National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mammalian cellular response

  1. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening approach.

  2. Mammalian cell stress responses during Semliki Forest virus infection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Mhairi Catriona

    2013-07-06

    Virus infection of mammalian cells induces several stress mechanisms, including autophagy and type-I interferon (IFN). Autophagy, a cellular homeostatic mechanism in which intracellular materials are sequestered into ...

  3. Cellular responses against DNA damaged by platinum anticancer drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Yongwon, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The anticancer activity of platinum-based drugs such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin is mediated by their ability to attack DNA such that generated adducts trigger numerous cellular responses. A better understanding ...

  4. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

  5. Cellular Responses in Sea Fan Corals: Granular Amoebocytes React to Pathogen and Climate Stressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    Cellular Responses in Sea Fan Corals: Granular Amoebocytes React to Pathogen and Climate Stressors amoebocyte responses indicate that sea fan corals use cellular defenses to combat fungal infection SF, Peters EC, Harvell CD (2008) Cellular Responses in Sea Fan Corals: Granular Amoebocytes React

  6. An evaluation of the impacts of aging on skeletal muscle performance in several mammalian divers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindle, Allyson Gayle

    2009-05-15

    Based on the ‘free radical theory of aging,’ I hypothesized that hypoxia caused by the mammalian dive response induces free radical production which could modulate or accelerate cellular aging. On the other hand, to prevent ...

  7. Growth hormone responsive neural precursor cells reside within the adult mammalian brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    within the adult mammalian brain. Sci. Rep. 2, 250; DOI:of neurons from adult brain stem cells during recovery afterin the adult mammalian brain. J Neurosci 17, 5046–5061 (

  8. Optical spectroscopy noninvasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    detection of cellular stress is ex- tremely useful for fundamental research and practical applications the transformations in cellular organelles under thermal stress. At the temperatures triggering expression of heat stress. © 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.2075207 Keywords

  9. Cellular Response to Ordered Collagen Layers on Mica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Wee Wen

    2012-07-16

    matrix with isotropic tensile strength to study cellular behaviors. 1. Assembly of unidirectionally aligned collagen layers on muscovite mica Muscovite mica is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium, with a com- mon chemical formula KAl2...

  10. Review: Gene amplification--a cellular response to genotoxic stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lueke-Huhle, C. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Genetik und Toxikologie (West Germany))

    1989-10-01

    Recent years of cancer research have defined the role of key regulatory genes in oncogenesis. Oncogenes and suppressor genes are affected in the process of carcinogenesis either by mutations within the coding region, promoter mutations, or gene amplification. This review describes the authors studies on gene amplification in mammalian cells, with emphasis on the initiating events induced by carcinogenic chemicals and various types of radiation. The influence of genomic instability, cell dedifferentiation, and the malignant potential of a cell on their capacity to amplify genes is demonstrated by molecular biologic and cytogenetic studies on human and rodent cells. Cells that contain amplified DNA are at risk for chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and rearrangements. Surviving cells show such cancer-prone genetic consequences. 52 references.

  11. Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Y. Chuang

    2006-08-31

    It has been long recognized that a significant fraction of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying enzymes may be even more prominent in the case of low-dose, low-LET irradiation, as the majority of genetic damage may be caused by secondary oxidative species. In this study we have attempted to decipher the roles of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, which are responsible for detoxifying the superoxide anions. We used adenovirus vectors to deliver RNA interference (RNAi or siRNA) technology to down-regulate the expression levels of the SOD genes. We have also over-expressed the SOD genes by use of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Cells infected with the vectors were then subjected to low dose ?-irradiation. Total RNA were extracted from the exposed cells and the expression of 9000 genes were profiled by use of cDNA microarrays. The result showed that low dose radiation had clear effects on gene expression in HCT116 cells. Both over-expression and down-regulation of the SOD1 gene can change the expression profiles of sub-groups of genes. Close to 200 of the 9000 genes examined showed over two-fold difference in expression under various conditions. Genes with changed expression pattern belong to many categories that include: early growth response, DNA-repair, ion transport, apoptosis, and cytokine response.

  12. The Cellular Basis for Lack of Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine In Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper, Chester A.

    The Cellular Basis for Lack of Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine In Humans By E. Egea,"S A response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was bimodally distributed with about 14% of subjects), and streptococcal cell wall 'Abbreviations used in this paper HB, hepatitis B; HB&Ag, hepatitis B surface antigen

  13. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents di Genetica e Biofisica--ABT, Napoli, Italy ASH sensory neurons are required in Caenorhabditis and nose touch. The ASH neurons are therefore hypothesized to be polymodal nociceptive neurons

  14. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the differences in cellular defense mechanisms between low and high doses of low LET radiation and to define the radiation doses where the cellular DNA damage signaling and repair mechanisms tend to shift. This information is critically important to address and advance some of the low dose research program objectives of DOE. The results of this proposed study will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms for the cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation. Further, systematic analysis of the role of PIKK signaling pathways as a function of radiation dose in tissue microenvironment will provide useful mechanistic information for improving the accuracy of radiation risk assessment for low doses. Knowledge of radiation responses in tissue microenvironment is important for the accurate prediction of ionizing radiation risks associated with cancer and tissue degeneration in humans.

  15. Received June 9, 2005; revised August 26, 2005; accepted September 3, 2005 The Time and Spatial Effects of Bystander Response in Mammalian Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Bystander Response in Mammalian Cells Induced by Low Dose Radiation Burong Hu1 , Lijun Wu1.permissions@oupjournals.org Carcinogenesis Advance Access published September 8, 2005 #12;2 ABSTRACT Bystander effects induced by low dose, People's Republic of China, and 2 Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons

  16. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    Erratum In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical (arbitrary units) Intensity 10 mM copper 3 s 2 s 1 s 0 s -1 s 1.6 2.1 m)µ( YFP CFP Dendrite Soma ASH Time (s following panels. Scale bar, 200 mm. (B) Diagram of the animal's head with one of the two symmetrical ASH

  17. Radiation-induced bystander effect and adaptive response in mammalian cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    responses at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose­response relationship, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA b Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan

  18. Chronic cellular responses of rat skin to 13 Mev proton irradiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkle, Donald King

    1966-01-01

    irradiated in a total of six rad groups as follows: Number in Grou dD 10 6 9 6 7 8 ZOO 400 700 1300 2000 2500 All sections of skin and tumor tissues were submitted to the Anatomic Pathology Section, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine...CHRONIC CELLULAR RESPONSES OF RAT SKIN TO 13 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION A Thesis by DONALD KING HINKLE, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AErM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  19. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  20. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  1. Proteomic-based mechanistic investigation of low-dose radiation-induced cellular responses/effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xian

    2013-10-23

    The goal of our project is to apply our unique systems investigation strategy to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation induction and transmission of oxidative damage, adaptive response, and bystander effect at low-doses. Beginning with simple in vitro systems such as fibroblast or epithelial pure culture, our amino acid-coded mass tagging (AACT) comparative proteomic platform will be used to measure quantitatively proteomic changes at high- or low-dose level with respect to their endogenous damage levels respectively, in which a broad range of unique regulated proteins sensitive to low-dose IR will be distinguished. To zoom in how these regulated proteins interact with other in the form of networks in induction/transmission pathways, these regulated proteins will be selected as baits for making a series of fibroblast cell lines that stably express each of them. Using our newly developed method of ?dual-tagging? quantitative proteomics that integrate the capabilities of natural complex expression/formation, simple epitope affinity isolation (not through tandem affinity purification or TAP), and ?in-spectra? AACT quantitative measurements using mass spectrometry (MS), we will be able to distinguish systematically interacting proteins with each bait in real time. Further, in addition to both proteome-wide (global differentially expressed proteins) and pathway-scale (bait-specific) profiling information, we will perform a computational network analysis to elucidate a global pathway/mechanisms underlying cellular responses to real-time low-dose IR. Similarly, we will extend our scheme to investigate systematically those induction/transmission pathways occurring in a fibroblast-epithelial interacting model in which the bystander cell (fibroblast) monitor the IR damage to the target cell (epithelial cell). The results will provide the proteome base (molecular mechanisms/pathways for signaling) for the low dose radiation-induced essential tissue environment interactions, including cell-cell, extracellular matrix and extracellular paracrine interactions.

  2. Microfabricated arrays for high-throughput screening of cellular response to cyclic substrate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    and pathobiology. Introduction The large number of factors in the cellular milieu that can impact biological to other stimuli, including matrix proteins,12 chemical cues,13 and genetic therapies.14 In some cases

  3. Cellular Barcodes for Efficiently Profiling Single-Cell Secretory Responses by Microengraving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamanaka, Yvonne Joy

    We present a method that uses fluorescent cellular barcodes to increase the number of unique samples that can be analyzed simultaneously by microengraving, a nanowell array-based technique for quantifying the secretory ...

  4. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2012-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial VEGFR levels are modulated during this response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cell regulates VEGF-A bioavailability and cell survival. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may partly underlie endothelial dysfunction seen in many pathologies.

  5. Interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles as synthetic vaccines for potent humoral and cellular immune responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, James J.

    Vaccines based on recombinant proteins avoid the toxicity and antivector immunity associated with live vaccine (for example, viral) vectors, but their immunogenicity is poor, particularly for CD8+ T-cell responses. Synthetic ...

  6. Cellular survival of endoplasmic reticulum stress requires the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response first elucidated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Peter

    which compromise protein folding in the ER. This reaction to ER stress is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Given the importance of ER protein folding to normal cel- lular function, the benefit of the UPR appears self-evident. The ER contains an environment optimized for protein folding

  7. Cellular/Molecular Intrinsic ON Responses of the Retinal OFF Pathway Are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stryker, Michael

    -0874, Japan Parallel ON and OFF pathways conduct visual signals from bipolar cells in the retina to higher-latencyONresponsesareinitiatedintheOFFpathways.Ourresultsexposeapreviouslyunrecognizedintrinsic property of OFF retinal pathways that generates responses to light onset. In mGluR6-null mice, long and the associated b-wave of the flash electroretinogram (ERG) [mouse (Green et al., 2004); rabbit (Massey et al

  8. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 ?g SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 ?g SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  9. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadhim, Munira A

    2012-08-22

    The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program. To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e. less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these "Ă?Â?non-targeted"Ă?Âť responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation with a focus on the induction of genomic instability (GI) in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition in these models on genomic instability. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to the dose of 10mGy (0.01Gy) X-rays. Using conventional X-ray and we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various conditions at a range of doses down to the very low dose of 0.01Gy. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for such studies. Mechanistic studies of instability in different cell lineages will include the role of cytokines which have been shown to be in the initiation of instability. These studies also aim to uncover the possible mechanism of the initiation, perpetuation and delayed pathways of the instability response using relevant biological endpoints i.e. chromosomal instability, apoptosis induction, cytokine and gene array analysis. Integral to these studies will be an assessment of the role of genetic susceptibility in these responses, using CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J mice. The overall results suggest that low dose low LET X-irradiation induced delayed GI in both CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J haemopoeitic tissue. Using several biological approaches, some key strain and dose-specific differences have been identified in radiation-induced signalling in the initiation and perpetuation of the instability process. Furthermore, the induction of non-targeted radiation effects and genetic dependency may be linked to the use of alternative signalling pathways and mechanisms which have potential implications on evaluation of non-targeted effects in radiation risk assessment.

  10. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase oneˇŻs risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ˇÝ 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ˇÝ 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

  11. Synthetic mimics of mammalian cell surface receptors: prosthetic molecules that augment living cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Blake R.

    2005-09-08

    -alkyl derivatives of 3?-cholesterylamine linked to motifs that bind cell-impermeable ligands. When added to living mammalian cells, these synthetic receptors insert into cellular plasma membranes, project ligand-binding small molecules or peptides from the cell...

  12. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com FoxO transcription factors in the maintenance of cellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunet, Anne

    that coordinate a wide range of cellular outputs. FoxO- dependent cellular responses include gluconeogenesis

  13. Community Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heimerl, Kurtis

    2013-01-01

    2.1.3 Rural Cellular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2Community Cellular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.1.1Community Cellular Networks 3.1 De?ning Community Cellular

  14. Cellular defenses and viral counterattacks during herpes simplex virus infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaurushiya, Mira Suresh

    2011-01-01

    ICP0 insufficient to affect cellular gene expression or cellor abusing: viruses and the cellular DNA damage response.interaction with a 135-kDa cellular protein. Virology 209,

  15. Fibre based cellular transfection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    and K. Dholakia, "Femtosecond cellular transfection using aFibre based cellular transfection X. Tsampoula 1 *, K.parameters for successful cellular transfection. We readily

  16. Origins of cellular geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Wallace F

    2011-01-01

    as: Marshall WF: Origins of cellular geometry. BMC Biologyin the author’s lab on cellular geometry is supported by NIHOpen Access Origins of cellular geometry Wallace F Marshall*

  17. Integrated characterization of cellular physiology underlying hepatic metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Matthew Sing

    2006-01-01

    The macroscopic metabolic phenotype of a cellular system, such as insulin resistance, is the result of the integration of many hundreds or thousands of preceding cellular events, which culminates in the cell's final response ...

  18. Units for Promoter Measurement in Mammalian Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velten, Lars

    2009-10-21

    The purpose of this RFC is to provide units for the characterization of promoter strength for use in mammalian cells. RMPU is mRNA based and

  19. Modulating cellular fate with arrayed cellular microenvironment technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Kevan Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    A.D. and C.O. Pabo, Cellular uptake of the tat protein frommatrix microarray for probing cellular differentiation. Natcells with arrayed cellular microenvironment technology.

  20. CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Master's Thesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kersting, Roland

    CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Master's Thesis Our research group comprises young group leaders, postdocs, Ph techniques. · High-resolution fluorescence imaging on cellular model systems. Contact: Prof. Claudia Veigel-Maximilians-Universit¨at M¨unchen Chair of Cellular Physiology Schillerstr. 44 80336 M¨unchen www

  1. Cellular Automata Jarkko Kari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kari, Jarkko

    Cellular Automata Jarkko Kari Spring 2013 University of Turku #12;1 Preliminaries 1.1 Introduction A cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical system that consists of a regular network of finite state. Cellular automata are · discrete in both space and time, · homogeneous in space and time (same update rule

  2. Cellular neurothekeoma with neuroendocrine differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Antonio, Antonio; Cuomo, Roberto; Angrisani, Basilio; Addesso, Maria; Angrisani, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    Satoh T, Narisawa Y. Cellular neurothekeoma with histiocyticKj, Moon KC, Koh JK. Cellular neurothekeoma with possibleClinical pathologic challenge. Cellular neurothekeoma. Am J

  3. Cellular Mechanobiology of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich, Theresa Ann

    2011-01-01

    cancer cell growth and cellular phenotype. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:offer resistance to cellular contractile forces. However,contractile mechanics. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering

  4. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 62:290-301 (1996) Isolation and Characterization of a Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Lozanne, Arturo

    1996-01-01

    . The cells can chemotax, phagocytose, cap crosslinked receptors, and contract normally. However, the 10BH2. Key words: cell division, motility, contraction, myosin, actin, capping, development, mutagenesis- vances in mammalian cells, flies, yeast, fungi, and cellular molds have shed light onto some

  5. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  6. Cellular Mechanotransduction via Microfabricated Post Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higa, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids in cellular interaction, differentiation,the architectural basis of cellular mechanotransduction. ,”Unidirectional mechanical cellular stimuli via micropost

  7. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 23 Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering ISSN 1865-5025 Volume 6 Number 1 Cel. Mol. Bioeng. (2013,2 and ANATOLY B. KOLOMEISKY 2 1 Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA; and 2

  8. Noise removal at the rod synapse of mammalian retina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rossum, Mark; Smith, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Mammalian rods respond to single photons with a hyperpolarization of about 1 mV which is accompanied by continuous noise. Since the mammalian rod bipolar cell collects signals from 20-100 rods, the noise from the converging ...

  9. American Journal of Science GEOCHRONOLOGY AND MAMMALIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licciardi, Joseph M.

    American Journal of Science APRIL 2006 GEOCHRONOLOGY AND MAMMALIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MIDDLE biota. The geochronology of this important interval depends partly on numerical calibration place Paleocene mammalian biozones in the Bighorn Basin into a refined geochronologic framework

  10. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemons, Gisela K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  11. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  12. A STOCHASTIC CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL OF EBOLA VIRUS DYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Jane M.

    A STOCHASTIC CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL OF EBOLA VIRUS DYNAMICS E. BURKHEAD AND J. HAWKINS Abstract. We construct a stochastic cellular automaton (SCA) model for the spread of the Ebola virus (EBOV). We of virus and the typical immune response to it, and the differences which reflect the drastically different

  13. Quantum Cellular Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Wiesner

    2008-08-05

    Quantum cellular automata (QCA) are reviewed, including early and more recent proposals. QCA are a generalization of (classical) cellular automata (CA) and in particular of reversible CA. The latter are reviewed shortly. An overview is given over early attempts by various authors to define one-dimensional QCA. These turned out to have serious shortcomings which are discussed as well. Various proposals subsequently put forward by a number of authors for a general definition of one- and higher-dimensional QCA are reviewed and their properties such as universality and reversibility are discussed.

  14. Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Response SEAB Recommendations Related to the Evaluation of New Funding Constructs for Energy R&D in the Department of Energy Introduction Over the past seven years, the Department...

  15. Quantization of Cellular Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Arrighi; Vincent Nesme

    2009-03-02

    Take a cellular automaton, consider that each configuration is a basis vector in some vector space, and linearize the global evolution function. If lucky, the r esult could actually make sense physically, as a valid quantum evolution; but do es it make sense as a quantum cellular automaton? That is the main question we a ddress in this paper. In every model with discrete time and space, two things ar e required in order to qualify as a cellular automaton: invariance by translatio n and locality. We prove that this locality condition is so restrictive in the q uantum case that every quantum cellular automaton constructed in this way - i. e., by linearization of a classical one - must be reversible. We also discuss some subtleties about the extent of nonlocality that can be encountered in the o ne-dimensional case; we show that, even when the quantized version is non local, still, under some conditions, we may be unable to use this nonlocality to trans mit information nonlocally.

  16. BE.450 Molecular and Cellular Pathophysiology, Spring 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schauer, David

    This courses focuses on the fundamentals of tissue and organ response to injury from a molecular and cellular perspective. There is a special emphasis on disease states that bridge infection, inflammation, immunity, and ...

  17. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21{sup ras}, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-{kappa}B pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-{kappa}B, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-{kappa}B, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  18. Freezing Cellular Automata Bootstrap Percolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theyssier, Guillaume

    Freezing Cellular Automata and Bootstrap Percolation UAI - Doctorado en Ingenería de Sistemas-nilpotency is a simpler problem (0 2) in the simply convergent case #12;#12;Freezing cellular automata #12;Freezing cellular automata Q = {0, . . . , n - 1} with natural order N arbitrary neighborhood F is freezing if x, z

  19. Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNatural GasBreakoutResponse SEAB Recommendations

  20. Responsibility

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNaturalEnergy Response

  1. Cellular and vaccine therapeutic approaches for gliomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    cell vaccination and cellular immunotherapy using anti-CD3article as: Hickey et al. : Cellular and vaccine therapeuticREVIEW Open Access Cellular and vaccine therapeutic

  2. Sclerosing cellular blue nevus simulating melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydingoz, Ikbal Esen; Dikicioglu-Cetin, Emel

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing cellular blue nevus simulating melanoma Ikbal48-year-old female with sclerosing cellular blue nevus withwas unusual for a sclerosing cellular blue nevus. Besides

  3. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Retinal Wave Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    assembled by short-range cellular interactions. J Neurosci,II. III. Cellular mechanisms underlying cholinergic retinalL. Felix, Marla B. Feller. Cellular Mechanisms underlying

  4. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart VAMSI K. MOOTHA, ANDREW E. ARAI, AND ROBERT S. BALABAN Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ

  5. Cellular automata on Cayley tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan Akin

    2012-11-30

    In this paper, we study cellular automata on Cayley tree of order 2 over the field $\\mathbb Z_p$ (the set of prime numbers modulo $p$). We construct the rule matrix corresponding to finite cellular automata on Cayley tree. Further, we analyze the reversibility problem of this cellular automata for some given values of $a,b,c,d\\in \\mathbb{Z}_{p}\\setminus {0}$ and the levels $n$ of Cayley tree. We compute the measure-theoretical entropy of the cellular automata which we define on Cayley tree.

  6. Algebraic Cellular Automata and Groups Michel Coornaert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delzant, Thomas

    Algebraic Cellular Automata and Groups Michel Coornaert IRMA, Strasbourg, France International Cellular Automata and Groups March 7, 2011 1 / 25 #12;Algebraic Cellular Automata and Groups Michel, On algebraic cellular automata, arXiv:1011.4759. Michel Coornaert (IRMA, Strasbourg, France) Algebraic Cellular

  7. Captive Cellular Automata MFCS 2004, Praha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theyssier, Guillaume

    Captive Cellular Automata MFCS 2004, Praha Guillaume Theyssier (LIP, ENS Lyon, France) #12;Introduction -- (1) 2 Captive Cellular Automata Central issue in cellular automata (CA) theory: local definition ? - global dynamics #12;Introduction -- (1) 2 Captive Cellular Automata Central issue in cellular

  8. CELLULAR TELEPHONE FACILITIES A White Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 CELLULAR TELEPHONE FACILITIES ON CAMPUS A White Paper May 1, 2003 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Background on Cellular Telephones.......................................................... 5 History of Cellular Telephone Sites on Campus.............................................. 7 Current Terms

  9. Programmable Cellular Logic: Past, Present, and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    Programmable Cellular Logic: Past, Present, and Future Russell Tessier \\Lambda Laboratory changes in technology and architectural trends as they pertain to cellular arrays since the 1960's. Direct comparisons of various cellular array architectural features with contemporary programmable logic features

  10. Statistical algorithms in the study of mammalian DNA methylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Meromit

    2012-01-01

    non-overlapping CCGIs: the algorithm 2.2.6 Running time andI Statistical algorithms in the study of mammalian DNAof the result of the CCGI algorithm. Nodes marked along the

  11. Rheotaxis facilitates upstream navigation of mammalian sperm cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kantsler, Vasily

    A major puzzle in biology is how mammalian sperm maintain the correct swimming direction during various phases of the sexual reproduction process. Whilst chemotaxis may dominate near the ovum, it is unclear which cues guide ...

  12. Engineering Mammalian Cells for Improved Recombinant Protein Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Niki S.C.

    The production of recombinant glycoproteins from mammalian cell cultures requires robust processes that can achieve high protein yield while ensuring the efficacy of these proteins as human therapeutics. We describe two ...

  13. Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian efficient remediation of many sites contaminated with haloge- nated hydrocarbons. Trichloroethylene (TCE hydrocarbon, ethylene dibromide (EDB; dibromoeth- ane), was used as a soil fumigant to kill nematodes

  14. Emergence of cellularity Friederike Mller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kersting, Roland

    Outlook #12;Osmosis Diffusion through a semipermeable membrane driven by a concentration gradient Solvent Further Experiments Evolution Outlook #12;· Energy Storage · Membrane growth induces pH-gradient advantage Driving the evolution of metabolism? Simple physicochemical properties Essential cellular

  15. Cellular automorphisms and self duality Lowell Abrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slilaty, Daniel

    Cellular automorphisms and self duality Lowell Abrams and Daniel Slilaty August 3, 2013 Dedicated cellular automorphisms of the sphere, projective plane, torus, Klein bottle, and three-crosscaps (Dyck irreducible cellular automorphisms in S. 1 Introduction 2 2 Cellular automorphisms 5 2.1 Graph basics

  16. Cellular automorphisms and self duality Lowell Abrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Lowell

    Cellular automorphisms and self duality Lowell Abrams and Daniel Slilaty August 8, 2012 Dedicated cellular automorphisms of the sphere, projective plane, torus, Klein bottle, and three-crosscaps (Dyck irreducible cellular automorphisms in S. 1 Introduction 2 2 Cellular automorphisms 5 2.1 Graph basics

  17. Quantitative Measurement of Phosphoproteome Response to Osmotic Stress in Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radivojac, Predrag

    Quantitative Measurement of Phosphoproteome Response to Osmotic Stress in Arabidopsis Based may help shed light on phospho- rylation response to osmotic stress in plants. Molecular & Cellular

  18. A constraint optimization framework for discovery of cellular signaling and regulatory networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shao-shan Carol

    2011-01-01

    Cellular signaling and regulatory networks underlie fundamental biological processes such as growth, differentiation, and response to the environment. Although there are now various high-throughput methods for studying ...

  19. Dynamic Modeling of the Interaction Between Autophagy and Apoptosis in Mammalian Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Tavassoly; J. Parmar; A. N. Shajahan-Haq; R. Clarke; W. T. Baumann; J. J. Tyson

    2015-05-07

    Autophagy is a conserved biological stress response in mammalian cells that is responsible for clearing damaged proteins and organelles from the cytoplasm and recycling their contents via the lysosomal pathway. In cases of mild stress, autophagy acts as a survival mechanism, while in cases of severe stress cells may switch to programmed cell death. Understanding the decision process that moves a cell from autophagy to apoptosis is important since abnormal regulation of autophagy occurs in many diseases, including cancer. To integrate existing knowledge about this decision process into a rigorous, analytical framework, we built a mathematical model of cell fate decisions mediated by autophagy. Our dynamical model is consistent with existing quantitative measurements of autophagy and apoptosis in rat kidney proximal tubular cells responding to cisplatin-induced stress.

  20. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Long; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the focal adhesion sites. A force-based stochastic relaxation method is employed to obtain force-balanced network under cell contraction. We find that the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emitted from the contracting cells. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to the reorientation induced by cell contraction. Large fluctuations of the forces along different force chains are observed. ...

  1. Cellular/Molecular Current versus Ca2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular/Molecular Ca2 Current versus Ca2 Channel Cooperativity of Exocytosis Victor Matveev,1 into this question by probing the sensitivity of exocytosis to Ca2 influx. While varying extra- cellular

  2. CELLULAR GEOGRAPHY1 W. R. TOBLER2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobler, Waldo

    CELLULAR GEOGRAPHY1 W. R. TOBLER2 Captain Ahab, in the film version of Moby Dick, searches realistic variable- number-of-neighbors case but the insight is more easily gained in the cellular case. I

  3. Introducing freezing cellular automata Taller @ Concepcin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theyssier, Guillaume

    Introducing freezing cellular automata Taller @ Concepción G. Theyssier (CNRS, CMM) October, 2013;#12;Freezing cellular automata Q = {0, . . . , n - 1} with natural order N arbitrary neighborhood F is freezing if x, z : F(x)z xz #12;Freezing cellular automata Q = {0, . . . , n - 1} with natural order N

  4. Programmable Cellular Logic: Past, Present, and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    Programmable Cellular Logic: Past, Present, and Future Russell Tessier Laboratory for Computer in technology and architectural trends as they pertain to cellular arrays since the 1960's. Direct comparisons of various cellular array architectural features with contemporary programmable logic features are made

  5. Cellular Automata: Basic Intro Professor Leigh Tesfatsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Cellular Automata: Basic Intro Professor Leigh Tesfatsion Economics Dept., Iowa State University What are Cellular Automata (CA)? Illustrative Examples: · John Conway's Game of Life · Schelling (2005), and Prof. Lars-Erik Cederman (2005). #12;What are Cellular Automata? #12;Illustrations of Simple

  6. Almost cellular algebras Nicolas Guay, Stewart Wilcox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guay, Nicolas

    Almost cellular algebras Nicolas Guay, Stewart Wilcox Abstract We obtain results on algebras which have many of the properties of cellular algebras except for the existence of a certain anti-involution. We show that they are applicable to q-walled Brauer-Clifford superalgebras. Introduction Cellular

  7. Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A. Glaunsinger The ability to control cellular and viral gene expression, either globally or selectively evolve and fine- tune mechanisms to exploit the cellular machinery for their own replication, while

  8. CELLULAR ALGEBRAS: INFLATIONS AND MORITA EQUIVALENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Changchang

    CELLULAR ALGEBRAS: INFLATIONS AND MORITA EQUIVALENCES STEFFEN KO$ NIG AND CHANGCHANG XI Dedicated to Professor Helmut Lenzing on the occasion of his 60th birthday 1. Introduction Cellular algebras have make explicit an inductive construction of cellular algebras which has as input data of linear algebra

  9. Cellular asymmetry and individuality in directional sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    Cellular asymmetry and individuality in directional sensing Azadeh Samadani, Jerome Mettetal, it is becoming increasingly clear that, even in a genetically identical population, cellular behavior can vary signals (cellular asymmetry). Second, we find that the magnitude of this asymmetry varies greatly among

  10. Cellular algebras and Cartan matrices Changchang Xi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Changchang

    Cellular algebras and Cartan matrices by Changchang Xi Department of Mathematics, Beijing Normal rational numbers do not imply the semi­simplicity of A. However, we prove that a cellular algebra matrices to classify the cellular algebras with the property that the determinant of the Cartan matrix

  11. Joint Adaptive Rate and Scheduling in Cellular Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Hung-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Aided Failover for Multicast Scheduling in Wireless CellularVideo Multicast for Multi-cell Cellular Wireless Net-and Uplink Fractional Frequency Reuse in Cellular Wireless

  12. Molecular Recognition by Synthetic Receptors in Biomimetic and Cellular Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghang, Yoo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Glycopolymers into Cellular Membranes. ” J. Am.between siRNA Localization, Cellular Uptake, and RNAi inas an Anti-Tumor Drig: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug

  13. Role of cellular microenvironment in non-viral gene transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhaliwal, Anandika

    2012-01-01

    medicine. Journal of cellular physiology 213: 341-347. Chen,engineering. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 11:oligonucleotides. Molecular and cellular neurosciences 7:

  14. Repair processes and radiation quality in neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, A.; Hill, C.K.; Elkind, M.M.

    1984-08-01

    Appropriate in vitro mammalian cell systems facilitate the study of cellular mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis. C3H 10T1/2 cells derived from mouse embryo have been used to study the effects of protracted irradiation on cell killing and incidence of neoplastic transformation. Protracted exposures of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays or fission-spectrum neutrons (from the JANUS reactor at the Argonne National Laboratory) were given either at low dose rates or as multifractionated regimens using high dose rates. Dose protraction of ..gamma.. rays by multifractionation at a high dose rate (50 rad/min) results in appreciable reduction in cell killing and also significantly reduces the incidence of neoplastic transformation. Irradiation at a low dose rate has the same qualitative effect. In contrast, protracted exposures of fission-spectrum neutrons, given at a low dose rate (0.086 or 0.43 rad/min), result in significant enhancement of the frequency of transformation in the dose region of up to 80 rad. However, the survival of cells is essentially the same as that for the same single dose of neutrons given at a high dose rate. These observations are consistent with net ''error-free'' repair of transformational damage following protracted exposure of a low LET radiation and possibly a net ''error-prone'' repair of transformational damage after protracted irradiations with fission-spectrum neutrons.

  15. Quantum Cellular Automata Without Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Meyer; Asif Shakeel

    2015-06-04

    Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA) constitute a natural discrete model for quantum field theory (QFT). Although QFTs are defined without reference to particles, computations are done in terms of Feynman diagrams, which are explicitly interpreted in terms of interacting particles. Similarly, the easiest QCA to construct are Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). A natural question then is, "are all nontrivial QCA QLGA?". Here we show by construction that the answer is "no"; thus there are QCA, even in $1+1$ dimensions, that have no particle interpretation.

  16. Cellular structures on Hecke algebras Cedric Bonnafe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnafé, Cédric

    Cellular structures on Hecke algebras of type B C´edric Bonnaf´e CNRS (UMR 6623) - Universit´e de Franche-Comt´e (Besan¸con) Sydney, June 2007 C´edric Bonnaf´e (CNRS, Besan¸con, France) Cellular, decomposition map C´edric Bonnaf´e (CNRS, Besan¸con, France) Cellular structures Sydney, June 2007 2 / 25 #12

  17. Discrete geodesics and cellular automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Arrighi; Gilles Dowek

    2015-07-24

    This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.

  18. Discrete geodesics and cellular automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.

  19. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pieter Rein ten Wolde; Nils B. Becker; Thomas E. Ouldridge; A. Mugler

    2015-05-25

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this noise extrinsic to the cell as much as possible. These networks, however, are also stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, and then how downstream signaling pathways integrate the noise in the receptor state; we will discuss how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time together set a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes of resources---receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy---and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade-off between accuracy and energetic cost.

  20. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long Liang; Christopher Jones; Bo Sun; Yang Jiao

    2015-08-18

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the focal adhesion sites. A force-based stochastic relaxation method is employed to obtain force-balanced network under cell contraction. We find that the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emitted from the contracting cells. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to the reorientation induced by cell contraction. Large fluctuations of the forces along different force chains are observed. Importantly, the decay of the forces along the force chains is significantly slower than the decay of radially averaged forces in the system. These results suggest that the fibrous nature of biopolymer network structure can support long-range force transmission and thus, long-range mechanical signaling between cells.

  1. Ericsson ResponseTM Cellular GSM System for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ), Base Station Controller (BSC), Radio Base Station (RBS), network management, network database Station (RBS 2202) with six Transceiver Radio Units (TRU) inbuilt, but the central switching equipment container. The container has grips for fork and top lift, and adjustable stairs with rain shield. Weight

  2. Effect of Gold Nanorod Surface Chemistry on Cellular Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabinski, Christin

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) stabilized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and GNR functionalized via a ligand exchange method with either thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG5000) or mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) were ...

  3. Relationship between cellular response and behavioral variability in bacterial chemotaxis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emonet, Thierry

    of this system is the coexistence of a robust adaptive behavior observed at the population level with a large

  4. Steady State Control of the Cellular Response to Stress /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loriaux, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    X on which every reaction velocity has linear dependence,of K and X on which the reaction velocities have a linearthe six bimolecular reaction velocities require that x 6 , x

  5. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  6. A novel method for mammalian large genetic circuit assembly and delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yinqing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of mammalian cells provides a foundation for contemporary biological research both basic and applied. Existing methods for construction and introduction of large scale exogenous genetic information ...

  7. Improving microbial fitness in the mammalian gut by in vivo temporal functional metagenomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaung, Stephanie J.

    Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics ...

  8. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayfield, Stephen P. (Cardiff, CA)

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  9. Characterizing the Altered Cellular Proteome Induced by the Stress-Independent Activation of Heat Shock Factor 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morimoto, Richard

    Characterizing the Altered Cellular Proteome Induced by the Stress- Independent Activation of Heat activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a stress-responsive transcription factor that induces-responsive signaling pathways such as the heat shock response (HSR).1,2 The HSR is an evolutionarily conserved, stress

  10. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre C. Barato; David Hartich; Udo Seifert

    2014-11-06

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the E. coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium in an environment that changes at a very slow time-scale is quite inefficient, dissipating much more than it learns. Using the concept of a coarse-grained learning rate, we show for the model with adaptation that while the activity learns about the external signal the option of changing the methylation level increases the concentration range for which the learning rate is substantial.

  11. Statistical Mechanics of Surjective Cellular Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarkko Kari; Siamak Taati

    2015-05-14

    Reversible cellular automata are seen as microscopic physical models, and their states of macroscopic equilibrium are described using invariant probability measures. We establish a connection between the invariance of Gibbs measures and the conservation of additive quantities in surjective cellular automata. Namely, we show that the simplex of shift-invariant Gibbs measures associated to a Hamiltonian is invariant under a surjective cellular automaton if and only if the cellular automaton conserves the Hamiltonian. A special case is the (well-known) invariance of the uniform Bernoulli measure under surjective cellular automata, which corresponds to the conservation of the trivial Hamiltonian. As an application, we obtain results indicating the lack of (non-trivial) Gibbs or Markov invariant measures for "sufficiently chaotic" cellular automata. We discuss the relevance of the randomization property of algebraic cellular automata to the problem of approach to macroscopic equilibrium, and pose several open questions. As an aside, a shift-invariant pre-image of a Gibbs measure under a pre-injective factor map between shifts of finite type turns out to be always a Gibbs measure. We provide a sufficient condition under which the image of a Gibbs measure under a pre-injective factor map is not a Gibbs measure. We point out a potential application of pre-injective factor maps as a tool in the study of phase transitions in statistical mechanical models.

  12. Cellular structure in system of interacting particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohdan Lev

    2008-02-21

    The general description of formation the cellular structure in the system of interacting particles is proposed. Interactions between particles are presumably well-understood and the phase transition in which can be studied in the scale of particle resolution. We presented analytical results of possible cellular structures for suspension of colloidal particles, in system particles immersed in liquid crystal and gravitational system. We have shown that cellular structure formation can occur in system of interacting particles for realistic values of temperature and particles concentration.

  13. The structure of cellular networksThe structure of cellular networks To be able to construct and analyze a cellular network, we need

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert, Réka

    The structure of cellular networksThe structure of cellular networks To be able to construct and analyze a cellular network, we need to clearly define what we identify as a node and what we represent of cellular component (protein, chemical) or the same type of interaction (mass transfer, regulation). We can

  14. Cellular interactions during gastrulation in the amphipod crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaw, Ro Crystal

    2011-01-01

    role in organizing cellular architecture and function. CellMullins, R.D. , 2002. Cellular control of actin nucleation.181–203. Hardin, J. , 1996. The Cellular Basis of Sea Urchin

  15. Linear Cellular Automata and Fischer Automata Klaus Sutner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutner, Klaus

    Linear Cellular Automata and Fischer Automata Klaus Sutner Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh finite state machines associated with linear cellular automata. In particular, we construct a class of binary linear cellular automata whose corresponding mini- mal automata exhibit full exponential blow

  16. Equilibrium Water Exchange Between the Intra-and Extracellular Spaces of Mammalian Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Equilibrium Water Exchange Between the Intra- and Extracellular Spaces of Mammalian Brain James D.H. Ackerman,1,2,5 and Jeffrey J. Neil2,6* This report describes the measurement of water preexchange lifetimes and intra/extracellular content in intact, functioning mammalian brain. Intra- and extracellular water

  17. Journal of Mammalogy, 94(3):672682, 2013 The influence of mammalian predator exclusion, food supplementation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oli, Madan K.

    supplementation, and prescribed fire on survival of Glaucomys volans BINAB KARMACHARYA, JEFFREY A. HOSTETLER, L. We also examined the effect of experimental food supplementation, prescribed fire, and mammalian increased for a period up to 9 months after burns. Evidence that food supplementation and mammalian predator

  18. Techniques for green radio cellular communications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Videv, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This thesis proposes four novel techniques to solve the problem of growing energy consumption requirements in cellular communication networks. The first and second part of this work propose a novel energy efficient ...

  19. Design of Pressure Actuated Cellular Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Pagitz

    2015-08-05

    A novel concept for pressure actuated cellular structures was published in Pagitz et al 2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7. The corresponding mathematical foundation for the simulation and optimization of compliant cellular structures with eccentric cell corner hinges was published in Pagitz 2015 arXiv:1403.2197. The aim of this article is threefold: First, analytical expressions for optimal materials of compliant cellular structures with identical properties are derived as a function of cell sizes. It is shown that cellular structures can be made from either a large, small number of highly, lowly pressurized cells that consist of a stiff, soft material. Second, extensions to the previously published numerical model are presented and their application ranges are determined. Third, end cap designs for prismatic cells are developed that can withstand substantial differential pressures while being flexible enough to allow large cross sectional shape changes. Furthermore, a manufacturing approach that is based on cytoskeletons is presented.

  20. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  1. Morphodynamics of barchan and transverse dunes using a cellular automaton model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narteau, Clément

    Morphodynamics of barchan and transverse dunes using a cellular automaton model D. Zhang,1 C instability is responsible for the formation of dunes on flat sand beds and the initiation of superimposed bedforms on dune slopes. In transverse dune fields, secondary bedforms increase crestline sinuosity

  2. Cellular/Molecular Light Adaptation in Salamander L-Cone Photoreceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieke, Fred

    Cellular/Molecular Light Adaptation in Salamander L-Cone Photoreceptors Frederick S. Soo, Peter B,andanincreaseinguanylatecyclaseactivityduringthelightstepthatpersistsafterthelight is extinguished. Key words: photoreceptor; phototransduction; cone adaptation; retina adaptation; light; vision, Washington 98195 The responses of individual salamander L-cones to light steps of moderate intensity

  3. Adaptive Evolution of a Stress Response Protein Tom J. Little1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obbard, Darren

    Stress responses classically involve heat shock proteins or molecular chaperones that maintain proteinAdaptive Evolution of a Stress Response Protein Tom J. Little1 *, Lenny Nelson2 , Ted Hupp2 1 of the mammalian stress response gene SEP53, a member of the epidermal differentiation complex fused-gene family

  4. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Catriona; Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H.

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  5. Cellular automata with vanishing particles Petr K urka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurka, Petr

    Cellular automata with vanishing particles Petr K#23;urka Faculty of Mathematics and Physics a cellular automaton, we search for particle weight functions, for which the total weights of con#12 that this happens in the elementary cellular automaton rule number 18 and in the Gacs-Kurdyumov-Levin cellular

  6. Quantum Cellular Automaton Theory of Light Alessandro Bisio,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Quantum Cellular Automaton Theory of Light Alessandro Bisio, Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano, and Paolo on quantum cellular automata (QCA). This approach allows us to have a thorough quantum theory of free. INTRODUCTION The Quantum Cellular Automaton (QCA) is the quan- tum version of the popular cellular automaton

  7. Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivovichev, S. V.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).

  8. Cellular Automata with Symmetric Local Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir V. Kornyak

    2006-09-18

    The cellular automata with local permutation invariance are considered. We show that in the two-state case the set of such automata coincides with the generalized Game of Life family. We count the number of equivalence classes of the rules under consideration with respect to permutations of states. This reduced number of rules can be efficiently generated in many practical cases by our C program. Since a cellular automaton is a combination of a local rule and a lattice, we consider also maximally symmetric two-dimensional lattices. In addition, we present the results of compatibility analysis of several rules from the Life family.

  9. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  10. The Siderocalin/Enterobactin Interaction: A Link between Mammalian Immunity and Bacterial Iron Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meux, Susan C.

    2008-05-12

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an anti-bacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} and Scn-Y106F:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. Fluorescence, UV-Vis and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogs of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.

  11. The Roles of Individual Mammalian Argonautes in RNA Interference In Vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruda, Vera M.

    Argonaute 2 (Ago2) is the only mammalian Ago protein capable of mRNA cleavage. It has been reported that the activity of the short interfering RNA targeting coding sequence (CDS), but not 3? untranslated region (3?UTR) of ...

  12. Preparation of highly and generally enriched mammalian tissues for solid state NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Veronica Wai Ching; Reid, David G.; Chow, Wing Ying; Rajan, Rakesh; Green, Maggie; Brooks, Roger A.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    An appreciable level of isotope labelling is essential for future NMR structure elucidation of mammalian biomaterials, which are either poorly expressed, or unexpressable, using micro-organisms. We present a detailed protocol for high level 13C...

  13. Viability of mammalian embryos subjected to liposome interaction or centrifugation for gene transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loskutoff, Nadia Mikhail

    1985-01-01

    VIABILITY OF MAMMALIAN EMBRYOS SUBJECTED TO LIPOSOME INTERACTION OR CENTRIFUGATION FOR GENE TRANSFER A Thesis by NADIA MIKHAIL LOSKUTOFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology VIABILITY OF MAMMALIAN EMBRYOS SUBJECTED TO LIPOSOME INTERACTION OR CENTRIFUGATION FOR GENE TRANSFER A Thesis by Nadia Mikhail Loskutoff Approved as to style...

  14. Cellular CSK resembles natural and synthetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    Theory Pinned-pinned, three-point bending Es is modulus of elasticity for beam (F-actin GPa) d 3 48 s F l E ISession 15 #12;2 Cellular CSK resembles natural and synthetic materials Felt Paper Cotton NASA r r #12;6 (a/k/a Second Moment of Area) Geometric resistance of a beam to bending 2 2

  15. Proportionally Fair Selective Cooperation for Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kin K.

    Proportionally Fair Selective Cooperation for Cellular Networks: Algorithm, Simulation and Analysis, a node and a cooperative relay are selected in a proportionally fair (PF) manner to transmit to the base cooperative transmissions, and is called proportionally fair selective cooperation (PFSC). This tech- nique

  16. Periodic cellular automata and Bethe ansatz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atsuo Kuniba; Akira Takenouchi

    2006-01-07

    We review and generalize the recent progress in a soliton cellular automaton known as the periodic box-ball system. It has the extended affine Weyl group symmetry and admits the commuting transfer matrix method and the Bethe ansatz at q=0. Explicit formulas are proposed for the dynamical period and the number of states characterized by conserved quantities.

  17. Cellular Senescence: Ex Vivo p53-Dependent Asymmetric Cell Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambhatla, Lakshmi

    2001-01-01

    Although senescence is a defining property of euploid mammalian cells, its physiologic basis remains obscure. Previously, cell kinetics properties of normal tissue cells have not been considered in models for senescence. ...

  18. Quality of service analysis for audio over cellular voice networks and cellular wireless wide area networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Omair S. (Omair Safwan)

    2007-01-01

    Cellular Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs) are most prevalent and offer high-bandwidth data transfer. We believe WWANs can be availed for voice communications employing Voice Over IP technologies. Such a communication ...

  19. CANCELLED EMT and back again: does cellular plasticity fuelneoplasticprogressi on?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-02-24

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular transdifferentiation program that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. However, a similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, in which it is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often appears to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. Here we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the Ras-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  20. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  1. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705; Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 ; Sohn, Jeongwon; Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 ; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  2. GSM Whitespaces: An Opportunity for Rural Cellular Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , community cellular, that has the potential to bring coverage to extremely rural populations. Although the total capital costs for these networks (rural communities, the highGSM Whitespaces: An Opportunity for Rural Cellular Service Shaddi Hasan, Kurtis Heimerl, Kate

  3. Molecular & Cellular Biology Program Departmental Retreats Autumn 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    Molecular & Cellular Biology Program Departmental Retreats ­ Autumn 2014 Z:\\FRONT DESK DOCUMENTS Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) 1100 Fairview Ave. N. Seattle, WA 98109-1024 Molecular & Cellular

  4. Cellular CSK resembles natural and synthetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    -pinned, three-point bending 7 Es is modulus of elasticity for beam (F-actin GPa) 3 48 s F l E I = #12;StressSession 15 #12;Cellular CSK resembles natural and synthetic materials Felt Paper Cotton 2 Cotton = #12;(a/k/a Second Moment of Area) Geometric resistance of a beam to bending 2 x A I y dA= y 6 2 4 4 4

  5. Statistical equilibrium in deterministic cellular automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siamak Taati

    2015-05-24

    Some deterministic cellular automata have been observed to follow the pattern of the second law of thermodynamics: starting from a partially disordered state, the system evolves towards a state of equilibrium characterized by maximal disorder. This chapter is an exposition of this phenomenon and of a statistical scheme for its explanation. The formulation is in the same vein as Boltzmann's ideas, but the simple combinatorial setup offers clarification and hope for generic mathematically rigorous results. Probabilities represent frequencies and subjective interpretations are avoided.

  6. Optimization Online - Radio Planning of Energy-Aware Cellular ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nov 3, 2010 ... Radio Planning of Energy-Aware Cellular Networks ... Keywords: green networking, wireless, network design, coverage, network management, ...

  7. Cellular Automata with an Infinite Number of Subshift Attractors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurka, Petr

    Cellular Automata with an Infinite Number of Subshift Attractors Petr K °urka Center that the complexity of a cellular automaton is reflected in the complexity of the lattice of its subshift attractors (i.e., of those attractors which are subshifts). We construct cellular automata with an infinite

  8. Cellular Characterization of Leukotoxin Diol-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Cellular Characterization of Leukotoxin Diol-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction Marlene F. Sisemore- vation step in leukotoxin-induced cellular toxicity. In both human and insect cells, we observed that leuko- toxin diol causes acute cellular toxicity and that cyclo- sporin A, an inhibitor

  9. Cyclic Cellular Automata in 3D Clifford A. Reiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    Cyclic Cellular Automata in 3D Clifford A. Reiter Department of Mathematics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 U.S.A reiterc@lafayette.edu Abstract Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon

  10. Cellular Metals Manufacturing** By Haydn N. G. Wadley*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Cellular Metals Manufacturing** By Haydn N. G. Wadley* 1. Manufacturing Methods Overview As the engineering applications of cellular metals grows, many methods for their manufacture are being developed.[1 manufacturing methods. Those with high relative density, r/ rs >0.5 (where r is the cellular metals density

  11. Enhancing Cellular Multicast Performance Using Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasera, Sneha Kumar

    Enhancing Cellular Multicast Performance Using Ad Hoc Networks Jun Cheol Park and Sneha Kumar heterogeneity problem in cellular multicast with the help of an additional IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network. The basic idea is to allow the cellular receivers experiencing poor channel conditions to use the ad hoc network

  12. MIST: Cellular Data Network Measurement for Mobile Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    1 MIST: Cellular Data Network Measurement for Mobile Applications Mike P. Wittie, Brett Stone-- The rapid growth in the popularity of cellular networks has led to aggressive deployment and a rapid to the deployment of many of these services is poor or unknown network performance, particularly in the cellular

  13. Affine cellular algebras Steffen Koenig and Changchang Xi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Changchang

    Affine cellular algebras Steffen Koenig and Changchang Xi1 Abstract Graham and Lehrer have defined cellular algebras and developed a theory that allows in particular to classify simple representations of finite dimensional cellular algebras. Many classes of finite dimensional algebras, including various

  14. CELLULAR AUTOMATA MODELS: A SANDPILE MODEL APPLIED IN FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    CELLULAR AUTOMATA MODELS: A SANDPILE MODEL APPLIED IN FUSION Anastasios Anastasiadis Institute present the basic properties of a simple cellular automaton (CA) model proposed for the study insights regarding the dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. 1 CELLULAR AUTOMATA AND SELF ORGANIZED

  15. MIST: Cellular Data Network Measurement for Mobile Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    MIST: Cellular Data Network Measurement for Mobile Applications Mike P. Wittie, Brett Stone Paper) Abstract-- The rapid growth in the popularity of cellular networks has led to aggressive deployment and a rapid expansion of mobile services. Services based on the integration of cellular networks

  16. Cellular Allometry: The Spindle in Development and Inheritance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needleman, Daniel

    Dispatches Cellular Allometry: The Spindle in Development and Inheritance Recent studies have embryogenesis, giving insight into how a core cellular process is modulated over the course of development how core cellular processes are modified to function in different cells. The basic mechanisms

  17. Cellular Automata Model of Cystogenesis and Tubulogenesis Elhanan Borenstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Cellular Automata Model of Cystogenesis and Tubulogenesis Elhanan Borenstein School of Computer of Molecular & Cellular Physiology Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA egcline@stanford.edu Abstract not initially have a lumen. Our model is an extension of the Cellular Potts Model (CPM), a commonly used

  18. Cellular pattern formation in circular domains Antonio Palacios,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular pattern formation in circular domains Antonio Palacios,a) Gemunu H. Gunaratne 1997; accepted for publication 24 June 1997 An analysis of stationary and nonstationary cellular. Motivated by the observa- tion of novel stationary and nonstationary cellular states on a flame front, we

  19. Reliable Cellular Automata with SelfOrganization Peter Gacs 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gacs, Peter

    Reliable Cellular Automata with Self­Organization Peter Gâ??acs 1 Computer Science Department Boston University Boston, MA 02215 gacs@bu.edu Abstract In a noisy cellular automaton, even if it is infinite solution in 2 dimensions has been applied to a simple 3­dimensional fault­tolerant cellular automaton

  20. RELIABLE CELLULAR AUTOMATA WITH SELF-ORGANIZATION PETER G ACS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gacs, Peter

    RELIABLE CELLULAR AUTOMATA WITH SELF-ORGANIZATION PETER G ´ACS ABSTRACT. In a probabilistic cellular automaton in which all local transitions have positive probability, the problem of keeping a bit-tolerant cellular automaton. This technique does not help much to solve the following problems: remembering a bit

  1. Cellular Automata and Intermediate Degrees Computer Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutner, Klaus

    Cellular Automata and Intermediate Degrees K. Sutner Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract We study a classification of cellular automata based on the Turing degree of the orbits of the automaton. The difficulty of determining the membership of a cellular

  2. THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE OF THE CLASSIFYING SPACES OF FINITE GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foote, Richard M.

    THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE OF THE CLASSIFYING SPACES OF FINITE GROUPS RAM´ON J. FLORES AND RICHARD M. FOOTE Abstract. In this paper we obtain a description of the BZ/p-cellularization (in the sense of Dror is called A-cellular if it can be constructed as an (iterated) pointed homotopy colimit of copies of A

  3. Cellular oscillations and the regulation of growth: the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    Cellular oscillations and the regulation of growth: the pollen tube paradigm Jose A. Feijo ,1. There is evidence that these cellular oscillators involve an integrated input of plasma membrane ion fluxes for the study of growth and morphogenesis at the cellular level. Being the carriers of male gametes in all

  4. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-06-21

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine the specific organelle that mesoporous silica nanoparticles could approach via the identification of harvested proteins from exocytosis process. Based on the study of endo- and exocytosis behavior of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials, we can design smarter drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy that can be effectively controlled. The destination, uptake efficiency and the cellular distribution of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials can be programmable. As a result, release mechanism and release rate of drug delivery systems can be a well-controlled process. The deep investigation of an endo- and exocytosis study of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials promotes the development of drug delivery applications.

  5. The cellular mechanisms of learning in Aplysia: Of blind men and elephants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glanzman, David L

    2006-01-01

    postsynaptic mechanisms in a cellular analog of classical4019. Byrne, J. H. 1987. Cellular analysis of associativecorrelation of behavioral and cellular processes. Science

  6. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tissue elongation of the developing egg in Drosophila melanogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haigo, Saori Lillian

    2011-01-01

    affecting cell fates and cellular rearrangements duringOriented cell divisions and cellular morphogenesis in theand Keller, R. (1997). Cellular mechanism underlying neural

  7. Cellular Senescence in Livers from Children with End Stage Liver Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    J (2000) Cancer, aging and cellular senescence. In Vivo 14:and mitochondria during cellular senescence: is there aCN (2007) Methods of cellular senescence induction using

  8. Deficiency in Homologous Recombination Renders Mammalian Cells More Sensitive to Proton Versus Photon Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosse, Nicole; Fontana, Andrea O. [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hug, Eugen B.; Lomax, Antony; Coray, Adolf [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Augsburger, Marc [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sartori, Alessandro A. [Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Pruschy, Martin, E-mail: martin.pruschy@usz.ch [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of the 2 major DNA repair machineries on cellular survival in response to irradiation with the 2 types of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The DNA repair and cell survival endpoints in wild-type, homologous recombination (HR)-deficient, and nonhomologous end-joining-deficient cells were analyzed after irradiation with clinically relevant, low-linear energy transfer (LET) protons and 200-keV photons. Results: All cell lines were more sensitive to proton irradiation compared with photon irradiation, despite no differences in the induction of DNA breaks. Interestingly, HR-deficient cells and wild-type cells with small interfering RNA-down-regulated Rad51 were markedly hypersensitive to proton irradiation, resulting in an increased relative biological effectiveness in comparison with the relative biological effectiveness determined in wild-type cells. In contrast, lack of nonhomologous end-joining did not result in hypersensitivity toward proton irradiation. Repair kinetics of DNA damage in wild-type cells were equal after both types of irradiation, although proton irradiation resulted in more lethal chromosomal aberrations. Finally, repair kinetics in HR-deficient cells were significantly delayed after proton irradiation, with elevated amounts of residual ?H2AX foci after irradiation. Conclusion: Our data indicate a differential quality of DNA damage by proton versus photon irradiation, with a specific requirement for homologous recombination for DNA repair and enhanced cell survival. This has potential relevance for clinical stratification of patients carrying mutations in the DNA damage response pathways.

  9. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience www.frontiersin.org March 2010 | Volume 4 | Article 3 | 1 CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, R. Clay

    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience www.frontiersin.org March 2010 | Volume 4 | Article 3 | 1 CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE METHODS ARTICLE published: 12 March 2010 doi: 10.3389/fncel.2010.00003 information., 2007; Chen et al., 2008). These studies have all inferred cellular identity from extracellular spike

  10. Quantumness of discrete Hamiltonian cellular automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Thomas Elze

    2014-07-08

    We summarize a recent study of discrete (integer-valued) Hamiltonian cellular automata (CA) showing that their dynamics can only be consistently defined, if it is linear in the same sense as unitary evolution described by the Schr\\"odinger equation. This allows to construct an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models, which incorporate a fundamental scale. Presently, we emphasize general aspects of these findings, the construction of admissible CA observables, and the existence of solutions of the modified dispersion relation for stationary states.

  11. Noise removal at the rod synapse of mammalian retina M.C.W. van ROSSUM and R.G. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert G.

    Noise removal at the rod synapse of mammalian retina M.C.W. van ROSSUM and R.G. SMITH Department is accompanied by continuous noise. Since the mammalian rod bipolar cell collects signals from 20­100 rods, the noise from the converging rods would overwhelm the single-photon signal from one rod at scotopic

  12. New insights on the Dynamic Cellular Metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ildefonso M. De la Fuente

    2015-01-09

    A large number of studies have shown the existence of metabolic covalent modifications in different molecular structures, able to store biochemical information that is not encoded by the DNA. Some of these covalent mark patterns can be transmitted across generations (epigenetic changes). Recently, the emergence of Hopfield-like attractor dynamics has been observed in the self-organized enzymatic networks, which have the capacity to store functional catalytic patterns that can be correctly recovered by the specific input stimuli. The Hopfield-like metabolic dynamics are stable and can be maintained as a long-term biochemical memory. In addition, specific molecular information can be transferred from the functional dynamics of the metabolic networks to the enzymatic activity involved in the covalent post-translational modulation so that determined functional memory can be embedded in multiple stable molecular marks. Both the metabolic dynamics governed by Hopfield-type attractors (functional processes) and the enzymatic covalent modifications of determined molecules (structural dynamic processes) seem to represent the two stages of the dynamical memory of cellular metabolism (metabolic memory). Epigenetic processes appear to be the structural manifestation of this cellular metabolic memory. Here, a new framework for molecular information storage in the cell is presented, which is characterized by two functionally and molecularly interrelated systems: a dynamic, flexible and adaptive system (metabolic memory) and an essentially conservative system (genetic memory). The molecular information of both systems seems to coordinate the physiological development of the whole cell.

  13. A Cellular Automaton Model of Pulsar Glitches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Warszawski; A. Melatos

    2008-06-29

    A cellular automaton model of pulsar glitches is described, based on the superfluid vortex unpinning paradigm. Recent analyses of pulsar glitch data suggest that glitches result from scale-invariant avalanches \\citep{Melatos07a}, which are consistent with a self-organized critical system (SOCS). A cellular automaton provides a computationally efficient means of modelling the collective behaviour of up to $10^{16}$ vortices in the pulsar interior, whilst ensuring that the dominant aspects of the microphysics are not lost. The automaton generates avalanche distributions that are qualitatively consistent with a SOCS and with glitch data. The probability density functions of glitch sizes and durations are power laws, and the probability density function of waiting times between successive glitches is Poissonian, consistent with statistically independent events. The output of the model depends on the physical and computational paramters used. The fitted power law exponents for the glitch sizes ($a$) and durations ($b$) decreases as the strength of the vortex pinning increases. Similarly the exponents increase as the fraction of vortices that are pinned decreases. For the physical and computational parameters considered, one finds $-4.3\\leq a \\leq -2.0$ and $-5.5\\leq b\\leq -2.2$, and mean glitching rates in the range $0.0023\\leq\\lambda\\leq0.13\\$ in units of inverse time.

  14. Calcineurin determines toxic versus beneficial responses to  ?-synuclein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraveo, Gabriela

    Calcineurin (CN) is a highly conserved Ca[superscript 2+]–calmodulin (CaM)-dependent phosphatase that senses Ca[superscript 2+] concentrations and transduces that information into cellular responses. Ca[superscript 2+] ...

  15. HEAVY-ION RADIOBIOLOGY: CELLULAR STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2013-01-01

    the counter. Fricke dosimeters (Schuler and Allen, 1957) and~ luminescent and film dosimeters (Tochilin et al. , 1968;response of the Fricke dosimeter from basic considerations

  16. Vacuum-assisted cell loading enables shear-free mammalian microfluidic Martin Kolnik,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasty, Jeff

    Vacuum-assisted cell loading enables shear-free mammalian microfluidic culture{ Martin Kolnik,a Lev that are extremely isolated from potentially damaging flow effects. We utilize a transient on-chip vacuum to remove by generating a localized temporary on-chip vacuum in channels directly adjacent to the trapping regions

  17. Sexual Selection and Mammalian Olfaction Author(s): Andrew R. Blaustein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    dimorphic odors among mammals as an important factor in sexual selection. This is interest- ing because of monogamy in mammals, Kleiman (1977) discussed the relationship of sexual dimorphism and mammalian mating in the evolution of odor dimorphism, she believes that sexual dimorphism in size is the most common form

  18. Highly efficient molecular delivery into mammalian cells using carbon nanotube spearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    delivery technique, named nanotube spearing, based on the penetration of nickel- embedded nanotubes ferromagnetic catalyst nickel particles enclosed in their tips2. This structure makes nanotubes respondHighly efficient molecular delivery into mammalian cells using carbon nanotube spearing Dong Cai1

  19. INTRODUCTION Mammalian hemoglobin (Hb) is composed of two -type and two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    ), chloride ions (Cl­ ), protons (H+ ) and CO2 ­ thereby shifting the R}T equilibrium (Perutz, 1983; WeberR is the heat of the TrR transition and HEffector is the heat of effector (e.g. DPG, Cl­ , CO2 and H and evolutionary origins underlying the effect of temperature on the O2 binding properties of mammalian hemoglobins

  20. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  1. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  2. Fluorescent dyes for probing cellular functions associated with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluorescence dyes suitable for visualization of specific cellular functions associated with electron beam damage and carry out electron microscopy imaging of labelled cells....

  3. Cellular/Mollecular Intracellular Patch Electrochemistry: Regulation of Cytosolic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulzer, David

    Cellular/Mollecular Intracellular Patch Electrochemistry: Regulation of Cytosolic Catecholamines intracellular patch electrochemistry (IPE), a tech- nique that for the first time provides direct measurements

  4. Radio Planning of Energy-Aware Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvia Boiardi

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... Radio Planning of Energy-Aware Cellular Networks. Silvia Boiardi(Silvia.Boiardi ***at*** gerad.ca) Capone Antonio(antonio.capone ***at*** ...

  5. Evaluating Mappings for Cellular Automata Music Alexis Kirke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    Evaluating Mappings for Cellular Automata Music Alexis Kirke1 , Eduardo Miranda1 1 Interdisciplinary Centre for Computer Music Research (ICCMR), University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK {Alexis.Kirke

  6. Cellular Decision Making and Biological Noise: From Microbes to Mammals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balazsi, Gabor

    Cellular decision making is the process whereby cells assume different, functionally important and heritable fates without an associated genetic or environmental difference. Such stochastic cell fate decisions generate ...

  7. Signaling pathways that regulate cellular senescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freund, Adam Mark

    2010-01-01

    M) p53 inactivation increases DDR signaling but not p38MAPKexpression does not induce a DDR. Cells were infected asthat DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is essential but

  8. Semantic Responsibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toribio, Josefa

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to develop a notion of responsibility (semantic responsibility) that is to the notion of belief what epistemic responsibility is to the notion of justification. 'Being semantically responsible' ...

  9. Probabilistic Discovery of Overlapping Cellular Processes and Their Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    Probabilistic Discovery of Overlapping Cellular Processes and Their Regulation Alexis Battle providing a more biologically plausible model for the process of gene regulation. We present an algorithm be gained by modeling both the organization of genes into overlapping cellular processes and the regulatory

  10. Outage and Capacity Analysis of Cellular CDMA With Admission Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chockalingam, A.

    Outage and Capacity Analysis of Cellular CDMA With Admission Control S. AnandÝ , A. Chockalingam. Ltd., Bangalore, INDIA Abstract-- We analyze the outage and capacity performance of an interference based admission control strategy in cellular CDMA systems. Most approaches to estimate the outage

  11. Stochastic Power Control for Cellular Radio Systems \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Roy

    Stochastic Power Control for Cellular Radio Systems \\Lambda Sennur Ulukus Roy D. Yates July 11 In cellular wireless communication systems, the aim of power control is to assign each user a transmitter power level such that all users satisfy their quality of service (QoS) requirements. The power control

  12. COMPLETIONS OF CELLULAR ALGEBRAS R.M. Green

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Richard M.

    COMPLETIONS OF CELLULAR ALGEBRAS R.M. Green.M. GREEN One of the strengths of the theory of cellular algebras is that it provides a complete list Lancaster LA1 4YF England E-mail: r.m.green

  13. PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutter, Jared

    PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance Huai-Xiang Hao*, Caleb M. Cardon*, Wojtek in a cell-autonomous manner to maintain cellular energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target). The World Health Organization estimates that the current decade will witness a 46% increase in diabetes

  14. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #14 [Cellular Energetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    : Discuss the importance of energy to the body and metabolism Discuss cellular respiration in detail of chemical bonds into free energy for the cell to utilize; nature's storage and handling of energy may provide insight into our engineering of energy solutions Interactive Activity: Discussions on cellular

  15. Cellular Algebras and Graph Invariants Based on Quantum Walks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamie Smith

    2011-03-01

    We consider two graph invariants inspired by quantum walks- one in continuous time and one in discrete time. We will associate a matrix algebra called a cellular algebra with every graph. We show that, if the cellular algebras of two graphs have a similar structure, then they are not distinguished by either of the proposed invariants.

  16. The chaos within: exploring noise in cellular biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iain G. Johnston

    2012-08-10

    Cellular biology exists embedded in a world dominated by random dynamics and chance. Many vital molecules and pieces of cellular machinery diffuse within cells, moving along random trajectories as they collide with the other biomolecular inhabitants of the cell. Cellular components may block each other's progress, be produced or degraded at random times, and become unevenly separated as cells grow and divide. Cellular behaviour, including important features of stem cells, tumours and infectious bacteria, is profoundly influenced by the chaos which is the environment within the cell walls. Here we will look at some important causes and effects of randomness in cellular biology, and some ways in which researchers, helped by the vast amounts of data that are now flowing in, have made progress in describing the randomness of nature.

  17. Freezing / Thawing mammalian cells (AG/2-96) 1. Grow cells to confluency in 100 mm plates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Anirvan

    Freezing / Thawing mammalian cells (AG/2-96) Freezing: 1. Grow cells to confluency in 100 mm plates ml per vial), seal, place between styrofoam tube holders, and freeze at -70 C. 7. Transfer tubes

  18. The cell-cell junctions of mammalian testes: I. The adhering junctions of the seminiferous epithelium represent special differentiation structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domke, Lisa M.

    The seminiferous tubules and the excurrent ducts of the mammalian testis are physiologically separated from the mesenchymal tissues and the blood and lymph system by a special structural barrier to paracellular translocations ...

  19. Stress granules form in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera) in response to a variety of stressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Loren

    Stress granules form in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera) in response to a variety of stressors Many eukaryotes share a common response to environmental stresses. The responses include reorganization of cellular organelles and proteins. Similar stress responses between divergent species suggest that these pro

  20. The Cellular Mechanoresponse: Single-Cell Studies by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Alexis Kohnstamm

    2011-01-01

    L. (2008). Life and times of a cellular bleb. Biophys J 94,2007). Self?assembled cellular microarrays patterned usingand Ingber, D.  E. (2006). Cellular adaptation to mechanical

  1. Copper and Zinc Drive Inter-Domain Structure in the Cellular Prion Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Eric Graham Burton

    2015-01-01

    C. (1986). Scrapie and cellular PrP isoforms are encoded byStrittmatter, S.M. (2009). Cellular prion protein mediatesW. , et al. (1997). The cellular prion protein binds copper

  2. Cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 negatively regulates enterovirus and human rhinovirus infections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cathcart, AL; Rozovics, JM; Semler, BL

    2013-01-01

    N, Jackson RJ. 1999. unr, a cellular cytoplasmic RNA-bindingCellular mRNA Decay Protein AUF1 Negatively Regulatesof Print 31 July 2013. Cellular mRNA Decay Protein AUF1

  3. RESEARCH PAPER www.landesbioscience.com Cellular Logistics e29191-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ungermann, Christian

    RESEARCH PAPER www.landesbioscience.com Cellular Logistics e29191-1 Cellular Logistics 4, e29191-specific HOPS subunits reveal their distinct interaction with Ypt7 and vacuoles. Cellular Logistics 2014; 4:e

  4. Picornaviruses and nuclear functions: Targeting a cellular compartment distinct from the replication site of a positive-strand RNA virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flather, D; Semler, BL

    2015-01-01

    and Semler, B. L. (2013). Cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1pore complex: hijacking cellular phosphorylation machinery.2Apro expression on cellular metabolism. Inhibition of DNA

  5. Cellular Transport of Prostaglandins in the Ovine Uterus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Je Hoon

    2013-05-08

    by a PGT-mediated mechanism in sheep, new mechanistic insight into molecular mechanisms regulating cellular and compartmental transport of PGF2? at the time of luteolysis, and new mechanistic understanding of IFNT action and release of PGF2? from...

  6. A Lagrangian-Driven Cellular Automaton Supporting Quantum Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans H. Diel

    2015-08-23

    Models of areas of physics in terms of cellular automata have become increasingly popular. Cellular automata (CAs) support the modeling of systems with discrete state component values and enforce the comprehensive specification of the dynamic evolution of such systems. Because many areas of physics can be described by starting with a specific Lagrangian, the idea to derive a cellular automaton directly from the Lagrangian (or similar construct, such as the Hamiltonian or action) is not new. Previous work, however, indicated that the classical CA may not be a sufficient basis for the modeling of more advanced physics theories, such as quantum field theory. Specifically, the modeling of interactions in quantum field theory requires extensions and modifications of the classical CA. This paper describes a proposal for an extended cellular automaton that is suited for support of quantum field theory.

  7. A Lagrangian-Driven Cellular Automaton Supporting Quantum Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diel, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Models of areas of physics in terms of cellular automata have become increasingly popular. Cellular automata (CAs) support the modeling of systems with discrete state component values and enforce the comprehensive specification of the dynamic evolution of such systems. Because many areas of physics can be described by starting with a specific Lagrangian, the idea to derive a cellular automaton directly from the Lagrangian (or similar construct, such as the Hamiltonian or action) is not new. Previous work, however, indicated that the classical CA may not be a sufficient basis for the modeling of more advanced physics theories, such as quantum field theory. Specifically, the modeling of interactions in quantum field theory requires extensions and modifications of the classical CA. This paper describes a proposal for an extended cellular automaton that is suited for support of quantum field theory.

  8. Cellular and molecular correlates of neural morphallaxis in Lumbriculus variegatus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Veronica Giselle

    2006-08-16

    Tissue regeneration has intrigued biologists since the eighteenth century. While regeneration has been studied in many species, the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing successful compensation for lost body parts are poorly defined...

  9. Cellular/Molecular Connexin35 Mediates Electrical Transmission at Mixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rash, John E.

    Cellular/Molecular Connexin35 Mediates Electrical Transmission at Mixed Synapses on Mauthner Cells regions, suggesting that connexin35-mediated electrical transmission is common in goldfish brain" (electrical and chemical) synaptic terminals that offer the unique opportunity to correlate physiological

  10. Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    in hepa- tocyte and hepatoma cell lines where extensive gluconeogen- esis, urea production, and protein, therefore, can increase productivity compared to offline methods. Consistent automated OPARapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates Using HPLC with Automated

  11. Cellular/Molecular Fast-Activating Voltage-and Calcium-Dependent Potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular/Molecular Fast-Activating Voltage- and Calcium-Dependent Potassium (BK) Conductance present in the cellular membrane. Experimental and computational approaches have revealed the dynamic

  12. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Gotchy, R.L. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Implementing Per Bak's Sand Pile Model as a Two-Dimensional Cellular Automaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    -dimensional cellular automaton (checkerboard model) · Pseudo-code description of Per Bak's sand pile model (Winslow

  14. Open cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets K. K. Comstock,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    Open cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets R. Wood,1 K. K. Comstock,1 C. S. Bretherton cellular structure in marine stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific (SEP). Open cellular in the fractional coverage of open cellular convection over the broader SEP. This coverage is well correlated

  15. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  16. Quantum Dot Spin Cellular Automata for Realizing a Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolfazl Bayat; Charles E. Creffield; John H. Jefferson; Michael Pepper; Sougato Bose

    2015-09-09

    We show how "single" quantum dots, each hosting a singlet-triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast ($\\sim 10$ ns) deterministic coherent singlet-triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time $\\sim 300$ ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) coupling that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata and would offer speed, reduce dissipation, perform quantum computation, while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds -- the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge based classical cellular automata.

  17. High-throughput screening for modulators of cellular contractile force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Young; Tambe, Dhananjay; Chen, Bohao; Lavoie, Tera; Dowell, Maria; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Burger, Stephanie; Frykenberg, Matthew; Butler, James P; Stamer, W Daniel; Johnson, Mark; Solway, Julian; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    When cellular contractile forces are central to pathophysiology, these forces comprise a logical target of therapy. Nevertheless, existing high-throughput screens are limited to upstream signaling intermediates with poorly defined relationship to such a physiological endpoint. Using cellular force as the target, here we screened libraries to identify novel drug candidates in the case of human airway smooth muscle cells in the context of asthma, and also in the case of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells in the context of glaucoma. This approach identified several drug candidates for both asthma and glaucoma. We attained rates of 1000 compounds per screening day, thus establishing a force-based cellular platform for high-throughput drug discovery.

  18. Ratchet Cellular Automata for Colloids in Dynamic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2006-02-13

    We numerically investigate the transport of kinks in a ratchet cellular automata geometry for colloids interacting with dynamical traps. We find that thermal effects can enhance the transport efficiency in agreement with recent experiments. At high temperatures we observe the creation and annihilation of thermally induced kinks that degrade the signal transmission. We consider both the deterministic and stochastic cases and show how the trap geometry can be adjusted to switch between these two cases. The operation of the dynamical trap geometry can be achieved with the adjustment of fewer parameters than ratchet cellular automata constructed using static traps.

  19. A practical guide to microfluidic perfusion culture of adherent mammalian Lily Kim,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voldman, Joel

    , and controlled application of mechanical forces exerted via fluid flow. There are many challenges to designing, which affects cellular phenotypes.2,8 Laminar flow in microfluidic systems enables the controlled published as an Advance Article on the web 11th May 2007 DOI: 10.1039/b704602b Culturing cells

  20. Examination of mammalian microRNAs by high-throughput sequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, HyoJin Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs play an important role in a wide range of cellular events. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress expression of their target genes. Since miRNA ...

  1. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Ramos JW, The regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mammalian cells, Int J Biochem Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Joe W.

    signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mammalian cells, Int J Biochem Cell Biol (2008), doi:10.1016/j of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mammalian cells 2 3 Joe W. Ramos 2 Department of Natural Products Received in revised form 18 April 20089 Accepted 25 April 200810 Available online xxx11 12 Keywords:13 ERK

  2. Cellular/Molecular Spine Neck Plasticity Controls Postsynaptic Calcium Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oertner, Thomas

    as active electrical amplifiers (Segev and Rall, 1988). According to this theory, active spines couldCellular/Molecular Spine Neck Plasticity Controls Postsynaptic Calcium Signals through Electrical been proposed to function as electrical compartments for the active processing of local synaptic

  3. Identifying Important Places in People's Lives from Cellular Network Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    derived from government census data. Finally, we perform carbon footprint analyses on hundreds move about would help determine their carbon footprint and in turn help guide policies intended to reduce that footprint. Wireless cellular networks hold great potential for providing the necessary infor

  4. Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata SPICE Macro Model Northeastern University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    and majority voter. A full-adder is designed with QCA cells using the SPICE model as a test vehicle describes a SPICE model development method- ology for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) cells and presents a SPICE model for QCA cells. The model is val- idated by simulating the basic logic gates such as inverter

  5. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #14 [Cellular Energetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    of chemical bonds into free energy for the cell to utilize; nature's storage and handling of energy may provide insight into our engineering of energy solutions Interactive Activity: Discussions on cellular processes to produce energy efficiently. Session Outline: A. Basics of Energy 1. Thermodynamics

  6. Spatial Outage Probability for Cellular Networks Jean-Marc Kelif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    Spatial Outage Probability for Cellular Networks Jean-Marc Kelif France Telecom R&D Issy networks called the fluid model and we derive from this model analytical formulas for interference, outage probability, and spatial outage probability. The key idea of the fluid model is to consider the discrete base

  7. Cellular mechanisms of membrane protein folding William R Skach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Cellular mechanisms of membrane protein folding William R Skach The membrane protein­folding. This Perspective will focus on emerging evidence that the RTC functions as a protein-folding machine that restricts. The process of polytopic (multispanning) membrane protein folding can be viewed as a series of sequential

  8. Hyperbolic Real Quadratic Cellular Automata J. Delgado1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are hyperbolic for large values of the parameter. Keywords. Hyperbolicity. -limit set. Lattice Dynamical Systems systems generated by a group of spatial translations : M M, x = {x} (x) = {x }, that is ((x)) = x , #12. In [11] real cellular automata appear to describe bifurcations of coupled logistic map together a linear

  9. Optimal Base Station Density for Power Efficiency in Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    Optimal Base Station Density for Power Efficiency in Cellular Networks Sanglap Sarkar, Radha, power consumption, power efficiency, optimal base station density. I. INTRODUCTION Cell size reduction by increasing the number of macro base stations or adding tiers of low powered base stations. There are two

  10. NHLBI Workshop Summaries Resident Cellular Components of the Human Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelhardt, John F.

    NHLBI Workshop Summaries Resident Cellular Components of the Human Lung Current Knowledge and Goals, Maryland; 5 Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health and Cell Biology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; 11 Developmental Lung Biology Research

  11. Graphene and Nanowire Transistors for Cellular Interfaces and Electrical Recording

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Graphene and Nanowire Transistors for Cellular Interfaces and Electrical Recording Tzahi Cohen interfaces with cell membranes. Graphene has also been shown to be an attractive building block for nanoscale the first studies of graphene field effect transistors (Gra-FETs) as well as combined Gra- and NW

  12. Modeling triblock surfactant-templated mesostructured cellular foams Supriyo Bhattacharyaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Supriyo

    to understand the role of surfactant self-assembly in the synthesis of templated mesoporous materials, and inorganic oxide. Depending on the temperature and component concentrations, these systems phase separate to sphere transition associated with the synthesis of the mesostructured cellular foams MCFs . Pore size

  13. Mobility Management in Cellular Telephony Benjamin P. Cooke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobility Management in Cellular Telephony Benjamin P. Cooke , Darongsae Kwon , Dmitry Glotov. The left hand side of each inequality (5) is composed of the load resulting from hand-offs within a controller, from a controller, and to a controller. Here, q represents the load from handing over a call

  14. Cellular Automata Simulation of the Spatial Conformations of Polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Echeverria; W. Olivares-Rivas; K. Tucci

    2006-12-04

    We carried out a Cellular Automata simulation of a model polyelectrolyte solution at infinite dilution, in order to reproduce qualitatively its conformational properties. Our results predict the so called \\emph{pearl necklace} structures, which compare favorably with the more elaborated and costly Molecular Dynamics simulations.

  15. Evolving Cellular Automata for Location Management in Mobile Computing Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Dong S.

    entering one of these reporting cells. To create such an evolving CA system, cells in the network for a number of test problems. Index Terms--Cellular automata, genetic algorithms, mobile computing, mobility to interferences. On the other hand, a miss on the location of a mobile terminal will necessitate a search

  16. Corrosion of, and cellular responses to MgZnCa bulk metallic glasses Xuenan Gu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China c metallic glass with different compositions (Mg66Zn30Ca4 and Mg70Zn25Ca5) have been prepared for this study and their feasibility as biodegradable metallic materials have been eval- uated by the microstructural, surface analysis

  17. Anc1 : a new player in the cellular response to DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlich, Rachel L

    2007-01-01

    The continuity of living organisms depends on their ability to protect their genomes from a constant assault by internal and external sources of damage. To this end, cells have developed a variety of mechanisms to avoid ...

  18. Proteomic response to metabolic stress and cellular dysfunction in relation to Alzheimer's disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Abigail Grace

    2014-06-28

    Vascular risk factors inducing a state of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and metabolic stress are thought to influence the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the complex molecular ...

  19. Inhibition of Pyruvate Kinase M2 by Reactive Oxygen Species Contributes to Cellular Antioxidant Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    Control of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations is critical for cancer cell survival. We show that, in human lung cancer cells, acute increases in intracellular concentrations of ROS caused inhibition ...

  20. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 642, pp. 16, 3 figs. Pteropus vampyrus. By Thomas H. Kunz and Deborah P. Jones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayssen, Virginia

    MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 642, pp. 1­6, 3 figs. Pteropus vampyrus. By Thomas H. Kunz and Deborah P in- cludes 58 species (Koopman, 1993). Andersen (1912) divided Pter- opus into 17 species groups; P. vampyrus is in the vampyrus group, which also includes P. giganteus, P. intermedius, and P. lylei (Corbet

  1. Photo-dissociation quantum yields of mammalian oxyhemoglobin investigated by a nanosecond laser technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Ningli [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Shuyi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: zhangsy@nju.edu.cn; Kuo Paokuang [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qu Min [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Fang Jianwen [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Li Jiahuang [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hua Zichun [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-02-23

    The photo-dissociations of oxyhemoglobin of several mammals, such as human, bovine, pig, horse, and rabbit, have been studied. By means of optical pump-probe technique, the quantum yields for photo-dissociation of these oxyhemoglobin have been determined at pH 7 and 20 {sup o}C. A nanosecond laser at 532 nm is used as the pumping source, and a xenon lamp through a monochrometer provides a probe light at 432 nm. The experimental results show that the quantum yields of these mammalian oxyhemoglobin are different from each other, especially for that of rabbit. By analyzing the amino acid sequences and tetramer structures as well as the flexibility and hydrophobicity of the different hemoglobin, possible explanations for the differences are proposed.

  2. Structure and biochemical characterization of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen from a parasitic protozoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-02-08

    Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a toroidal-shaped protein that is involved in cell-cycle control, DNA replication and DNA repair. Parasitic protozoa are early-diverged eukaryotes that are responsible for neglected diseases. In this work, a PCNA from a parasitic protozoon was identified, cloned and biochemically characterized and its crystal structure was determined. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that PCNA from Entamoeba histolytica assembles as a homotrimer that is able to interact with and stimulate the activity of a PCNA-interacting peptide-motif protein from E. histolytica, EhDNAligI. The data indicate a conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of PCNA-mediated interactions between metazoa, yeast and parasitic protozoa.

  3. Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand Jan-Hendrik S. HofmeyraY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minireview Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand Jan-Hendrik S. HofmeyraY *, Athel March 2000 Edited by Gunnar von Heijne Abstract Cellular metabolism is a molecular economy

  4. Replacing cellular with WiFi direct communication for a highly interactive, high bandwidth multiplayer game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Pablo (Pablo Jose)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to explore the benefits of replacing cellular with Wi-Fi Direct communication in mobile applications. Cellular connections consume significant power on mobile devices and are too slow for many ...

  5. Lorentz symmetry for 3d Quantum Cellular Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

    2015-03-03

    We introduce a definition of Lorentz transformations in the framework of quantum cellular automata. Our definition does not require space-time, and retains the usual interpretation in the emergent one. The definition is group theoretical, with flatness of space-time corresponding to Abelianity of the cellular automaton group. We consider the covariance in the case of the Weyl automaton. The notion of particle as Poincar\\'e irreducible representation survives at all scales. The interpolation of the Lorentz symmetry from the discrete to the continuum scale occurs through a nonlinear representation. We also discuss the connection of the nonlinear Lorentz transformations with the Poincar\\'e and k-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra, the emerging non-commutative space-time, and the deformed Heisenberg commutation relations.

  6. Quantum State Transfer through Noisy Quantum Cellular Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Avalle; Marco G. Genoni; Alessio Serafini

    2015-04-22

    We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy quantum cellular automata in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario.

  7. The cellular role of the specific immune system in fracture repair 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    This thesis embodies a novel investigation into the cellular role of the specific immune system in fracture repair....

  8. Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie , Dmitri Volfson2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    1 Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie algorithm Ting Lu1 , Dmitri Volfson2,3 , Lev of the cellular volume, and demonstrate that a careful rederivation of the Gillespie algorithm is important when all stochastically simulated reactions have rates slower or comparable to the cellular growth rate

  9. Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie T. Lu, D. Volfson, L. Tsimring and J. Hasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasty, Jeff

    Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie algorithm T. Lu, D. Volfson, L. Tsimring and J. Hasty of growth and division of the cellular volume, and demonstrate that a careful re-derivation of the Gillespie to the cellular growth rate. For an unregulated single-gene system, we illustrate our findings using recently

  10. CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED CRYPTOSYSTEM Subhayan Sen 1 Chandrama Shaw 1 Dipanwita Roy Chowdhuri 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Niloy

    CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED CRYPTOSYSTEM (CAC) Subhayan Sen 1 Chandrama Shaw 1 Dipanwita Roy Chowdhuri introduces a Cellular Automata (CA) based sym- metric key cryptosystem for block cipher. The scheme named as CAC (Cellular Automata based Cryptosystem) employs a series of transforms { simple, moderately complex

  11. Cellular metal lattices with hollow trusses Douglas T. Queheillalt *, Haydn N.G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Cellular metal lattices with hollow trusses Douglas T. Queheillalt *, Haydn N.G. Wadley Department; accepted 21 September 2004 Available online 22 October 2004 Abstract Cellular metal lattice truss to buckling offsetting the usually rapid drop in strength as the relative density decreases in cellular

  12. CELLULAR FOAMS: A POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE SOLID BREEDER MATERIAL FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    CELLULAR FOAMS: A POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE SOLID BREEDER MATERIAL FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS S. Sharafat-1597; shahrams@ucla.edu Ultramet Inc., Pacoima CA, Pacoima CA 91331-2210 Ceramic foam and cellular materials the past decade advances in manufacturing of cellular materials have resulted in ceramics with highly

  13. CELLULAR AUTOMATA MODELS AND MHD APPROACH IN THE CONTEXT OF SOLAR FLARES 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    CELLULAR AUTOMATA MODELS AND MHD APPROACH IN THE CONTEXT OF SOLAR FLARES 1 Anastasios Anastasiadis anastasi@space.noa.gr Abstract: We address in detail the cellular automaton approach, developed be used. These types of mathematical tools are the Automata and the Cellular Automata (CA). The advantage

  14. Case: Cellular phones Authors: Michael Hamid, Jose de Jesus Rodriguez, Nicole Trahan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John M.

    Case: Cellular phones Authors: Michael Hamid, Jose de Jesus Rodriguez, Nicole Trahan Suggested Courses: Antenna Thy/Des Level: Junior I. Narrative Cellular phones are one of the most popular items signals in the 800 MHz band and up to and beyond a 30 mile radius. Lately cellular phones have been

  15. Cellular Data Network Infrastructure Characterization and Implication on Mobile Content Placement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Zhuoqing Morley

    Cellular Data Network Infrastructure Characterization and Implication on Mobile Content Placement@eecs.umich.edu ABSTRACT Despite the tremendous growth in the cellular data network usage due to the popularity of smartphones, so far there is rather lim- ited understanding of the network infrastructure of various cellular

  16. Cellular Patterns in the Inner Retina of Adult Zebrafish: Quantitative Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Laurel H.

    Cellular Patterns in the Inner Retina of Adult Zebrafish: Quantitative Analyses and a Computational 13244 ABSTRACT The mechanisms that control cellular pattern formation in the growing vertebrate central nervous system are poorly understood. In an effort to reveal mechanistic rules of cellular pattern

  17. Cellular metals Anthony G Evans*, John W Hutchinson* and Michael F Ashby?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    233 Cellular metals Anthony G Evans*, John W Hutchinson* and Michael F Ashby? The property profile exhibited by cellular metals identifies several applications, especially in technologies requiring the properties that govern these performance benefits and the cellular architecture, cell morphology and density

  18. Special issue CellBio-X Engineered materials and the cellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Special issue ­ CellBio-X Engineered materials and the cellular microenvironment: a strengthening have elucidated the significance of the cellular microenvironment. Here, we highlight some of the major. In contrast, the current understand- ing of how insoluble cues, such as adhesion to the extra- cellular matrix

  19. EmergeNet: Robust, Rapidly Deployable Cellular Networks Daniel Iland and Elizabeth M. Belding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    . Keywords-Cellular networks, community cellular networks, emergency networks, GSM, solar energy, wireless deployable, small scale cellular network. In this article, we describe EmergeNet, which addresses high load, limited bandwidth, and software or hardware failures. EmergeNet is uniquely well suited

  20. The Unfolded Protein Response Triggers Selective mRNA Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicchitta, Chris

    of translo- cation, this mechanism may serve as a potent means to transiently reduce ER protein folding load- tion as a selective and rapid regulatory feature of the cellular response to protein folding stress folding load of the ER and increase the organelle's protein folding capacity, the UPR pro- vides

  1. Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guerin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.

    2015-09-11

    We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmore »at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global disorder is observed in both three-dimensional experiments and simulations from realistic noisy initial conditions. The, erratic tip splitting events promoted by large amplitude oscillations contribute to maintaining the long-range array disorder, unlike in thin sample experiments where long-range coherence of oscillations is experimentally observable.« less

  2. The genomic and genetic basis of mammalian sexual reproduction : sequence of the mouse Y chromosome, and a gene regulatory program for meiotic prophase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soh, Ying Qi Shirleen

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian sexual reproduction requires sexual determination, sexual differentiation, and the production of haploid gametes. In this thesis, I examined the genomic evolution of the mouse Y chromosome, which instructs sexual ...

  3. Effects of Pleistocene environmental changes on the distribution and community structure of the mammalian fauna of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    of the mammalian fauna of Mexico Gerardo Ceballos a , Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales b, , Eduardo Ponce a a Instituto de Ecología, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-275; México D.F. 04510, Mexico b Subdirección de Laboratorios y Apoyo Académico, INAH, Moneda # 16, Col. Centro, 06060 México, D.F, Mexico a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o

  4. The effects of nitrogen oxides on cytochrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxidations in mammalian lung 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Leo Dean

    1979-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN ~IAN IUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN MAMMALIAN LUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Approved as to style and content by...

  5. ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent and Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zask, Arie; Verheijen, Jeroen C.; Curran, Kevin; Kaplan, Joshua; Richard, David J.; Nowak, Pawel; Malwitz, David J.; Brooijmans, Natasja; Bard, Joel; Svenson, Kristine; Lucas, Judy; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Hollander, Irwin; Gibbons, James J.; Abraham, Robert T.; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Mansour, Tarek S.; Yu, Ker

    2009-09-18

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of growth, survival, and metabolism, is a validated target for cancer therapy. Rapamycin and its analogues, allosteric inhibitors of mTOR, only partially inhibit one mTOR protein complex. ATP-competitive, global inhibitors of mTOR that have the potential for enhanced anticancer efficacy are described. Structural features leading to potency and selectivity were identified and refined leading to compounds with in vivo efficacy in tumor xenograft models.

  6. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  7. A solar cellular automata model based on reduced MHD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchlin, E; Galtier, S; Velli, M; Einaudi, G; Vial, J C

    2003-01-01

    A 3D cellular automata (CA) model inspired by the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations is presented to simulate solar impulsive events generated along a coronal magnetic loop. The CA model consists of a set of planes distributed along a magnetic loop between which the information propagates through Alfven waves. Statistical properties in terms of power-laws for energies and durations of dissipative events are obtained, in agreement with X-ray and UV flares observations. The possible existence of observational biases is discussed.

  8. An intelligent floor field cellular automata model for pedestrian dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekaterina Kirik; Tat'yana Yurgel'yan; Dmitriy Krouglov

    2009-06-15

    A stochastic cellular automata (CA) model for pedestrian dynamics is presented. Our goal is to simulate different types of pedestrian movement, from regular to panic. But here we emphasize regular situations which imply that pedestrians analyze environment and choose their route more carefully. And transition probabilities have to depict such effect. The potentials of floor fields and environment analysis are combined in the model obtained. People patience is included in the model. This makes simulation of pedestrians movement more realistic. Some simulation results are presented and comparison with basic FF-model is made.

  9. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu -Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muńoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege  G.; Helland, Ĺslaug; et al

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatialmore »distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.« less

  10. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu -Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muńoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege  G.; Helland, Ĺslaug; Rye, Inga  H.; Borresen-Dale, Anne -Lise; Maruyama, Reo; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Dowsett, Mitchell; Jones, Robin  L.; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Gascon, Pere; Gönen, Mithat; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatial distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.

  11. Dirac Quantum Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallick, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implications in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum systems and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using different set of conditions which are not uniquely defined. The form of the operators in these model are not always in implementable configuration on an other system. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) which are uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the Dirac quantum cellular automaton (DQCA). This will bridge the connection between Dirac equation(DE)-DQCA-DTQW and eliminate the explicit use of invariance, symmetries and limiting range of parameter to establish the connections. For a combination of par...

  12. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  13. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  14. Energy-Efficient Transmission Schemes in Cooperative Cellular Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wanlu

    2010-01-01

    Energy-efficient communication is an important requirement for mobile devices, as the battery technology has not kept up with the growing requirements stemming from ubiquitous multimedia applications. This paper considers energy-efficient transmission schemes in cooperative cellular systems with unbalanced traffic between uplink and downlink. Theoretically, we derive the optimal transmission data rate, which minimizes the total energy consumption of battery-powered terminals per information bit. The energy-efficient cooperation regions are then investigated to illustrate the effects of relay locations on the energy-efficiency of the systems, and the optimal relay location is found for maximum energy-efficiency. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the tradeoff between energy-efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  15. Cell division: a source of active stress in cellular monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Saw, Thuan B; Lim, Chwee T; Ladoux, Benoit; Yeomans, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the notion of cell division-induced activity and show that the cell division generates extensile forces and drives dynamical patterns in cell assemblies. Extending the hydrodynamic models of lyotropic active nematics we describe turbulent-like velocity fields that are generated by the cell division in a confluent monolayer of cells. We show that the experimentally measured flow field of dividing Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells is reproduced by our modeling approach. Division-induced activity acts together with intrinsic activity of the cells in extensile and contractile cell assemblies to change the flow and director patterns and the density of topological defects. Finally we model the evolution of the boundary of a cellular colony and compare the fingering instabilities induced by cell division to experimental observations on the expansion of MDCK cell cultures.

  16. Are nonlinear discrete cellular automata compatible with quantum mechanics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Thomas Elze

    2015-05-14

    We consider discrete and integer-valued cellular automata (CA). A particular class of which comprises "Hamiltonian CA" with equations of motion that bear similarities to Hamilton's equations, while they present discrete updating rules. The dynamics is linear, quite similar to unitary evolution described by the Schroedinger equation. This has been essential in our construction of an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models, which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale. Based on Shannon's sampling theory, it leads, for example, to a one-to-one relation between quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. The important issue of linearity of the theory is examined here by incorporating higher-order nonlinearities into the underlying action. These produce inconsistent nonlocal (in time) effects when trying to describe continuously such nonlinear CA. Therefore, in the present framework, only linear CA and local quantum mechanical dynamics are compatible.

  17. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  18. Cellular resolutions of noncommutative toric algebras from superpotentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alastair Craw; Alexander Quintero Velez

    2011-12-14

    This paper constructs cellular resolutions for classes of noncommutative algebras, analogous to those introduced by Bayer-Sturmfels in the commutative case. To achieve this we generalise the dimer model construction of noncommutative crepant resolutions of toric algebras in dimension three by associating a superpotential and a notion of consistency to toric algebras of arbitrary dimension. For consistent algebras $A$, the coherent component of the fine moduli space of $A$-modules is constructed explicitly by GIT and provides a partial resolution of $\\Spec Z(A)$. For abelian skew group algebras and algebraically consistent dimer model algebras, we introduce a cell complex $\\Delta$ in a real torus whose cells describe uniformly all maps in the minimal projective bimodule resolution of $A$. We illustrate the general construction of $\\Delta$ for an example in dimension four arising from a tilting bundle on a smooth toric Fano threefold to highlight the importance of the incidence function on $\\Delta$.

  19. Dirac Quantum Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arindam Mallick; C. M. Chandrashekar

    2015-09-29

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implications in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum systems and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using different set of conditions which are not uniquely defined. The form of the operators in these model are not always in implementable configuration on an other system. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) which are uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the Dirac quantum cellular automaton (DQCA). This will bridge the connection between Dirac equation(DE)-DQCA-DTQW and eliminate the explicit use of invariance, symmetries and limiting range of parameter to establish the connections. For a combination of parameters defining the split-step DTQW, we will show the recovery of all the fine oscillation of the probability distribution in position observed in DQCA but not in conventional DTQW. We will also present the Zitterbewegung oscillations and quantify the entanglement as a function of that parameters that define split-step DTQW. The unique definition of DTQW along with the parameter tuneability demonstrated in experimental implementation will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator with access to different physical regime and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  20. Recipes and mechanisms of cellular reprogramming: a case study on budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Shengchao; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    as: Ding and Wang: Recipes and mechanisms of cellularARTICLE Open Access Recipes and mechanisms of cellularkey challenge is to find the recipes of perturbing genes to

  1. iPad Price Guide -2015 Wi-Fi Only Wi-Fi/Cellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    iPad Price Guide - 2015 Wi-Fi Only Wi-Fi/Cellular 16GB 64GB 128GB Wi-Fi Only Wi-Fi/Cellular 16GB 64, 5MP iSight Camera Available in Space Grey or Silver Capacity Wi-Fi Only ÂŁ250 ex VAT ÂŁ281 ex VAT Wi-Fi/Cellular in Space Grey or Silver Capacity Wi-Fi Only ÂŁ187 ex VAT ÂŁ219 ex VAT Wi-Fi/Cellular ÂŁ266 ex VAT ÂŁ297 ex VAT

  2. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, 0270-7306/97/$04.00 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spang, Rainer

    for this parasite heat shock protein during the initial stages of a mammalian infection. Under environmental stress the stress-induced expression of Hsp104, a member of the ClpB family of heat shock proteins (7, 26), leads to increased tolerance to heat stress and various chemical stresses (25, 33, 34). Hsp104 forms a homohexamer

  3. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

  4. Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; Yang, Qing; Xiao, Heng

    2014-11-27

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution-dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have smaller liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we develop a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This ensures that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC, the most common MCC type over the VOCALS-REx region. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between horizontal cell size and boundary layer height seen in satellite observations. However, the 9-km simulation is unable to resolve smaller circulations corresponding to shallower boundary layers, instead producing invariant MCC horizontal scale for all simulated boundary layers depths. The results imply that climate models with grid spacing of roughly 3 km or smaller may be needed to properly simulate the MCC structure in the marine stratocumulus regions.

  5. Manipulation of cellular DNA repair by early adenovirus proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orazio, Nicole Ise

    2010-01-01

    The function of BLM in the DDR and in processing of DNA endscellular DNA damage response (DDR) functions to inhibit thespecific components of the DDR, and provides insight into

  6. Systems biology of the cardiac hypoxia response in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feala, Jacob Daniel

    2008-01-01

    fermentation is well known, and in hypoxic mammalian muscle amino groups are also expected to come from glutamate (

  7. Fabrication of Functionally Graded-cellular Structures of Cement-based Materials by Co-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Fabrication of Functionally Graded-cellular Structures of Cement-based Materials by Co- extrusion Y-extrusion of layered cement-based materials. The paste flow in the barrel and the die land in a ram extruder should. The functionally graded cellular structures of cement-based materials were successfully fabricated by co

  8. Impact of Topology and Shadowing on the Outage Probability of Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    Impact of Topology and Shadowing on the Outage Probability of Cellular Networks Jean-Marc Kelif--This paper proposes an analytical study of the shadowing impact on the outage probability in cellular radio in the outage probability. From f, we are able to derive the outage probability of a mobile station (MS

  9. On the Impact of Mobility on Outage Probability in Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    On the Impact of Mobility on Outage Probability in Cellular Networks Jean-Marc Kelif France Telecom an analytical study of the mobility in cellular networks and its impact on quality of service and outage power. It allows us to analyze users mobility and to derive expressions of the outage probability. We

  10. The study of solar flares with the extended cellular automaton (XCA) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    ) at a temporal snap­shot during a flare. explain the power­law frequency distributions of the solar flareThe study of solar flares with the extended cellular automaton (X­CA) model H. Isliker 1 , A of cellular automaton (CA) model, the extended CA (X­CA), for the study of solar flares. The X­CA model

  11. Exploiting Hidden Convexity For Flexible And Robust Resource Allocation In Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chee Wei

    transmission in a CDMA cellular network, we propose an optimal power control scheme with congestionExploiting Hidden Convexity For Flexible And Robust Resource Allocation In Cellular Networks Chee of the SIR-balancing power algorithm is optimized. I. INTRODUCTION A. Motivation Data transmission

  12. Random Linear Cellular Automata: Fractals associated with random multiplication of polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauldin, R. Daniel

    cellular automaton (LCA). As in the case of LCA with states in a nite eld we associate with this sequence with respect to linear cellular automata (LCA) with states in the residue classes of the integers modulo-similarity properties of the evolution patterns of the LCA. The self-similarity structure of the evolution set of LCA

  13. First Impressions on the State of Cellular Data Connectivity in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribeiro, Vinay

    First Impressions on the State of Cellular Data Connectivity in India Zahir Koradia Goutham Mannava Triukose Dept. of Comp Sc IIT Bombay Mumbai, India Dept. of Comp Sc IIT Delhi§ New Delhi, India National ICT Australia Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT Cellular penetration in India has grown tremendously in re

  14. Impact of Spatio-Temporal Power Sharing Policies on Cellular Network Greening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yung

    Impact of Spatio-Temporal Power Sharing Policies on Cellular Network Greening Jeongho Kwak, Kyuho in IM schemes on cellular network greening, where different spatio-temporal power sharing policies with greening, from which we first develop four IM schemes with different power sharing policies. Through

  15. Linking molecular affinity and cellular specificity in cadherin-mediated adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    Linking molecular affinity and cellular specificity in cadherin-mediated adhesion P. Katsambaa,b,1 Kingdom Contributed by Barry H. Honig, May 15, 2009 (sent for review May 4, 2009) Many cell­cell adhesive is poorly understood, in part because the relationship between cellular adhesive specificity and intermolec

  16. IEEE Wireless Communications April 200710 1536-1284/07/$20.00 2007 IEEE Cellular device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Zygmunt J.

    IEEE Wireless Communications · April 200710 1536-1284/07/$20.00 © 2007 IEEE AP Cellular device Cellular RAN BS HSS: Home subscriber HLR: Home location register FUTURE CONVERGED WIRELESS AND MOBILITY PLATFORM INTRODUCTION The ever-increasing demand of users for various wireless communication services has

  17. Cellular Computing and Least Squares for partial differential problems parallel solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Fressengeas; Hervé Frezza-Buet

    2010-01-29

    This paper shows how partial differential problems can be solved thanks to cellular computing and an adaptation of the Least Squares Finite Elements Method. As cellular computing can be implemented on distributed parallel architectures, this method allows the distribution of a resource demanding differential problem over a computer network.

  18. Mechanistic links between cellular trade-offs, gene expression, and growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swain, Peter

    Mechanistic links between cellular trade-offs, gene expression, and growth Andrea Y. Weißea, are not well understood. Here we consider three trade-offs that, because of limitations in levels of cellular energy, free ribosomes, and proteins, are faced by all living cells and we construct a mechanistic model

  19. A Mobility Model for Cost Analysis in Integrated Cellular/WLANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Nirmala

    A Mobility Model for Cost Analysis in Integrated Cellular/WLANs Nirmala Shenoy, Bruce Hartpence, Information Technology Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester NY 14623, USA Rafael Mantilla that can be used to study the costs and benefits of integrating cellular and Wireless LANs, from a vendor

  20. Research article AtObgC-AtRSH1 interaction may play a vital role in stress response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Keun Woo

    Research article AtObgC-AtRSH1 interaction may play a vital role in stress response signal/synthetase, is vital for the modulation of intra- cellular ppGpp levels during bacterial responses to environmental in chloroplasts. Based on these results, we propose that the AtObgCeAtRSH1 interaction plays a vital role in pp

  1. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have only a small effect on cloud properties in the investigated cases. This indicates that sub-grid scale spatial variability in the surface flux of sensible and latent heat and of sea salt aerosol may not be required in large scale and global models to describe marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness.

  2. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B.; Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G.; Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Manti, L.

    2013-07-26

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/?m on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately following irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of repair capability showed that the cells irradiated with 1 and 2 Gy almost completely recovered from the damage, but not, however, 3 Gy treated cells in which DNA damage was not recovered. In addition, the results indicate the importance of the use of an appropriate control in radiobiological in vitro analysis.

  3. Cellular Networks as Models for Planck-Scale Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred Requardt

    1998-06-17

    Starting from the working hypothesis that both physics and the corresponding mathematics have to be described by means of discrete concepts on the Planck scale, one of the many problems one has to face in this enterprise is to find the discrete protoforms of the building blocks of our ordinary continuum physics and mathematics. We base our own approach on what we call `cellular networks', consisting of cells (nodes) interacting with each other via bonds (figuring as elementary interactions) according to a certain `local law'. Geometrically our dynamical networks are living on graphs. Hence a substantial amount of the investigation is devoted to the developement of various versions of discrete (functional) analysis and geometry on such (almost random) webs. Another important topic we address is a suitable concept of intrinsic (fractal) dimension on erratic structures of this kind. In the course of the investigation we make comments concerning both different and related approaches to quantum gravity as, say, the spin network framework. It may perhaps be said that certain parts of our programme seem to be a realisation of ideas sketched by Smolin some time ago (see the introduction).

  4. Asymptotic properties of the Dirac quantum cellular automaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Pérez

    2015-04-28

    We show that the Dirac quantum cellular automaton [Ann. Phys. 354 (2015) 244] shares many properties in common with the discrete-time quantum walk. These similarities can be exploited to redefine the automaton as a unitary process that takes place at regular time steps on a one-dimensional lattice with an arbitrary lattice spacing. In this way, it becomes an alternative to the quantum walk, with a dispersion relation that can be controlled by a mass parameter, playing a similar role to the coin angle in the quantum walk. Moreover, the Dirac Hamiltonian is recovered under a suitable limit. We also provide two independent analytical approximations to the long term probability distribution. It is shown that, starting from localized conditions, the asymptotic value of the entropy of entanglement between internal and motional degrees of freedom overcomes the known limit that is approached by the quantum walk for the same initial conditions, and are similar to the ones achieved by highly localized states of the Dirac equation.

  5. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  6. Hysteresis in the cell response to time-dependent substrate stiffness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Besser; U. S. Schwarz

    2010-07-07

    Mechanical cues like the rigidity of the substrate are main determinants for the decision making of adherent cells. Here we use a mechano-chemical model to predict the cellular response to varying substrate stiffness. The model equations combine the mechanics of contractile actin filament bundles with a model for the Rho-signaling pathway triggered by forces at cell-matrix contacts. A bifurcation analysis of cellular contractility as a function of substrate stiffness reveals a bistable response, thus defining a lower threshold of stiffness, below which cells are not able to build up contractile forces, and an upper threshold of stiffness, above which cells are always in a strongly contracted state. Using the full dynamical model, we predict that rate-dependent hysteresis will occur in the cellular traction forces when cells are exposed to substrates of time-dependent stiffness.

  7. Cellular structures in the high-latitude thermosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowley, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ. Laurel, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ. Laurel, MD (United States); Schoendorf, J.; Roble, R.G. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others] [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); and others

    1996-01-01

    An organized density (and pressure) structure was recently discovered in the neutral thermosphere at high-latitudes. The structure consists of two to four high- and low-density regions having diameters of 1000 to 2000 km. The density in each region is enhanced or depleted from the hemispheric average by up to 30%. The structure is thus a significant feature of the near-Earth space environment at high-latitudes. The authors refer to each distinct region of enhanced or depleted density as a density {open_quotes}cell.{close_quotes} The cells extend upward from about 120 km into the upper thermosphere, and once formed they remain approximately fixed with respect to the geomagnetic pole. A parametric study of the density cell morphology for different magnetic activity levels is described for equinox solar minimum using the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere ionosphere general circulation model (NCAR model). The TIGCM simulations were used to predict the large density perturbations observed by the S85-1 satellite in a circular sun-synchronous orbit near 200 km altitudes. The most obvious manifestations of the cells was the presence of density peaks located near 70{degrees}{Lambda} on the dayside and nightside, and a density minimum near the magnetic pole. Since high-latitude densities are generally expected to increase during magnetic activity, the low densities over the pole are perhaps the most interesting feature of the cell structure discussed here. The satellite data confirm the existence of the cellular structure over a range of magnetic activity levels. The discovery of the cells is important because the structure provides a unifying framework for the analysis and interpretation of high-latitude data from both past and future experiments. The cells result from various forms of coupling between the ionosphere and thermosphere. The cell formation is quantitatively consistent with concepts from dynamic meteorology. 34 refs., 11 figs.

  8. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  9. Independent Mammalian Genome Contractions Following the KT Boundary Mina Rho,* Mo Zhou,* Xiang Gao, Sun Kim,* Haixu Tang,* and Michael Lynch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Michael

    Independent Mammalian Genome Contractions Following the KT Boundary Mina Rho,* Mo Zhou,* Xiang Gao may also have long-lasting effects on genomic architecture. Here we show that widespread reductions in genome size have occurred in multiple lineages of mammals subsequent to the Cretaceous­ Tertiary (KT

  10. Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis?. An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    A recipe for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones (Athens).physbeh.2011.11.016. Does cellular aging relate to patternsAllostatic load; Telomere; Cellular aging; Stress; HPA axis

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Tai Chi Reverse Cellular and Genomic Markers of Inflammation in Late Life Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    2008): Sleep loss activates cellular in?ammatory signaling.al. (2014): Tai Chi, cellular in?ammation, and transcriptomeTherapy and Tai Chi Reverse Cellular and Genomic Markers of

  12. Autoantibody response to microsomal epoxide hydrolase in hepatitis C and A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Autoantibody response to microsomal epoxide hydrolase in hepatitis C and A Toshitaka Akatsuka a of hepatitis C cases and are suspected to be part of viral pathogenesis. The AN6520 antigen (AN-Ag) is a normal cellular protein mainly expressed in liver that was found associated with non-A, non-B hepatitis

  13. Compressive behavior of trabecular bone in the proximal tibia using a cellular solid model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prommin, Danu

    2005-11-01

    In this study, trabecular architecture is considered as a cellular solid structure, including both intact and damaged bone models. ??Intact?? bone models were constructed based on ideal versions of 25, 60 and 80-year-old ...

  14. Detecting the Presence of a Proximate Cellular User through Distributed Femtocell Sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parag, Pankaj 1988-

    2012-11-15

    to gain insight about proximate cellular devices. The proposed inference scheme leads to a significant performance gain over oblivious femtocells. Experimental results are provided to support this study and its conclusions....

  15. Design and application of a cellular, piezoelectric, artificial muscle actuator for biorobotic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Secord, Thomas W. (Thomas William)

    2010-01-01

    One of the foremost challenges in robotics is the development of muscle-like actuators that have the capability to reproduce the smooth motions observed in animals. Biological muscles have a unique cellular structure that ...

  16. Design and analysis of active fluid-and-cellular solid composites for controllable stiffness robotic elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Nadia G. (Nadia Gen San)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the use of a new class of materials for realizing soft robots. Specifically, meso-scale composites--composed of cellular solids impregnated with active fluids-were be designed ...

  17. Stochastic Forecasts Achieve High Throughput and Low Delay over Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Balakrishnan, Hari; Winstein, Keith J.; Sivaraman Kaushalram, Anirudh; Balakrishnan, Hari

    Sprout is an end-to-end transport protocol for interactive applications that desire high throughput and low delay. Sprout works well over cellular wireless networks, where link speeds change dramatically with time, and ...

  18. Cellular and genetic mechanisms of new tissue production in the regenerating planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Daniel Elger

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of missing body parts is biologically fascinating, yet poorly understood. Many instances of regeneration, such as the replacement of amphibian limbs or planarian heads, require both a source for new cellular ...

  19. Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular Resolution: Multi-hour Simulation of Drug-induced Arrhythmias Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  20. Comprehensive functional testing and dynamic compensation techniques for Cellular Neural Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimaila, Michael Russell

    1995-01-01

    Cellular Neural Networks (CNN's) are analog, non-linear, dynamic systems which are especially well suited for solving problems in the areas of image processing and pattern recognition. State of the art implementations of ...

  1. Investigations of Game of Life cellular automata rules on Penrose Tilings: lifetime and ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    Investigations of Game of Life cellular automata rules on Penrose Tilings: lifetime and ash; section 6 reports the statistics of lifetimes, ash densities, and growth of the region of activity. 2

  2. Mapping textures on 3d terrains: a hybrid cellular automata approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinvhal, Swapnil

    2007-04-25

    It is a time consuming task to generate textures for large 3D terrain surfaces in computer games, flight simulations and computer animations. This work explores the use of cellular automata in the automatic generation of ...

  3. E. coliquantum dot bioconjugates as whole-cell fluorescent reporters for probing cellular damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    . In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were utilized as a model nanomaterial to probe cellular attraction16 and nickel- based histidine tagging.3 Covalent conjugation of QDs is the most commonly used

  4. Mechanical Signaling Induced Cellular Remodeling Studied By Integrated Optical And Atomic Force Microscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreenivasappa, Harini Bytaraya

    2014-12-08

    Vascular wall composition and mechanics are important for cardiovascular physiology and pathology. The reciprocal interaction between cells and their microenvironment influence cellular adaptation to external mechanical cues through the remodeling...

  5. Cellular resolution ex vivo imaging of gastrointestinal tissues with coherence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, James G.

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to improve imaging depth and contrast, enabling cellular imaging in human tissues. We aim to investigate OCM for ex ...

  6. Cellular and axonal plasticity in the lesioned spinal cord of adult zebrafish 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuscha, Veronika

    2011-11-25

    that signals released by descending axons are involved in cellular regeneration around the lesion site. Dopaminergic axons of supraspinal origin sprout rostral, but are almost completely absent caudal to the lesion site at two weeks post-lesion. Moreover, we...

  7. Engineered sensors and genetic regulatory networks for control of cellular metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moser, Felix, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Complex synthetic genetic programs promise unprecedented control over cellular metabolism and behavior. In this thesis, I describe the design and development of a synthetic genetic program to detect conditions underlying ...

  8. The Masterbuilder -June 2011 www.masterbuilder.co.in26 Cellular Geosynthetics: Geofoams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, John S.

    cement), and - cellular glass. The polymeric category is further subdivided depending on the polymer; and - development of 'anti-buoyancy' EPS blocks that allow groundwater infiltration during times of flooding so

  9. 9.09J / 7.29J Cellular Neurobiology, Spring 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littleton, Troy

    This course serves as an introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system. Emphasis is placed on the cellular properties of neurons and other excitable cells. Topics covered include the structure and ...

  10. Coulter counter determination of bacterial growth and cellular size change following ??Co gamma irradiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston, Gary W

    1976-01-01

    COULTER COUNTER DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL GROWTH AND CELLULAR SIZE CHANGE FOLLOWING Co GAMMA IRRADIATION A Thesis by GARY W. GASTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Ma)or Subject: Biophysics COULTER COUNTER DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL GROWTH AND CELLULAR SIZE CHANGE FOLLOWING Co GAMMA IRRADIATION A Thesis by GARY W. GASTON APPROVED as to style and content by: ead...

  11. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Matthew W.

    2006-06-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC29579 is a sulfate- reducing bacterium (SRB) that is commonly used as a model for direct and indirect heavy metal reduction, and can also be a causitative agent of metal corrosion. During growth with lactate and sulfate, internal carbohydrate levels increased throughout exponential-phase, and peaked as the cells transitioned to stationary-phase. The carbohydrate to protein ratio (C:P) peaked at 0.05 ug/ug as the cells transitioned to stationary-phase, and then declined to 0.02 ug/ug during extended stationary-phase. In contrast, a strain of D. vulgaris that does not contain the megaplasmid, maintained higher internal carbohydrate levels and the C:P ratio peaked at 0.1 ug/ug (2-fold increase compared to wild-type). Under the tested growth conditions, we observed biofilm formation in wild-type cells, but the plasmid-less strain formed less biofilm (2-fold decrease). We hypothesized that carbohydrate was re-allocated to the external cell proper for biofilm formation. However, biofilm contained relatively little carbohydrate (0.6 to 1.0 ug/ml) and had a similar C:P ratio compared to wild-type early stationary-phase cells. Staining with calcafluor white also indicated the presence of little external carbohydrate in D. vulgaris biofilms. Less biofilm was formed in the presence of protinease K, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, however, the growth of planktonic cells was not affected. In addition, when D. vulgaris biofilm was treated with a protease, less biofilm was observed. Electron micrographs suggested the presence of filaments between the biofilm cells, and filaments appeared to be susceptible to protease treatment. Biofilm filtrates contained soluble protein, and SDS-PAGE analysis suggested different polypeptide profiles between a filtrate, a planktonic, and a biofilm sample.

  12. The role of mismatch repair and recombination in cellular responses to the DNA damaging anticancer drug Cisplatin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdraveski, Zoran Z. (Zoran Zare), 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ll)) is a successful DNA-damaging anticancer drug used in the treatment of testicular, ovarian and other tumors. In the past decade, several mutually non-exclusive hypotheses have ...

  13. A systems-level analysis of dynamic reprogramming of RNA modifications in the translational control of cellular responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Tsz Yan Clement

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the four canonical ribonucleosides (adenosine, uridine, guanosine, cytosine), transfer RNAs (tRNA) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are comprised of more than 100 enzyme-catalyzed modifications, with about 20-35 ...

  14. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNEX Q HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY RESPONSE #12;ANNEX Q - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY RESPONSE 03/10/2014 v.2.0 Page Q-1 PROMULGATION STATEMENT Annex Q: Hazardous Materials Emergency Response, and contents within, is a guide to how the University conducts a response specific to a hazardous materials

  15. EMERGENCY RESPONSE EVACUATION PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND EVACUATION PLAN #12;Emergency Response and Evacuation Plan ­ June 2010 i EMERGENCY RESPONSE PHONE NUMBERS 2 PROCEDURES FOR REPORTING FIRE OR OTHER EMERGENCIES 3 RESPONSIBILITIES (EMPLOYEE/SUPERVISOR) 4 EMERGENCY EVACUATION PROCEDURES OVERVIEW 5 PROCEDURES FOR EVACUATING MOBILITY

  16. A coarse-grained model for the simulations of biomolecular interactions in cellular environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2014-02-07

    The interactions of bio-molecules constitute the key steps of cellular functions. However, in vivo binding properties differ significantly from their in vitro measurements due to the heterogeneity of cellular environments. Here we introduce a coarse-grained model based on rigid-body representation to study how factors such as cellular crowding and membrane confinement affect molecular binding. The macroscopic parameters such as the equilibrium constant and the kinetic rate constant are calibrated by adjusting the microscopic coefficients used in the numerical simulations. By changing these model parameters that are experimentally approachable, we are able to study the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of molecular binding, as well as the effects caused by specific cellular environments. We investigate the volumetric effects of crowded intracellular space on bio-molecular diffusion and diffusion-limited reactions. Furthermore, the binding constants of membrane proteins are currently difficult to measure. We provide quantitative estimations about how the binding of membrane proteins deviates from soluble proteins under different degrees of membrane confinements. The simulation results provide biological insights to the functions of membrane receptors on cell surfaces. Overall, our studies establish a connection between the details of molecular interactions and the heterogeneity of cellular environments.

  17. 2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith Berman

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  18. Tuning of the electro-mechanical behavior of the cellular carbon nanotube structures with nanoparticle dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowda, Prarthana; Misra, Abha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589

    2014-03-10

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics of cellular network of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) impregnated with metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles were examined simultaneously by employing the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results show that the nanoparticle dispersion not only enhances the mechanical strength of the cellular CNT by two orders of magnitude but also imparts variable nonlinear electrical characteristics; the latter depends on the contact resistance between nanoparticles and CNT, which is shown to depend on the applied load while indentation. Impregnation with silver nanoparticles enhances the electrical conductance, the dispersion with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces the conductance of CNT network. In all cases, a power law behavior with suppression in the differential conductivity at zero bias was noted, indicating electron tunneling through the channels formed at the CNT-nanoparticle interfaces. These results open avenues for designing cellular CNT foams with desired electro-mechanical properties and coupling.

  19. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  20. Three-dimensional simulations of cellular non-premixed jet flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valaer, A.L.; Frouzakis, C.E.; Boulouchos, K.; Papas, P.; Tomboulides, A.G.

    2010-04-15

    The formation, dynamics and structure of cellular flames in circular non-premixed jets are examined with three-dimensional numerical simulations incorporating detailed descriptions of chemistry and transport. Similar to past experiments reported in the literature, CO{sub 2}-diluted hydrogen in diluted or pure oxygen co-flowing streams in the proximity of the extinction limit are considered. As in the experiments, several preferred cellular states are found to co-exist with the particular state realized depending on initial conditions as well as on the jet characteristics. The simulations provide additionally the temporal transitions to different stationary or rotating cellular flames, their detailed structure, and the dependence of the scaling of the realized number of cells with the vorticity thickness. (author)

  1. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of cellular polypropylene electrets films characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Hongchen; Sun, Yao; Zhou, Xilong; Li, Yingwei; Li, Faxin

    2014-08-14

    Cellular electrets polymer is a new ferroelectret material exhibiting large piezoelectricity and has attracted considerable attentions in researches and industries. Property characterization is very important for this material and current investigations are mostly on macroscopic properties. In this work, we conduct nanoscale piezoelectric and ferroelectric characterizations of cellular polypropylene (PP) films using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). First, both the single-frequency PFM and dual-frequency resonance-tracking PFM testings were conducted on the cellular PP film. The localized piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is estimated to be 7–11pC/N by correcting the resonance magnification with quality factor and it is about one order lower than the macroscopic value. Next, using the switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM), we studied polarization switching behavior of the cellular PP films. Results show that it exhibits the typical ferroelectric-like phase hysteresis loops and butterfly-shaped amplitude loops, which is similar to that of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer film. However, both the phase and amplitude loops of the PP film are intensively asymmetric, which is thought to be caused by the nonzero remnant polarization after poling. Then, the D-E hysteresis loops of both the cellular PP film and PVDF film were measured by using the same wave form as that used in the SS-PFM, and the results show significant differences. Finally, we suggest that the ferroelectric-like behavior of cellular electrets films should be distinguished from that of typical ferroelectrics, both macroscopically and microscopically.

  2. Soliton cellular automaton associated with $G_2^{(1)}$ crystal base

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kailash C. Misra; Masato Okado; Evan A. Wilson

    2011-09-13

    We calculate the combinatorial $R$ matrix for all elements of $\\mathcal{B}_l\\otimes \\mathcal{B}_1$ where $\\mathcal{B}_l$ denotes the $G_2^{(1)}$-perfect crystal of level $l$, and then study the soliton cellular automaton constructed from it. The solitons of length $l$ are identified with elements of the $A_1^{(1)}$-crystal $\\tilde{\\mathcal{B}}_{3l}$. The scattering rule for our soliton cellular automaton is identified with the combinatorial $R$ matrix for $A_1^{(1)}$-crystals.

  3. Cellular and Molecular BiologyTM 52, N6,47-52 ISSN 1165-158X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    an impaired trafficking of Cx43 proteins in early carcinogenesis. In collaboration with biologists, we propose and the statistical validation of biological hypotheses about Cx43 expressions and configurations during tumorogenesis connexins (Cx), among which Cx43 is the most representative in mammalians. Recently, impaired GJC and Cx

  4. 2012 MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 20-25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Donohue

    2012-07-25

    The Gordon Research Conference on MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  5. TECHNICAL STANDARDS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PurposeThis procedure describes the responsibilities of persons who are charged with implementing the DOE Technical Standards Program. 

  6. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-06-15

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  7. Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION This appendix provides more detail on some of the topics raised in Chapter 4, "Demand Response" of the body of the Plan. These topics include 1. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the main options for stimulating demand response (price mechanisms

  8. Adaptation of flexible polymer fabrication to cellular mechanics study Yi Zhao and Xin Zhanga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymeric material has been utilized as mechanical sensors to measure microscopic cellular forces. Since a flexible fabrication process to manufacture polymeric mechanical sensors with various aspect ratios from. The results conform to the physiologic behavior. This approach has the potential for evaluation of mechanical

  9. Industry Symposium on Micro and Nano scale Cellular Polymers Department of Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    .00 Gas-Assisted Thermoforming of Recycled PET Stephen Probert and Krishna Nadella 11.30 Porous PolymersIndustry Symposium on Micro and Nano scale Cellular Polymers Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Professor Mark Tuttle, Chair, ME 8.30 State of Art of Microcellular Polymers Prof

  10. Power Control for Code Division Multiple Access Cellular Systems Bassam Hashem and Halim Yanikomeroglu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Power Control for Code Division Multiple Access Cellular Systems Bassam Hashem and Halim the interference results in a direct increase in the system capacity. Power control is the most important requirement to reduce the interference. In this work, we show how power control is implemented in current

  11. SpeedBalance: Speed-Scaling-Aware Optimal Load Balancing for Green Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    at base stations (BSs) as they are the key source of heavy energy usage in cellular networks, reported and Bhaskar Krishnamachari Department of Electrical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering University for a flexible tradeoff between delay and energy, we first study how to adaptively vary the processing speed

  12. Experimental demonstration of clocked single-electron switching in quantum-dot cellular automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlov, Alexei

    tunnel junctions where the location of an excess electron is defined by electrostatic potentials on gates, the electrons remain trapped on the dots regardless of the state of the input signal. Although semiconductorExperimental demonstration of clocked single-electron switching in quantum-dot cellular automata

  13. Human Cellular Retinaldehyde-Binding Protein Has Secondary Thermal 9-cis-Retinal Isomerase Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Human Cellular Retinaldehyde-Binding Protein Has Secondary Thermal 9-cis-Retinal Isomerase Activity molecules in both CRALBP-assisted specificity toward 9-cis-retinal and its thermal isomerase activity opsin receptor molecules into photosensitive retinoid pigments of the eye. We report a thermal secondary

  14. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, 0270-7306/99/$04.00 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, 0270-7306/99/$04.00 0 Dec. 1999, p. 8526­8535 Vol. 19, No. 12 show that the SCAN motif functions as an oligomerization domain mediating self an important role in the assembly and function of this newly defined subclass of transcriptional regulators

  15. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science AB(DMCS), 2003, 3142 Cellular Automata for Simulating Molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Steen

    for Simulating Molecular Self-Assembly Martin Nilsson and Steen Rasmussen Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. We present a lattice gas technique for simulating molecular self-assembly micelles is formed. Keywords: Cellular Automata, Lattice Gas, Molecular Self-Assembly, Statistical

  16. An Emerging Concept for 4G+ Wireless Cellular Networks: Terminal Relaying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    consider a cellular system in which the wireless terminals (WTs), in addition to transmitting their own signals, act as relays to assist other WTs. In such a system the number of relays scales with the number of WTs offering the system designer significantly more degrees of freedom. However, using WTs as relays

  17. STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis Jaume Amengual1, Ning Zhang1, Mary; Revised and Accepted May 19, 2014 Vitamin A must be adequately distributed within the body to maintain of the lipophilic vitamin is mediated by the retinol- binding protein, RBP4. Biochemical evidence suggests

  18. System capacity of FTDMA cellular systems G. Caire 1 , R. Knopp 2 and P. Humblet 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humblet, Pierre A.

    maximum outage probability. Outage is defined as the event that the mutual information of the interference on a typical urban mobile environment. Keywords --- Cellular system capacity, block­fading channels, outage are obtained as special cases. System capacity is constrained by the maximum allowed outage probability. We

  19. Outage in a Cellular Network Overlaid with an Ad hoc Network: The Uplink Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Outage in a Cellular Network Overlaid with an Ad hoc Network: The Uplink Case Arshdeep S. Kahlon}@sce.carleton.ca Abstract--We analyze the uplink outage probability at the randomly, but not necessarily independently nor, large-scale power control, and the knowledge of the initial outages in the absence of the secondary

  20. Outage Probability in a Multi-Cellular Network using Alamouti Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    Outage Probability in a Multi-Cellular Network using Alamouti Scheme Dorra Ben Cheikh , Jean to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) or equivalently the outage probability in flat Rayleigh fading. The system power from the interfering base stations. In the first case, a closed- form expression for the outage

  1. Energy, quiescence and the cellular basis of animal life spans Jeffrey A. Stuart , Melanie F. Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    Review Energy, quiescence and the cellular basis of animal life spans Jeffrey A. Stuart , Melanie F insufficient energy is available to grow and reproduce. Many animals adapt to this challenge by entering in energy sensing that are sensitive to aspects of mitochondrial energy transduction and can be modulated

  2. FABRICATION OF CELLULAR MATERIALS Robert K. Prud'homme, lihan A. Aksay, and Rajeev Garg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    , minimizing raw materials requirements. Minimizing raw materials is efficient both in terms of the energy conserve on raw materials. In the case of the muscle the foam is water filled and the foot structureFABRICATION OF CELLULAR MATERIALS Robert K. Prud'homme, lihan A. Aksay, and Rajeev Garg Department

  3. A Local Cellular Model for Snow Crystal Growth (preprint) Clifford A. Reiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    1 A Local Cellular Model for Snow Crystal Growth (preprint) Clifford A. Reiter Department of Mathematics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, 18042 USA Abstract Snow crystals have a rich diversity of forms. Physical studies have shown that the particular form of a snow crystal is dependent upon the temperature

  4. A Cellular Model for 3-Dimensional Snow Crystallization Faculty of Information & Control Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    A Cellular Model for 3-Dimensional Snow Crystallization Chen Ning Faculty of Information & Control Snow crystals are intriguing because they exhibit both symmetry and remarkable diversity. Previous studies have used 2-dimensional models to approximate snow-crystal growth. Here generalizations to three

  5. Cellular/Molecular A Calcium-Induced Calcium Influx Factor, Nitric Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    in astrocytes lead to the Ca2 -dependent synthesis of nitric oxide. This in turn stimulates a Ca2 influx pathwayCellular/Molecular A Calcium-Induced Calcium Influx Factor, Nitric Oxide, Modulates the Refilling in astrocytes, we imaged the formation of nitric oxide in cultured murine cortical astrocytes using DAF-FM (4

  6. Thermal Applications of Cellular Lattice Structures Haydn N.G. Wadleya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    exchanger, f is the coolant density and ( )Lp is the pressure drop per unit length [4]. Any open cell metal exchanger, cellular structure, lattice material, heat transfer. Abstract. Numerous methods have recently heat exchange. In this scenario, heat is transported from a locally heated facesheet through

  7. Sediment Dynamics Simulation via Cellular Automata Artificial Intelligence -SYNOPSIS 1.0 Dr. Juan M. Restrepo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatkullin, Ibrahim

    Sediment Dynamics Simulation via Cellular Automata Artificial Intelligence - SYNOPSIS 1.0 Dr. Juan dynamics and artificial intelligence. Sediment Dynamics Sediment dynamics is the physics of sedimentary's work, and proved to be quite a task indeed. Artificial Intelligence Because this research project

  8. EECE 595: SPREAD SPECTRUM COMMUNICATIONS 1 Distributed Power Control in CDMA Cellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    station will corrupt the other signals. Another reason for power control is the battery life time. High of each mobile station. The transmission power of the mobile stations is determined solely on localEECE 595: SPREAD SPECTRUM COMMUNICATIONS 1 Distributed Power Control in CDMA Cellular System Aly El

  9. A Decentralized Sleep Mechanism in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with QoS Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Meixia "Melissa"

    band. The strategy is to put high-power macro base stations into sleep mode and offload the users to low-power small base stations or neighboring macro base stations. To do so, we first formulate a joint power control. In cellular networks, the energy consumed by always-on components on base stations (BS

  10. Distributed TV Spectrum Allocation for Cognitive Cellular Network under Game Theoretical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, James

    of TV stations and white base stations, maximum permitted transmit power levels on all channels for each station needs to choose a channel with the maximal permitted power on that channel such that the resulting cellular base stations to utilize TV white spectrum (such base stations referred to as white base stations

  11. Cellular/Molecular ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Signaling is Required to Increase Myelin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular/Molecular ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Signaling is Required to Increase Myelin Thickness Independent for two important signaling molecules, extracelluar signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2 generated and analyzed two lines of mice lacking both ERK1/ERK2 function specifically in oligodendrocyte

  12. Formation of Self-Supporting Reversible Cellular Networks in Suspensions of Colloids and Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew

    .11-13 (ii) In suspensions of sterically stabilized colloidal particles dispersed in liquid crystalFormation of Self-Supporting Reversible Cellular Networks in Suspensions of Colloids and Liquid, calorimetric findings for liquid crystal/colloid mixtures, heated and cooled up to 13 times, point

  13. Greening Effect of Spatio-Temporal Power Sharing Policies in Cellular Networks with Energy Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yung

    1 Greening Effect of Spatio-Temporal Power Sharing Policies in Cellular Networks with Energy greening, from which we first develop four IM schemes governed by different power sharing: no sharing, only the spatial and/or temporal power sharing policies, (ii) tighter greening regulation (i.e., smaller total

  14. Limiting Power Transmission of Green Cellular Networks: Impact on Coverage and Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    Limiting Power Transmission of Green Cellular Networks: Impact on Coverage and Capacity Jean potential risks on human health. For these reasons, power control appears to be the main feature of green Issy-Les-Moulineaux, France frederic.marache@orange-ftgroup.com Abstract--Reducing power transmission

  15. Integrated Cellular and Gene Interaction Model for Cell Migration in Embryonic Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Joe

    Integrated Cellular and Gene Interaction Model for Cell Migration in Embryonic Development Hien Nguyen and Mingzhou (Joe) Song Department of Computer Science New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM, cells have their own operations, including mitosis, migration, communication with other cells, and death

  16. The cellular basis for parallel neural transmission of a high-frequency stimulus and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benda, Jan

    The cellular basis for parallel neural transmission of a high-frequency stimulus and its low-frequency envelopes of high-frequency signals and also suggest that information about stimuli and their envelopes take EOD frequencies will generate a high-frequency envelope of their EOD that is referred

  17. Alkaline phosphatase, a biochemical marker of cellular differentiation of BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    1997-01-01

    Cellular copper homeostasis depends on a Cu-ATPase enzyme in the membrane. Surprisingly, flask-grown BeWo cells do not display ATPase. We found Cu-ATPase is only expressed in differentiated cells such as Caco-2 cells. Since BeWo cells...

  18. Channel-Sharing Strategies in Two-Tier Cellular PCS Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    strategies. Keywords: cellular network, channel management, load balance, personal communication system, two and microcells in the service area. This overlapping property provides an advantage that traĆc loads can be shared by the two tiers to increase the performance of the system. In this paper, we propose two channel

  19. A Pricing Based Algorithm for Cell Switching Off in Green Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    A Pricing Based Algorithm for Cell Switching Off in Green Cellular Networks Ali Yildiz and Tolga--In this study, we propose a pricing based algorithm that assigns user terminals (UTs) to base stations (BSs) and optimizes the transmission powers in a way that minimizes the energy expenditure. The algorithm takes

  20. Trabecular Bone Structure and Cellular Morphology in the Primate Craniofacial Skeleton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Leslie Claire

    2015-08-14

    BONE STRUCTURE AND CELLULAR MORPHOLOGY IN THE PRIMATE CRANIOFACIAL SKELETON A Dissertation by LESLIE CLAIRE PRYOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Emet Schneiderman David Strait Head of Department, Paul C. Dechow August 2015 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences Copyright 2015 Leslie Claire Pryor ii ABSTRACT The primate craniofacial skeleton is complex...

  1. Dynamic Computational Model Suggests That Cellular Citizenship Is Fundamental for Selective Tumor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegelmann , Hava T

    , University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2 Communi by proliferation rates, initial volumes, and apoptosis resistant phenotypes; they show high adaptability as at least 32% of cells obey extra-cellular commands and at least 28% of cancer cells report their deaths

  2. Cellular/Molecular Rolling Blackout Is Required for Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    Cellular/Molecular Rolling Blackout Is Required for Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Fu-De Huang, Elvin 37235-1634 Rolling blackout (RBO) is a putative transmembrane lipase required for phospholipase C; Kidokoro et al., 2004). We report here a new TS paralytic mutant, rolling blackout (rbo), which similarly

  3. Community Detection in Cellular Network Traces Mariya Zheleva, Paul Schmitt, Morgan Vigil and Elizabeth Belding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    of Facebook traffic analysis, Johnson et al. designed a system to facilitate local content sharing within an actual need in the community. Analysis of large scale datasets generated by the targeted communities naturally facilitates the identification of actual community needs. We approach a cellular network dataset

  4. Cellular Automata Segmentation of Brain Tumors on Post Contrast MR Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Cellular Automata Segmentation of Brain Tumors on Post Contrast MR Images Andac Hamamci1 , Gozde proposed a complete tumor segmenta- tion method on post contrast T1 MR images, which standardizes the VOI Unal1 , Nadir Kucuk2 , and Kayihan Engin2 1 Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci

  5. Cellular/Molecular Mechanisms of Transport and Exocytosis of Dense-Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverman, Michael

    Cellular/Molecular Mechanisms of Transport and Exocytosis of Dense-Core Granules Containing Tissue of Biological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California 91768, Departments of 2 microscopy, in conjunction with transport theory, to visualize the transport and exocytosis of DCGs

  6. Autotransporters: The Cellular Environment Reshapes a Folding Mechanism to Promote Protein Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Patricia L.

    the cellular environment affects protein folding mechanisms. Here, we focus on one unique aspect affect protein folding kinetics and the conformations of folding intermediates? We focus on recent have been made to understand the mechanisms by which proteins fold to their native conformations.3

  7. The Cycad Genotoxin MAM Modulates Brain Cellular Pathways Involved in Neurodegenerative Disease and Cancer in a DNA Damage-Linked Manner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kisby, Glen E.

    Methylazoxymethanol (MAM), the genotoxic metabolite of the cycad azoxyglucoside cycasin, induces genetic alterations in bacteria, yeast, plants, insects and mammalian cells, but adult nerve cells are thought to be unaffected. ...

  8. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

  9. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  10. Demand Response Programs for Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs for Oregon Utilities Public Utility Commission May 2003 Public Utility ....................................................................................................................... 1 Types of Demand Response Programs............................................................................ 3 Demand Response Programs in Oregon

  11. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  12. Magnetically Responsive Photonic Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yongxing

    2011-01-01

    Crystals Introduction Colloidal crystals, typically self-NIPAM gel built with a colloidal crystal template composed2.6 (A) Photographs of colloidal crystals formed in response

  13. How yeast re-programmes its transcriptional profile in response to different nutrient impulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dikicioglu, Duygu; Karabekmez, Erkan; Rash, Bharat; Pir, Pinar; Kirdar, Betul; Oliver, Stephen G

    2011-09-25

    RNA and protein stability are also involved in the pro- cess [13,14]. Ammonium assimilation in yeast occurs through its incorporation into glutamate, the source of nearly 80% of all cellular nitrogen [15]. Growth on ammonium causes a decrease in the activities... that both the transcriptomic and metabolomic changes mediate two kinds of response - one concerned with the transi- tion from fully respiratory to respiro-fermentative meta- bolism and the other with the increase in growth rate that is the consequence...

  14. Computational up-scaling of anisotropic swelling and mechanical behavior of hierarchical cellular material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Wittel, Falk K; Carmeliet, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The hygro-mechanical behavior of a hierarchical cellular material, i.e. growth rings of softwood is investigated using a two-scale micro-mechanics model based on a computational homogenization technique. The lower scale considers the individual wood cells of varying geometry and dimensions. Honeycomb unit cells with periodic boundary conditions are utilized to calculate the mechanical properties and swelling coefficients of wood cells. Using the cellular scale results, the anisotropy in mechanical and swelling behavior of a growth ring in transverse directions is investigated. Predicted results are found to be comparable to experimental data. It is found that the orthotropic swelling properties of the cell wall in thin-walled earlywood cells produce anisotropic swelling behavior while, in thick latewood cells, this anisotropy vanishes. The proposed approach provides the ability to consider the complex microstructure when predicting the effective mechanical and swelling properties of softwood.

  15. Dynamics of Cell Shape and Forces on Micropatterned Substrates Predicted by a Cellular Potts Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp J. Albert; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2014-05-19

    Micropatterned substrates are often used to standardize cell experiments and to quantitatively study the relation between cell shape and function. Moreover, they are increasingly used in combination with traction force microscopy on soft elastic substrates. To predict the dynamics and steady states of cell shape and forces without any a priori knowledge of how the cell will spread on a given micropattern, here we extend earlier formulations of the two-dimensional cellular Potts model. The third dimension is treated as an area reservoir for spreading. To account for local contour reinforcement by peripheral bundles, we augment the cellular Potts model by elements of the tension-elasticity model. We first parameterize our model and show that it accounts for momentum conservation. We then demonstrate that it is in good agreement with experimental data for shape, spreading dynamics, and traction force patterns of cells on micropatterned substrates. We finally predict shapes and forces for micropatterns that have not yet been experimentally studied.

  16. Mean time of archipelagos in $1D$ probabilistic cellular automata has phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Ramos

    2014-12-12

    We study a non-ergodic one-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata, where each component can assume the states $\\+$ and $\\-.$ We obtained the limit distribution for a set of measures on $\\{\\+,\\-\\}^\\Z.$ Also, we show that for certain parameters of our process the mean time of convergence can be finite or infinity. When it is finite we have showed that the upper bound is function of the initial distribution.

  17. Advanced Cellular and Biomolecular Imaging at Lehigh University, (PA) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassimeris, Lynne, U.

    2010-09-10

    Lehigh University is establishing an interdisciplinary program in high resolution cellular and subcellular biological imaging for a range of applications including improved cancer detection. The completed DOE project added to Lehigh?s bio-imaging infrastructure through acquisition of a new confocal microscope system as well as upgrades to two pieces of existing equipment. Bio-imaging related research at Lehigh was also supported through two seed grants for initiation of new projects.

  18. Human Homolog of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI) is a marker of cellular proliferation associated with nuclear bodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmehdawi, Fatima; Wheway, Gabrielle; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Adams, Matthew; High, Alec S.; Johnson, Colin A.; Robinson, Philip A.

    2013-02-01

    HHARI (also known as ARIH1) is an ubiquitin-protein ligase and is the cognate of the E2, UbcH7 (UBE2L3). To establish a functional role for HHARI in cellular proliferation processes, we performed a reverse genetics screen that identified n=86/522 (16.5%) ubiquitin conjugation components that have a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation, which included HHARI as a strong hit. We then produced and validated a panel of specific antibodies that establish HHARI as both a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in all cell types studied. HHARI was expressed at higher levels in nuclei, and co-localized with nuclear bodies including Cajal bodies (p80 coilin, NOPP140), PML and SC35 bodies. We confirmed reduced cellular proliferation after ARIH1 knockdown with individual siRNA duplexes, in addition to significantly increased levels of apoptosis, an increased proportion of cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle, and significant reductions in total cellular RNA levels. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, there are higher levels of HHARI expression associated with increased levels of proliferation, compared to healthy control tissues. We demonstrate that HHARI is associated with cellular proliferation, which may be mediated through its interaction with UbcH7 and modification of proteins in nuclear bodies. -- Highlights: ? We produce and validate new antibody reagents for the ubiquitin-protein ligase HHARI. ? HHARI colocalizes with nuclear bodies including Cajal, PML and SC35 bodies. ? We establish new functions in cell proliferation regulation for HHARI. ? Increased HHARI expression associates with squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation.

  19. GIM3E: Condition-specific Models of Cellular Metabolism Developed from Metabolomics and Expression Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Brian; Ebrahim, Ali; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Palsson, Bernard O.; Hyduke, Daniel R.

    2013-11-15

    Motivation: Genome-scale metabolic models have been used extensively to investigate alterations in cellular metabolism. The accuracy of these models to represent cellular metabolism in specific conditions has been improved by constraining the model with omics data sources. However, few practical methods for integrating metabolomics data with other omics data sources into genome-scale models of metabolism have been reported. Results: GIMMME (Gene Inactivation Moderated by Metabolism, Metabolomics, and Expression) is an algorithm that enables the development of condition-specific models based on an objective function, transcriptomics, and intracellular metabolomics data. GIMMME establishes metabolite utilization requirements with metabolomics data, uses model-paired transcriptomics data to find experimentally supported solutions, and also provides calculations of the turnover (production / consumption) flux of metabolites. GIMMME was employed to investigate the effects of integrating additional omics datasets to create increasingly constrained solution spaces of Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism during growth in both rich and virulence media. This integration proved to be informative and resulted in a requirement of additional active reactions (12 in each case) or metabolites (26 or 29, respectively). The addition of constraints from transcriptomics also impacted the allowed solution space, and the cellular metabolites with turnover fluxes that were necessarily altered by the change in conditions increased from 118 to 271 of 1397. Availability: GIMMME has been implemented in Python and requires a COBRApy 0.2.x. The algorithm and sample data described here are freely available at: http://opencobra.sourceforge.net/

  20. Cellular oncogene expression following exposure of mice to {gamma}-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1991-06-12

    We examined the effects of total body exposure of BCF1 mice to {gamma}-rays (300 cGy) in modulating expression of cellular oncogenes in both gut and liver tissues. We selected specific cellular oncogenes (c-fos, c-myc, c-src, and c-H-ras), based on their normal expression in liver and gut tissues from untreated mice. As early as 5 min. following whole body exposure of BCF1 mice to {gamma}-rays we detected induction of mRNA specific for c-src and c-H-ras in both liver and gut tissues. c-fos RNA was slightly decreased in accumulation in gut but was unaffected in liver tissue from irradiated mice relative to untreated controls. c-myc mRNA accumulation was unaffected in all tissues examined. These experiments document that modulation of cellular oncogene expression can occur as an early event in tissues following irradiation and suggest that this modulation may play a role in radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  1. A cellular automaton identification of the universality classes of spatiotemporal intermittency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahera Jabeen; Neelima Gupte

    2007-07-05

    The phase diagram of the coupled sine circle map lattice shows spatio-temporal intermittency of two distinct types: spatio-temporal intermittency of the directed percolation (DP) class, and spatial intermittency which does not belong to this class. These two types of behaviour are seen to be special cases of the spreading and non-spreading regimes seen in the system. In the spreading regime, each site can infect its neighbours permitting an initial disturbance to spread, whereas in the non-spreading regime no infection is possible. The two regimes are separated by a line which we call the infection line. The coupled map lattice can be mapped on to an equivalent cellular automaton which shows a transition from a probabilistic cellular automaton (PCA) to a deterministic cellular automaton (DCA) at the infection line. Thus the existence of the DP and non-DP universality classes in the same system is signalled by the PCA to DCA transition. We also discuss the dynamic origin of this transition.

  2. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  3. Responsive classroom management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stough, Laura

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Responsive classroom management.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Responsive classroom management.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Cellular Toxicity Induced by the Photorelease of a Caged Bioactive Molecule: Design of a Potential Dual-Action Ru(II) Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Claudia

    Cellular Toxicity Induced by the Photorelease of a Caged Bioactive Molecule: Design of a Potential one CH3CN ligand in the complex under the irradiation conditions used for the cellular studies. Strategies are being sought to increase the quantum yields of ligand exchange and the cellular penetration

  5. Cellular Biology at the University of Utah The Department of Biology at the University of Utah invites applications for a tenure-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Cellular Biology at the University of Utah The Department of Biology at the University of Utah invites applications for a tenure- track faculty position at the assistant professor level in cellular biology. Applicants should be addressing fundamental questions in any aspect of eukaryotic cellular

  6. Cellular Tracking in Time-lapse Phase Contrast Images K. Thirusittampalam, M.J. Hossain, O. Ghita, and P.F. Whelan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Cellular Tracking in Time-lapse Phase Contrast Images K. Thirusittampalam, M.J. Hossain, O. Ghita {kethesan, julius, ghitao, whelanp}@eeng.dcu.ie Abstract The quantitative analysis of live cellular structures in time-lapse image sequences is a key issue in evaluating biological processes such as cellular

  7. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  8. Fitness consequences of cellular immunity: studies with Daphnia magna and its sterilizing bacterial parasite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auld, Stuart Kenneth John Robert

    2011-11-24

    Immune responses are presumed to contribute to host fitness, either by fighting off infections or via immunopathology. Research in this thesis sought to relate the magnitude of a putative immune response to infection and ...

  9. 9.013J / 7.68J Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology: The Brain and Cognitive Sciences III, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constantine-Paton, Martha, 1947-

    Subject covers all major areas of cellular and molecular neurobiology including excitable cells and membranes, ion channels and receptors, synaptic transmission, cell type determination, axon guidance and targeting, neuronal ...

  10. The use of a simple cellular automata model as a testbed for kinetic theories of vehicular traffic flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raney, Bryan Keith

    2000-01-01

    The broad objective of this thesis is to explore the potential for the use of Cellular Automata (CA) models to provide a testbed for comparison of different kinetic models of vehicular traffic. We intend to develop a quantitative technique...

  11. Single-Cell Expression Analyses during Cellular Reprogramming Reveal an Early Stochastic and a Late Hierarchic Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buganim, Yosef

    During cellular reprogramming, only a small fraction of cells become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Previous analyses of gene expression during reprogramming were based on populations of cells, impeding single-cell ...

  12. A Hybrid Geometric Modeling Method for Large Scale Conformal Cellular 3D Systems, 26081 Avenue Hall, Valencia, CA 91354

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong

    Structures, Conformal Structures, Additive Manufacturing, STL 1 INTRODUCTION Cellular material structures can distributions than stochastic metal foams [5]. With the development of additive manufacturing processes (also, 8, 9]. The manufacturing of mesoscopic truss structures utilizes the unique capability of additive

  13. Modules M.Sc. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Title of the module Cell physiology of marine organisms: cellular energy budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    Cell physiology of marine organisms: cellular energy budget and metabolic fingerprinting Term of environmental factors such as temperature on cell metabolism of marine ectothermal organisms - Conceptual Deepening the knowledge of cell physiology of marine ectotherms. Topics will be: - Environmental impact

  14. The Responsibilities of Engineers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Justin Douglas 1978-

    2012-12-06

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is key to answering ethical questions about the work of engineers, because the decisions made by engineers often have ethical dimensions and implications. Engineers develop and implement technologies...

  15. Response Resources Demonstration

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    be in New York City as opposed to Westchester for the fuel cell. New York City has higher electricity prices and higher demand response payments available. Also it wasn't clear if...

  16. Responsibility, Incompetence, and Psychopathy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, David O.

    2013-04-30

    that is significantly more demanding than a recognitional standard, especially if we focus on basic morality and the criminal law. The fair opportunity conception of responsibility seems to require only a recognitional capacity and perhaps a gradeability capacity... that is significantly more demanding than a recognitional standard, especially if we focus on basic morality and the criminal law. The fair opportunity conception of responsibility seems to require only a recognitional capacity and perhaps a gradeability capacity...

  17. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-03-10

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  18. GIS-Based Cellular Automaton Model to allocate Kansas High Plains Irrigated Agriculture Land Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Peiwen

    2014-04-08

    GIS-Based Cellular Automaton Model to Allocate Irrigated Agriculture Land Use Peiwen Chiu Kansas State University GIS Day 2013 November 20, 2013 University of Kansas High Plains/Ogallala Aquifer 8 States 186,000 mi2 480,000 km2 http...://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/05/16/us/an-underground-pool-drying-up.html?ref=us Aquifer Decline When amount of water diverted in the zone of influence is greater than recharge, this will result decline in the water level in the Aquifer. Most concentrated irrigated...

  19. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  20. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

  1. Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering Caltech Oct 2011 #12;Outline Caltech smart grid research Optimal demand response #12;Global trends 1

  2. Efficiency of cellular uptake of nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand Banerjee; Alexander Berzhkovskii; Ralph Nossal

    2014-10-27

    Experiments show that cellular uptake of nanoparticles, via receptor-mediated endocytosis, strongly depends on nanoparticle size. There is an optimal size, approximately 50 nm in diameter, at which cellular uptake is the highest. In addition, there is a maximum size, approximately 200 nm, beyond which uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis does not occur. By comparing results from different experiments, we found that these sizes weakly depend on the type of cells, nanoparticles, and ligands used in the experiments. Here, we argue that these observations are consequences of the energetics and assembly dynamics of the protein coat that forms on the cytoplasmic side of the outer cell membrane during receptor-mediated endocytosis. Specifically, we show that the energetics of coat formation imposes an upper bound on the size of the nanoparticles that can be internalized, whereas the nanoparticle-size-dependent dynamics of coat assembly results in the optimal nanoparticle size. The weak dependence of the optimal and maximum sizes on cell-nanoparticle-ligand type also follows naturally from our analysis.

  3. Nonlocal and global dynamics of cellular automata: A theoretical computer arithmetic for real continuous maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Garcia-Morales

    2015-02-03

    A digit function is presented which provides the $i$th-digit in base $p$ of any real number $x$. By means of this function, formulated within $\\mathcal{B}$-calculus, the local, nonlocal and global dynamical behaviors of cellular automata (CAs) are systematically explored and universal maps are derived for the three levels of description. None of the maps contain any freely adjustable parameter and they are valid for any number of symbols in the alphabet $p$ and neighborhood range $\\rho$. A discrete general method to approximate any real continuous map in the unit interval by a CA on the rational numbers $\\mathbb{Q}$ (Diophantine approximation) is presented. This result leads to establish a correspondence between the qualitative behavior found in bifurcation diagrams of real nonlinear maps and the Wolfram classes of CAs. The method is applied to the logistic map, for which a logistic CA is derived. The period doubling cascade into chaos is interpreted as a sequence of global cellular automata of Wolfram's class 2 leading to Class 3 aperiodic behavior. Class 4 behavior is also found close to the period-3 orbits.

  4. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhaohua; Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse; Lin, Ren-Jang; Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  5. Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komarek, Arnost

    Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response Often, support S of Y is S = (0, ). Logarithm is then one of transformations to consider when trying to obtain a correct (wrong. Model Building 1. Transformation of response #12;Logarithmic transformation of response When does

  6. The cellular mechanisms of learning in Aplysia: Of blind men and elephants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glanzman, David L

    2006-01-01

    type responses in isolated siphon motor neurons of Aplysiaand inhibition of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex inpresynaptic facilitation of siphon sensory neurons. J.

  7. Response properties of neighboring neurons in the auditory midbrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshagiri, Chandran V. (Chandran Venkatraman)

    2006-01-01

    The inferior colliculus, the primary nucleus in the mammalian auditory midbrain, occupies a central position in the ascending auditory pathway. Nearly all ascending neural pathways converge and synapse in the central nucleus ...

  8. General Responsibilities and Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The material presented in this guide provides suggestions and acceptable ways of implementing DOE M 435.1-1 and should not be viewed as additional or mandatory requirements. The objective of the guide is to ensure that responsible individuals understand what is necessary and acceptable for implementing the requirements of DOE M 435.1-1.

  9. ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT Whitacre;Definitions of Demand Response · `The short-term adjustment of energy use by consumers in response to price to market or reliability conditions.' (NAESB) #12;Definitions of Demand Response · The common threads

  10. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    2 2.0 Demand ResponseFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  11. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-08-01

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.

  12. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-06-27

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.

  13. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L.; Xu, C. Wilson

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular senescence programs that are intact in glioma cells.

  14. Chk2 regulates transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Chen [Department of Geriatric Research, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Shimizu, Shigeomi [Department of Post-Genomics Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Yoshihide [Department of Post-Genomics Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Motoyama, Noboru [Department of Geriatric Research, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: motoyama@nils.go.jp

    2005-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. The protein kinase Chk2 is an important regulator of p53 function in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Cells derived from Chk2-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of apoptosis by IR, and this resistance has been thought to be a result of the defective transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. It was recently shown, however, that p53 itself and histone H1.2 translocate to mitochondria and thereby induces apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner in response to IR. We have now examined whether Chk2 also regulates the transcription-independent induction of apoptosis by p53 and histone H1.2. The reduced ability of IR to induce p53 stabilization in Chk2-deficient thymocytes was associated with a marked impairment of p53 and histone H1 translocation to mitochondria. These results suggest that Chk2 regulates the transcription-independent mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing stabilization of p53 in response to IR.

  15. Towards local electromechanical probing of cellular and biomolecular systems in a liquid environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei V. Kalinin; Brian J. Rodriguez; Stephen Jesse; Katyayani Seal; Roger Proksch; Sophia Hohlbauch; Irene Revenko; Gary Lee Thompson; Alexey A. Vertegel

    2007-04-30

    Electromechanical coupling is ubiquitous in biological systems with examples ranging from simple piezoelectricity in calcified and connective tissues to voltage-gated ion channels, energy storage in mitochondria, and electromechanical activity in cardiac myocytes and outer hair cell stereocilia. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has originally emerged as a technique to study electromechanical phenomena in ferroelectric materials, and in recent years, has been employed to study a broad range of non-ferroelectric polar materials, including piezoelectric biomaterials. At the same time, the technique has been extended from ambient to liquid imaging on model ferroelectric systems. Here, we present results on local electromechanical probing of several model cellular and biomolecular systems, including insulin and lysozyme amyloid fibrils, breast adenocarcinoma cells, and bacteriorhodopsin in a liquid environment. The specific features of SPM operation in liquid are delineated and bottlenecks on the route towards nanometer-resolution electromechanical imaging of biological systems are identified.

  16. Cancer Genesis and Progression as Dynamics in Functional Landscape of Endogenous Molecular-Cellular Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ao; D. Galas; L. Hood; X. -M. Zhu

    2007-09-05

    An endogenous molecular-cellular network for both normal and abnormal functions is assumed to exist. This endogenous network forms a nonlinear stochastic dynamical system, with many stable attractors in its functional landscape. Normal or abnormal robust states can be decided by this network in a manner similar to the neural network. In this context cancer is hypothesized as one of its robust intrinsic states. This hypothesis implies that a nonlinear stochastic mathematical cancer model is constructible based on available experimental data and its quantitative prediction is directly testable. Within such model the genesis and progression of cancer may be viewed as stochastic transitions between different attractors. Thus it further suggests that progressions are not arbitrary. Other important issues on cancer, such as genetic vs epigenetics, double-edge effect, dormancy, are discussed in the light of present hypothesis. A different set of strategies for cancer prevention, cure, and care, is therefore suggested.

  17. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving C. elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Jeffrey P; Linder, Ashley N; Plummer, George S; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Leifer, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals poses a major challenge for studying neural coding of animal behavior. We present a new instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from every neuron in the head of a freely behaving C. elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture and locomotion. We employ spinning-disk confocal microscopy to capture 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s at 5 head-volumes per second. Two cameras simultaneously monitor the animal's position and orientation. Custom software tracks the 3D position of the animal's head in real-time and adjusts a motorized stage to keep it within the field of view as the animal roams freely. We observe calcium transients from 78 neurons and correlate this activity with the animal's behavior. Across worms, multiple neurons show significant correlations with modes of behavior correspo...

  18. Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2006-12-12

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  19. Neuronal micro-culture engineering by microchannel devices of cellular scale dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of microchannel geometry on neuronal cultures and to maintain these cultures for long period of time (over several weeks) inside the closed microchannels of cellular scale dimensions. Methods: The primary hippocampal neurons from E-18 rat were cultured inside the closed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels of varying sizes. The effect of the channel geometry on the spatial and the temporal variations in the neural microenvironment was investigated by studying neural maturation and variation in the media osmolality respectively. The cultures were maintained for longer time spans by PDMS device pretreatment, control on media evaporation (by using hydrophobic ethylene propylene membrane) and an effective culture maintenance protocol. Further, the devices were integrated with the planar microelectrode arrays (MEA) to record spontaneous electrical activity. Results: A direct influence of channel geometry on neuron maturation was observed ...

  20. Time dependence of tip morphology during cellular/dendritic arrayed growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H.; Tewari, S.N.

    1996-04-01

    Succinonitrile-1.9 wt pct acetone has been directionally solidified in 0.7 x 0.7-cm-square cross section pyrex ampoules in order to observe the cell/dendrite tip morphologies, not influenced by the wall effects, which are present during growth in the generally used thin (about 200 {micro}m) crucibles. The tips do not maintain a steady-state shape, as is generally assumed. Instead, they fluctuate within a shape envelope. The extent of fluctuation increases with decreasing growth speed, as the micro structure changes from the dendritic to cellular. The influence of natural convection has been examined by comparing these morphologies with those grown, without convection, in the thin ampoules.

  1. On the reversibility of transitions between closed and open cellular convection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feingold, G.; Koren, I.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.

    2015-02-26

    The two-way transition between closed and open cellular convection is addressed in an idealized cloud resolving modeling framework. A series of cloud resolving simulations shows that the transition between closed and open cellular states is asymmetrical, and characterized by a rapid ("runaway") transition from the closed- to the open-cell state, but slower recovery to the closed-cell state. Given that precipitation initiates the closed-open cell transition, and that the recovery requires a suppression of the precipitation, we apply an ad hoc time-varying drop concentration to initiate and suppress precipitation. We show that the asymmetry in the two-way transition occurs even formore »very rapid drop concentration replenishment. The primary barrier to recovery is the loss in turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) associated with the loss in cloud water (and associated radiative cooling), and the stabilization of the boundary layer during the open-cell period. In transitioning from the open to the closed state, the system faces the Sisyphusian task of replenishing cloud water fast enough to counter precipitation losses, such that it can generate radiative cooling and TKE. Recovery to the closed cell state is slower when radiative cooling is inefficient such as in the presence of free tropospheric clouds, or after sunrise, when it is hampered by the absorption of shortwave radiation. Tests suggest that a faster return to the closed-cell state requires that the drop concentration recovery be accompanied by significant dynamical forcing, e.g., via an increase in surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. This is supported by simulations with a simple predator-prey dynamical system analogue. It is suggested that the observed closing of open cells by ship effluent likely occurs when aerosol intrusions are large, when contact comes prior to the heaviest drizzle in the early morning hours, and when the free troposphere is cloud-free.« less

  2. Quantum Field as a quantum cellular automaton: the Dirac free evolution in one dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Alessandro Tosini

    2015-02-11

    We present a quantum cellular automaton model in one space-dimension which has the Dirac equation as emergent. This model, a discrete-time and causal unitary evolution of a lattice of quantum systems, is derived from the assumptions of homogeneity, parity and time-reversal invariance. The comparison between the automaton and the Dirac evolutions is rigorously set as a discrimination problem between unitary channels. We derive an exact lower bound for the probability of error in the discrimination as an explicit function of the mass, the number and the momentum of the particles, and the duration of the evolution. Computing this bound with experimentally achievable values, we see that in that regime the QCA model cannot be discriminated from the usual Dirac evolution. Finally, we show that the evolution of one-particle states with narrow-band in momentum can be effi- ciently simulated by a dispersive differential equation for any regime. This analysis allows for a comparison with the dynamics of wave-packets as it is described by the usual Dirac equation. This paper is a first step in exploring the idea that quantum field theory could be grounded on a more fundamental quantum cellular automaton model and that physical dynamics could emerge from quantum information processing. In this framework, the discretization is a central ingredient and not only a tool for performing non-perturbative calculation as in lattice gauge theory. The automaton model, endowed with a precise notion of local observables and a full probabilistic interpretation, could lead to a coherent unification of an hypothetical discrete Planck scale with the usual Fermi scale of high-energy physics.

  3. International Journal "Information Technologies and Knowledge" Vol.2 / 2008360 [Marr, Htt, 2005] C. Marr, M. Htt. Topology regulates pattern formation capacity of binary cellular automata on graphs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardeńosa, Jesús

    International Journal "Information Technologies and Knowledge" Vol.2 / 2008360 [Marr, Hütt, 2005] C. Marr, M. Hütt. Topology regulates pattern formation capacity of binary cellular automata on graphs

  4. Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis?. An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    telomerase, stress, and aging. In: Benton, GG. ; Cacioppo,7. Edo MD, Andres V. Aging, telomeres, and atherosclerosis.for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones (Athens). 2009; 8:

  5. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  6. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  7. CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to RCUK Large Facilities Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to RCUK Large Facilities Roadmap December 2007 Page 1 of 4 RCUK Large Facilities Roadmap Response by the Wellcome Trust December 2007 1. The Wellcome Trust is pleased to have the opportunity to feed into the process of prioritising the RCUK Large Facilities Roadmap

  8. CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Sustainable Food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Sustainable Food March 2011 Page 1 of 2 House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee: Sustainable Food Inquiry Response by the Wellcome Trust March 2011 Introduction 1. The relationship between food security and climate change is complex and an increasing priority

  9. CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to `Bioengineering Inquiry'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to `Bioengineering Inquiry' December 2009 Page 1 of 4 Commons Science and Technology Committee: Inquiry into Bioengineering in the UK Response by the Wellcome by the Committee, in each of the three areas of research identified in the call for evidence. 3. Bioengineering

  10. Widespread Inhibition of Posttranscriptional Splicing Shapes the Cellular Transcriptome following Heat Shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalgi, Reut

    During heat shock and other proteotoxic stresses, cells regulate multiple steps in gene expression in order to globally repress protein synthesis and selectively upregulate stress response proteins. Splicing of several ...

  11. Emergent Behaviors from a Cellular Automaton Model for Invasive Tumor Growth in Heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided Cancer Institute under Award NO. U54CA143803. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 1997 145 Analysis and Control of a Cellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    manufacturing techniques and high-frequency switching. Realizing the benefits of a cellular architecture, Student Member, IEEE, and John G. Kassakian, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--A parallel converter architecture based on the reso- nant pole inverter (RPI) topology is presented. It is shown that this architecture

  13. Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase Is Critical for Cellular Uptake of Vitamin A from Serum Retinol-binding Protein*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase Is Critical for Cellular Uptake of Vitamin A from Serum Retinol retinol homeostasis is associated with blinding retinopathies and diabetes. Vitamin A (all and all-trans-retinoic acid in other tissues. Vitamin A is transported in the blood bound to retinol

  14. Combined influence of topography and co-culture on cellular behavior Pranav Soman, Biomedical and Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    Combined influence of topography and co-culture on cellular behavior Pranav Soman, Biomedical explored the dual aspects of topography and co-culture, but only in isolation. Several techniques have been functional output of native tissues is influenced by the heterogeneity of cell types as well as interfacial-topography

  15. Biology is the study of life. Biologists analyze how systems function in organisms at the cellular and molecular levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Biology is the study of life. Biologists analyze how systems function in organisms at the cellular and public sectors. People with degrees in biology are needed in areas as diverse as farming, food processing, and the environment, as well as in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. A degree in biology can also be used

  16. Gene Action and Cellular Function in Parasitic Protozoa Genomics and post-genomics in parasitology: genome babble or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnaufer, Achim

    Gene Action and Cellular Function in Parasitic Protozoa Genomics and post-genomics in parasitology: genome babble or a real opportunity? K. Gull1 School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 2.205 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, U.K. Abstract The genome projects represent one

  17. he building that houses the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research can be described as transparent,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    T he building that houses the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research can faculty. Each of the new recruits, along with other researchers in the building, have started new towards the glass wall of the building to the expansive and unobstructed view of the skyline and the city

  18. Int. J. Wireless and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2007 237 Interworking of 3G cellular networks and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    and wireless LANs Wei Song and Weihua Zhuang* Centre for Wireless Communications, Department of ElectricalInt. J. Wireless and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2007 237 Interworking of 3G cellular networks@bbcr.uwaterloo.ca E-mail: wzhuang@bbcr.uwaterloo.ca *Corresponding author Aladdin Saleh Wireless Technology Department

  19. Vol. 53, No. 4, 1973 BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS EFFECT OF CONCANAVALIN A ON CELLULAR SLIME MOLD DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillette, Martha U.

    A ON CELLULAR SLIME MOLD DEVELOPMENT: PREMATURE APPEARANCE OF MEMBRANE-BOUND CYCLIC AMP PHOSPHODIESTERASE Martha Hill, Ontario, Canada. Received June 29, 1973 Summary: Concanavalin A delays aggregation of slime mold to carbohydrate determinants of cell surfaces (3-8), affects the process of aggregation in slime mold development

  20. Chemical Reaction Fronts in Ordered and Disordered Cellular Flows with Opposing Winds M. E. Schwartz* and T. H. Solomon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligare, Martin

    simply propagates at its reaction-diffusion (no flow) velocity minus the wind speed. If the same wind-dependent flows as well. In the absence of fluid flows, a front propagates with a reaction-diffusion (RD) velocityChemical Reaction Fronts in Ordered and Disordered Cellular Flows with Opposing Winds M. E

  1. A NEW APPROACH FOR 3D SEGMENTATION OF CELLULAR TOMOGRAMS OBTAINED USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    MICROSCOPY A. Bartesaghi and G. Sapiro University of Minnesota Electrical and Computer Engineering of reliable quantitative approaches for interpretation of features in tomograms, is an important problem analysis of HIV particles and selected cellular compartments in electron tomograms recorded from fixed

  2. Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for developing an emergency response plan, as outlined in OSHA’s 29 CFR 1910.120(q), for facility response.  This model has been adopted and...

  3. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-01-01

    1, 2006. LBNL-57125 Subject responses to electrochromicUSA Abstract Forty-three subjects worked in a private office3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data

  4. Assessment of Demand Response Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction

  5. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  6. Direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular compartments using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Deves, Guillaume; Ortega, Richard

    2010-07-15

    Identification of arsenic chemical species at a sub-cellular level is a key to understanding the mechanisms involved in arsenic toxicology and antitumor pharmacology. When performed with a microbeam, X-ray absorption near-edge structure ({mu}-XANES) enables the direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular compartments avoiding cell fractionation and other preparation steps that might modify the chemical species. This methodology couples tracking of cellular organelles in a single cell by confocal or epifluorescence microscopy with local analysis of chemical species by {mu}-XANES. Here we report the results obtained with a {mu}-XANES experimental setup based on Kirkpatrick-Baez X-ray focusing optics that maintains high flux of incoming radiation (>10{sup 11} ph/s) at micrometric spatial resolution (1.5x4.0 {mu}m{sup 2}). This original experimental setup enabled the direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular organelles with a 10{sup -15} g detection limit. {mu}-XANES shows that inorganic arsenite, As(OH){sub 3}, is the main form of arsenic in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondrial network of cultured cancer cells exposed to As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the other hand, a predominance of As(III) species is observed in HepG2 cells exposed to As(OH){sub 3} with, in some cases, oxidation to a pentavalent form in nuclear structures of HepG2 cells. The observation of intra-nuclear mixed redox states suggests an inter-individual variability in a cell population that can only be evidenced with direct sub-cellular speciation analysis.

  7. B. Kim & P. Henry, AT&T Labs -Research 1 Abstract--Despite the extraordinary success of the cellular mobile telecommunications industry,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    of the cellular mobile telecommunications industry, many of the underlying design strategies and service are incorporated in the coming years. In this paper we describe a fresh approach to cellular network architecture and suggest how we can manage the evolution from today's networks to an architecture better suited

  8. Effect of Adhesion Geometry and Rigidity on Cellular Force Distributions Ilka B. Bischofs,1,2,* Sebastian S. Schmidt,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Ulrich

    Effect of Adhesion Geometry and Rigidity on Cellular Force Distributions Ilka B. Bischofs,1 of their adhesive environment, possibly through forces localized to sites of adhesion. We introduce a mechanical model that predicts cellular force distributions for cells adhering to adhesive patterns with different

  9. On the reversibility of transitions between closed and open cellular convection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feingold, G.; Koren, I.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.

    2015-07-08

    The two-way transition between closed and open cellular convection is addressed in an idealized cloud-resolving modeling framework. A series of cloud-resolving simulations shows that the transition between closed and open cellular states is asymmetrical and characterized by a rapid ("runaway") transition from the closed- to the open-cell state but slower recovery to the closed-cell state. Given that precipitation initiates the closed–open cell transition and that the recovery requires a suppression of the precipitation, we apply an ad hoc time-varying drop concentration to initiate and suppress precipitation. We show that the asymmetry in the two-way transition occurs even for very rapidmore »drop concentration replenishment. The primary barrier to recovery is the loss in turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) associated with the loss in cloud water (and associated radiative cooling) and the vertical stratification of the boundary layer during the open-cell period. In transitioning from the open to the closed state, the system faces the task of replenishing cloud water fast enough to counter precipitation losses, such that it can generate radiative cooling and TKE. It is hampered by a stable layer below cloud base that has to be overcome before water vapor can be transported more efficiently into the cloud layer. Recovery to the closed-cell state is slower when radiative cooling is inefficient such as in the presence of free tropospheric clouds or after sunrise, when it is hampered by the absorption of shortwave radiation. Tests suggest that recovery to the closed-cell state is faster when the drizzle is smaller in amount and of shorter duration, i.e., when the precipitation causes less boundary layer stratification. Cloud-resolving model results on recovery rates are supported by simulations with a simple predator–prey dynamical system analogue. It is suggested that the observed closing of open cells by ship effluent likely occurs when aerosol intrusions are large, when contact comes prior to the heaviest drizzle in the early morning hours, and when the free troposphere is cloud free.« less

  10. Cellular innate immune responses to lung resection via video- assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy : predictors of post-operative pneumonia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard Oliver

    2013-07-06

    Background and Objectives: The pathophysiology of post-operative pneumonia following lung resection is poorly understood despite it being the most common complication which may lead to death. The role of the acute ...

  11. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  12. A comparative study of $2d$ Ising model at different boundary conditions using Cellular Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Jahangir

    2016-01-01

    Using Cellular Automata, we simulate spin systems corresponding to $2d$ Ising model with various kinds of boundary conditions (bcs). The appearance of spontaneous magnetization in the absence of magnetic field is studied with a $64\\times64$ square lattice with five different bcs, i.e., periodic, adiabatic, reflexive, fixed ($+1$ or $-1$) bcs with three initial conditions (all spins up, all spins down and random orientation of spins). In the context of $2d$ Ising model, we have calculated the magnetisation, energy, specific heat, susceptibility and entropy with each of the bcs and observed that the phase transition occurs around $T_c$ = 2.269 as obtained by Onsager. We compare the behaviour of magnetisation vs temperature for different types of bcs by calculating the number of points close to the line of zero magnetisation after $T>T_c$ at various lattice sizes. We observe that the periodic, adiabatic and reflexive bcs give closer approximation to the value of $T_c$ than fixed +1 and fixed -1 bcs with all thre...

  13. Electrical substation service-area estimation using Cellular Automata: An initial report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenwick, J.W.; Dowell, L.J.

    1998-07-01

    The service areas for electric power substations can be estimated using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA model is a discrete, iterative process whereby substations acquire service area by claiming neighboring cells. The service area expands from a substation until a neighboring substation service area is met or the substation`s total capacity or other constraints are reached. The CA-model output is dependent on the rule set that defines cell interactions. The rule set is based on a hierarchy of quantitative metrics that represent real-world factors such as land use and population density. Together, the metrics determine the rate of cell acquisition and the upper bound for service area size. Assessing the CA-model accuracy requires comparisons to actual service areas. These actual service areas can be extracted from distribution maps. Quantitative assessment of the CA-model accuracy can be accomplished by a number of methods. Some are as simple as finding the percentage of cells predicted correctly, while others assess a penalty based on the distance from an incorrectly predicted cell to its correct service area. This is an initial report of a work in progress.

  14. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  15. Periodic solution and chaotic strange attractor for shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with impulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Zhanji; Ge Weigao [Department of Computer Science, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, HaiNan 571158 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2006-09-15

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, we study the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of periodic solution for shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with impulses, dx{sub ij}/dt=-a{sub ij}x{sub ij}-{sigma}{sub C{sub K}{sub 1}}{sub (set-membershipsign)=N{sub r}{sub (i,j)}C{sub ij}{sup kl}f{sub ij}[x{sub kl}(t)]x{sub ij}+L{sub ij}(t), t>0,t{ne}t{sub k}; {delta}x{sub ij}(t{sub k})=x{sub ij}(t{sub k}{sup +})-x{sub ij}(t{sub k}{sup -})=I{sub k}[x{sub ij}(t{sub k})], k=1,2,... . Furthermore, the numerical simulation shows that our system can occur in many forms of complexities, including periodic oscillation and chaotic strange attractor. To the best of our knowledge, these results have been obtained for the first time. Some researchers have introduced impulses into their models, but analogous results have never been found.

  16. DOE contractors' workshop: Cellular and molecular aspects of radiation induced DNA damage and repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    For four decades the US Department of Energy and its predecessors have been the lead federal agency in supporting radiation biology research. Over the years emphasis in this program has gradually shifted from dose-effect studies on animals to research on the effects of radiations of various qualities on cells and molecules. Mechanistic studies on the action of radiation at the subcellular level are few in number and there is a need for more research in this area if we are to gain a better understanding of how radiation affects living cells. The intent of this workshop was to bring together DOE contractors and grantees who are investigating the effects of radiation at the cellular and molecular levels. The aims were to foster the exchange of information on research projects and experimental results, promote collaborative research efforts, and obtain an overview of research currently supported by the Health Effects Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The latter is needed by the Office for program planning purposes. This report on the workshop which took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico on March 10-11, 1987, includes an overview with future research recommendations, extended abstracts of the plenary presentations, shorter abstracts of each poster presentation, a workshop agenda and the names and addresses of the attendees.

  17. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    2008-01-01

    their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.

  18. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  19. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.

  20. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Like HECO actual utility demand response implementations canindustry-wide utility demand response applications tend toobjective. Figure 4. Demand Response Objectives 17  

  1. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of

  2. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence 2009 Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool (January...

  3. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Peak Load Managementdemand response, and load management programs in the Ebefore they undertake load management and demand response

  4. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01

    Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning Reserveand B. Kirby. 2012. The Demand Response Spinning Reserve

  5. Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission January 6, 2005 Mike Koszalka Director;Demand Response Results, 2004 Load Control ­ Cool Keeper ­ ID Irrigation Load Control Price Responsive

  6. Accepted to appear in ACM/Baltzer Wireless Networks, 1999 Admission Control Algorithms for Cellular Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peha, Jon M.

    Page 1 Accepted to appear in ACM/Baltzer Wireless Networks, 1999 Admission Control Algorithms]), it is the network provider's responsibility to provide adequate Quality of Service (QoS) to all users. Two critical, the network may terminate the call prematurely when a handoff is attempted into a cell that has no capacity

  7. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 99:435449 (2006) Reduction of Anabolic Signals and Alteration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodenacker, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    in nuclear architecture may be a direct result of decreased expression of autocrine and cell cycle genes in osteoblast nuclear architecture under microgravity, 1 g flight, and ground conditions. Besides changes, suggesting an inhibition of anabolic response in mg. Life on this planet has evolved in a normal gravity

  8. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)] [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Barik, Sailen [Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shevde, Lalita A. [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)] [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Samant, Rajeev S., E-mail: rsamant@usouthal.edu [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2012-06-10

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S).

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate olfactory rhythms in drosophila melanogaster 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Parthasarathy

    2009-05-15

    ........................................................................... 24 5 Electronic components of the EAG recording apparatus ........................... 26 6 Schematic diagram of an olfactometer....................................................... 28 7 Fly immobilization and electrode... ........................................ 38 10 Working model of dominant negative forms of CLK and CYC ................ 40 11 EAG responses are rhythmic in flies lacking LNvs.................................... 42 12 tim promoter mediated CLK? and CYC? expression abolishes EAG...

  10. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  11. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  12. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  13. Improving the accuracy and efficiency of time-resolved electronic spectra calculations: Cellular dephasing representation with a prefactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Šulc, Miroslav; Vaní?ek, Ji?í

    2013-08-07

    Time-resolved electronic spectra can be obtained as the Fourier transform of a special type of time correlation function known as fidelity amplitude, which, in turn, can be evaluated approximately and efficiently with the dephasing representation. Here we improve both the accuracy of this approximation—with an amplitude correction derived from the phase-space propagator—and its efficiency—with an improved cellular scheme employing inverse Weierstrass transform and optimal scaling of the cell size. We demonstrate the advantages of the new methodology by computing dispersed time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine, and the NCO molecule. In contrast, we show that in strongly chaotic systems such as the quartic oscillator the original dephasing representation is more appropriate than either the cellular or prefactor-corrected methods.

  14. The role of cellular structure on increasing the detonability limits of three-step chain-branching detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Mark; Kiyanda, Charles B; Quirk, James J; Sharpe, Gary J

    2011-01-27

    In [1], the dynamics of a pulsating three-step chain-branching detonation were studied. The reaction model consists of, sequentially, chain-initiation, chain-branching and chain-termination steps. The chain-initiation and chain-branching steps are taken to be thermally neutral, with chemical energy release occuring in the chain-termination stage. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether cellular detonation structure can increase the value of the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b} at which fully coupled detonation solutions are observed over those in 1 D. The basic concept is straightforward and has been discussed in [1] and [3]; if T{sub s} drops below T{sub b} at the lead shock, the passage of a transverse shock can increase both the lead shock temperature and the temperature behind the transverse wave back above T{sub b}, thus sustaining an unstable cellular detonation for values of T{sub b} for which a one-dimensional pulsating detonation will fail. Experiments potentially supporting this hypothesis with irregular detonations have been shown in [3] in a shock tube with acoustically absorbing walls. Removal of the transverse waves results in detonation failure, giving way to a decoupled shock-flame complex. A number of questions remain to be addressed regarding the possibility of such a mechanism, and, if so, about the precise mechanisms driving the cellular structure for large T{sub b}. For instance, one might ask what sets the cell size in a chain-branching detonation, particularly could the characteristic cell size be set by the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b}: after a transverse wave shock collision, the strength of the transverse wave weakens as it propagates along the front. If the spacing between shock collisions is too large (cell size), then the transverse shocks may weaken to the extent that the lead shock temperature or that behind the transverse waves is not raised above T{sub b}, losing chemical energy to drive the front in those regions. Failure may result if less than sufficient of the lead shock be driven above n to sustain reaction. Our starting point for generating cellular solutions is as in [I], consisting of an initial ZND wave in the channel, but perturbed here by a density non-uniformity to generate a cellular structure. Exactly how far the detonability limits (value of T{sub b}) can be extended is not addressed here, as such issues relate in part to the way the cellular structure is generated [6]. Our concern here is to investigate the mechanisms of self-sustained cellular detonation for values of T{sub b} above those that lead to 1D pulsating wave failure that can be generated from the initial ZND wave. Finally, we do not consider cellular propagation driven by a process of apparent thermal ignition of hot-spots downstream that tends to appear close to the 20 detonability limit. Such events are subject to the lack of correct thermal diffusive physics in the model and thus to the form of numerical dissipation in the underlying flow algorithm.

  15. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  16. Dynaically Responsive IP Window Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Dynamically Responsive IR Window Coatings 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date:...

  17. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Dr. Kyle J. Alvine, kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 21C...

  18. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  19. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  20. The Structurally Dynamic Cellular Network and Quantum Graphity Approaches to Quantum Gravity and Quantum Geometry - A Review and Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred Requardt; Saeed Rastgoo

    2015-06-12

    Starting from the working hypothesis that both physics and the corresponding mathematics and in particular geometry have to be described by means of discrete concepts on the Planck-scale, one of the many problems one has to face in this enterprise is to find the discrete protoforms of the building blocks of our ordinary continuum physics and mathematics living on a smooth background, and perhaps more importantly find a way how this continuum limit emerges from the mentioned discrete structure. We model this underlying substratum as a structurally dynamic cellular network (basically a generalisation of a cellular automaton). We regard these continuum concepts and continuum spacetime in particular as being emergent, coarse-grained and derived relative to this underlying erratic and disordered microscopic substratum, which we would like to call quantum geometry and which is expected to play by quite different rules, namely generalized cellular automaton rules. A central role in our analysis is played by a geometric renormalization group which creates (among other things) a kind of sparse translocal network of correlations between the points in classical continuous space-time and underlies, in our view, such mysterious phenomena as holography and the black hole entropy-area law. The same point of view holds for quantum theory which we also regard as a low-energy, coarse-grained continuum theory, being emergent from something more fundamental. In this paper we review our approach and compare it to the quantum graphity framework.