series of five on "Refrigeration of Fish." Titles of the other four leaflets are: - 38 - 84 Part 1

  15. REFRIGERATION OF FISH PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFRIGERATION OF FISH· PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS UNITED STATES in a series of five on "Refrigeration of Fish." Titles of the other four leaflets are: Part 1 (Fishery Leaflet., and edited by Joseph W. Slavin, Refrigeration Engineer, Fishery Technological Laborator,y, East Boston

  16. A dilution refrigerator insert for standard ILL cryostats K. Neumaier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    773 A dilution refrigerator insert for standard ILL cryostats K. Neumaier WMI Garching, F.R.G. A-1.2 K) the sample stick was replaced by a dilution refrigerator insert with a minimum no temperatures, we replaced the sample stick by a dilution refrigerator insert (Fig. 1). The large cooling power

  17. page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 4 TkF Värmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven, prof. Exam 240107 4 questions with methylchloride (CH3Cl, R-40) as refrigerant. The evaporator operates at Te = -20 °C and exchanges heat the mixture quality x for state 5 in the T,s diagram. (2 p.) b. How much heat qin (kJ/kg refrigerant) is taken

  18. Development of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Development of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator M. Pierensa , J.-P. Thermeaua , T. Le, a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator has been developed. Its performances are presented in this paper the refrigerator, its instrumentation and its experimental test bench. Finally we give the results obtained from

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS Pascal Clain , Anthony storage and distribution in refrigeration applications. Previous studies show that these hydrates are able.s] INTRODUCTION Secondary refrigeration is a method using a neutral fluid for cold distribution in order

  20. Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

  1. Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration Tobias Gybel Hovgard , Lars F multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor. This corresponds roughly to 2% of the entire electricity consumption in the country. Refrigerated goods constitute

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Richard F. Topping-efficient refrigerator- freezer prototype involving the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Arthur D. Little, Inc., and Amana Refrigeration, Inc. The project was initiated in 1977 by Oak Ridge National

  3. page 1 of 5 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 5 TkF Värmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven, prof. Exam 17-12-2008 4 devices. 209. An ideal vapour-compression cycle heat pump with R-134a as the working fluid (refrigerant within 1 hour, calculate the minimum cooling/freezing capacity of the refrigerator (W) and the time

  4. Optimal Performance of a Reciprocating Demagnetization Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosloff, Ronnie

    Optimal Performance of a Reciprocating Demagnetization Quantum Refrigerators Ronnie Kosloff A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy

  5. page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 4 TkF Värmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven, prof. Exam 280307 4 questions devices. 205. A vapour-compression system that uses refrigerant R-134a must be tested to determine optimal; the mass flow of refrigerant is 0.05 kg/s. a. Determine the values for evaporator and condenser heat loads

  6. Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznik, Leon

    Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri refrigeration control. The goal of this project is twofold: to design an efficient and economically feasible to a regulation problem in reefer refrigeration systems. By an application of the Motorola HC12 MCU with its

  7. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  8. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  9. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  10. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  11. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  12. Energy Audit Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  13. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  14. PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachkov, Ivan

    PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant The School of Industrial Engineering and Management at the Royal Institute of Technology seeks a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

  15. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

  16. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  17. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  18. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

  19. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  1. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  2. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the refrigeration system have been investigated as well. One approach is to use heat pumps to recover refrigeration waste heat and raise it to a sufficient level to provide for store heating needs. Another involves use of combined heating and power (CHP) or combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems to integrate the refrigeration, HVAC, and power services in stores. Other methods including direct recovery of refrigeration reject heat for space and water heating have also been examined.

  3. Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Wood pellets have increased tremendously pellet stoves or boilers over traditional wood-fired equipment due to their relative ease of use. As a result, the demand for fuel pellets has also grown quickly. However, wood is not the only suitable

  4. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)] [ed.; Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  5. Ultratech Develops an Improved Lithography Tool for LED Wafer Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ultratech modified an existing lithography tool used for semiconductor manufacturing to better meet the cost and performance targets of the high-brightness LED manufacturing industry. The goal was to make the equipment compatible with the wide range of substrate diameters and thicknesses prevalent in the industry while reducing the capital cost and the overall cost of ownership (COO).

  6. Manufacturing Innovation in the DOE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Robert McEwan GE America Makes The National Accelerator for Additive Manufacturing & 3D Printing Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) manufacturing.energy.gov 13 Manufacturing...

  7. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compressors, and magnetic refrigeration. contracts withpotentially could use a magnetic refrigeration cycle. This

  8. Sector 1 - Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS detector pool has a number of additional detectors Furnaces Powder diffraction furnace Infrared furnace Plate furnace Mechanical Testing Equipment The following mechanical...

  9. Category:Smart Grid Projects - Equipment Manufacturing | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:ConceptualGeothermal RegulatoryInformationProjects

  10. Hebei Yeelong Wind Power Equipment Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A

  11. Nordex Dongying Wind Power Equipment Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPowerKaitian Windpower Jump

  12. Nordex Yinchuan Wind Power Equipment Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPowerKaitian Windpower JumpInformation

  13. Shenyang Tianxiang Wind Equipments Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCalifornia Sector: WindRiegotecSeaScapeInformationInformation

  14. US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects - Equipment Manufacturing | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCalifornia Sector:Shreniksource History View

  15. Yatu Yangjiang Fengdian Equipment Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifang SwisselectronicXian JieliYanbu, Saudi

  16. List of Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Incentives | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative Fuel VehiclesInformation

  17. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuick Guide:U.N.June 8, 2015June 4,POCRecoverBuilding

  18. China Shandong Penglai Electric Power Equipment Manufacturing | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd:Information ChinaChina New Energy LtdInformation

  19. Ningxia Yinxing Energy PV Power Equipment Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpen EnergyNelsoniX LtdNewNingguo LiucunbaNingxia SunshineEnergy

  20. Educated and Equipped: Energy & Manufacturing Training | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energyof Energy TheInfrastructureApril 9,EcoCAR

  1. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts | Departmentof EnergyClosed-Loop

  2. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy Reliability (OE): EA-405 DelEnergyDepartment2009,

  3. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy Reliability (OE): EA-405

  4. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  5. Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

  6. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Christensen, D V; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration.

  7. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Sante Fe, NM); Olson, Jeffrey R. (San Mateo, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  8. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  9. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  10. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  11. Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

  12. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory Chaoyi Tan Jianlong Liu Fennan Tang Yang Liu Hunan University of Technology... fiber ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 2. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM SUPERIOR DESIGN PROPOSAL IN MUCILAGE GLUE FIBER FACTORY 2.1 Refrigeration system superior design proposal in mucilage glue fiber factory...

  13. TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates GPIb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates, Boston, MA When refrigerated platelets are rewarmed, they secrete active sialidases, including factor receptor (VWFR), specifically the GPIb subunit. The recovery and circulation of refrigerated

  14. Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Daniel A.

    Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla; accepted 22 April 2002 An inexpensive less than $25 tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstration in the literature, this demonstration model effectively illustrates the behavior of a thermoacoustic refrigerator

  15. Design Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Design Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Temperature by Daniel Sean decade, active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigeration technology has progressed towards commercial

  16. The effect of distributed exchange parameters on magnetocaloric refrigeration capacity in amorphous and nanocomposite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    of Physics. Related Articles High performance magnetocaloric perovskites for magnetic refrigeration Appl energy on interatomic spacing. The magnetic entropy curve revealed extra broadening with a refrigerationThe effect of distributed exchange parameters on magnetocaloric refrigeration capacity in amorphous

  17. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

  18. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

  19. arti refrigerant database: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    textbooks: Database Systems Alechina, Natasha 86 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  20. Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and...

  1. Energy Efficient Refrigerators Incentive Program Options for South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covary, Unlimited Energy, South Africa and Paul Waide, WaideCA 94720 Unlimited Energy 2 South Africa Waide Strategicof refrigerator energy efficiency for South Africa. The

  2. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solstice N40 offer supermarkets an easy solution to reduce their refrigeration system's electricity consumption, save energy, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Building...

  3. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of...

  4. 2015-03-26: Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Intent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  5. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. Absorption Refrigeration Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News...

  6. active magnetic refrigerator: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies on solid materials exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, (more) Dikeos, John 2006-01-01 2 Design...

  7. Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

  8. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus...

  9. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  10. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  11. Demonstration experiments for solid state physics using a table top mechanical Stirling refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osorio, M R; Rodrigo, J G; Suderow, H; Vieira, S; 10.1088/0143-0807/33/4/757

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature an solid state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed several simple experiments which can be performed using a small Stirling refrigerator. We discuss the measurement of the critical current and temperature of a bulk YBa2Cu3O(7-d) (YBCO) sample, the observation of the levitation of a magnet over a YBCO disk when cooled below the critical temperature and the observation of a phase transition using ac calorimetry. The equipment can be easily handled by students, and also used to teach the principles of liquid free cooling.

  12. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  13. Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

    A newly designed crankshaft of a compressor for a side-by-side (SBS) refrigerator was studied. Using mass and energy conservation balances, a variety of compressor loads typically found in a refrigeration cycle were analyzed. The laboratory failure... vis-a´-vis de la fiabilite´ et e´tude de casArticle history: Received 18 March 2008 Received in revised form 6 May 2008 Accepted 21 July 2008 Published online 31 July 2008 Keywords: Refrigeration system Compression system Reciprocating compressor...

  14. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  16. field_equipment.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FIELD EQUIPMENT INVENTORY Trucks * Five vacpressure trucks, 60-90 bbl, up to 5 bpm at 5,000 lb. * Waterfi re truck, 110 bbl * Two dump trucks: 5-yard and 12-yard * Belly dump...

  17. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  19. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  20. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  1. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE prototype working with a scroll compressor was built and tested. A near-industrial prototype is today being regarding hydrocarbons as refrigerants, this article reviews scroll compressor modelling studies

  2. NBSIFI 86-3373 Impact of Refrigerant Property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    of performance prediction to refrigerant properties for a residential, split heat pump operating in the cooling mode. The NBS steady-state heat pump model, HPSIM, was used in this study. The individual influence and refrigerant mass flow rate are also given in the report. iii #12;Discrepancy between heat pump laboratory test

  3. Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the fea- sibility of using photovoltaics to minimise the use of diesel generators in refrigerated) modules to minimise the use of diesel generation in refrigerated transport. Sub- sequently, UK supermarket, to fail over to the diesel generator when electrical power is cut. The major supermarket chains trading

  4. Microscopic model of a phononic refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Arrachea; Eduardo Mucciolo; Claudio Chamon; Rodrigo Capaz

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a simple microscopic model to pump heat from a cold to a hot reservoir in a nanomechanical system. The model consists of a one-dimensional chain of masses and springs coupled to a back gate through which a time-dependent perturbation is applied. The action of the gate is to modulate the coupling of the masses to a substrate via additional springs that introduce a moving phononic barrier. We solve the problem numerically using non-equilibrium Green function techniques. For low driving frequencies and for sharp traveling barriers, we show that this microscopic model realizes a phonon refrigerator.

  5. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  6. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  7. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  8. Table B36. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2".9. Percent of.0.6.

  9. Long-length contaminated equipment burial containers fabrication process procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, W.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    These special process procedures cover the detailed step-by-step procedures required by the supplier who will manufacture the Long-Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) Burial Container design. Also included are detailed step-by-step procedures required by the disposal process for completion of the LLCE Burial Containers at Hanford.

  10. Manufactured Home Energy Audit user`s manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA displays a colorful, graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. MHEA stands apart from other building energy analysis tools in many ways. Calculations incorporated into the computer code specifically address manufactured home heating and cooling load trends. The retrofit measures evaluated by MHEA are all applicable to manufactured homes. Help messages describe common manufactured home weatherization practices as well as provide hints on how to install retrofit measures. These and other features help make MHEA easy to use when evaluating energy consumption and the effects of weatherization retrofit measures for manufactured homes.

  11. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Ronald A. [ATI Wah Chang, An Allegheny Technologies Company, Albany, Oregon 97321 (United States)

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  12. The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    ;ve Manufacturing Technologies (led by Dow, Honeywell and MIT) Manufacturing Ins;tutes (led, Honeywell and MIT GOALS § To launch public-private ini:a:ves to advance transforma

  13. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  14. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

  15. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  16. Manufacturing Battle Creek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    to the manufacturing sector in Western Michigan. In addition to serving as director of the MRC, Dr. Patten is alsoManufacturing Research Center Kalamazoo Battle Creek The College of Engineering and Applied Sciences The Supporting manufacturing industries by providing opportunities for collaboration with faculty

  17. PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in New low GWP refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachkov, Ivan

    PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in New low GWP refrigerants The School of Industrial, specifically New low GWP refrigerants. KTH is the largest technical university in Sweden. Education and Refrigeration The Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, part of the Department of Energy

  18. Refrigerated Warehouses Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Refrigerated Warehouses ­ Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009 8 Refrigerated Warehouses 8.1 Introduction This section of the nonresidential compliance manual addresses refrigerated warehouses. Since regulation of refrigerated warehouses is new for the 2008 Standards (§126

  19. Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 15901601 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 1590­1601 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration February 2007 Abstract The paper focuses on operation of simple refrigeration cycles and considers refrigeration cycle and the other is a trans-critical CO2 refrigeration cycle. There is no fundamental

  20. Development and Validation of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration Cycle Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Development and Validation of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration Cycle Simulation by John of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration Cycle Simulation by John Dikeos B.Sc., Queen's University, 2003 for refrigeration and gas liquefaction is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies

  1. Integrating Energy Management and Lean Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocki, M.

    Reduced Building Energy through Lean Case Study Facility floor space typically must be heated, ventilated, and illuminated. When space runs outs, a facility usually looks to expand by adding floor space. A farm equipment manufacturer was facing just... Procedures to optimize operational and production tasks ? Encouraging energy efficiency through the use of Visual Dashboards (sample in Figure 3). ? Root cause analysis to determine the underlying causes (and possible solutions) of energy wastes in a...

  2. Early Equipment Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlie, Michelle

    2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    the quality, flexibility, reliability, safety, and life-time cost of equipment. This paper will give an introduction to the basics of TPM, discuss the major parts of EEM, and evaluate the lessons learned from the team’s first effort to execute the structured...

  3. Emergency Facilities and Equipment

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume clarifies requirements of DOE O 151.1 to ensure that emergency facilities and equipment are considered as part of emergency management program and that activities conducted at these emergency facilities are fully integrated. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

  4. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  5. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

  6. Refrigerator with a clearance seal compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Stirling refrigeration system in which a displacer is driven in a reciprocating motion within a cold finger by a pressure differential between helium gas in the cold finger and helium gas in a gas spring volume, the reciprocating piston compressor for the working volume has a clearance seal between the working volume and a control volume. The only lubricant in that seal is the helium gas. The mean pressure of the working volume relative to the control volume can be controlled by varying the length of the clearance seal throughout the stroke of the piston. Preferably, the seal is between alumina ceramic sleeves. The clearance seal compressor may also be used in a Gifford-McMahon cycle.

  7. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  8. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  9. Manufacturing improvements in the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, C.E.; Mitchell, R.L.; Thomas, H.P.; Symko, M.I. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); King, R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ruby, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project (PVMaT) is a government/industry research and development (R and D) partnership between the US federal government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and members of the US PV industry. The goals of PVMaT are to help the US PV industry improve module manufacturing processes and equipment; accelerate manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, balance-of-systems components, and integrated systems; increase commercial product performance and reliability; and enhance the investment opportunities for substantial scale-ups of US-based PV manufacturing plant capacities. The approach for PVMaT has been to cost-share risk taking by industry as it explores new manufacturing options and ideas for improved PV modules and other components, advances system and product integration, and develops new system designs, all of which will lead to overall reduced system life-cycle costs for reliable PV end products. The PVMaT Phase 4A module manufac turing R and D projects are just being completed, and initial results for the work directed primarily to module manufacture are reported in this paper. Fourteen new Phase 5A subcontracts have also just been awarded, and planned R and D areas for the ten focused on module manufacture are described. Finally, government funding, subcontractor cost-sharing, and a comparison of the relative efforts by PV technology throughout the PVMaT project are presented.

  10. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  11. Dry Dilution Refrigerator for Experiments on Quantum Effects in the Microwave Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marx, A; Uhlig, K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Walther-Mei{\\ss}ner-Institut (WMI), a new cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerator (DR) has been completed; the cryostat will be employed to cool experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. All major components have been made at the WMI. The DR offers lots of space at the various stages of the apparatus for microwave components and cables. E. g., the usable space at the mixing chamber has a height of more than 60 cm and a diameter of 30 cm (mixing chamber mounting plate). To cool cables and cold amplifiers, the DR is equipped with a separate 4He-1K-loop which offers a cooling power of up to 100 mW near 1K. The refrigeration power of the still is 18 mW at 0.9 K; the diameter of its mounting plate is 35 cm. The cryostat rests in an aluminum trestle on air springs to attenuate building vibrations. It is precooled by a Cryomech PT410-RM pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) which is mechanically decoupled from the vacuum can of the cryostat by a bello...

  12. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waseem Faidi; Chris Nafis; Shatil Sinha; Chandra Yerramalli; Anthony Waas; Suresh Advani; John Gangloff; Pavel Simacek

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    To develop a practical inline inspection that could be used in combination with automated composite material placement equipment to economically manufacture high performance and reliable carbon composite wind turbine blade spar caps. The approach technical feasibility and cost benefit will be assessed to provide a solid basis for further development and implementation in the wind turbine industry. The program is focused on the following technology development: (1) Develop in-line monitoring methods, using optical metrology and ultrasound inspection, and perform a demonstration in the lab. This includes development of the approach and performing appropriate demonstration in the lab; (2) Develop methods to predict composite strength reduction due to defects; and (3) Develop process models to predict defects from leading indicators found in the uncured composites.

  13. absorption refrigerator system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  14. amr refrigeration cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Banerjee; Ralph E. Pudritz; Lindsay Holmes 2004-08-15 112 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  15. adsorption refrigeration system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 8 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  16. absorption refrigeration system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  17. adsorption refrigerator powered: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cycle T I. Jinshah B S; Ajith Krishnan R; Eep V S 71 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  18. absorption refrigeration systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  19. authority refrigerator replacement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    videos. Unlike prior work, it does not ... Dale, Kevin 52 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  20. Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power outage or some other reason, undesirable odors can result. This publication explains how to eliminate odors from these appliances....

  1. Availability of refrigerants for heat pumps in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    grids Smart cities #12;8 Residential HPs Refrigerants Use of aero-geo- +hydrothermal renewable energy cooling and heating Residential Future: Heating of electric cars and cooling the batteries Future: Smart

  2. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  3. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Design and construction of the astronautics refrigerator magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresner, L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the design, construction, and testing of a 7-Tesla, 4-in. bore superconducting magnet for use in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment. The magnet is a single-strand, layer-wound, potted solenoid wound with Formvar-insulated SSC strands. The magnet was constructed by American Magnetics, Inc. of Oak Ridge and has been installed in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment at the Astronautics Technology Center in Madison, Wisconsin.

  6. Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

    APPLICATIONS TESTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENT, ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY REFRIGERANTS JONATHAN NIMITZ SUZANNE GLASS EDWARD McCULLOUGH PATRICK DHOOGE PRESIDENT/CEO RESEARCH ASSOCIATE ENGINEER DIR.OF BUSINESS DEV. ENVIRON?v1ENTAL TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCAn.... This goal has been achieved. Additionally, the Ikon? refrigerants were designed to take advantage of the exceptional combustion suppression characteristics of trifluoroiodomethane (CF 3 I), a member of the chemical family known as fluoroiodocarbons...

  7. Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Mary Sue

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of limitations snd their higher degree of dependence on products. An important arse in product design which has seldom been considered is that of kitchen appliances, and, more specifically, rafr igerators. Refrigerator design has changed little in the last... For the elderly or disabled is a relatively unexplored ares. The present research is an attempt to rectify this neglect. LITERATURE REVIEW Ther s is a striking lack of information in the literature specifically concerned with refrigerators. Those few studies...

  8. Demand Side Management (DSM) Through Absorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E.

    DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM) TIIROUGH ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Peter Y. Chao, PhD, Deepak Shukla, PhD, Sr. Process Engineers, TENSA Services, Inc. Ammi Amarnath, Sr. Project Manager, Electrical Power Research Institute Ed. Mergens.... They are Peak Clipping, Valley filling, Load Shifting, Strategic Conservation, Strategic Load Growth, and Flexible Load Shaping. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This will either reduce the peak load (peak clipping...

  9. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  10. Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the production of clean energy technologies like electric vehicles, LED bulbs and solar panels. The Department is also working with manufacturers to increase their energy...

  11. Locating Chicago Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Renaissance Council, is among the nation's leading public high schools focused on manufac- turing area's econ- omy, including how important manufacturing is to that economy, which manufac- turing

  12. Advanced Materials Manufacturing | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    existing manufacturing industries and result in creative new products. Stronger, more corrosion-resistant and lower cost steel alloys are being developed and commercialized to...

  13. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  14. The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    About 140 industry leaders from across the country, representing every link in the supply chain—from chip makers, to luminaire manufacturers, to material and equipment suppliers, to packagers, to...

  15. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : improved efficiencies in raw material presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daneshmand, Moojan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the application of the principles of lean manufacturing at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates (VSEA). The company faces the challenges of highly customized assembly as well as fluctuating ...

  16. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : inventory correction and shortage measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raykar, Sumant (Sumant Shreechandra)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the application of the principles of lean manufacturing and supply chain planning at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates. The company's products are highly customizable, and the production ...

  17. Feature-based investment cost estimation based on modular design of a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Donovan (Donovan Scott)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies of continuous manufacturing processes have used equipment-factored cost estimation methods to predict savings in initial plant investment costs. In order to challenge and validate the existing methods of ...

  18. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-10-4 Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigerating System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption... in order to lay a theoretical foundation of improving the performance of whole LBAC. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCING ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORBER It is well known that the absorption of ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC...

  19. The Fourth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two hundred lighting industry leaders from across the country, representing every link in the supply chain—from chip makers, to luminaire manufacturers, to material and equipment suppliers, to packagers, to luminaire testers, to the makers of testing equipment—gathered in San Jose, CA, June 13–14, 2012, to share insights, ideas, and updates at the fourth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. The workshop is a key component of an initiative launched by DOE in 2009 to enhance the quality and lower the cost of SSL products through improvements in manufacturing equipment and processes, and to foster a significant manufacturing role in the U.S. This year in San Jose, attendees explored a wide range of related topics and focused on reexamining and updating the DOE Manufacturing R&D Roadmap.

  20. The Third Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 250 lighting industry leaders from across the country, representing every link in the supply chain—from chip makers, to luminaire manufacturers, to material and equipment suppliers, to packagers, to luminaire testers, to the makers of testing equipment—gathered in Boston April 12–13, 2011, to share insights, ideas, and updates at the third annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. The workshop is a key component of an initiative launched by DOE in 2009 to enhance the quality and lower the cost of SSL products through improvements in manufacturing equipment and processes and to foster a significant manufacturing role in the U.S. This year in Boston, attendees explored a wide range of related topics and focused on reexamining and updating the DOE Manufacturing R&D Roadmap.

  1. The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 250 industry leaders from all corners of the supply chain – including chip makers, luminaire manufacturers, material and equipment suppliers, packagers, luminaire testers, and makers of testing equipment – gathered in San Jose, CA, April 21-22, 2010, to share insights, ideas, and updates at the second annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. This workshop is a key part of an initiative launched by DOE in 2009 to enhance the quality and lower the cost of SSL products through improvements in manufacturing equipment and processes and to foster a significant manufacturing role in the U.S. This year in San Jose, attendees explored a wide range of related topics and focused on reexamining and updating the DOE Manufacturing R&D Roadmap.

  2. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@Energy Innovation EquipmentHydrogen

  3. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@Energy Innovation EquipmentHydrogenPhilips

  4. UNIRIB: Equipment Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulence may bedieselsummer gasoline price0 - 194Equipment

  5. Maersk Line Equipment guide

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysisDarby/%2AOU1a ComplexMaersk Line Equipment

  6. Logging Equipment and Loren Kellogg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the control is passed on Automatic inhaul starts and the control is transferred again Photo Credit: KollerLogging Equipment and Systems Loren Kellogg Forest Engineering Resources and Management Oregon Equipment and Systems Presentation Outline · Overview of equipment and systems for thinning · Costs

  7. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n 8, Tome 39, aot 1978, page C6-1598 MAGNETIC REFRIGERATORS FOR USE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND BELOW+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    spéci- fiques de réseau peuvent être rendues petites. Abstract.- Magnetic Carnot cycle refrigerators. Four magnetic refrigerators have been built, but no economically viable unit is in operation. However, fundamental considera- tion indicates that magnetic refrigerators should eventually replace gas refrigerators

  8. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  9. The development of a proff of principle superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Franklin K., 1970-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of sub-Kelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator, has been developed and its performance has been experimentally verified. This refrigerator uses a liquid superfluid mixture of He and 4He ...

  10. Performance of HCFC22 alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, D.; Kim, C.B.; Song, Y.J.; Park, B.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, 14 refrigerant mixtures composed of R32, R125, R134a, R152a, R290(Propane) and R1270(Propylene) were tested in a breadboard heat pump in an attempt to replace R22 used in residential air-conditioners. The test heat pump was of 1 ton capacity with water as the secondary heat transfer fluids. All tests were conducted under ARI test A condition. Test results how that ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125, and R134a have 4 {approximately} 5% higher coefficient of performance(COP) and capacity than R22. Hence they seem to be promising alternatives for R22. On the other hand, ternary mixtures containing R125, R134a, and R152a have lower COPs and capacities than R22. R290/R134 azeotrope also shows 3--4% increases in COP and capacity. The compressor discharge and dome temperatures of all the mixtures tested are lower than those of R22 by 15.9--34.7 C and 5.5--14.3 C respectively, indicating that these mixtures would offer better system reliability and longer life time than R22. Finally, the test results with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) indicated that SLHX must be used with special care in air-conditioners since its effect is fluid dependent.

  11. Improving maintenance work flow processes in a volatile assembly factory environment : maintenance people and processes, spares inventory, and equipment reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, H. Ryan (Harold Ryan)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many manufacturing companies face significant challenges in maintaining their factory equipment in a cost efficient manner so as to provide reliable production capacity. CEI (Consumer Electronics, Inc., a pseudonym for an ...

  12. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

  13. Manufacturing Licenses Available | Tech Transfer | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deposition Manufacturing 201303127 Methods and Materials for Room Temperature Polymer Additive Manufacturing 201303140 Reactive Polymer Fused Deposition Manufacturing 201303151...

  14. 1989 U. S. A. oilfield service, supply and manufacturers directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book lists and describes principal activities of more than 3,600 companies providing oil-field services, wholesale and retail products, and companies involved in the design, manufacture and construction of oilfield equipment. It gives company address and phone; principal officers; telex, cable, and facsimile numbers; branch offices; and subsidiaries.

  15. NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle internal short, the device is small compared to other shorting tools being developed by industry and does tool for battery manufacturers and other national laboratories as well as original equipment

  16. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angel, Roger [University of Arizona

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of each reflected beam from the paraboloid focus give a direct measure of surface slope error. Key findings • A gravity sag method for large (2.5 m2) second surface glass solar reflectors has been developed and demonstrated to a uniquely high level of accuracy. Mirror surface slope accuracy of 0.65 mrad in one dimension, 0.85 mrad in 2 dimensions (point focus) has been demonstrated by commercial partner REhnu using this process. This accuracy exceeds by a factor of two current solar reflector accuracy. Our replicas meet the Sunshot accuracy objective of 2 mrad optical, which requires better than 1 mrad rms slope error. • Point-focus as well as line-focus mirrors have been demonstrated at 1.65 m x 1.65 m square – a unique capability. • The new process using simple molds is economical. The molds for the 1.65 m square reflectors are bent and machined steel plates on a counter-weighted flotation support. To minimize thermal coupling by radiative heat transfer, the mold surface is grooved and gilded. The molds are simple to manufacture, and have minimal thermal stresses and distortion in use. Lapping and bending techniques have been developed to obtain better than 1 mrad rms surface mold accuracy. Float glass is sagged into the molds by rapid radiative heating, using a custom high power (350 kW) furnace. The method of manufacture is well suited for small as well as large volume production, and as it requires little capital investment and no high technology, it could be used anywhere in the world to make solar concentrating reflectors. • A novel slope metrology method for full 1.65 aperture has been demonstrated, with 25 mm resolution across the face of the replicas. The method is null and therefore inherently accurate: it can easily be reproduced without high-tech equipment and does not need sophisticated calibration. We find by cross calibration with reference trough reflectors from RioGlass that our null-test laser system yields a measurement accuracy better than 0.4 mrad rms slope error. Our system is inexpensive and could have broad application for test

  17. Quantum Refrigerator and the III-law of Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amikam Levy; Robert Alicki; Ronnie Kosloff

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of temperature decrease of a cooled quantum bath is studied as its temperature is reduced to the absolute zero. The III-law of thermodynamics is then quantified dynamically by evaluating the characteristic exponent {\\zeta} of the cooling process dT(t)/dt \\sim -T^{\\zeta} when approaching the absolute zero, T \\rightarrow 0. A continuous model of a quantum refrigerator is employed consisting of a working medium composed either by two coupled harmonic oscillators or two coupled 2-level systems. The refrigerator is a nonlinear device merging three currents from three heat baths: a cold bath to be cooled, a hot bath as an entropy sink, and a driving bath which is the source of cooling power. A heat driven refrigerator (absorption refrigerator) is compared to a power driven refrigerator. When optimized both cases lead to the same exponent {\\zeta}, showing a lack of dependence on the form of the working medium and the characteristics of the drivers. The characteristic exponent is therefore determined by the properties of the cold reservoir and its interaction with the system. Two generic heat baths models are considered, a bath composed of harmonic oscillators and a bath composed from ideal Bose/Fermi gas. The restrictions on the interaction Hamiltonian imposed by the III-law are discussed. In the appendix the theory of periodicaly driven open systems and its implication to thermodynamics is outlined.

  18. Development of energy-efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of advanced techniques in engineering simulation and economic analysis for the development of efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators is illustrated in this paper. A key feature of this methodology is refrigerator simulation to generate energy savings for a set of energy-efficient design options and life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis with these design options. The LCC of a refrigerator is analyzed as a function of five variables: nominal discount rate, fuel price, appliance lifetime, incremental price, and incremental energy savings. The frequency of occurrence of the LCC minimum at any design option indicates the optimum efficiency level or range. Studies carried out in the US and European Economic Community show that the location of the LCC minimum under different scenarios (e.g., variable fuel price, life-time, discount rate, and incremental price) is quite stable. Thus, an efficiency standard can be developed based on the efficiency value at the LCC minimum. This paper examines and uses this methodology in developing efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators. The potential efficiency standard value is indicated to be 0.65 kWh/day for a 165-liter, CFC-based, manual defrost, single-door refrigerator-freezer.

  19. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  20. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 16 JANUARY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1871 Piezoresistive heat engine and refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    and refrigerator P. G. Steeneken*, K. Le Phan, M. J. Goossens, G. E. J. Koops, G. J. A. M. Brom, C. van der Avoort to reduce these thermal fluctuations, therefore operating as a refrigerator. M ost heat engines operate

  1. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    An experimental and analytical study concerned with the off-design refrigerant charging of air conditioners is presented. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of refrigerant charge and type of expansion device...

  2. Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method...

  3. A Prediction Model for Adiabatic and Diabatic Capillary Tubes with Alternative Refrigerants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yupeng

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary tube is a very common throttling device located between the condenser and evaporator in a refrigeration system. In some refrigerant systems, a section of the capillary tube is connected to a section of the ...

  4. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technology Collaborations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advanced manufacturing and materials technologies for commercial applications related to additive manufacturing or carbon fiber and composites will have the highest likelihood of...

  5. Innovative Manufacturing Initiative Recognition Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Innovative Manufacturing Initiative (IMI) Recognition Day (held in Washington, DC on June 20, 2012) showcased IMI projects selected by the Energy Department to help American manufacturers...

  6. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

  7. LNG infrastructure and equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forgash, D.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

  8. Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

  9. The Hall D solenoid helium refrigeration system at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Creel, Jonathan D. [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly d. [JLAB; Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Martin, Floyd D. [JLAB; Norton, Robert O. [JLAB; Radovic, Sasa [JLAB

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hall D, the new Jefferson Lab experimental facility built for the 12GeV upgrade, features a LASS 1.85 m bore solenoid magnet supported by a 4.5 K helium refrigerator system. This system consists of a CTI 2800 4.5 K refrigerator cold box, three 150 hp screw compressors, helium gas management and storage, and liquid helium and nitrogen storage for stand-alone operation. The magnet interfaces with the cryo refrigeration system through an LN2-shielded distribution box and transfer line system, both designed and fabricated by JLab. The distribution box uses a thermo siphon design to respectively cool four magnet coils and shields with liquid helium and nitrogen. We describe the salient design features of the cryo system and discuss our recent commissioning experience.

  10. Effects of refrigeration in a transportable cryogenic aerospace application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, B.D.; Mahefkey, T. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Ramalingam, M.L. [UES, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary feasibility studies, based on refrigeration thermodynamics, have been conducted for candidate power conditioning components in a 1MWe terrestrial/transportable cryogenic power system. The cryogenic power system being considered has a super conducting generator for high power applications such as the power source for a Ground Based Radar (GBR) System. While the superconducting generator operates at 77K or lower, the present analysis indicates that significant benefits cannot be derived by cooling the various components of the power conditioning system to such low temperatures. It was found that, by operating the power conditioning component at 150K instead of at 77K the overall system efficiency was not jeopardized by way of large input power requirements to dissipate small refrigerator loads. This is an acute problem as current cryogenic refrigeration systems allow for very low levels of energy dissipation while performing at about 7 to 10% of the Carnot coefficients of performance (COP) between 300K and 77K.

  11. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{cool}$. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the reviewed designs.

  12. CIMplementation™: Evaluating Manufacturing Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, J.

    management and labor. In the new shop, ma~? agers will be unable to succeed unless thet earn the respect and cooperation of their I subordinates. Managers need to address th~ fear and resistance of manufacturing emPlofees before and during a transition.... Managers are becoming more interested in these methods, but they should be aware that implementing them will be a slow, complex task. This technology will require changes in manufacturing organization. This paper discusses changes required...

  13. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergander, Mark J [Magnetic Development, Inc.; Butrymowicz, Dariusz [Polish Academy of Scinces

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was a continuation of Category 1 project, completed in August 2005. Following the successful bench model demonstration of the technical feasibility and economic viability, the main objective in this stage was to fabricate the prototype of the heat pump, working on the new thermodynamic cycle. This required further research to increase the system efficiency to the level consistent with theoretical analysis of the cycle. Another group of objectives was to provide the foundation for commercialization and included documentation of the manufacturing process, preparing the business plan, organizing sales network and raising the private capital necessary to acquire production facilities.

  14. Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN of the simulation model for the two-stage refrigeration system is presented. The model is based on the mathematical, it is #12;Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 65 translated into FORTRAN or C

  15. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFRIGERATED SEAWATER COMPARED WITH PINK SHRIMP HELD IN ICE FERN A. BULLARD AND JEFF COLLINSl ABSTRACT Pink ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days refrigerated seawater were acceptable up to 9.5 days and those held in ice up to 6.5 days. Data on weight

  16. Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling Pressure-drop oscillation Refrigeration system Two-phase cooling Active control Transient heat load a b s t r a c t Two-loop refrigeration systems are being explored for two-phase cooling of ultra high power

  17. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large poten- tial inside display cabinets. This paper discusses a dynamic optimization of commer- cial refrigeration

  18. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 3 1 Assignment #3 (Refrigeration)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 3 1 MECH 461 Assignment #3 (Refrigeration) Assignment date: Tuesday Jan 29, 2011 Problem 1: Figure below shows a steam jet refrigeration system that produces chilled refrigeration) = 211 kJ/min. water Sat. vapor at 200 kPa Ejector nozzle Steam jet Sat. vapor P = 4 kPa Condenser

  19. DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump of Refrigeration 35, 4 (2012) 1080-1091" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2011.12.007 #12;2 NOMENCLATURE A Cross sectional

  20. Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 75 55.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 75 55-stage refrigeration system. Several control configurations are examined. These configurations were chosen An analysis of the relationships in the two-stage refrigeration system shows the availability of 5 degrees

  1. Page 1 of 4 Refrigerant Charge Verification: 70F Return Air Requirement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 of 4 Refrigerant Charge Verification: 70°F Return Air Requirement This article describes refrigerant charge verification when the outdoor temperature is between 55 and 65°F, in accordance than 70°F has been an explicit requirement since the refrigerant charge verification protocol was first

  2. Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 712721 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 712­721 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration online 16 January 2007 Abstract The paper focuses on the operation of simple refrigeration cycles of about 2%. In this paper, refrigeration (cooling) cycles are considered, but the same principles apply

  3. Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a Brazed Plate and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger Sheila C ........................................................... 8 3. Average relative difference (%) in calculated heat transfer rates for refrigerants and HTF

  4. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène have promising application in refrigeration thanks to their large cooling capacity and their storage Because it is nowadays necessary to phase out CFCs or HCFCs fluids from the refrigeration industry

  5. Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration-designed optimal control scheme, continuously maintaining a commer- cial refrigeration system at its optimum

  6. Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN-stage refrigeration system case study. It describes in detail the mathematical model developed, highlighting.1. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The cycle considered here is a two-stage side-load refrigeration unit with propylene

  7. University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log for Unit Based Medication Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log for Unit Based Medication Refrigerators Month: If the refrigerator temperature falls out of the acceptable range of 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit or 2.2 to 7.7 degrees. * If the refrigerator temperature falls out of range please document your actions in the follow-up column. #12;

  8. Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator by Armando Tura BEng Committee Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator by Armando Tura with the potential to create efficient and compact refrigeration devices is an active magnetic regenerative

  9. A Miniature Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator with compact shielded superconducting magnets.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    insulated from the bath. The refrigeration cycle exploits the interaction between the atomic magnetic a magnetic field is applied to a param- agnetic refrigerant, its magnetic spins are aligned and orderedA Miniature Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator with compact shielded superconducting

  10. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Mathematical Model of an Air-Filled Alpha Stirling Refrigerator Patrick McFarlane,1, a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    Mathematical Model of an Air-Filled Alpha Stirling Refrigerator Patrick McFarlane,1, a) Fabio for an alpha Stirling refrigerator with air as the working fluid and will be useful in optimizing Stirling refrigeration systems. a) Electronic mail: pmcfarla@nd.edu b) Electronic mail: Fabio.Semperlotti.1

  12. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Information technology equipment cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  14. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Cooling an electron gas using quantum dot based electronic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prance, Jonathan Robert

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling an electron gas using quantum dot based electronic refrigeration Jonathan Robert Prance August 28, 2009 Downing College, University of Cambridge A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Preface The work presented... dots. Conventionally, low temperature measurements of 2DEGs are made by cooling the sample to 1.5 K with liquid Helium-4, to 300 mK with liquid Helium-3, or even down to a few mK using a dilution refrigerator. However, at lower temperatures the electron...

  16. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are massive energy consumers [4] EnOB [5] Kauffeld 2009 ? Fraunhofer ISE 4 Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases Source: UBA ? 12.2010 1,1% 7,9% F-gas contribution to greenhouse effect 1. Backgrounds ? Fraunhofer ISE 5 Energy breakdown... refrigeration remains the last big subsector and the strongest emission source of the fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFC) in Germany? - Kauffeld [4] About 65 % of the cooling needs in Germany for frozen and refrigerated food products ? over 50.000 GWh...

  17. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Madison, WI); Stewart, Walter F. (Marshall, WI); Henke, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kalash, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  18. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  19. 2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  20. Manufacturing Demonstration Facilities Workshop Agenda, March...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Workshop Critical Materials Workshop Agenda Innovative Manufacturing Initiatives Recognition Day...

  1. Efficiency improvements in US Office equipment: Expected policy impacts and uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; Cramer, M.; Piette, M.A.; Eto, J.H.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a detailed end-use forecast of office equipment energy use for the US commercial sector. We explore the likely impacts of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s ENERGY STAR office equipment program and the potential impacts of advanced technologies. The ENERGY STAR program encourages manufacturers to voluntarily incorporate power saving features into personal computers, monitors, printers, copiers, and fax machines in exchange for allowing manufacturers to use the EPA ENERGY STAR logo in their advertising campaigns. The Advanced technology case assumes that the most energy efficient current technologies are implemented regardless of cost.

  2. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  3. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

  4. COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    green, M.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the assumed electrical energy cost is $0.04 per kWh.cost (the cost is given in US$ per kWh at 80.4°K) andThe cost of nitrogen refrigeration given in $ per kWh at

  5. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  6. Procurement and commissioning of the CHL refrigerator at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.M.; Bevins, B.S.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.H.; Keesee, M.M.; Reid, T.R.; Wilson, J.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) provides 2K refrigeration to the 338 superconducting niobium cavities in two 400 MeV linacs and one 45 MeV injector. The CHL consists of three first stage and three second stage compressors, a 4.5K cold box, a 2K cold box, liquid and gaseous helium storage, liquid nitrogen storage, and transfer lines. Figure 1 presents a block diagram of the CHL refrigerator. The system was designed to provide 4.8 kW of primary refrigeration at 2K, 12 kW of shield refrigeration at 45K for the linac cryomodules, and 10 g/s of liquid flow for the end stations. In April 1994, stable 2K operation of the previously uncommissioned cold compressors was achieved. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of circa 3.0K. These compressors operate on magnetic bearing,s and therefore eliminate the possibility of contamination due to any air leaks into the system. Operational data and commissioning experience as they relate to the warm gaseous helium compressors, turbines, instrumentation and control, and the cold compressors are presented.

  7. Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Long, D.L. [Statistical Solutions, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

  8. 1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    the refrigerant into a solid rather than ABsorbing it into a liquid. It is a discontinuous (batch) process #12;1st;1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Rotor and stator of ammonia circulator #12;1st TECCS meeting, 26th

  9. Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan , Abi Sellen Alex S. Taylor In this poster we present the conceptual designs for several augmented fridge magnets, each illustrative artifacts. Specifically, it reso- nates with the manner in which fridge surfaces, magnets and the content

  10. Determining the minimum mass and cost of a magnetic refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R; Bahl, C R H; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expression is determined for the mass of the magnet and magnetocaloric material needed for a magnetic refrigerator and these are determined using numerical modeling for both parallel plate and packed sphere bed regenerators as function of temperature span and cooling power. As magnetocaloric material Gd or a model material with a constant adiabatic temperature change, representing a infinitely linearly graded refrigeration device, is used. For the magnet a maximum figure of merit magnet or a Halbach cylinder is used. For a cost of \\$40 and \\$20 per kg for the magnet and magnetocaloric material, respectively, the cheapest 100 W parallel plate refrigerator with a temperature span of 20 K using Gd and a Halbach magnet has 0.8 kg of magnet, 0.3 kg of Gd and a cost of \\$35. Using the constant material reduces this cost to \\$25. A packed sphere bed refrigerator with the constant material costs \\$7. It is also shown that increasing the operation frequency reduces the cost. Finally, the lowest cost is also found a...

  11. REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    3. REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES By W. S. GOREE to devices for shielding, stabilizing, measuring and producing magnetic fields. The zero resistance property of superconductors has been used to construct magnets capable of producing magnetic fields up to 140 kgauss

  12. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

  13. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advance Manufacture of Reflectors fact sheet describes a SunShot Initiative project being conducted research team led by the University of Arizona, which is working to develop a novel method for shaping float glass. The technique developed by this research team can drastically reduce the time required for the shaping step. By enabling mass production of solar concentrating mirrors at high speed, this project should lead to improved performance and as much as a 40% reduction in manufacturing costs for reflectors made in very high volume.

  14. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K. [and others

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Manufacturing Success Stories

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction to EnergyDepartment of EnergyManagementORNL isManufacturingManufacturing6

  16. The Results (Lessons Learned) of More than 110 Energy Audits for Manufacturers by the Louisiana Industrial Assessment Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T.; Davies, T.; Reynolds, C.; O'Quin, R.; DaCosta, J.; Galti, T.; Pechon, C.; Stutes, K.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and conducted its first industrial energy assessment in December 2000. In this paper we present the results of this energy assessment and those of 112 more through August 2004. By industrial type, these assessments were for: Oilfield Equipment Manufacturing (23...

  17. EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type Size Category (Btu/h) Size.ahridirectory.org/ceedirectory/pages/ac/cee/defaultSearch.aspx 12,000 Btu/h = 1 ton Less than 65,000 Btu/h Air Conditioners, Air Cooled Air Conditioners, Water completed by the California Energy Commission at a rate of 12,000 Btu/h per ton of air conditioning Source

  18. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  19. Educated and Equipped: Community Colleges Providing Technical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Irvine, this project is creating a flexible technician education framework (pilot in additive manufacturing) that draws on the experience of the National Network Manufacturing...

  20. PRESSURIZED EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Table Of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    under API standards, or (2) testing when permitted by all applicable manufacturer's specifications the limits of the specific codes or standards specified by the manufacturer's recommendations using detailed