National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for manganese potassium sodium

  1. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  2. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  3. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and

  4. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  5. Study of Compatibility of Stainless Steel Weld Joints with Liquid Sodium-Potassium Coolants for Fission Surface Power Reactors for Lunar and Space Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossbeck, Martin; Qualls, Louis

    2015-07-31

    To make a manned mission to the surface of the moon or to Mars with any significant residence time, the power requirements will make a nuclear reactor the most feasible source of energy. To prepare for such a mission, NASA has teamed with the DOE to develop Fission Surface Power technology with the goal of developing viable options. The Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) recommended as the initial baseline design includes a liquid metal reactor and primary coolant system that transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal heat transfer loops. Each intermediate loop transfers heat to two Stirling heat exchangers that each power two Stirling converters. Both the primary and the intermediate loops will use sodium-potassium (NaK) as the liquid metal coolant, and the primary loop will operate at temperatures exceeding 600°C. The alloy selected for the heat exchangers and piping is AISI Type 316L stainless steel. The extensive experience with NaK in breeder reactor programs and with earlier space reactors for unmanned missions lends considerable confidence in using NaK as a coolant in contact with stainless steel alloys. However, the microstructure, chemical segregation, and stress state of a weld leads to the potential for corrosion and cracking. Such failures have been experienced in NaK systems that have operated for times less than the eight year goal for the FSPS. For this reason, it was necessary to evaluate candidate weld techniques and expose welds to high-temperature, flowing NaK in a closed, closely controlled system. The goal of this project was to determine the optimum weld configuration for a NaK system that will withstand service for eight years under FSPS conditions. Since the most difficult weld to make and to evaluate is the tube to tube sheet weld in the intermediate heat exchangers, it was the focus of this research. A pumped loop of flowing NaK was fabricated for exposure of candidate weld specimens at temperatures of 600°C, the expected

  6. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  7. Magnetic interactions in manganese oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese oxide Magnetic interactions in manganese oxide Revealing the mechanism of 'superexchange' May 24, 2016 manganese oxide Manganese oxide Revealing the Nature of Magnetic Interactions in Manganese Oxide For nearly 60 years, scientists have been trying to determine how manganese oxide (MnO) achieves its long-range magnetic order of alternating up and down electron spins. Now, a team of scientists has used their recently developed mathematical approach to study the short-range magnetic

  8. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izutani, Natsuko [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  9. COMPARISON OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM CARBONATES AS LITHIUM ZIRCONATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to test the CO 2 absorption rates of sorbents ... In our study, several pure and modifi ed Li 2 ZrO 3 -based sorbents were prepared to test ...

  10. Growth of epitaxial films of sodium potassium tantalate and niobate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Materials Research; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 12 Research ...

  11. Potassium hydroxide clay stabilization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydansk, R.

    1981-07-28

    An aqueous solution having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays. Potassium hydroxide stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct ionic makeup into the treated formation.

  12. Structural Sequestration of Uranium in Bacteriogenic Manganese...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sequestration of Uranium in Bacteriogenic Manganese Oxides Samuel M. Webb (Stanford ... Uranium is a key contaminant of concern at US DOE sites and shuttered mining and ore ...

  13. Oxygen electrocatalysis on (001)-oriented manganese perovskite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the nanoscale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen electrocatalysis on (001)-oriented manganese perovskite films: Mn valency and charge transfer at the nanoscale ...

  14. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials ...

  15. New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durante, Vincent A.; Lyons, James E.; Walker, Darrell W.; Marcus, Bonita K.

    1994-01-01

    Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

  16. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes ... Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials

  17. potassium | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Project No.: FC26-02NT41440 Pilot Plant at the University of Texas Pilot Plant at the University of Texas The University of Texas at Austin investigated an improved process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption that uses an alternative solvent, aqueous potassium carbonate (K2CO3) promoted by piperazine (PZ). If successful, this process would use less energy for CO2 capture than the conventional monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing

  18. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  19. MANGANESE DIOXIDE METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzin, L.I.

    1958-08-12

    A method of obtaining U/sup 233/ is described. An aqueous solution of neutriln irradiated thoriunn is treated by forming tberein a precipitate of manganese dioxide which carries and thus separates the Pa/sup 233/ from the solution. The carrier precipitate so formed is then dissolved in an acidic solution containing a reducing agent sufficiently electronegative to reduce the tetravalent manganese to the divalent state. Further purification of the Pa/sup 233/ may be obtained by forming another manganese dioxide carrier precipitate and subsequently dissolving it. Ater a sufficient number of such cycles have brought the Pa/sup 233/ to the desired purity, the solution is aged, allowing the formation ot U/sup 233/ by radioaetive decay. A manganese dioxide precipitate is then formed in the U/sup 233/ containing solution. This precipitate carries down any remaining Pa/sup 233/ thus leaving the separated U/sup 233/solution, from whieh it may be easily recovered.

  20. Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with SyntheticManganese...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We chose to study the influence of manganese as a minor component in goethite, because goethite rarely exists as a pure phase in nature. Manganese X-ray absorption near-edge ...

  1. Measuring Real-time Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Measuring Real-time Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction Tuesday, May 31, 2016 Manganese(IV) oxides are powerful scavengers of toxins and trace metals, but they are also strong oxidants in the environment (1). Certain common microbes can also 'breathe' manganese oxides, in a process known as anaerobic respiration (2). During these environmental -commonly with sulfur or iron species- and biological interactions, manganese oxides are often

  2. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  3. Charge oscillations and interaction between potassium adatoms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on graphene studied by first-principles calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charge oscillations and interaction between potassium adatoms on graphene ...

  4. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W.; Leslie, William B.

    1976-01-01

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  5. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  6. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate You are accessing a document ...

  7. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate You are ...

  8. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium...

  9. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  10. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Kim, Soo; Aykol, Muratahan; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Myers, Benjamin D.; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T.; Saldana, Spencer J.; Kumar, Rajan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-06-24

    Spinel-structured LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn 3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn 4+ , which suppresses dissolution.

  11. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suib, Steven Lawrence (Storrs, CT); Yuan, Jikang (Storrs, CT)

    2011-02-15

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves and methods of making the same are disclosed. A method for forming nanowires includes hydrothermally treating a chemical precursor composition in a hydrothermal treating solvent to form the nanowires, wherein the chemical precursor composition comprises a source of manganese cations and a source of counter cations, and wherein the nanowires comprise ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves.

  12. Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrosilylation Catalysts Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone Hydrosilylation Catalysts Authors: Trovitch, R.J. Title: Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone Hydrosilylation Catalysts Source: Synlett Year: 2014 Volume: published online May 8, 2014 Pages: ABSTRACT: A brief review of manganese-catalyzed hydrosilylation is presented along with a personal account of how the design for the highly active catalyst, (Ph2PPrPDI)Mn, was

  13. Final Report: Manganese Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Meter Scale Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: Manganese Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and Uranium Fate in the Subsurface: Molecular and Meter ...

  14. Understanding Interactions between Manganese Oxide and Gold That...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Oxidation Prev Next Title: Understanding Interactions between Manganese Oxide and Gold That Lead to Enhanced Activity for Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation ...

  15. Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Print Microbial decomposition of plant debris ("litter") is a keystone ecosystem process because it regulates ...

  16. Examining Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Understanding Structural Changes in LMR-NMC Materials Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides

  17. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ...

  18. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ...

  19. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  20. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  1. Sodium-sulfur thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, F.A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

  2. Environmental fate of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, A.W.; Wolfe, N.L.; Swank, R.R. Jr.; Cipollone, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been proposed as an octane booster for unleaded gasoline; such use could result in ecological and human exposure through surface water and groundwater ecosystems. To evaluate the environmental risks from MMT, its environmental fate constants and transformation pathways must be known. Constants for physical parameters that would likely influence MMT fate were collected from the literature or calculated; the compound`s octanol/water partition coefficient and water solubility were determined in the laboratory. Experiments were designed to screen MMT for transformation pathways that are significant over environmentally short time frames. The MMT was found to be fairly stable in the dark in aquifer materials and sediments at various Eh levels; half-lives ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 years in aquifer materials at 25 C. (These matrices were not optimized for biodegradation.) On the other hand, MMT photolyzes rapidly in distilled water; its half-life in midday sunlight in water is approximately 1 min and the disappearance quantum yield is 0.13. Photodegradation products were identified as cyclopentadiene, methyl cyclopentadiene, carbon monoxide, and a manganese carbonyl that readily oxidized to trimanganese tetroxide.

  3. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  4. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ABSORPTION; SORPTIVE PROPERTIES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; THERMODYNAMIC MODEL; VAPOR PRESSURE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Word Cloud ...

  5. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ABSORPTION; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; SORPTIVE PROPERTIES; AMINES; MATERIALS RECOVERY; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; MATHEMATICAL MODELS ...

  6. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ABSORPTION; HEAT EXCHANGERS; PILOT PLANTS; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; THERMODYNAMICS; VAPOR PRESSURE; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; SORPTIVE ...

  7. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  8. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  9. A highly active manganese precatalyst for the hydrosilylation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    precatalyst for the hydrosilylation of ketones and esters Authors: Mukhopadhyay, T.K., Flores, M., Groy, T.L., and Trovitch, R.J. Title: A highly active manganese precatalyst for...

  10. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Oxides | Department of Energy Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es192_lu_2013_p.pdf (2.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrochemical Modeling of LMR-NMC Materials and Electrodes Examining

  11. Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Print Monday, 22 February 2016 00:00 Microbial decomposition of plant debris ("litter") is a keystone ecosystem process because it regulates nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity, and carbon (C) cycling. Historically, climate (primarily temperature and precipitation) has been thought to regulate the rate of litter decomposition, which then influences

  12. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  13. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Štengl, Václav; J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem ; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem ; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  14. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nester, Dean; Crocker, Ben; Smart, Bill

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  15. Electrical behavior of natural manganese dioxide (NMD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorgulho, H.F.; Fernandes, R.Z.D.; Pernaut, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    NMD samples from Brazil have been submitted to magnetic and particle size separations and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence and thermogravimetric analyses. Results showed that simple physical treatments can lead to more than 60% enriched MnO{sub 2} materials which could satisfy some electrochemical applications. The electrical properties of the samples conditioned as pressed pellets have been investigated by four-points direct current probe and impedance spectroscopy, varying the conditions of preparation and measurement. It is proposed that the higher frequency impedance is equivalent to the intrinsic electronic resistance of the MnO{sub 2} phases while at lower frequencies occurs an interphase charge separation coupled with a possible ionic transport. The corresponding contact resistance depends on the particle size distribution of the material, the compactation pressure of pellets and the iron content of the materials. The interphase dielectric relaxation does not behave ideally; the depression of the impedance semicircles as shown in the Nyquist plane is assumed to be related to the roughness of the bulk interfaces. Recent developments have shown the possibility of using manganese oxides as reversible electrodes for battery or supercapacitor applications for electrical vehicle. In these perspectives it is important to study the electrical and electrochemical properties of NMD in order to estimate its suitability for this kind of applications.

  16. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; CARBON DIOXIDE; MATERIALS RECOVERY; AMINES; SOLVENTS; MATERIALS TESTING; ...

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Language: English Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; CARBON DIOXIDE; MATERIALS RECOVERY; AMINES; SOLVENTS; MATERIALS TESTING; ...

  18. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ABSORPTION; ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY; DESORPTION; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; AMINES; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; FLUE GAS Word Cloud ...

  19. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ABSORPTION; PERFORMANCE; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; AMINES Word Cloud More Like ...

  20. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONSUMPTION; MASS TRANSFER; PILOT PLANTS; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; VANADIUM; AMINES; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full ...

  1. The potassium ion channel opener NS1619 inhibits proliferation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ovarian cancer cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The potassium ion channel opener NS1619 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in A2780 ovarian cancer cells ...

  2. Kinetic performance of CO2 absorption into a potassium carbonate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Kinetic performance of CO2 absorption into a potassium carbonate solution ... Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal (Print) ...

  3. Manganese-Based Magnets: Manganese-Based Permanent Magnet with 40 MGOe at 200°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: PNNL is working to reduce the cost of wind turbines and EVs by developing a manganese-based nano-composite magnet that could serve as an inexpensive alternative to rare-earth-based magnets. The manganese composite, made from low-cost and abundant materials, could exceed the performance of today’s most powerful commercial magnets at temperature higher than 200°C. Members of PNNL’s research team will leverage comprehensive computer high-performance supercomputer modeling and materials testing to meet this objective. Manganese-based magnets could withstand higher temperatures than their rare earth predecessors and potentially reduce the need for any expensive, bulky engine cooling systems for the motor and generator. This would further contribute to cost savings for both EVs and wind turbines.

  4. Np and Pu Sorption to Manganese Oxide Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P; Johnson, M R; Roberts, S K; Zavarin, M

    2005-08-30

    Manganese oxide minerals are a significant component of the fracture lining mineralogy at Yucca Mountain (Carlos et al., 1993) and within the tuff-confining unit at Yucca Flat (Prothro, 1998), Pahute Mesa (Drellack et al., 1997), and other locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radionuclide sorption to manganese oxide minerals was not included in recent Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrologic source term (HST) models which attempt to predict the migration behavior of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests. However, experiments performed for the Yucca Mountain Program suggest that these minerals may control much of the retardation of certain radionuclides, particularly Np and Pu (Triay et al., 1991; Duff et al., 1999). As a result, recent HST model results may significantly overpredict radionuclide transport away from underground nuclear tests. The sorption model used in HST calculations performed at LLNL includes sorption to iron oxide, calcite, zeolite, smectite, and mica minerals (Zavarin and Bruton 2004a; 2004b). For the majority of radiologic source term (RST) radionuclides, we believe that this accounts for the dominant sorption processes controlling transport. However, for the case of Np, sorption is rather weak to all but the iron and manganese oxides (Figure 1). Thus, we can expect to significantly reduce predicted Np transport by accounting for Np sorption to manganese oxides. Similarly, Pu has been shown to be predominantly associated with manganese oxides in Yucca Mountain fractured tuffs (Duff et al., 1999). Recent results on colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Kersting and Reimus, 2003) also suggest that manganese oxide coatings on fracture surfaces may compete with colloids for Pu, thus reducing the effects of colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Figure 1b). The available data suggest that it is important to incorporate Np and Pu sorption to manganese oxides in reactive transport models. However, few data are available for

  5. Process for preparation of potassium-38. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the /sup 40/Ar(p,3n)/sup 38/K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  6. Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Potassium-Adsorbed Titania Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, C.; Jaye, C; Fischer, D; Lewis, L; Willey, R; Menon, L

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that vertically-aligned titania nanotube planar arrays fabricated by electrochemical anodization using standard potassium-containing electrolytes invariably contain a significant amount of surface-adsorbed potassium ions, hitherto undetected, that affect the titania photoelectrochemical or PEC performance. Synchrotron-based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy reveals the strong ionic nature of surface potassium-titania bonds that alters the PEC performance over that of pure titania nanotubes through reduction of the external electrical bias needed to produce hydrogen at maximum efficiency. This result implies that the external electrical energy input required per liter of solar hydrogen produced with potassium-adsorbed titania nanotubes may be reduced. Tailoring the potassium content may thus be an alternative means to fine-tune the photoelectrochemical response of TiO2 nanotube-based PEC electrodes.

  7. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste ...

  8. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2001-06-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  9. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2000-06-01

    Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  10. Layered manganese oxide intergrowth electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries: Part 1-substitution with Co or Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolle, Mickael; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca M.

    2004-09-08

    Lithium manganese oxides substituted with nickel or cobalt were characterized electrochemically in lithium cell configurations. The compounds studied were either single-phase layered structures with either primarily O2 or O3 stacking arrangements, or O2/O3 intergrowths, prepared from P2, P3 and P2/P3 sodium-containing precursors, respectively. The stacking arrangements are extremely sensitive to the Na/T. M. (T. M. = transition metal) ratios and the level of substitution. Phase diagrams showing the stability regions of the various arrangements for the Na-Ni-Mn-O system are presented. A possible correlation between vacancies and electrochemical performance is suggested. For high levels of substitution with Ni, fewer defects are possible for materials containing more O3 component and higher discharge capacities can be achieved, but spinel conversion upon cycling also occurs more rapidly as the O3 content increases. Intergrowths show intermediate behavior and represent a potential route towards designing stable, high capacity electrodes.

  11. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  12. Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (June 1994)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (June 1994)

  13. Crystal growth and structure determinations of potassium hafnates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal growth and structure determinations of potassium hafnates: Ksub 2Hfsub 2Osub 5 and Ksub 4Hfsub 5Osub 12 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal ...

  14. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  15. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suib, Steven Lawrence (Storrs, CT); Yuan, Jikang (Storrs, CT)

    2008-10-21

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves, and methods of making, are disclosed. A single crystal ultra-long nanowire includes an ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieve, and has an average length greater than about 10 micrometers and an average diameter of about 5 nanometers to about 100 nanometers. A film comprises a microporous network comprising a plurality of single crystal nanowires in the form of a layer, wherein a plurality of layers is stacked on a surface of a substrate, wherein the nanowires of each layer are substantially axially aligned. A free standing membrane comprises a microporous network comprising a plurality of single crystal nanowires in the form of a layer, wherein a plurality of layers is aggregately stacked, and wherein the nanowires of each layer are substantially axially aligned.

  16. Use of potassium hydroxide solutions in a well bore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordiner, F.S.; Sydansk, R.D.

    1981-08-18

    A workover fluid, a kill fluid, or completion fluid having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a well bore penetrating and communicating with a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays, and invades the sandstone formation. Potassium hydroxide contacts and stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct and undesired ionic constituency.

  17. Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Print Microbial decomposition of plant debris ("litter") is a keystone ecosystem process because it regulates nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity, and carbon (C) cycling. Historically, climate (primarily temperature and precipitation) has been thought to regulate the rate of litter decomposition, which then influences the rate at which nutrients become available and C contained in the litter is released back into

  18. Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Print Microbial decomposition of plant debris ("litter") is a keystone ecosystem process because it regulates nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity, and carbon (C) cycling. Historically, climate (primarily temperature and precipitation) has been thought to regulate the rate of litter decomposition, which then influences the rate at which nutrients become available and C contained in the litter is released back into

  19. Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Print Microbial decomposition of plant debris ("litter") is a keystone ecosystem process because it regulates nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity, and carbon (C) cycling. Historically, climate (primarily temperature and precipitation) has been thought to regulate the rate of litter decomposition, which then influences the rate at which nutrients become available and C contained in the litter is released back into

  20. Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris Decomposition Print Microbial decomposition of plant debris ("litter") is a keystone ecosystem process because it regulates nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity, and carbon (C) cycling. Historically, climate (primarily temperature and precipitation) has been thought to regulate the rate of litter decomposition, which then influences the rate at which nutrients become available and C contained in the litter is released back into

  1. Sodium Battery | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Imagination and innovation have always been in GE's DNA. While exploring the expanded use of hybrid power in the rail, mining and marine industries, GE began

  2. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  3. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  4. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  5. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  6. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-15

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol–gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated. - Graphical abstract: One-pot amorphous MnO{sub 2} supported on mesoporous anataseTiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Mesoporous manganese titanium oxides were synthesized using block copolymer. • Block copolymers form complexes with Mn{sup 2+} from MnCl{sub 2}. • With block copolymer, manganese oxide can be dispersed around the titania crystallites. • With Mn(acac){sub 2}, manganese is dispersed inside titania. • MnOOH crystallizes outside mesoporous titania during hydrothermal treatment.

  7. Red-emitting manganese-doped aluminum nitride phosphor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Harvey, Nicholas M.; Aberg, Daniel; Seeley, Zachary M.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Tran, Ich C.; Zhou, Fei; Martinez, H. Paul; Demeyer, Jessica M.; et al

    2016-02-10

    Here, we report high efficiency luminescence with a manganese-doped aluminum nitride red-emitting phosphor under 254 nm excitation, as well as its excellent lumen maintenance in fluorescent lamp conditions, making it a candidate replacement for the widely deployed europium-doped yttria red phosphor. Solid-state reaction of aluminum nitride powders with manganese metal at 1900 °C, 10 atm N2 in a reducing environment results in nitrogen deficiency, as revealed diffuse reflectance spectra. When these powders are subsequently annealed in flowing nitrogen at 1650 °C, higher nitrogen content is recovered, resulting in white powders. Silicon was added to samples as an oxygen getter tomore » improve emission efficiency. NEXAFS spectra and DFT calculations indicate that the Mn dopant is divalent. From DFT calculations, the UV absorption band is proposed to be due to an aluminum vacancy coupled with oxygen impurity dopants, and Mn2+ is assumed to be closely associated with this site. In contrast with some previous reports, we find that the highest quantum efficiency with 254 nm excitation (Q.E. = 0.86 ± 0.14) is obtained in aluminum nitride with a low manganese doping level of 0.06 mol.%. The principal Mn2+ decay of 1.25 ms is assigned to non-interacting Mn sites, while additional components in the microsecond range appear with higher Mn doping, consistent with Mn clustering and resultant exchange coupling. Slower components are present in samples with low Mn doping, as well as strong afterglow, assigned to trapping on shallow traps followed by detrapping and subsequent trapping on Mn.« less

  8. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  9. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  10. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  11. Geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tsung-Lung; Lu, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-28

    The geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes are studied in this article. It is found that the potassium-rubrene (K{sub 1}RUB) complexes inherit the main symmetry characteristics from their pristine counterparts and are thus classified into D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like complexes according to the relative orientations of the four phenyl side groups. The geometric structures of K{sub 1}RUB are governed by two general effects on the total energy: Deformation of the carbon frame of the pristine rubrene increases the total energy, while proximity of the potassium ion to the phenyl ligands decreases the energy. Under these general rules, the structures of D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like K{sub 1}RUB, however, exhibit their respective peculiarities. These peculiarities can be illustrated by their energy profiles of equilibrium structures. For the potassium adsorption-sites, the D{sub 2}-like complexes show minimum-energy basins, whereas the C{sub 2h}-like ones have single-point minimum-energies. If the potassium atom ever has the energy to diffuse from the minimum-energy site, the potassium diffusion path on the D{sub 2}-like complexes is most likely along the backbone in contrast to the C{sub 2h}-like ones. Although the electronic structures of the minimum-energy structures of D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like K{sub 1}RUB are very alike, decompositions of their total spectra reveal insights into the electronic structures. First, the spectral shapes are mainly determined by the facts that, in comparison with the backbone carbons, the phenyl carbons have more uniform chemical environments and far less contributions to the electronic structures around the valence-band edge. Second, the electron dissociated from the potassium atom mainly remains on the backbone and has little effects on the electronic structures of the phenyl groups. Third, the two phenyls on the same side of the backbone as the potassium atom have more similar chemical environments

  12. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Jamriska, David

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  13. Raman Microscopy of Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruther, Rose E; Callender, Andrew F.; Zhou, Hui; Martha, Surendra; Nanda, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Lithium rich, manganese rich composites with general formula xLi2MnO3 (1-x)LiMO2 are promising candidates for high capacity and high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Lithium rich oxides crystallize as a nanocomposite of layered phases whose structure further evolves with electrochemical cycling. Raman spectroscopy is potentially a powerful tool to monitor the crystal chemistry and correlate phase changes with electrochemical behavior. While several groups have reported Raman spectra of lithium rich oxides, the data show considerable variability in terms of both the vibrational features observed and their interpretation. In this study Raman microscopy is used to investigate lithium-rich manganese-rich cathodes as a function of average charge and electrochemical cycling. LMR-NMC cycled at elevated temperature (60 C) has a modified crystal structure which may account for some of the observed increase in capacity. Contrary to some reports, no growth of a spinel phase is observed. However, analysis of the Raman spectra does indicate the structure of LMR-NMC deviates significantly from an ideal layered phase. The results also highlight the importance of using low laser power and large sample sizes to obtain consistent data sets.

  14. Raman Microscopy of Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruther, Rose E; Callender, Andrew F.; Zhou, Hui; Martha, Surendra; Nanda, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Lithium rich, manganese rich composites with general formula xLi2MnO3 (1-x)LiMO2 are promising candidates for high capacity and high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Lithium rich oxides crystallize as a nanocomposite of layered phases whose structure further evolves with electrochemical cycling. Raman spectroscopy is potentially a powerful tool to monitor the crystal chemistry and correlate phase changes with electrochemical behavior. While several groups have reported Raman spectra of lithium rich oxides, the data show considerable variability in terms of both the vibrational features observed and their interpretation. In this study Raman microscopy is used to investigate lithium-rich manganese-rich cathodes asmore » a function of average charge and electrochemical cycling. LMR-NMC cycled at elevated temperature (60 C) has a modified crystal structure which may account for some of the observed increase in capacity. Contrary to some reports, no growth of a spinel phase is observed. However, analysis of the Raman spectra does indicate the structure of LMR-NMC deviates significantly from an ideal layered phase. The results also highlight the importance of using low laser power and large sample sizes to obtain consistent data sets.« less

  15. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  16. Preparation of Zeolite A from alkali solutions containing potassium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goryachev, A.A.; Kuks, V.F.

    1983-03-20

    The most inexpensive general-purpose zeolite is Zeolite A. It is widely used as an adsorbent for drying hydrocarbon gases, for separation of normal paraffins, and recently as a component of synthetic detergents. The goal of this work was to study the effect of potassium, in crystallizing mixtures analogous to those used in industry, on the production of powdered Zeolite A and Zeolite A without binder on the basis of kaolin. It has been found that Zeolite A may be obtained upon crystallization of aluminosilica gel on the basis of aluminate and silicate solutions with a relative potassium content in the mixture to be crystallized that is not more than 0.8-0.14 mole fraction of the sum of the cations. In the case of crystallization of Zeolite A without binder on the basis of product, the amount of potassium should not be more than 5 rel. %. This is explained by the difference in the crystallization mechanism and the properties of the aluminate solutions containing potassium and silicon.

  17. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  18. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  19. Occurrence and Characteristics of {sup 18}O-exchange Reactions Catalyzed By Sodium- and Potassium-dependent Adenosine Triphosphatases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dahms, A. S.; Boyer, P. D.

    The project has centered on elucidation of the mechanism of ATP synthase. The metabolic importance of ATP and the complexity of the ATP synthase have made the problem particularly important and challenging. The development of the binding change mechanism depended upon our recognition of features that were novel in bioenergetics and indeed to the field of enzymology. One important feature of mechanism is that the principal way that energy input from transmembrane proton movement is coupled to ATP formation is to drive conformational changes that cause the release of ATP readily formed and tightly bound at a catalytic site. Another is that three equivalent catalytic sites on the enzyme show strong catalytic cooperativity as they proceed sequentially through different conformations. A more speculative features is that this cooperativity and energy coupling involve a rotational movement of minor subunits relative to the catalytic subunits. During this period these studies have extended and clarified aspects of the synthase mechanism. During assessments of interactions of Mg{sup 2+} and ADP with the synthase we recognized unexpectedly that whether ADP and P{sub i}, or their complexes with Mg{sup 2+} served as substrates for ATP formation by photophosphorylation was not known. Our studies showed that MgADP and free P{sub i} act as substrates.

  20. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have constructed a thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus we expect this type of engine to be of practical, economic importance.

  1. Planar high density sodium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.

    2016-03-01

    A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

  2. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  3. Spin-dependent electron transport in zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-28

    The spin-dependent electron transport properties of zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules connected to zigzag graphene leads are studied in the zero bias regime using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The conductance of the adenine molecule increased and became spin-dependent when a zinc or manganese atom was doped into the molecules. The effects of a transverse electric field on the spin-polarization of the transmitted electrons were investigated and the spin-polarization was controlled by changing the transverse electric field. Under the presence of a transverse electric field, both the zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules acted as spin-filters. The maximum spin-polarization of the manganese-doped adenine molecule was greater than the molecule doped with zinc.

  4. High-Quality Manganese-Doped Zinc Sulfide Quantum Rods with Tunable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Quality Manganese-Doped Zinc Sulfide Quantum Rods with Tunable Dual-Color and Multiphoton Emissions Authors: Deng, Z., Tong, L., Flores, M., Lin, S., Cheng, J.-X., Yan, H.,...

  5. Process for the electrodeposition of low stress nickel-manganese alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, James John; Goods, Steven Howard; Yang, Nancy Yuan-Chi; Cadden, Charles Henry

    2005-06-07

    A process for electrodepositing a low stress nickel-manganese multilayer alloy on an electrically conductive substrate is provided. The process includes the steps of immersing the substrate in an electrodeposition solution containing a nickel salt and a manganese salt and repeatedly passing an electric current through an immersed surface of the substrate. The electric current is alternately pulsed for predetermined durations between a first electrical current that is effective to electrodeposit nickel and a second electrical current that is effective to electrodeposit nickel and manganese. A multilayered alloy having adjacent layers of nickel and a nickel-manganese alloy on the immersed surface of the substrate is thereby produced. The resulting multilayered alloy exhibits low internal stress, high strength and ductility, and high strength retention upon exposure to heat.

  6. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This report documents the results of an independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review. ...

  7. Sodium-layer laser guide stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-08-03

    The requirements and design of a laser system to generate a sodium- layer beacon is presented. Early results of photometry and wavefront sensing are given.

  8. Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This report...

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES FROM SODIUM-WATER REACTION IN CELL CONTAINING THE SECONDARY SODIUM TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH RM

    2008-06-25

    The analysis will show the consequences should the solid sodium in the Secondary Sodium Tank react with a presumed layer of water in the cell. The Peer Review Checklist is attached.

  10. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  11. Final Report: Manganese Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and Uranium Fate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Subsurface: Molecular and Meter Scale Dynamics (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Report: Manganese Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and Uranium Fate in the Subsurface: Molecular and Meter Scale Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: Manganese Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and Uranium Fate in the Subsurface: Molecular and Meter Scale Dynamics One strategy to remediate U contamination in the subsurface is the immobilization of U via injection of an

  12. Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunsu, Cristian Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  14. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  15. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  16. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  17. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium ...

  18. EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition...

  19. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  20. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffraction Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort

  1. Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium.

  2. Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Authors: Frank, Mark R. ; Scott, Henry P. ; Aarestad, Elizabeth ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. 1 ; UC) 2 ; NIU) 2 + ...

  3. Sodium storage facility software configuration control plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.D.

    1997-06-18

    This document describes the plan for ensuring that the SSF Trace Heat Software will be available for use whenever that facility is opened for the use of draining sodium from FFTF.

  4. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  5. Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Rehbein, David; Chiotti, Premo

    1984-01-01

    A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

  6. The low-pressure sodium lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    For many years before the introduction of the sodium vapor lamp, scientists had been aware of the remarkably high luminous efficacy of the sodium discharge. However, many technical problems had to be overcome before these lamps could be marketed. The first commercial low pressure sodium lamps were introduced in the early 1930s and to this day they remain the most efficient light sources available. The high efficacy is due partly to the fact that these lamps emit nearly monochromatic yellow light, which is very close to the peak sensitivity of the human eye. Sodium lamps have come a long way since their introduction, and efficacies are now approaching 200 lumens per watt. Despite increasing competition from other types of discharge lamp, low pressure sodium lamps of the SOX type find widespread use in road and security lighting, particularly in Great Britain and many other parts of Europe. This paper reviews the operation and development of the low pressure sodium lamp, and shows what makes it different from the many other types of discharge lamp available.

  7. LOW TEMPERATURE VOC COMBUSTION OVER MANGANESE, COBALT AND ZINC ALPO4 MOLECULAR SIEVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosemarie Szostak

    2003-03-06

    The objective of this project was to prepare microporous aluminophosphates containing magnesium, manganese, cobalt and zinc (MeAPOs) and to evaluate their performance as oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods for metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework; (2) To characterize these materials for crystallinity, phase purity, the location and nature of the incorporated metal in the framework; and (3) To evaluate the materials for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of volatile organic environmental pollutants.

  8. Manganese oxide helices, rings, strands, and films, and methods for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suib, Steven L.; Giraldo, Oscar; Marquez, Manuel; Brock, Stephanie

    2003-01-07

    Methods for the preparation of mixed-valence manganese oxide compositions with quaternary ammonium ions are described. The compositions self-assemble into helices, rings, and strands without any imposed concentration gradient. These helices, rings, and strands, as well as films having the same composition, undergo rapid ion exchange to replace the quaternary ammonium ions with various metal ions. And the metal-ion-containing manganese oxide compositions so formed can be heat treated to form semi-conducting materials with high surface areas.

  9. Role of manganese in red long-lasting phosphorescence of manganese-doped diopside for in vivo imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecointre, A.; Bessire, A.; Priolkar, K.R.; Gourier, D.; Wallez, G.; Viana, B.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Long-lasting phosphorescence of CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn is studied for bioimaging application. ? CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn yields orange and red luminescence of Mn{sup II}{sub Ca} and Mn{sup II}{sub Mg}, respectively. ? Red Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} emission dominates long-lasting phosphorescence spectra. ? Mn mainly substitutes Mg. ? Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} plays the role of hole trap in the persistent luminescence mechanism. - Abstract: Materials with red long-lasting phosphorescence, such as Mn{sup II}-doped diopsides, can be used for small animal in vivo imaging. CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn powders with various amounts of Mn were prepared by solgel to investigate their long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine and near-edge structure and electron paramagnetic resonance showed that manganese is quantitatively introduced in the structure as Mn{sup II}. Most of the Mn doping ions substitute Mg and possess a highly elongated octahedral environment. While photoluminescence and X-ray excited optical luminescence spectra show both orange (585 nm) and red (685 nm) {sup 4}T{sub 1} ({sup 4}G) ? {sup 6}A{sub 1} ({sup 6}S) emission of Mn{sup II}{sub Ca} and Mn{sup II}{sub Mg}, respectively, Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} red emission dominates long-lasting phosphorescence and thermally stimulated luminescence spectra. These results point to Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} as the preferential hole trap and recombination center in the long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism. An intense persistent red emission suitable for in vivo imaging probes is obtained for the highest nominal Mn content (7.5%)

  10. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  11. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  12. Water quality evaluation and geochemical assessment of iron, manganese, and arsenic in a landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Several monitoring wells at a landfill site were sampled for water quality parameters to determine the nature of groundwater contamination. The landfill, located beneath a limestone and dolomitic bedrock, has been used for about 20 years for trash and garbage disposal. The monitoring parameters include major cations and anions, as well as iron, manganese, arsenic, and other parameters measured in the field to characterize the subsurface conditions. Groundwater samples collected near the landfill and downgradient locations had higher levels of iron, manganese, arsenic, alkalinity, hardness than those samples from an upgradient well. The downgradient and on-site samples were also more acidic and turbid, The dissolved oxygen data tend to suggest reducing conditions in the leachate environment. The elevated groundwater concentrations of the three metals, especially iron, were most probably caused by the acidity generated by carbon dioxide and organic acids released from microbial degradation of organic compounds dumped into the landfill. The acidic pH led to the dissolution of iron, manganese, and arsenic bearing mineral phases. The buffering reactions of limestone and dolomite to neutralize the acidic degradation products increased the hardness cations, Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2}. Inorganic speciation modeling indicates that iron, manganese, and arsenic predominantly exist as Fe {sup +2}, Mn{sup +2}, and H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}. The possible presence of organic complexes of iron was discussed, but could be modeled due to lack of appropriate equilibrium constant data.

  13. Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcaraz, O.; Trullas, J.; Demmel, F.

    2014-12-28

    We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

  14. Amperometric Biosensors Based on Carbon Paste Electrodes Modified with Nanostructured Mixed-valence Manganese Oxides and Glucose Oxidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaoli; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-06-01

    Nanostructured multivalent manganese oxides octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), including cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides, were synthesized and evaluated for chemical sensing and biosensing at low operating potential. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides are nanofibrous crystals with sub-nanometer open tunnels that provide a unique property for sensing applications. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of OMS for the oxidation of H2O2 have been compared. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides can be used to fabricate sensitive H2O2 sensors. Amperometric glucose biosensors are constructed by bulk modification of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) with glucose oxidase as a biocomponent and nanostructured OMS as a mediator. A Nafion thin film was applied as an immobilization/encapsulation and protective layer. The biosensors were evaluated as an amperometric glucose detector at phosphate buffer solution with a pH 7.4 at an operating potential of 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor is characterized by a well-reproducible amperometric response, linear signal-to-glucose concentration range up to 3.5 mM and 1.75 mM, and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1 mM and 0.05 mM for todorokite-type manganese oxide and cryptomelane-type manganese oxide modified electrodes, respectively. The biosensors based on OMS exhibit considerable good reproducibility and stability, and the construction and renewal are simple and inexpensive.

  15. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  16. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  17. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  18. Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-11-15

    The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ? Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ? Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ? Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

  19. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Burket, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  20. Interacting influence of potassium and polychlorinated biphenyl on cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.-A. . E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw; Lin, Tsu-Chun Emma

    2007-05-01

    Giving human adrenocortical H295R cells 14 mM KCl for 24 h significantly induced not only aldosterone biosynthesis but also cortisol biosynthesis. Pre-treating the cells with polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) further increased potassium-induced aldosterone and cortisol productions in a dose-dependent manner, but all examined concentrations of PCB126 had little effect on the yields of precursor steroids progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone. Subsequent examinations revealed that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, responsible for the respective final steps of the cortisol and aldosterone biosynthetic pathways, exhibited increased responsiveness to PCB126 under high potassium. While 10{sup -5} M PCB126 was needed to induce a significant increase in the basal mRNA abundance of either gene, PCB126 could enhance potassium-induced mRNA expression of CYP11B1 at 10{sup -7} M and CYP11B2 at 10{sup -9} M. Actually, potassium and PCB126 synergistically upregulated mRNA expression of both genes. Potassium raised the transcriptional rates of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 probably through a conserved Ad5 cis-element, whereas PCB126 appeared to regulate these two genes at the post-transcriptional level. Positive potassium-PCB126 synergism was also detected in CYP11B2 enzyme activity estimated by aldosterone/progesterone ratio. In contrast, potassium and PCB126 increased CYP11B1 enzyme activity or cortisol/17-OH-progesterone ratio additively. Moreover, potassium improved the time effect of PCB126 on gene expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B2, but not the PCB126 time response of CYP11B1. These data demonstrated that potassium differentially enhanced the potency of PCB126 to induce CYP11B1- and CYP11B2-mediated steroidogenesis.

  1. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  2. Thermoelectrochemical hydrogen production using sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Bassuoni, A.M.A.; Sheffield, J.W.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three closed-cycle processes for the thermoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from water using sodium chloride are under investigation. The maximum required temperature of 700/degree/C can be achieved by solar energy using various concentration techniques. By means of photovoltaic cells or a solar power station, the required electric power can be obtained. 11 refs.

  3. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) use a solid beta-alumina (-Al 2 O 3 ) electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive ...

  4. Density of sodium chloride solutions at high temperatures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SEAWATER; DENSITY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CORRELATIONS; EQUATIONS; HIGH ...

  5. The effect of alkali metal on the surface properties of potassium doped Au-Beta zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobczak, Izabela; Rydz, Michal; Ziolek, Maria

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Interaction of gold with K leads to the change of electronic state and redox properties of gold. ► The amount of potassium incorporated into Au-zeolites determines the size of gold particles. ► K(0.2 wt.%)/Au-Beta exhibits the best performance in decomposition of N{sub 2}O and removal of Bu{sub 2}S. -- Abstract: Beta zeolite was applied as support for gold introduced by gold-precipitation method and potassium added by impregnation or adsorption. The effect of zeolite composition and the amount of potassium introduced on the surface properties of the final materials was considered. Moreover, the interaction of gold and potassium species was found to be related to the adsorptive and catalytic behaviour of zeolites in NO reduction with propene and deodorization. K/Au-Beta(Impregnated) exhibits the best performance in the above mentioned processes because of the small gold particles (between 2 and 5 nm) and interaction of gold with potassium species leading to the change of electronic properties of the surface (the appearance of cationic gold species). Potassium added as a promoter improves the catalytic properties of Au-zeolite in N{sub 2}O decomposition and also in deodorization (increase of the ability to dibutyl sulphide oxidation). The catalysts prepared were characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis, TEM, pyridine adsorption combined with FTIR and test reaction (2-propanol transformation).

  6. Stability of numerous novel potassium chlorides at high pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-05-23

    K-Cl is a simple system displaying all four main types of bonding, as it contains (i) metallic potassium, (ii) elemental chlorine made of covalently bonded Cl2 molecules held together by van der Waals forces, and (iii) an archetypal ionic compound KCl. The charge balance rule, assigning classical charges of “+1” to K and “–1” to Cl, predicts that no compounds other than KCl are possible. However, our quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations predict an extremely complex phase diagram, with new thermodynamically stable compounds K3Cl, K2Cl, K3Cl2, K4Cl3, K5Cl4, K3Cl5, KCl3 and KCl7. Of particular interest are 2D-metallic homologs Kn+1Cln, the presencemore » of positively charged Cl atoms in KCl7, and the predicted stability of KCl3 already at nearly ambient pressures at zero Kelvin. We have synthesized cubic Pm3¯n -KCl3 at 40–70 GPa and trigonal P3¯cl -KCl3 at 20–40 GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) at temperature exceeding 2000 K from KCl and Cl2. These phases were identified using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Lastly, upon unloading to 10 GPa, P3¯cl -KCl3 transforms to a yet unknown structure before final decomposition to KCl and Cl2 at near-ambient conditions.« less

  7. Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

  8. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1996-09-24

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

  9. Raman microscopy of lithium-manganese-rich transition metal oxide cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruther, Rose E.; Callender, Andrew F.; Zhou, Hui; Martha, Surendra K.; Nanda, Jagjit

    2014-11-15

    Lithium-rich and manganese-rich (LMR) layered transition metal (TM) oxide composites with general formula xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) are promising cathode candidates for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Lithium-manganese-rich TM oxides crystallize as a nanocomposite layered phase whose structure further evolves with electrochemical cycling. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to monitor the crystal chemistry and correlate phase changes with electrochemical behavior. While several groups have reported Raman spectra of lithium rich TM oxides, the data show considerable variability in terms of both the vibrational features observed and their interpretation. In this paper, Raman microscopy is used to investigate lithium-rich and manganese-rich TM cathodes as a function of voltage and electrochemical cycling at various temperatures. No growth of a spinel phase is observed within the cycling conditions. However, analysis of the Raman spectra does indicate the structure of LMR-NMC deviates significantly from an ideal layered phase. Finally, the results also highlight the importance of using low laser power and large sample sizes to obtain consistent data sets.

  10. Effects of water hardness on the toxicity of manganese to developing brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Garrison, T.D.; Hockett, J.R.; Brinkman, S.F.; Davies, P.H.; McIntyre, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Manganese is a common constituent of point and nonpoint discharges from mining and smelting activities. Available data indicate that Mn is acutely toxic at relatively high aqueous concentrations, when compared with trace metals, and its toxicity is affected by water hardness. Little information is available regarding the chronic toxicity of manganese. Early-life-stage (ELS) tests were conducted to determine the toxicity of manganese to brown trout (Salmo trutta) and to evaluate the extent to which water hardness (ranging from 30 to 450 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}) affects the chronic toxicity of Mn. Water hardness of significantly affected Mn chronic toxicity, with toxicity decreasing with increasing hardness. Decreased survival was the predominant effect noted in the 30-mg/L hardness experiment, while significant effects on growth (as measured by changes in body weight) were observed in both the 150- and 450-mg/L hardness experiments. Twenty-five percent inhibition concentration (IC25) values, based on the combined endpoints (i.e., survival and body weight), were 4.67, 5.59, and 8.68 mg Mn/L (based on measured Mn concentration) at hardness levels of approximately 30, 150, and 450 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}, respectively.

  11. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  12. Two coordination polymers of manganese(II) isophthalate and their preparation, structures, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Jinxi; Wang Jingjing; Ohba, Masaaki

    2012-01-15

    Two manganese coordination polymers, [Mn{sub 2}(ip){sub 2}(dmf)]{center_dot}dmf (1) and [Mn{sub 4}(ip){sub 4}(dmf){sub 6}]{center_dot}2dmf (2) (ip=isophthalate; dmf=N,N-dimethylformamide), have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray crystal structural data reveal that compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1, a=9.716(3) A, b=12.193(3) A, c=12.576(3) A, {alpha}=62.19(2) Degree-Sign , {beta}=66.423(17) Degree-Sign , {gamma}=72.72(2) Degree-Sign , Z=2, while compound 2 crystallizes in monoclinic space group Cc, a=19.80(3) A, b=20.20(2) A, c=18.01(3) A, {beta}=108.40(4) Degree-Sign , Z=4. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities of compounds 1 and 2 exhibit overall weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the adjacent Mn(II) ions. - Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional porous and two-dimensional layered manganese isophthalates have been prepared. Magnetic susceptibility measurements exhibit overall weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn(II) ions in both compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two manganese isophthalates have been prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 1 adopts a three-dimensional porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 2 adopts a two-dimensional layered structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of both compounds are investigated.

  13. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  14. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  15. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  16. METHOD FOR REDUCING THE IMPURITY RESISTIVITY OF SODIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-08-13

    The inherent resistivity of sodium, at cryogenic temperatures, can be reduced by clustering the impurity atoms within the crystal latiice structure of the sodium, thereby reducing the effective electron collision cross section and thus reducing the number of collisions between the electrons and such lattice imperfections. The clustering is effected by heating the sodium to a temperature approaching its melting point, and maintaining the temperature for a period of time ranging generally from two to six days. (AEC)

  17. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  18. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  19. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  1. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  2. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1999-01-01

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode. A method is provided for producing same.

  3. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport properties of liquid sodium that have been assessed include: viscosity and thermal conductivity. For each property, recommended values and their uncertainties are graphed ...

  4. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a ...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Sodium Transition Metal Oxyfluoride: NaMnMoOsubscript 3Fsubscript 3*Hsubscript 2O Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  6. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, ... technologies that would allow these reactors to be built and operated by private ...

  7. Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – An innovative idea for cleaning up sodium in a decommissioned nuclear reactor at EM’s Idaho site grew from a carpool discussion.

  8. Continuous monitors for tritium in sodium coolant and cover gas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Continuous monitors for tritium in the sodium coolant and the cover gas of a fast breeder reactor have been ... Language: English Subject: N77500* --Reactors--Power Reactors, ...

  9. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  10. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  11. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1999-06-29

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

  12. Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Verification Review IWTU Integrated Waste Treatment Unit LCO Limiting Condition for ... Analysis Report SBWTP Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project SMP Safety Management ...

  13. Energy absorber for sodium-heated heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-12-01

    A heat exchanger is described in which water-carrying tubes are heated by liquid sodium and in which the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes is minimized. An energy absorbing chamber contains a compressible gas and is connected to the body of flowing sodium by a channel so that, in the event of a sodium-water reaction, products of the reaction will partially fill the energy absorbing chamber to attenuate the rise in pressure within the heat exchanger.

  14. Cold fusion by electrolysis in a light water-potassium carbonate solution with a nickel electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notoya, Reiko )

    1993-09-01

    The evolution of a large amount of heat, unexplainable by ordinary chemical reactions, was observed in an electrolytic cell with a nickel cathode and a platinum anode in a potassium carbonate-light water solution. The nickel cathode had a specially designed porous structure, based on fundamental knowledge concerning the active hydrogen electrode in alkaline solutions. An increase in the concentration of calcium ions was observed in the electrolyte, which seems to be the result of potassium-hydrogen cold fusion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  15. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B.; Churchill, J.K.

    1993-12-31

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  16. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  17. The synthesis of PNP-supported low-spin nitro manganese(I) carbonyl complexes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tondreau, Aaron M.; Boncella, James M.

    2016-04-09

    In this study, the coordination chemistry of Mn(CO)5Br was investigated with a series of PNP-pincer ligands. The ligands iPrPONOP (iPrPONOP = 2,6-bis(diisopropylphosphinito)pyridine) and iPrPNHP (iPrPNHP = HN{CH2CH2(PiPr2)}2) gave the desired organometallic manganese complexes (iPrPONOP)Mn(CO)2Br and (iPrPNHP)Mn(CO)2Br, respectively, upon chelation to Mn(CO)5Br. The reactivity of iPrPNNNP (iPrPNNNP = N,N'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-2,6-diaminopyridine) with Mn(CO)5Br yielded a pair of products, [(iPrPNNNP)Mn(CO)3][Br] and (iPrPNNNCO)Mn(CO)3. The formation of the asymmetric chelate arises from a formal loss of iPr2PBr and C–N bond formation from a carbonyl ligand and NH, yielding a Mn(I) amide core. The nitration reactions of (iPrPONOP)Mn(CO)2Br and (iPrPNHP)Mn(CO)2Br were carried out using silver nitrite, yieldingmore » the nitro compounds (iPrPONOP)Mn(CO)2(NO2) and (iPrPNHP)Mn(CO)2(NO2), respectively. The analogous iron complex (iPrPONOP)Fe(CO)Cl2 was nitrated under the same conditions to yield the salt pair [(iPrPONOP)Fe(CO)2][FeCl3NO]. This reactivity underlines the difference between iso-valent iron and manganese centers. The manganese complexes (iPrPONOP)Mn(CO)2(NO2) and (iPrPNHP)Mn(CO)2(NO2) were ineffective as oxygen atom transfer reagents for a variety of substrates.« less

  18. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth-free magnetic manganese bismuth nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, J; Cui, HZ; Huang, XP; Gong, MG; Qin, W; Kirkeminde, A; Cui, J; Ren, SQ

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its largemagnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare-earth-free Magnetic Manganese Bismuth Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jian Q.; Cui, Huizhong; Huang, Xiaopeng; Gong, Maogang; Qin, Wei; Kirkeminde, Alec; Cui, Jun; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  1. Manganese-Aluminum-Based Magnets: Nanocrystalline t-MnAI Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Dartmouth is developing specialized alloys with magnetic properties superior to the rare earths used in todays best magnets. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to turn the axles in their electric motors due to the magnetic strength of these minerals. However, rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. Dartmouth will swap rare earths for a manganese-aluminum alloy that could demonstrate better performance and cost significantly less. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an easily scalable process that enables the widespread use of low-cost and abundant materials for the magnets used in EVs and renewable power generators.

  2. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and

  3. Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenkamp, R.D.; Brunings, J.E. ); Guenther, E. ); Hren, R. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., and the concept development was extended under DOE's Program for Improvement in Advanced Modular LMR Design. The SAFR plant concept employs a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal cooled reactor as its basic module. The reactor assembly module is a standardized shop-fabricated unit that can be shipped to the plant site by barge for installation. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and reduces the plant construction schedule. Reactor modules can be used individually or in multiples at a given site to supply the needed generating capacity.

  4. Synthesis of sodium polyhydrides at high pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Kim, Duck Young; Stavrou, Elissaios; Muramatsu, Takaki; Mao, Ho-kwang; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2016-07-28

    Archetypal ionic NaH is the only known compound of sodium and hydrogen. Application of high pressure is known to promote states with higher atomic coordination, but extensive searches for polyhydrides with unusual stoichiometry have had only limited success in spite of several theoretical predictions. Here we report the first observation of the formation of polyhydrides of Na (NaH3 and NaH7) above 40 GPa and 2,000 K. Moreover, we combine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and theoretical random structure searching, which both agree on the stable structures and compositions. Our results support the formationmore » of multicenter bonding in a material with unusual stoichiometry. These results are applicable to the design of new energetic solids and high-temperature superconductors based on hydrogen-rich materials.« less

  5. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  6. Growth and magnetic property of antiperovskite manganese nitride films doped with Cu by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Fengmei; Ren, Lizhu; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yunjia; Yang, Mei; Wu, Shuxiang; Li, Shuwei

    2014-04-07

    Manganese nitrides thin films on MgO (100) substrates with and without Cu-doping have been fabricated by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N have been grown in the case of Cu-doping, and the pure Mn{sub 3}N{sub 2} single crystal has been obtained without Cu-doping. The Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N exhibits ferrimagnetism, and the magnetization of Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N increases upon the temperature decreasing from 300 K to 5 K, similar to Mn{sub 4}N. The exchange bias (EB) effects emerge in the Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N films. The EB behavior is originated from the interfaces between ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N and antiferromagnetic metal Mn, which is verified to be formed by the data of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The present results not only provide a strategy for producing functional antiperovskite manganese nitrides, but also shed promising light on fabricating the exchange bias part of spintronic devices.

  7. First-principles characterization of potassium intercalation in the hexagonal 2H-MoS2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, Amity; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lilga, Michael A.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Mei, Donghai

    2012-01-12

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to study the structural and electronic properties of potassium intercalated into hexagonal MoS{sub 2} (2H-MoS{sub 2}). Metallic potassium (K) atoms are incrementally loaded in the hexagonal sites of the interstitial spaces between MoS2 sheets of the 2H-MoS{sub 2} bulk structure generating 2H-KxMoS2 (0.125 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) structures. To accommodate the potassium atoms, the interstitial spacing c parameter in the 2H-MoS{sub 2} bulk expands from 12.816 {angstrom} in 2H-MoS{sub 2} to 16.086 {angstrom} in 2H-K{sub 0.125}MoS{sub 2}. The second lowest potassium loading concentration (K{sub 0.25}MoS{sub 2}) results in the largest interstitial spacing expansion (to c = 16.726 {angstrom}). Our calculations show that there is a small gradual contraction of the interstitial spacing as the potassium loading increases with c = 14.839 {angstrom} for KMoS{sub 2}. This interstitial contraction is correlated with an in-plane expansion of the MoS{sub 2} sheets, which is in good agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The electronic analysis shows that potassium readily donates its 4s electron to the conduction band of the 2H-K{sub x}MoS{sub 2}, and is largely ionic in character. As a result of the electron donation, the 2H-K{sub x}MoS{sub 2} system changes from a semiconductor to a more metallic system with increasing potassium intercalation. For loadings 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.625, triangular Mo-Mo-Mo moieties are prominent and tend to form rhombitrihexagonal motifs. Intercalation of H{sub 2}O molecules that solvate the K atoms is likely to occur in catalytic conditions. The inclusion of two H{sub 2}O molecules per K atom in the K{sub 0.25}MoS{sub 2} structure shows good agreement with XRD measurements.

  8. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  9. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  10. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  11. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  12. Well treatment method using sodium silicate to seal formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashford, J.D.; Eastlack, J.K.; Herring, G.D.; Wilson, W.N.

    1987-05-05

    A method is described for sealing selected perforations in the casing of a well to prevent flow through the perforations. The method comprises: isolating the interval of the casing which lies adjacent the selected perforations to be sealed; squeezing a sodium silicate mixture having a major portion of sodium silicate and a minor portion of a diverter material through the selected perforations and into the formation behind the perforations, the diverter material being a material capable of building a filter cake in the formation as the sodium silicate mixture flows to prevent further flow of sodium silicate mixture through the selected perforations once the filter cake is formed; and removing the excess sodium silicate mixture remaining in the casing.

  13. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  14. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  15. Hazard categorization and classification for the sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1994-08-30

    The Sodium Storage Facility is planned to be constructed in the 400 area for long term storage of sodium from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will contain four large sodium storage tanks. Three of the tanks have a capacity of 80,000 gallons of sodium each, and the fourth will hold 52,500 gallons. The tanks will be connected by piping with each other and to the FFTF. Sodium from the FFTF primary and secondary Heat Transport Systems (HTS), Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to the facility, and stored there in a frozen state pending final disposition. A Hazard Classification has been performed in order to evaluate the potential toxic consequences of a sodium fire according to the provisions of DOE Order 5481.1B. The conclusion of these evaluations is that the Sodium Storage Facility meets the requirements of the lowest Hazard Category, i.e., radiological facility, and the Hazard Classification is recommended to be moderate.

  16. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOEs complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,00050,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150

  17. Sodium leak detection system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modarres, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    A light source is projected across the gap between the containment vessel and the reactor vessel. The reflected light is then analyzed with an absorption spectrometer. The presence of any sodium vapor along the optical path results in a change of the optical transmissivity of the media. Since the absorption spectrum of sodium is well known, the light source is chosen such that the sensor is responsive only to the presence of sodium molecules. The optical sensor is designed to be small and require a minimum of amount of change to the reactor containment vessel.

  18. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Dowgiallo, E.J.

    1994-02-28

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40- to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  19. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  20. 3-D Atomic-Scale Mapping of Manganese Dopants in Lead Sulfide Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isheim, Dieter; Kaszpurenko, Jason; Yu, Dong; Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Arslan, Ilke

    2012-03-22

    Dopants in nanowires, whether intentional or unintentional, can ultimately control the material's properties and therefore need to be understood on the atomic scale. We study vapor-liquid-solid grown manganese-doped lead sulfide nanowires by atom-probe tomography for the first time for lead salt materials. The three-dimensional chemical concentration maps at the atomic scale demonstrate a radial distribution profile of Mn ions, with a concentration of only 0.18 at.% and 0.01 at.% for MnCl2 and Mn-acetate precursors, respectively. The ability to characterize these small concentrations of dopant atoms in Pb1-xMnxS nanowires (x = 0.0036 and 0.0002), important for spintronic and thermoelectric devices, sets a platform for similar analyses for all nanostructures. First-principles calculations confirm that Mn atoms substitute for Pb in the PbS structure.

  1. Kinetics of anodic dissolution of iron in solutions of potassium hydroxide at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotinyan, A.L.; Shoshina, I.A.; Aleksandrova, G.S.; Timofeeva, E.Yu.

    1987-12-01

    Experiments were carried out in a 1-5 M potassium hydroxide solutions in the current density range 0.3-3.0 A/m/sup 2/. Time vs. potential curves were recorded with a flat electrode of Armco iron previously annealed in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Typical electrostatic curves obtained on the smooth iron electrode at various densities were presented, and the cathodic potentio-dynamic curves measured in a 4.1 M potassium hydroxide solution on electrodes which had been previously oxidized at different current densities are shown. It was shown that the equation presented encompasses the time vs. potential diagrams obtained at both 25 C and 50 C, which was indicative of a single mechanism for anodic oxidation in that temperature interval.

  2. Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    strategy for construction of Bisub 2Osub 2COsub 3BiOI photocatalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for ...

  3. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to further develop a novel planar design for sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) that will improve energy and power densities and...

  4. Sodium sulfate induced hot corrosion in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1989-04-01

    A mass transfer model is developed that considers diffusive and chemical aspects of sodium sulfate formation and deposition on cooled turbine blades. The roles of gas phase condensation of sodium sulfate and multicomponent diffusion across a chemically frozen thin boundary layer are elaborated. A rational procedure is presented for correlating material wastage with laboratory weight gain data obtained by exposing alloy specimens pre-coated with a thin film of salt to SO/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/ in an oxygen environment. The sodium sulfate mass transfer model is used in conjunction with the correlation to project blade corrosion and lifetime as a function of gas turbine inlet temperature, blade cooling, and sodium and sulfur contaminant concentration. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  5. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-03-06

    This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test.

  6. Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor: Past and Future | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor: Past and Future June 21, 2016 10:00AM to 11:00AM Presenter ... The United States designed, built, and operated fast reactors (mostly SFRs) from EBR-I ...

  7. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  8. Aerial gamma-ray contour maps of regional surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A set of aerial gamma-ray contour maps prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey is presented. The maps give regional surface concentrations of uranium, potassium, and thorium in Nevada.

  9. Project quality assurance plant: Sodium storage facility, project F-031

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shultz, J.W.; Shank, D.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Sodium Storage Facility Project Quality Assurance Plan delineates the quality assurance requirements for construction of a new facility, modifications to the sodium storage tanks, and tie-ins to the FFTF Plant. This plan provides direction for the types of verifications necessary to satisfy the functional requirements within the project scope and applicable regulatory requirements determined in the Project Functional Design Criteria (FDC), WHC-SD-FF-FDC-009.

  10. Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable metallic sodium batteries have application in large-scale energy storage applications such as electric power generation and distribution, in motive applications such as electric vehicles, hybrids, and plug-in hybrids, and for aerospace applications such as powering satellites. So

  11. High temperature sodium testing of the CRBR prototype primary pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, M.J.; Grimaldi, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Qualification testing in sodium of the CRBR primary pump was conducted through 1982. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a description of the Sodium Pump Test Facility (largest of its kind in the world), a brief description of the test article and summary overview of results. Of special interest were the high temperature gas convection tests and the extensive flow/speed control (dynamic) tests. Special innovative test methods were employed to investigate these phenomena.

  12. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  13. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  14. Sodium-hydroxide solution treatment on sandstone cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    This research was performed to study the effect of sodium hydroxide solution on the sandstone core samples and to develop a method whereby the permeability of the samples could be increased by the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. This work should provide the first step in developing a technique that can be used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells. A series of tests was conducted in which sodium hydroxide solution with concentrations ranging from 0.25 N to 2.00 N was injected into a number of Berea sandstone cores. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at 180{degree}F. In some cases the core sample were damaged by the injection of fresh water which resulted in a marked reduction in the permeability of the cores prior to the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. Based on laboratory testing with measurements of uniaxial compressive strength, SEM examination and X-ray analysis, it was found that sodium hydroxide interacted with sandstone to promote (1) partial dissolution of the sandstone minerals; (2) sandstone weight loss; (3) increased porosity; (4) weakening of the sandstone cores; and (5) changes in permeability. The interaction increased with increasing temperature and increasing sodium hydroxide concentration. However, at concentrations higher than 1.00 N, the degree of increase in permeability was not as large even though the sandstone weight loss and the increase in porosity did increase.

  15. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  16. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Morita, Masashi; Igarashi, Shota; Sato, Soh

    2013-10-15

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 m was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 C, though 600 C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. 600 C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.

  17. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  18. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project- Federal- June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project- Contractor- June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review

  20. Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project- November 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project

  1. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-05-05

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  2. The role of electronic and ionic conductivities in the rate performance of tunnel structured manganese oxides in Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Byles, B. W.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A.; Pomerantseva, E.

    2016-04-29

    Single nanowires of two manganese oxide polymorphs (α-MnO2 and todorokite manganese oxide), which display a controlled size variation in terms of their square structural tunnels, were isolated onto nanofabricated platforms using dielectrophoresis. This platform allowed for the measurement of the electronic conductivity of these manganese oxides, which was found to be higher in α-MnO2 as compared to that of the todorokite phase by a factor of similar to 46. Despite this observation of substantially higher electronic conductivity in α-MnO2, the todorokite manganese oxide exhibited better electrochemical rate performance as a Li-ion battery cathode. The relationship between this electrochemical performance, themore » electronic conductivities of the manganese oxides, and their reported ionic conductivities is discussed for the first time, clearly revealing that the rate performance of these materials is limited by their Li+ diffusivity, and not by their electronic conductivity. This result reveals important new insights relevant for improving the power density of manganese oxides, which have shown promise as a low-cost, abundant, and safe alternative for next-generation cathode materials. Moreover, the presented experimental approach is suitable for assessing a broader family of one-dimensional electrode active materials (in terms of their electronic and ionic conductivities) for both Li-ion batteries and for electrochemical systems utilizing charge-carrying ions beyond Li+.« less

  3. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchini, Roberto G.; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  4. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  5. Kinetic and Crystallgraphic Studies of a Redesigned Manganese-Binding Site in Cytochrome c Peroxidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister,T.; Mirarefi, A.; Gengenbach, A.; Zhao, X.; Danstrom , C.; Conatser, N.; Gao, Y.; Robinson, H.; Zukoski, C.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium contains a manganese-binding site that plays a critical role in its function. Previously, a Mn{sup II}-binding site was designed into cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) based on sequence homology (Yeung et al. in Chem. Biol. 4:215-222, 1997; Gengenbach et al. in Biochemistry 38:11425-11432, 1999). Here, we report a redesign of this site based on X-ray structural comparison of MnP and CcP. The variant, CcP(D37E, V45E, H181E), displays 2.5-fold higher catalytic efficiency (k{sub cat}/k{sub M}) than the variant in the original design, mostly due to a stronger k{sub M} of 1.9 mM (vs. 4.1 mM). High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of a metal-free form and a form with Co{sup II} at the designed Mn{sup II} site were also obtained. The metal ion in the engineered metal-binding site overlays well with Mn{sup II} bound in MnP, suggesting that this variant is the closest structural model of the Mn{sup II}-binding site in MnP for which a crystal structure exists. A major difference arises in the distances of the ligands to the metal; the metal-ligand interactions in the CcP variant are much weaker than the corresponding interactions in MnP, probably owing to partial occupancy of metal ion at the designed site, difference in the identity of metal ions (Co{sup II} rather than Mn{sup II}) and other interactions in the second coordination sphere. These results indicate that the metal ion, the ligands, and the environment around the metal-binding site play important roles in tuning the structure and function of metalloenzymes.

  6. Synthesis, structures and properties of a series of manganese coordination complexes constructed from dicarboxylic fluorene derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xing; Zhao Xiuhua; Bing Yue; Zha Meiqin; Xie Hongzhen; Guo Zhiyong

    2013-01-15

    Assembly reactions of 9,9-diethylfluorene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}DFDC) and Mn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O or MnCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O by tuning of various secondary ligands such as 2,2 Prime -bipyridine (2,2 Prime -bpy), 4,4 Prime -bipyridine (4,4 Prime -bpy) or 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane) (bpp), gave rise to four complexes {l_brace} [Mn{sub 2}(DFDC){sub 2}(DMF){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O{r_brace} {sub n} (1), [Mn(DFDC)(2,2 Prime -bpy)]{sub n} (2), {l_brace} [Mn{sub 2}(DFDC){sub 2}(4,4 Prime -bpy){sub 2}]{center_dot}2CH{sub 3}OH{r_brace} {sub n} (3), and {l_brace} [Mn{sub 4}(DFDC){sub 4}(bpp){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}OH){sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}3(CH{sub 3}OH){center_dot}3(H{sub 2}O){r_brace} {sub n} (4). Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that complex 1 is three dimensional structure with rhombic channels filled by guest water molecules; 2 presents a close-packed structure with high thermal stability; 3 exhibits a three dimensional framework with micro-porous channels filled by guest methanol molecules and 4 is a two-dimensional structure. The photoluminescent properties of 1-4 have been studied, respectively, showing that the Mn(II) ions, accessorial organic ligands or crystal structures exert important influences on the photoluminescence emissions of H{sub 2}DFDC ligands. Thermogravimetric analysis show that the complexes have remarkably high thermal stability. Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been finished and discussed for the complexes. - Graphical abstract: Assembly of 9,9-diethylfluorene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid and Mn(II) salts by tuning of various accessorial ligands resulted in four manganese complexes with different topological frameworks. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four manganese complexes based on 9,9-diethylfluorene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexes were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Black

  7. Sodium removal process development for LMFBR fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1981-10-01

    Two 37-pin scale models of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel subassemblies were designed, fabricated and used at Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division in the development and proof-testing of a rapid water-based sodium removal process for the ORNL Hot Experimental Facility, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Cycle. Through a series of development tests on one of the models, including five (5) sodium wettings and three (3) high temperature sodium removal operations, optimum process parameters for a rapid water vapor-argon-water rinse process were identified and successfully proof-tested on a second model containing argon-pressurized, sodium-corroded model fuel pins simulating the gas plenum and cladding conditions expected for spent fuel pins in full scale subassemblies. Based on extrapolations of model proof test data, preliminary process parameters for a water vapor-nitrogen-water rinse process were calculated and recommended for use in processing full scale fuel subassemblies in the Sodium Removal Facility of the Fuel Receiving Cell, ORNL HEF.

  8. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  9. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G.

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  10. An empirical modeling approach to high sodium glass durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E.P.; Sadler, A.L.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Empirical mixture models have been developed for chemical durability of high sodium borosilicate glass. The response of boron to a seven-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) was chosen as the measure of durability. The objective of the model development was to support the proposed vitrification of Hanford low-level waste (LLW), the bulk of which is primarily sodium oxide. A full first-order model and a second order model were developed from a database of high-sodium borosilicate glasses. First-order models proved to be satisfactory in a qualitative sense, but root mean squared errors were fairly large for quantitative predictive purposes. The results imply that mechanistic models relating durability to composition should include higher order compositional interactions; a second-order model yielded much improved statistics. The modeling results also suggest that calcium, which is considered a network modifier yet is also regarded as a glass {open_quotes}stiffener{close_quotes}, may improve durability.

  11. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  12. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

  13. Investigation of the Highly Active Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Barnese, K.; Sheng, Y.; Stich, T.A.; Gralla, E.B.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2010-09-15

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from different species differs in its efficiency in removing high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}), due to different levels of product inhibition. Human MnSOD exhibits a substantially higher level of product inhibition than the MnSODs from bacteria. In order to investigate the mechanism of product inhibition and whether it is a feature common to eukaryotic MnSODs, we purified MnSOD from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMnSOD). It was a tetramer with 0.6 equiv of Mn per monomer. The catalytic activity of ScMnSOD was investigated by pulse radiolysis and compared with human and two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans) MnSODs. To our surprise, ScMnSOD most efficiently facilitates removal of high concentrations of O{sub 2}{sup -} among these MnSODs. The gating value k{sub 2}/k{sub 3} that characterizes the level of product inhibition scales as ScMnSOD > D. radiodurans MnSOD > E. coli MnSOD > human MnSOD. While most MnSODs rest as the oxidized form, ScMnSOD was isolated in the Mn{sup 2+} oxidation state as revealed by its optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. This finding poses the possibility of elucidating the origin of product inhibition by comparing human MnSOD with ScMnSOD.

  14. Biologically Relevant Mechanism For Catalytic Removal of Superoxide by Simple Manganese Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnese K.; Cabelli D.; Gralla, E.B.; Valentine, J.S.

    2012-05-01

    Nonenzymatic manganese was first shown to provide protection against superoxide toxicity in vivo in 1981, but the chemical mechanism responsible for this protection subsequently became controversial due to conflicting reports concerning the ability of Mn to catalyze superoxide disproportionation in vitro. In a recent communication, we reported that low concentrations of a simple Mn phosphate salt under physiologically relevant conditions will indeed catalyze superoxide disproportionation in vitro. We report now that two of the four Mn complexes that are expected to be most abundant in vivo, Mn phosphate and Mn carbonate, can catalyze superoxide disproportionation at physiologically relevant concentrations and pH, whereas Mn pyrophosphate and citrate complexes cannot. Additionally, the chemical mechanisms of these reactions have been studied in detail, and the rates of reactions of the catalytic removal of superoxide by Mn phosphate and carbonate have been modeled. Physiologically relevant concentrations of these compounds were found to be sufficient to mimic an effective concentration of enzymatic superoxide dismutase found in vivo. This mechanism provides a likely explanation as to how Mn combats superoxide stress in cellular systems.

  15. Lithium/Manganese Dioxide (Li/MnO(2)) Battery Performance Evaluation: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, D.; Clark, N.H.

    1999-04-01

    In February 1997, under the auspices of the Product Realization Program, an initiative to develop performance models for lithium/manganese dioxide-based batteries began. As a part of this initiative, the performance characteristics of the cells under a variety of conditions were determined, both for model development and for model validation. As a direct result of this work, it became apparent that possible Defense Program (DP) uses for batteries based on this cell chemistry existed. A larger effort aimed at mapping the performance envelope of this chemistry was initiated in order to assess the practicality of this cell chemistry, not only for DP applications, but also for other uses. The work performed included an evaluation of the cell performance as a function of a number of variables, including cell size, manufacturer, current, pulse loads, constant current loads, safety, etc. In addition, the development of new evaluation techniques that would apply to any battery system, such as those related to reliability assessments began. This report describes the results of these evaluations.

  16. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. • MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. • Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode. • The coulombic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO{sub 2} on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g{sup −1} was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} for MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes.

  17. Approaching the Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Rhenium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xi [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin; Girard, S. N. [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Meng, F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL; Jin, S [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Goodenough, J. B. [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin; Zhou, J. S. [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin; Shi, L [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin

    2014-01-01

    Higher manganese silicides (HMS) made of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are regarded as promising p-type thermoelectric materials because their complex crystal structure results in low lattice thermal conductivity. It is shown here that the already low thermal conductivity of HMS can be reduced further to approach the minimum thermal conductivity via partial substitu- tion of Mn with heavier rhenium (Re) to increase point defect scattering. The solubility limit of Re in the obtained RexMn1 xSi1.8 is determined to be about x = 0.18. Elemental inhomogeneity and the formation of ReSi1.75 inclusions with 50 200 nm size are found within the HMS matrix. It is found that the power factor does not change markedly at low Re content of x 0.04 before it drops considerably at higher Re contents. Compared to pure HMS, the reduced lattice thermal conductivity in RexMn1 xSi1.8 results in a 25% increase of the peak figure of merit ZT to reach 0.57 0.08 at 800 K for x = 0.04. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the pure RexMn1 xSi1.8 can enable further investigations of the ZT limit of this system by exploring different impurity doping strategies to optimize the carrier concentration and power factor.

  18. Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

  19. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi?.?? (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10? cm? at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper. And the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.

  20. Manganese valence and coordination structure in Mn,Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON green phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Takashi; Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Honma, Tetuso

    2012-10-15

    The valence and coordination structure of manganese in a Mn,Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON spinel-type oxynitride green phosphor were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption fine structure measurements. The absorption edge position of the XANES revealed the bivalency of Mn. Two cation sites are available in the spinel structure for cation doping: a tetrahedral site and an octahedral site. The pre-edge of the XANES and the distance to the nearest neighbor atoms obtained from the EXAFS measurement showed that Mn was situated at the tetrahedral site. Rietveld analysis showed that the vacancy occupied the octahedral site. The preferential occupation of the tetrahedral site by Mn and the roles of N and Mg are discussed in relation to the spinel crystal structure. - Graphical Abstract: Fourier transform of EXAFS of Mn K-edge for Mn,Mg-codoped green phosphor and Mn coordination structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn, Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON green phosphor for white LED. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The valence of Mn is divalent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn occupies the tetrahedral site in the spinel structure.

  1. The structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans manganese superoxide dismutase MnSOD-3-azide complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hunter, Gary J.; Trinh, Chi H.; Bonetta, Rosalin; Stewart, Emma E.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Hunter, Therese

    2015-08-27

    C. elegans MnSOD-3 has been implicated in the longevity pathway and its mechanism of catalysis is relevant to the aging process and carcinogenesis. The structures of MnSOD-3 provide unique crystallographic evidence of a dynamic region of the tetrameric interface (residues 41–54). We have determined the structure of the MnSOD-3-azide complex to 1.77-Å resolution. The analysis of this complex shows that the substrate analog, azide, binds end-on to the manganese center as a sixth ligand and that it ligates directly to a third and new solvent molecule also positioned within interacting distance to the His30 and Tyr34 residues of the substratemore » access funnel. This is the first structure of a eukaryotic MnSOD-azide complex that demonstrates the extended, uninterrupted hydrogen-bonded network that forms a proton relay incorporating three outer sphere solvent molecules, the substrate analog, the gateway residues, Gln142, and the solvent ligand. This configuration supports the formation and release of the hydrogen peroxide product in agreement with the 5-6-5 catalytic mechanism for MnSOD. The high product dissociation constant k₄ of MnSOD-3 reflects low product inhibition making this enzyme efficient even at high levels of superoxide.« less

  2. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.

  3. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan W.; Rosemeier, Cory A.; Mayers, David; Singh, Jogender

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  4. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describemore » the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.« less

  5. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Li, Yulong; He, Ying

    2014-12-28

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the higher manganese silicide MnSi{sub 1.75} synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example, the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper.

  6. Anomalous hole injection deterioration of organic light-emitting diodes with a manganese phthalocyanine layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyunbok; Lee, Jeihyun; Yi, Yeonjin; Cho, Sang Wan; Kim, Jeong Won

    2015-01-21

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) are well known as an efficient hole injection layer (HIL) in organic devices. They possess a low ionization energy, and so the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) gives a small hole injection barrier from an anode in organic light-emitting diodes. However, in this study, we show that the hole injection characteristics of MPc are not only determined by the HOMO position but also significantly affected by the wave function distribution of the HOMO. We show that even with the HOMO level of a manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) HIL located between the Fermi level of an indium tin oxide anode and the HOMO level of a N,N?-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N?-diphenyl-1,1?-biphenyl-4,4?-diamine hole transport layer the device performance with the MnPc HIL is rather deteriorated. This anomalous hole injection deterioration is due to the contracted HOMO wave function, which leads to small intermolecular electronic coupling. The origin of this contraction is the significant contribution of the Mn d-orbital to the MnPc HOMO.

  7. A fast route to obtain manganese spinel nanoparticles by reduction of K-birnessite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovannelli, F.; Chartier, T.; Autret-Lambert, C.; Delorme, F.; Zaghrioui, M.; Seron, A.

    2009-05-15

    The K-birnessite (K{sub x}MnO{sub 2}.yH{sub 2}O) reduction reaction has been tested in order to obtain manganese spinel nanoparticles. The addition of 0.25 weight percent of hydrazine hydrate, the reducing agent, during 24 hours is efficient to transform the birnessite powder in a hausmanite Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Well crystallised square shape nanoparticles are obtained. Different birnessite precursors have been tested and the reaction kinetics is strongly correlated to the crystallinity and granulometry of the precursor. The effects of aging time and hydrazine hydrate amount have been studied. Well crystallised Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} is obtained in one hour. The presence of feitknechtite (MnO(OH)) and amorphous nanorods has been detected as an intermediate phase during birnessite conversion into hausmanite. The conversion mechanism is discussed. - Graphical abstract: TEM image showing Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particle after treatment of birnessite with an addition of hydrazine during 24 hours.

  8. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2002-03-30

    This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

  9. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Laura J.; Bernal, Susan A.; Walling, Samuel A.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Provis, John L.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-08-15

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P and {sup 39}K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC.

  10. Anisotropic compression of a synthetic potassium aluminogermanate zeolite with gismondine topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.N.; Kao, C.; Vogt, T.; Lee, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Compression behavior of a potassium aluminogermanate with a gismondine framework topology (K-AlGe-GIS) was studied using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. In contrast to the potassium gallosilicate analogue (K-GaSi-GIS), no elastic anomaly due to pressure-induced hydration and/or cation relocation was observed in K-AlGe-GIS. The Birch-Murnaghan fit to the pressure-volume data results in a bulk modulus of B{sub 0} = 31(1) GPa. The derived linear-axial compressibilities (i.e., {beta}{sub a} = 0.0065(5) GPa{sup -1}, {beta}{sub b} = 0.0196(4) GPa{sup -1}, {beta}{sub c} = 0.0081(7) GPa{sup -1}) indicate that the b-axis, normal to the 8-ring channels, is about three times more compressible than the a and c axes, parallel to the elliptical 8-ring channels. As a consequence a gradual flattening of the so-called 'double crankshaft' structural building units of the gismondine framework is observed. In K-AlGe-GIS, this flattening occurs almost linear with pressure, whereas it is nonlinear in the GaSi-analogue due to structural changes of the water-cation assembly under hydrostatic pressures.