National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mammalian cellular response

  1. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening

  2. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  3. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml{sup -1} shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: > DON uptake by cells is not extensive. > All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. > DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. > Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. > Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  4. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the

  5. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  6. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  7. Proteomic-based mechanistic investigation of low-dose radiation-induced cellular responses/effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xian

    2013-10-23

    The goal of our project is to apply our unique systems investigation strategy to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation induction and transmission of oxidative damage, adaptive response, and bystander effect at low-doses. Beginning with simple in vitro systems such as fibroblast or epithelial pure culture, our amino acid-coded mass tagging (AACT) comparative proteomic platform will be used to measure quantitatively proteomic changes at high- or low-dose level with respect to their endogenous damage levels respectively, in which a broad range of unique regulated proteins sensitive to low-dose IR will be distinguished. To zoom in how these regulated proteins interact with other in the form of networks in induction/transmission pathways, these regulated proteins will be selected as baits for making a series of fibroblast cell lines that stably express each of them. Using our newly developed method of ?dual-tagging? quantitative proteomics that integrate the capabilities of natural complex expression/formation, simple epitope affinity isolation (not through tandem affinity purification or TAP), and ?in-spectra? AACT quantitative measurements using mass spectrometry (MS), we will be able to distinguish systematically interacting proteins with each bait in real time. Further, in addition to both proteome-wide (global differentially expressed proteins) and pathway-scale (bait-specific) profiling information, we will perform a computational network analysis to elucidate a global pathway/mechanisms underlying cellular responses to real-time low-dose IR. Similarly, we will extend our scheme to investigate systematically those induction/transmission pathways occurring in a fibroblast-epithelial interacting model in which the bystander cell (fibroblast) monitor the IR damage to the target cell (epithelial cell). The results will provide the proteome base (molecular mechanisms/pathways for signaling) for the low dose radiation-induced essential tissue

  8. Sirtuin 7 promotes cellular survival following genomic stress by attenuation of DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran, Shashi; Oddi, Vineesha; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2015-02-01

    Maintaining the genomic integrity is a constant challenge in proliferating cells. Amongst various proteins involved in this process, Sirtuins play a key role in DNA damage repair mechanisms in yeast as well as mammals. In the present work we report the role of one of the least explored Sirtuin viz., SIRT7, under conditions of genomic stress when treated with doxorubicin. Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells to DNA damage induced cell death by doxorubicin. SIRT7 overexpression in NIH3T3 delayed cell cycle progression by causing delay in G1 to S transition. SIRT7 overexpressing cells when treated with low dose of doxorubicin (0.25 µM) showed delayed onset of senescence, lesser accumulation of DNA damage marker γH2AX and lowered levels of growth arrest markers viz., p53 and p21 when compared to doxorubicin treated control GFP expressing cells. Resistance to DNA damage following SIRT7 overexpression was also evident by EdU incorporation studies where cellular growth arrest was significantly delayed. When treated with higher dose of doxorubicin (>1 µM), SIRT7 conferred resistance to apoptosis by attenuating stress activated kinases (SAPK viz., p38 and JNK) and p53 response thereby shifting the cellular fate towards senescence. Interestingly, relocalization of SIRT7 from nucleolus to nucleoplasm together with its co-localization with SAPK was an important feature associated with DNA damage. SIRT7 mediated resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis and senescence was lost when p53 level was restored by nutlin treatment. Overall, we propose SIRT7 attenuates DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response thereby promoting cellular survival under conditions of genomic stress. - Highlights: • Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized cells to DNA damage induced apoptosis. • SIRT7 delayed onset of premature senescence by attenuating DNA damage response. • Overexpression of SIRT7 delayed cell cycle progression by delaying G1/S transition. • Upon DNA damage SIRT

  9. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2012-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. Black

  10. 3D printed cellular solid outperforms traditional stochastic foam in long-term mechanical response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Lewicki, J.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Duoss, E. B.; Chinn, S. C.; Pearson, M. A.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Maxwell, R. S.; Wilson, T. S.

    2016-04-27

    3D printing of polymeric foams by direct-ink-write is a recent technological breakthrough that enables the creation of versatile compressible solids with programmable microstructure, customizable shapes, and tunable mechanical response including negative elastic modulus. However, in many applications the success of these 3D printed materials as a viable replacement for traditional stochastic foams critically depends on their mechanical performance and micro-architectural stability while deployed under long-term mechanical strain. To predict the long-term performance of the two types of foams we employed multi-year-long accelerated aging studies under compressive strain followed by a time-temperature-superposition analysis using a minimum-arc-length-based algorithm. The resulting master curvesmore » predict superior long-term performance of the 3D printed foam in terms of two different metrics, i.e., compression set and load retention. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. As a result, this indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material, which might explain the latter’s improved long-term stability and mechanical performance.« less

  11. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadhim, Munira A

    2012-08-22

    The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program. To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e. less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these "œnon-targeted" responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation with a focus on the induction of genomic instability (GI) in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition in these models on genomic instability. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to the dose of 10mGy (0.01Gy) X-rays. Using conventional X-ray and we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various conditions at a range of doses down to the very low dose of 0.01Gy. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for such studies. Mechanistic studies of instability in

  12. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 μg SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 μg SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more

  13. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on

  14. Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Harro, Clayton D.; Kemp, Troy J.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Hildesheim, Allan

    2006-09-30

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

  15. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu; Liu, Cheng; Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu; Xu, Kewei; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway.

  16. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  17. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  18. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  19. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  20. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21{sup ras}, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-{kappa}B pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-{kappa}B, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-{kappa}B, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  1. Ballistic transfection of mammalian cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, V.A.; Zelenin, A.V.; Zelenina, I.A.

    1995-11-01

    The method of ballistic transfection initially proposed for genetic transformation of plants was used for animal cells in vitro and in situ. The method consists in bombarding the transfected cells with microparticles of heavy metals carrying foreign DNA. Penetrating the cell nucleus, the microparticles transport the introduced gene. Successful genetic transformation of the cultured mouse cells and fish embryos was realized, and this allowed the study of mammalian cells in situ. The performed studies allowed us to demonstrate expression of the reporter genes of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, galactosidase, and neomycin phosphotransferase in the mouse liver, mammary gland and kidney explants, in the liver and cross-striated muscle of mouse and rat in situ, and in developing mouse embryos at the stages of two-cell embryo, morula, and blastocyst. All these genes were introduced by ballistic transfection. In the liver and cross-striated muscle the transgene activity was detected within two to three months after transfection. Thus, the ballistic introduction of the foreign genes in the cells in situ was demonstrated, and this opens possibilities for the use of this method in gene therapy. Methodical aspects of the bombarding and transfection are considered in detail, and the published data on transfection and genetic transformation of mammalian cells are discussed. 41 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Metal-Dependent Function of a Mammalian Acireductone Dioxygenase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Metal-Dependent Function of a Mammalian ... Publication Date: 2016-04-20 OSTI Identifier: 1248405 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  3. Response Response

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Attachment 7 Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Percent of Mentors that are People with Disabilities 9.00% Total number of Mentors (The count used to calculate the Mentor percentages) 252 Demographic Information Percent of Mentors Two or More Races Not reported Percent of White Mentors 63.00% Percent of Female Mentors 39.00% Percent of Male Mentors 61.00% Percent of Veteran Mentors 21.00% Percent of Asian American Mentors

  4. Response

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning This report assesses the relationship between high levels of demand-side resources (including end-use efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation) and investment in new transmission or utilization of existing transmission. It summarizes the extensive modeling of transmission scenarios done through DOE-funded studies

  5. Ski represses BMP signaling in Xenopus and mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    kluo@lbl.gov

    2001-05-16

    The bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, BMPs act as epidermal inducers and also as negative regulators of neurogenesis. Antagonism of BMP signaling results in neuralization. BMPs signal through the cell-surface receptors and downstream Smad molecules. Upon stimulation with BMP, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated by the activated BMP receptors, form a complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate the expression of BMP target genes. Here, we show that the Ski oncoprotein can block BMP signaling and the expression of BMP-responsive genes in both Xenopus and mammalian cells by directly interacting with and repressing the activity of BMP-specific Smad complexes. This ability to antagonize BMP signaling results in neuralization by Ski in the Xenopus embryo and blocking of osteoblast differentiation of murine W-20-17 cells. Thus, Ski is able to repress the activity of all receptor-associated Smads and may regulate vertebrate development by modulating the signaling activity of transforming growth factor-{beta} family members.

  6. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  7. Oxygen Modulates the Effectiveness of Granuloma Mediated Host Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Multiscale Computational Biology Approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sershen, Cheryl L.; Plimpton, Steven J.; May, Elebeoba E.

    2016-02-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated granuloma formation can be viewed as a structural immune response that can contain and halt the spread of the pathogen. In several mammalian hosts, including non-human primates, Mtb granulomas are often hypoxic, although this has not been observed in wild type murine infection models. While a presumed consequence, the structural contribution of the granuloma to oxygen limitation and the concomitant impact on Mtb metabolic viability and persistence remains to be fully explored. We develop a multiscale computational model to test to what extent in vivo Mtb granulomas become hypoxic, and investigate the effects of hypoxia on hostmore » immune response efficacy and mycobacterial persistence. Our study integrates a physiological model of oxygen dynamics in the extracellular space of alveolar tissue, an agent-based model of cellular immune response, and a systems biology-based model of Mtb metabolic dynamics. Our theoretical studies suggest that the dynamics of granuloma organization mediates oxygen availability and illustrates the immunological contribution of this structural host response to infection outcome. Furthermore, our integrated model demonstrates the link between structural immune response and mechanistic drivers influencing Mtbs adaptation to its changing microenvironment and the qualitative infection outcome scenarios of clearance, containment, dissemination, and a newly observed theoretical outcome of transient containment. We observed hypoxic regions in the containment granuloma similar in size to granulomas found in mammalian in vivo models of Mtb infection. In the case of the containment outcome, our model uniquely demonstrates that immune response mediated hypoxic conditions help foster the shift down of bacteria through two stages of adaptation similar to thein vitro non-replicating persistence (NRP) observed in the Wayne model of Mtb dormancy. Lastly, the adaptation in part contributes to the ability of Mtb to

  8. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-13

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery of proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  9. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  10. Mammalian target of rapamycin is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and heart development in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liang, Xinrong; Deng, Changyan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: mTOR is a critical regulator of many biological processes yet its function in heart is not well understood. MCK-Cre/Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice were established to delete Mtor in cardiomyocytes. The mTOR-mKO mice developed normally but die prematurely within 5 weeks after birth due to heart disease. The mTOR-mKO mice had dilated myocardium and increased cell death. mTOR-mKO hearts had reduced expression of metabolic genes and activation of mTOR target proteins. - Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive knockout of Mtor leads to embryonic lethality, the in vivo function of mTOR in perinatal development and postnatal growth of heart is not well defined. In this study, we established a muscle-specific mTOR conditional knockout mouse model (mTOR-mKO) by crossing MCK-Cre and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Although the mTOR-mKO mice survived embryonic and perinatal development, they exhibited severe postnatal growth retardation, cardiac muscle pathology and premature death. At the cellular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice had fewer cardiomyocytes due to apoptosis and necrosis, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy. At the molecular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice expressed lower levels of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis related genes compared to the WT littermates. In addition, the mTOR-mKO cardiac muscle had reduced Myh6 but elevated Myh7 expression, indicating cardiac muscle degeneration. Furthermore, deletion of Mtor dramatically decreased the phosphorylation of S6 and AKT, two key targets downstream of mTORC1 and mTORC2 mediating the normal function of mTOR. These results demonstrate that mTOR is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac muscle function.

  11. Sustainable Nano-Materials: What is happening at the cellular...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-Materials What is happening at the cellular level? Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Advanced Materials: Cellular ...

  12. {sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Su Xiaoming; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

  13. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  14. Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivovichev, S. V.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).

  15. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  16. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Catriona; Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H.

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  17. Relationship of DNA repair processes to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in mammalian cells. Progress report, August 1, 1977-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, H.H.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the role of DNA repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in mammalian cells. More specifically, mutant strains will be selected which are deficient in various DNA repair pathways. These strains will be studied with regard to (1) the nature of the defect in repair, and (2) the mutability and transformability of the defective cells by various agents as compared to the wild type parental cells. The results to date include progress in the following areas: (1) determination of optimum conditions for growth and maintenance of cells and for quantitative measurement of various cellular parameters; (2) investigation of the effect of holding mutagenized cells for various periods in a density inhibited state on survival and on mutation and transformation frequencies; (3) examination of the repair capabilities of BHK cells, as compared to repair-proficient and repair-deficient human cells and excision-deficient mouse cells, as measured by the reactivation of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) treated with radiation and ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS); (4) initiation of host cell reactivation viral sucide enrichment and screening of survivors of the enrichment for sensitivity to ionizing radiation; and (5) investigation of the toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of various metabolites of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). (ERB)

  18. The Siderocalin/Enterobactin Interaction: A Link between Mammalian Immunity and Bacterial Iron Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meux, Susan C.

    2008-05-12

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an anti-bacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} and Scn-Y106F:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. Fluorescence, UV-Vis and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogs of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.

  19. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-06-21

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  20. CANCELLED EMT and back again: does cellular plasticity fuelneoplasticprogressi on?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-02-24

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular transdifferentiation program that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. However, a similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, in which it is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often appears to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. Here we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the Ras-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  1. Evaluation of Cellular Shades in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Cort, Katherine A.; Merzouk, Massine B.; Weber, Jessica M.

    2015-10-28

    Understand the HVAC energy impact due to scheduled operation of Hunter Douglas cellular shades in the PNNL lab homes.

  2. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  3. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  4. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705; Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 ; Sohn, Jeongwon; Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 ; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  5. Characterization of a novel gene product (mammalian tolloid-like) with high sequence similarity to mammalian tolloid/bone morphogenetic protein-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahara, Kazuhiko; Brevard, R.; Hoffman, G.G.; Greenspan, D.S.

    1996-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1), a metalloprotease isolated from osteogenic extracts of demineralized bone, is capable of cleaving the C-propeptides of procollagen types I, II, and III. A single mammalian gene produces alternatively spliced RNA transcripts for BMP-1 and for a second longer protein, designated mammalian tolloid (mTld) due to a domain structure identical to that of the Drosophilia dorsal-ventral patterning gene product tolloid (Tld). Here we report the use of a cDNA library, prepared from BMP-1/mTld-null mouse embryos, to solate cDNA clones for a novel mammalian protein with a domain structure identical to that of mTld. The new protein, designated mammalian tolloid-like (mTll), has 76% identity with mTld for amino acid residues in all domains downstream of, and including, the protease domain. In contrast, the N-terminal activation domains of the two proteins show little similarity. In situ hybridizations show the distribution of mTll RNA to overlap extensively that previously shown for the BMP-1 and mTld RNA forms. However, mTll shows additional strong expression in structures of the developing, neonatal, and adult brain in which expression of BMP-1 and mTld has not been observed. The murine mTl1 gene (Tll) is mapped to central chromosome 8, which is a different chromosomal location than that of the BMP-1/mTld gene. Loci for some developmental abnormalities map to the same general chromosomal location as Tll. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Deficiency in Homologous Recombination Renders Mammalian Cells More Sensitive to Proton Versus Photon Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosse, Nicole; Fontana, Andrea O. [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hug, Eugen B.; Lomax, Antony; Coray, Adolf [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Augsburger, Marc [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sartori, Alessandro A. [Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Pruschy, Martin, E-mail: martin.pruschy@usz.ch [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of the 2 major DNA repair machineries on cellular survival in response to irradiation with the 2 types of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The DNA repair and cell survival endpoints in wild-type, homologous recombination (HR)-deficient, and nonhomologous end-joining-deficient cells were analyzed after irradiation with clinically relevant, low-linear energy transfer (LET) protons and 200-keV photons. Results: All cell lines were more sensitive to proton irradiation compared with photon irradiation, despite no differences in the induction of DNA breaks. Interestingly, HR-deficient cells and wild-type cells with small interfering RNA-down-regulated Rad51 were markedly hypersensitive to proton irradiation, resulting in an increased relative biological effectiveness in comparison with the relative biological effectiveness determined in wild-type cells. In contrast, lack of nonhomologous end-joining did not result in hypersensitivity toward proton irradiation. Repair kinetics of DNA damage in wild-type cells were equal after both types of irradiation, although proton irradiation resulted in more lethal chromosomal aberrations. Finally, repair kinetics in HR-deficient cells were significantly delayed after proton irradiation, with elevated amounts of residual ?H2AX foci after irradiation. Conclusion: Our data indicate a differential quality of DNA damage by proton versus photon irradiation, with a specific requirement for homologous recombination for DNA repair and enhanced cell survival. This has potential relevance for clinical stratification of patients carrying mutations in the DNA damage response pathways.

  7. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle phenotype via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Song, Sang Heon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Bae, Sun Sik

    2015-08-14

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs.

  8. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  9. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. ...

  10. A Nanocrystal Sensor for Luminescence Detection of Cellular Forces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION tetrapod stress gauge, luminescent nanocrystals, cellular forces Word Cloud More...

  11. Evaluation of Cellular Shades in the PNNL Lab Homes (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION Hunter; Douglas; Cellular; Shades; HVAC; ...

  12. In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into MDCK Cells In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine into MDCK Cells Sulfur is essential for life. It plays important roles in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and has a structural function in disulfide bonds. As a component of iron-sulfur clusters it takes part in electron and sulfur transfer reactions.1 Glutathione, a sulfur-containing tripeptide, is an important part of biological antioxidant systems.2 Another example for the biological

  13. On the reversibility of transitions between closed and open cellular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and open cellular states is asymmetrical and characterized by a rapid ("runaway") transition from the closed- to the open-cell state but slower recovery to the closed-cell state. ...

  14. On the reversibility of transitions between closed and open cellular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and open cellular states is asymmetrical, and characterized by a rapid ("runaway") transition from the closed- to the open-cell state, but slower recovery to the closed-cell state. ...

  15. A Nanocrystal Sensor for Luminescence Detection of Cellular Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Charina; Chou, Jonathan; Lutker, Katie; Werb, Zena; Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-09-29

    Quantum dots have been used as bright fluorescent tags with high photostability to probe numerous biological systems. In this work we present the tetrapod quantum dot as a dynamic, next-generation nanocrystal probe that fluorescently reports cellular forces with spatial and temporal resolution. Its small size and colloidal state suggest that the tetrapod may be further developed as a tool to measure cellular forces in vivo and with macromolecular spatial resolution.

  16. Scientists ratchet up understanding of cellular protein factory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding of cellular protein factory Scientists ratchet up understanding of cellular protein factory The research could aid in development of new antibiotics used to fight multidrug resistant superbugs such as MRSA found in many U.S. hospitals. December 2, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to

  17. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  18. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  19. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A. ); Gotchy, R.L. )

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markie, D.; Ragoussis, J.; Senger, G.; Rowan, A.; Trowsdale, J.; Sheer, D.; Bodmer, W.F. ); Sansom, D. )

    1993-03-01

    A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. The ADE2 gene is used for yeast selection with consequent disruption of the URA3 gene, allowing direct modification of YACs within the common host strain AB1380, and providing a simple test for correct targeting. This vector has been tested by modification of a 550-kb YAC containing part of the human MHC class II region and transfer to CHO cells by protoplast fusion. Analysis of 15 independent G418-resistant CHO lines obtained following fusion suggests the majority contain a complete YAC with moderate amplification in some lines. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guerin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.

    2015-09-11

    We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmore » at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global

  2. Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guerin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.

    2015-09-11

    We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelated at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global disorder is

  3. Structure and biochemical characterization of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen from a parasitic protozoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-02-08

    Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a toroidal-shaped protein that is involved in cell-cycle control, DNA replication and DNA repair. Parasitic protozoa are early-diverged eukaryotes that are responsible for neglected diseases. In this work, a PCNA from a parasitic protozoon was identified, cloned and biochemically characterized and its crystal structure was determined. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that PCNA from Entamoeba histolytica assembles as a homotrimer that is able to interact with and stimulate the activity of a PCNA-interacting peptide-motif protein from E. histolytica, EhDNAligI. The data indicate a conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of PCNA-mediated interactions between metazoa, yeast and parasitic protozoa.

  4. EVSE Features LED Charge Indicator Cellular Modem EVSE Specifcations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Indicator Cellular Modem EVSE Specifcations Grid connection Dual NEMA 6-50P Cordsets Connector type J1772 Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 16 x 24 x 6 Charge level AC Level 2 Input voltage 208 / 240 VAC Maximum input current 32 Amp Circuit breaker rating 40 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 12/5/2013 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 208.6 Supply frequency (Hz) 60.00 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 8 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2012 Chevrolet Volt Battery type Li-ion Steady state

  5. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  6. Response Events

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Emergency preparedness and response activities help to facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply, thereby reducing the impact of these events. As such, the ISER approach for emergency response is to leverage a coordinated integration of several DOE capabilities and resources to emergency response situations.

  7. ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent and Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zask, Arie; Verheijen, Jeroen C.; Curran, Kevin; Kaplan, Joshua; Richard, David J.; Nowak, Pawel; Malwitz, David J.; Brooijmans, Natasja; Bard, Joel; Svenson, Kristine; Lucas, Judy; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Hollander, Irwin; Gibbons, James J.; Abraham, Robert T.; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Mansour, Tarek S.; Yu, Ker

    2009-09-18

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of growth, survival, and metabolism, is a validated target for cancer therapy. Rapamycin and its analogues, allosteric inhibitors of mTOR, only partially inhibit one mTOR protein complex. ATP-competitive, global inhibitors of mTOR that have the potential for enhanced anticancer efficacy are described. Structural features leading to potency and selectivity were identified and refined leading to compounds with in vivo efficacy in tumor xenograft models.

  8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez Fuentes, Marcelo; Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-02-01

    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of 2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  9. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  10. FORMATION BY IRRADIATION OF AN EXPANDED, CELLULAR, POLYMERIC BODY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charlesby, A.; Ross, M.

    1958-12-01

    The treatment of polymeric esters of methacrylic acid having a softening polnt above 40 icient laborato C to form an expanded cellular mass with a smooth skin is discussed. The disclosed method comprises the steps of subjecting the body at a temperature below the softenpoint to a dose of at least 5 x lO/sup 6/ roentgen of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 source until its average molecular weight is reduced to a value within the range of 3 x lO/sup 5/ to 10/sup 4/, and heating at a temperature within the range of 0 to lO icient laborato C above its softening point to effect expansion.

  11. Demand Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee ...

  12. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu -Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muñoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege  G.; Helland, Åslaug; et al

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatialmore » distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.« less

  13. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu -Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muñoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege  G.; Helland, Åslaug; Rye, Inga  H.; Borresen-Dale, Anne -Lise; Maruyama, Reo; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Dowsett, Mitchell; Jones, Robin  L.; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Gascon, Pere; Gönen, Mithat; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatial distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.

  14. A New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing Repressor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Copper is a required micronutrient for all living cells, being an essential ...

  15. Departmental Response:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Response: Assessment of the Report of the SEAB Task Force on National Laboratories Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) and its network or national laboratories (labs) are responsible for advancing the national, economic. energy. and nuclear security of the U.S.: promoting innovative and transformative scientific and technological solutions in support or those missions: sponsoring basic research in the physical sciences: and ensuring environmental cleanup of the nation's

  16. Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; Yang, Qing; Xiao, Heng

    2014-11-27

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution-dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have smaller liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we develop a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This ensures that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC, the most common MCC type over the VOCALS-REx region. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between horizontal cell size and boundary layer height seen in satellite observations. However, the 9-km simulation is unable to resolve smaller circulations corresponding to shallower boundary layers, instead producing invariant MCC horizontal scale for all simulated boundary layers depths. The results imply that climate models with grid spacing of roughly 3 km or smaller may be needed to properly simulate the MCC structure in the marine stratocumulus regions.

  17. Corporate Responsibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab » Corporate Responsibility Corporate Responsibility Motivated to serve our nation and the world Contact LANS, LLC Office (505) 606-0105 The nation turns to us for solutions to the most complex national security technical challenges of our times, whether a threat may be nuclear, biological or chemical. At the heart of the Lab is a sense of service At the Lab, we are motivated by service to our nation and a desire to keep our nation and the world secure. That same sense of service compels us

  18. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  19. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B.; Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G.; Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Manti, L.

    2013-07-26

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/?m on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately

  20. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  1. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  2. Departmental Response:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Departmental Response: Assessment of the Report of the SEAB Task Force on Nuclear Nonproliferation Introduction Despite many successful U.S. efforts in nuclear nonproliferation, daunting challenges remain. Some nations are pursuing nuclear weapons and others are expanding their nuclear arsenals; some stockpiles of nuclear weapons and nuclear-weapons-usable materials remain dangerously insecure; and rapidly changing technologies and greater availability of dual-use knowledge are increasing the

  3. Departmental Response:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Response: Assessment of the Report of the SEAB Task Force on Methane Hydrates 1. Introduction Recent research confirms that gas hydrates are abundant in nature and exist in a wide variety of forms with varying relevance to future energy, long-term global carbon cycling, near-term climate change, and both natural and operational geohazards. Further, recent assessments within the Department of the Interior suggest large potential resources in gas hydrate deposits onshore Alaska and

  4. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  5. Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of Drug-induced Arrhythmias Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular Resolution: Multi-hour Simulation ...

  6. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  7. Tools and Models for Integrating Multiple Cellular Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerstein, Mark

    2015-11-06

    In this grant, we have systematically investigated the integrated networks, which are responsible for the coordination of activity between metabolic pathways in prokaryotes. We have developed several computational tools to analyze the topology of the integrated networks consisting of metabolic, regulatory, and physical interaction networks. The tools are all open-source, and they are available to download from Github, and can be incorporated in the Knowledgebase. Here, we summarize our work as follow. Understanding the topology of the integrated networks is the first step toward understanding its dynamics and evolution. For Aim 1 of this grant, we have developed a novel algorithm to determine and measure the hierarchical structure of transcriptional regulatory networks [1]. The hierarchy captures the direction of information flow in the network. The algorithm is generally applicable to regulatory networks in prokaryotes, yeast and higher organisms. Integrated datasets are extremely beneficial in understanding the biology of a system in a compact manner due to the conflation of multiple layers of information. Therefore for Aim 2 of this grant, we have developed several tools and carried out analysis for integrating system-wide genomic information. To make use of the structural data, we have developed DynaSIN for protein-protein interactions networks with various dynamical interfaces [2]. We then examined the association between network topology with phenotypic effects such as gene essentiality. In particular, we have organized E. coli and S. cerevisiae transcriptional regulatory networks into hierarchies. We then correlated gene phenotypic effects by tinkering with different layers to elucidate which layers were more tolerant to perturbations [3]. In the context of evolution, we also developed a workflow to guide the comparison between different types of biological networks across various species using the concept of rewiring [4], and Furthermore, we have developed

  8. Decipher the Molecular Response of Plant Single Cell Types to Environmental Stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the molecular response of entire plants or organs to environmental stresses suffers from the cellular complexity of the samples used. Specifically, this cellular complexity masks cell-specific responses to environmental stresses and logically leads to the dilution of the molecular changes occurring in each cell type composing the tissue/organ/plant in response to the stress. Therefore, to generate a more accurate picture of these responses, scientists are focusing on plant single cell type approaches. Several cell types are now considered as models such as the pollen, the trichomes, the cotton fiber, various root cell types including the root hair cell, and the guard cell of stomata. Among them, several have been used to characterize plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Lastly, in this review, we are describing the various -omic studies performed on these different plant single cell type models to better understand plant cell response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  9. A coarse-grained model for the simulations of biomolecular interactions in cellular environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2014-02-07

    The interactions of bio-molecules constitute the key steps of cellular functions. However, in vivo binding properties differ significantly from their in vitro measurements due to the heterogeneity of cellular environments. Here we introduce a coarse-grained model based on rigid-body representation to study how factors such as cellular crowding and membrane confinement affect molecular binding. The macroscopic parameters such as the equilibrium constant and the kinetic rate constant are calibrated by adjusting the microscopic coefficients used in the numerical simulations. By changing these model parameters that are experimentally approachable, we are able to study the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of molecular binding, as well as the effects caused by specific cellular environments. We investigate the volumetric effects of crowded intracellular space on bio-molecular diffusion and diffusion-limited reactions. Furthermore, the binding constants of membrane proteins are currently difficult to measure. We provide quantitative estimations about how the binding of membrane proteins deviates from soluble proteins under different degrees of membrane confinements. The simulation results provide biological insights to the functions of membrane receptors on cell surfaces. Overall, our studies establish a connection between the details of molecular interactions and the heterogeneity of cellular environments.

  10. Tuning of the electro-mechanical behavior of the cellular carbon nanotube structures with nanoparticle dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowda, Prarthana; Misra, Abha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589

    2014-03-10

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics of cellular network of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) impregnated with metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles were examined simultaneously by employing the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results show that the nanoparticle dispersion not only enhances the mechanical strength of the cellular CNT by two orders of magnitude but also imparts variable nonlinear electrical characteristics; the latter depends on the contact resistance between nanoparticles and CNT, which is shown to depend on the applied load while indentation. Impregnation with silver nanoparticles enhances the electrical conductance, the dispersion with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces the conductance of CNT network. In all cases, a power law behavior with suppression in the differential conductivity at zero bias was noted, indicating electron tunneling through the channels formed at the CNT-nanoparticle interfaces. These results open avenues for designing cellular CNT foams with desired electro-mechanical properties and coupling.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of cellular non-premixed jet flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valaer, A.L.; Frouzakis, C.E.; Boulouchos, K.; Papas, P.; Tomboulides, A.G.

    2010-04-15

    The formation, dynamics and structure of cellular flames in circular non-premixed jets are examined with three-dimensional numerical simulations incorporating detailed descriptions of chemistry and transport. Similar to past experiments reported in the literature, CO{sub 2}-diluted hydrogen in diluted or pure oxygen co-flowing streams in the proximity of the extinction limit are considered. As in the experiments, several preferred cellular states are found to co-exist with the particular state realized depending on initial conditions as well as on the jet characteristics. The simulations provide additionally the temporal transitions to different stationary or rotating cellular flames, their detailed structure, and the dependence of the scaling of the realized number of cells with the vorticity thickness. (author)

  12. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  13. 2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith Berman

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  14. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of cellular polypropylene electrets films characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Hongchen; Sun, Yao; Zhou, Xilong; Li, Yingwei; Li, Faxin

    2014-08-14

    Cellular electrets polymer is a new ferroelectret material exhibiting large piezoelectricity and has attracted considerable attentions in researches and industries. Property characterization is very important for this material and current investigations are mostly on macroscopic properties. In this work, we conduct nanoscale piezoelectric and ferroelectric characterizations of cellular polypropylene (PP) films using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). First, both the single-frequency PFM and dual-frequency resonance-tracking PFM testings were conducted on the cellular PP film. The localized piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is estimated to be 7–11pC/N by correcting the resonance magnification with quality factor and it is about one order lower than the macroscopic value. Next, using the switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM), we studied polarization switching behavior of the cellular PP films. Results show that it exhibits the typical ferroelectric-like phase hysteresis loops and butterfly-shaped amplitude loops, which is similar to that of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer film. However, both the phase and amplitude loops of the PP film are intensively asymmetric, which is thought to be caused by the nonzero remnant polarization after poling. Then, the D-E hysteresis loops of both the cellular PP film and PVDF film were measured by using the same wave form as that used in the SS-PFM, and the results show significant differences. Finally, we suggest that the ferroelectric-like behavior of cellular electrets films should be distinguished from that of typical ferroelectrics, both macroscopically and microscopically.

  15. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  16. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Lei; Carr, Aprell L.; Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary; Li, Lei

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinsons disease.

  17. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-06-15

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  18. Effects of solar ultraviolet photons on mammalian cell DNA. [UVA (320-400 nm):a2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This document presents information on the possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis caused by UVA (ultraviolet radiation in the 320--400 nm region). Most studies showing the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light have concentrated on UVB (280--320 nm). UVA had been considered harmless even though it penetrates biological tissues better than UVB. Recently, it has become apparent that UVA is also capable of causing damage to cellular DNA. This was unexpected because the DNA UV absorption spectrum indicates a negligible probability that photons of wavelengths longer than 320 nm will be directly absorbed. The most common defects induced in DNA by UVB are pyrimidine photoproducts, such as thymidine dimers. UVA photons produce defects resembling those caused by ionizing radiations: single- and double-strand breaks, and DNA-protein crosslinks. This paper also discusses the role of DNA repair mechanisms in UVA-induced defects and the molecular mechanisms of UVA damage induction. 38 refs. (MHB)

  19. Advanced Cellular and Biomolecular Imaging at Lehigh University, (PA) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassimeris, Lynne, U.

    2010-09-10

    Lehigh University is establishing an interdisciplinary program in high resolution cellular and subcellular biological imaging for a range of applications including improved cancer detection. The completed DOE project added to Lehigh?s bio-imaging infrastructure through acquisition of a new confocal microscope system as well as upgrades to two pieces of existing equipment. Bio-imaging related research at Lehigh was also supported through two seed grants for initiation of new projects.

  20. Human Homolog of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI) is a marker of cellular proliferation associated with nuclear bodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmehdawi, Fatima; Wheway, Gabrielle; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Adams, Matthew; High, Alec S.; Johnson, Colin A.; Robinson, Philip A.

    2013-02-01

    HHARI (also known as ARIH1) is an ubiquitin-protein ligase and is the cognate of the E2, UbcH7 (UBE2L3). To establish a functional role for HHARI in cellular proliferation processes, we performed a reverse genetics screen that identified n=86/522 (16.5%) ubiquitin conjugation components that have a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation, which included HHARI as a strong hit. We then produced and validated a panel of specific antibodies that establish HHARI as both a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in all cell types studied. HHARI was expressed at higher levels in nuclei, and co-localized with nuclear bodies including Cajal bodies (p80 coilin, NOPP140), PML and SC35 bodies. We confirmed reduced cellular proliferation after ARIH1 knockdown with individual siRNA duplexes, in addition to significantly increased levels of apoptosis, an increased proportion of cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle, and significant reductions in total cellular RNA levels. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, there are higher levels of HHARI expression associated with increased levels of proliferation, compared to healthy control tissues. We demonstrate that HHARI is associated with cellular proliferation, which may be mediated through its interaction with UbcH7 and modification of proteins in nuclear bodies. -- Highlights: ? We produce and validate new antibody reagents for the ubiquitin-protein ligase HHARI. ? HHARI colocalizes with nuclear bodies including Cajal, PML and SC35 bodies. ? We establish new functions in cell proliferation regulation for HHARI. ? Increased HHARI expression associates with squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation.

  1. GIM3E: Condition-specific Models of Cellular Metabolism Developed from Metabolomics and Expression Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Brian; Ebrahim, Ali; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Palsson, Bernard O.; Hyduke, Daniel R.

    2013-11-15

    Motivation: Genome-scale metabolic models have been used extensively to investigate alterations in cellular metabolism. The accuracy of these models to represent cellular metabolism in specific conditions has been improved by constraining the model with omics data sources. However, few practical methods for integrating metabolomics data with other omics data sources into genome-scale models of metabolism have been reported. Results: GIMMME (Gene Inactivation Moderated by Metabolism, Metabolomics, and Expression) is an algorithm that enables the development of condition-specific models based on an objective function, transcriptomics, and intracellular metabolomics data. GIMMME establishes metabolite utilization requirements with metabolomics data, uses model-paired transcriptomics data to find experimentally supported solutions, and also provides calculations of the turnover (production / consumption) flux of metabolites. GIMMME was employed to investigate the effects of integrating additional omics datasets to create increasingly constrained solution spaces of Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism during growth in both rich and virulence media. This integration proved to be informative and resulted in a requirement of additional active reactions (12 in each case) or metabolites (26 or 29, respectively). The addition of constraints from transcriptomics also impacted the allowed solution space, and the cellular metabolites with turnover fluxes that were necessarily altered by the change in conditions increased from 118 to 271 of 1397. Availability: GIMMME has been implemented in Python and requires a COBRApy 0.2.x. The algorithm and sample data described here are freely available at: http://opencobra.sourceforge.net/

  2. Coupled pulsating and cellular structure in the propagation of globally planar detonations in free space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Wenhu; Gao, Yang; Wang, Cheng; Law, Chung K.

    2015-10-15

    The globally planar detonation in free space is numerically simulated, with particular interest to understand and quantify the emergence and evolution of the one-dimensional pulsating instability and the two-dimensional cellular structure which is inherently also affected by pulsating instability. It is found that the pulsation includes three stages: rapid decay of the overdrive, approach to the Chapman-Jouguet state and emergence of weak pulsations, and the formation of strong pulsations; while evolution of the cellular structure also exhibits distinct behavior at these three stages: no cell formation, formation of small-scale, irregular cells, and formation of regular cells of a larger scale. Furthermore, the average shock pressure in the detonation front consists of fine-scale oscillations reflecting the collision dynamics of the triple-shock structure and large-scale oscillations affected by the global pulsation. The common stages of evolution between the cellular structure and the pulsating behavior, as well as the existence of shock-front pressure oscillation, suggest highly correlated mechanisms between them. Detonations with period doubling, period quadrupling, and chaotic amplitudes were also observed and studied for progressively increasing activation energies.

  3. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Development Smart Grid Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the ...

  4. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  5. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  6. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhaohua; Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse; Lin, Ren-Jang; Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  7. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, Janela; Margineantu, Daciana H.; Sweet, Ian R.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-20

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases.

  8. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  9. Drosophila Frataxin: an Iron Chaperone During Cellular [2Fe-2S] Cluster Bioassembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondapalli,K.; Kok, N.; Dancis, A.; Stemmler, T.

    2008-01-01

    Frataxin, a mitochondrial protein that is directly involved in regulating cellular iron homeostasis, has been suggested to serve as an iron chaperone during cellular Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. In humans, decreased amounts or impaired function of frataxin causes the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder Friedreich's ataxia. Cellular production of Fe-S clusters is accomplished by the Fe cofactor assembly platform enzymes Isu (eukaryotes) and IscU (prokaryotes). In this report, we have characterized the overall stability and iron binding properties of the Drosophila frataxin homologue (Dfh). Dfh is highly folded with secondary structural elements consistent with the structurally characterized frataxin orthologs. While the melting temperature (TM {approx} 59 C) and chemical stability ([urea]50% {approx} 2.4 M) of Drosophila frataxin, measured using circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy, closely match values determined for the human ortholog, pure Dfh is more stable against autodegradation than both the human and yeast proteins. The ferrous iron binding affinity (Kd {approx} 6.0 {mu}M) and optimal metal to protein stoichiometry (1:1) for Dfh have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Under anaerobic conditions with salt present, holo-Dfh is a stable iron-loaded protein monomer. Frataxin prevents reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to DNA when presented with both Fe(II) and H2O2. Ferrous iron bound to Dfh is high-spin and held in a partially symmetric Fe-(O/N)6 coordination environment, as determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) simulations indicate the average Fe-O/N bond length in Dfh is 2.13 Angstroms, consistent with a ligand geometry constructed by water and carboxylate oxygens most likely supplied in part by surface-exposed conserved acidic residues located on helix 1 and strand 1 in the structurally characterized frataxin orthologs. The iron

  10. Drosophila Frataxin: An Iron Chaperone During Cellular Fe-S Cluster Bioassembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondapalli, K.C.; Kok, N.M.; Dancis, A.; Stemmler, T.L.

    2009-05-20

    Frataxin, a mitochondrial protein that is directly involved in regulating cellular iron homeostasis, has been suggested to serve as an iron chaperone during cellular Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. In humans, decreased amounts or impaired function of frataxin causes the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder Friedreich's ataxia. Cellular production of Fe-S clusters is accomplished by the Fe cofactor assembly platform enzymes Isu (eukaryotes) and IscU (prokaryotes). In this report, we have characterized the overall stability and iron binding properties of the Drosophila frataxin homologue (Dfh). Dfh is highly folded with secondary structural elements consistent with the structurally characterized frataxin orthologs. While the melting temperature (T{sub M} {approx} 59 C) and chemical stability ([urea]{sub 50} {approx} 2.4 M) of Drosophila frataxin, measured using circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy, closely match values determined for the human ortholog, pure Dfh is more stable against autodegradation than both the human and yeast proteins. The ferrous iron binding affinity (K{sub d} {approx} 6.0 {micro}M) and optimal metal to protein stoichiometry (1:1) for Dfh have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Under anaerobic conditions with salt present, holo-Dfh is a stable iron-loaded protein monomer. Frataxin prevents reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to DNA when presented with both Fe(II) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Ferrous iron bound to Dfh is high-spin and held in a partially symmetric Fe-(O/N){sub 6} coordination environment, as determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) simulations indicate the average Fe-O/N bond length in Dfh is 2.13 {angstrom}, consistent with a ligand geometry constructed by water and carboxylate oxygens most likely supplied in part by surface-exposed conserved acidic residues located on helix 1 and strand 1 in the structurally

  11. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-08-01

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between

  12. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-06-27

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between

  13. 2012 MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 20-25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Donohue

    2012-07-25

    The Gordon Research Conference on MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  14. Demand Response Research Center and Open Automated Demand Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Capacity Bidding Real- Dme Pricing Demand Response Opportunities: Advance Notice and Duration of Response End Use Type Modulate OnOff Max. Response Time HVAC Chiller ...

  15. Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2006-12-12

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  16. Time dependence of tip morphology during cellular/dendritic arrayed growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H.; Tewari, S.N.

    1996-04-01

    Succinonitrile-1.9 wt pct acetone has been directionally solidified in 0.7 x 0.7-cm-square cross section pyrex ampoules in order to observe the cell/dendrite tip morphologies, not influenced by the wall effects, which are present during growth in the generally used thin (about 200 {micro}m) crucibles. The tips do not maintain a steady-state shape, as is generally assumed. Instead, they fluctuate within a shape envelope. The extent of fluctuation increases with decreasing growth speed, as the micro structure changes from the dendritic to cellular. The influence of natural convection has been examined by comparing these morphologies with those grown, without convection, in the thin ampoules.

  17. Developing an Abaqus *HYPERFOAM Model for M9747 (4003047) Cellular Silicone Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siranosian, Antranik A.; Stevens, R. Robert

    2012-04-26

    This report documents work done to develop an Abaqus *HYPERFOAM hyperelastic model for M9747 (4003047) cellular silicone foam for use in quasi-static analyses at ambient temperature. Experimental data, from acceptance tests for 'Pad A' conducted at the Kansas City Plant (KCP), was used to calibrate the model. The data includes gap (relative displacement) and load measurements from three locations on the pad. Thirteen sets of data, from pads with different serial numbers, were provided. The thirty-nine gap-load curves were extracted from the thirteen supplied Excel spreadsheets and analyzed, and from those thirty-nine one set of data, representing a qualitative mean, was chosen to calibrate the model. The data was converted from gap and load to nominal (engineering) strain and nominal stress in order to implement it in Abaqus. Strain computations required initial pad thickness estimates. An Abaqus model of a right-circular cylinder was used to evaluate and calibrate the *HYPERFOAM model.

  18. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagel, K. |; Wolf, D.E. |; Wagner, P. |; Simon, P.

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  19. On the reversibility of transitions between closed and open cellular convection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feingold, G.; Koren, I.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.

    2015-02-26

    The two-way transition between closed and open cellular convection is addressed in an idealized cloud resolving modeling framework. A series of cloud resolving simulations shows that the transition between closed and open cellular states is asymmetrical, and characterized by a rapid ("runaway") transition from the closed- to the open-cell state, but slower recovery to the closed-cell state. Given that precipitation initiates the closed-open cell transition, and that the recovery requires a suppression of the precipitation, we apply an ad hoc time-varying drop concentration to initiate and suppress precipitation. We show that the asymmetry in the two-way transition occurs even formore » very rapid drop concentration replenishment. The primary barrier to recovery is the loss in turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) associated with the loss in cloud water (and associated radiative cooling), and the stabilization of the boundary layer during the open-cell period. In transitioning from the open to the closed state, the system faces the Sisyphusian task of replenishing cloud water fast enough to counter precipitation losses, such that it can generate radiative cooling and TKE. Recovery to the closed cell state is slower when radiative cooling is inefficient such as in the presence of free tropospheric clouds, or after sunrise, when it is hampered by the absorption of shortwave radiation. Tests suggest that a faster return to the closed-cell state requires that the drop concentration recovery be accompanied by significant dynamical forcing, e.g., via an increase in surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. This is supported by simulations with a simple predator-prey dynamical system analogue. It is suggested that the observed closing of open cells by ship effluent likely occurs when aerosol intrusions are large, when contact comes prior to the heaviest drizzle in the early morning hours, and when the free troposphere is cloud-free.« less

  20. NNMCAB Responses from DOE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a listing of responses from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the recommendations provided from the Northern New Mexico Citizens’ Advisory Board (NNMCAB).

  1. TECHNICAL STANDARDS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PurposeThis procedure describes the responsibilities of persons who are charged with implementing the DOE Technical Standards Program. 

  2. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  3. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  4. CRA Comments & Responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (51105) 11 Response to CRA Comments (92005) Enclosure 1 - Computer Code VerificationTesting (92005) Inventory and Performance Assessment Reports DOE - Performance...

  5. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L.; Xu, C. Wilson

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  8. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  9. Frequency Response Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could leadmore » to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.« less

  10. On the reversibility of transitions between closed and open cellular convection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feingold, G.; Koren, I.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.

    2015-07-08

    The two-way transition between closed and open cellular convection is addressed in an idealized cloud-resolving modeling framework. A series of cloud-resolving simulations shows that the transition between closed and open cellular states is asymmetrical and characterized by a rapid ("runaway") transition from the closed- to the open-cell state but slower recovery to the closed-cell state. Given that precipitation initiates the closed–open cell transition and that the recovery requires a suppression of the precipitation, we apply an ad hoc time-varying drop concentration to initiate and suppress precipitation. We show that the asymmetry in the two-way transition occurs even for very rapidmore » drop concentration replenishment. The primary barrier to recovery is the loss in turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) associated with the loss in cloud water (and associated radiative cooling) and the vertical stratification of the boundary layer during the open-cell period. In transitioning from the open to the closed state, the system faces the task of replenishing cloud water fast enough to counter precipitation losses, such that it can generate radiative cooling and TKE. It is hampered by a stable layer below cloud base that has to be overcome before water vapor can be transported more efficiently into the cloud layer. Recovery to the closed-cell state is slower when radiative cooling is inefficient such as in the presence of free tropospheric clouds or after sunrise, when it is hampered by the absorption of shortwave radiation. Tests suggest that recovery to the closed-cell state is faster when the drizzle is smaller in amount and of shorter duration, i.e., when the precipitation causes less boundary layer stratification. Cloud-resolving model results on recovery rates are supported by simulations with a simple predator–prey dynamical system analogue. It is suggested that the observed closing of open cells by ship effluent likely occurs when aerosol intrusions are large

  11. Downregulation of microRNA-498 in colorectal cancers and its cellular effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A.; Lam, Alfred K.-Y.

    2015-01-15

    miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located intergenically in 19q13.41. Due to its predicted targeting of several genes involved in control of cellular growth, we examined the expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cell lines and a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Two colon cancer cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48) and one normal colonic epithelial cell line (FHC) were recruited. The expression of miR-498 was tested in these cell lines by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Tissues from 80 patients with surgical resection of colorectum (60 adenocarcinomas and 20 non-neoplastic tissues) were tested for miR-498 expression by qRT-PCR. In addition, an exogenous miR-498 (mimic) was used to detect the miRNA's effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle events in SW480 using MTT calorimetric assay and flow cytometry respectively. The colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498 compared to a normal colonic epithelial cell line. Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in the SW480 cell line resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased proportions of G2-M phase cells. In tissues, miR-498 expression was too low to be detected in all colorectal adenocarcinoma compared to non-neoplastic tissues. This suggests that the down regulation of miR-498 in colorectal cancer tissues and the direct suppressive cellular effect noted in cancer cell lines implies that miR-498 has some direct or indirect role in the pathogenesis of colorectal adenocarcinomas. - Highlights: • miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located in 19q13.41. • Colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498. • Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cells resulted in lower cell proliferation. • miR-498 expression was down regulated in all colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues.

  12. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  13. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  14. COMMENTS AND RESPONSES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comments and Responses to the Tentative Agreement Regarding The Fast Flux Test Facility (Agreement Major Milestone Series M-81-00) August 1999 2 COMMENTS AND RESPONSES TO THE TENTATIVE AGREEMENT REGARDING THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY COMMENTS AND RESPONSES 1. Introduction In January 1997 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) changed the status of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) from deactivation to standby pending a decision, to be made by December 1998 on whether or not the facility will be

  15. Demand Response- Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response is an electricity tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers, designed to induce lower electricity use typically at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized.

  16. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  17. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a meringue type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the meringue approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  18. Electrical substation service-area estimation using Cellular Automata: An initial report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenwick, J.W.; Dowell, L.J.

    1998-07-01

    The service areas for electric power substations can be estimated using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA model is a discrete, iterative process whereby substations acquire service area by claiming neighboring cells. The service area expands from a substation until a neighboring substation service area is met or the substation`s total capacity or other constraints are reached. The CA-model output is dependent on the rule set that defines cell interactions. The rule set is based on a hierarchy of quantitative metrics that represent real-world factors such as land use and population density. Together, the metrics determine the rate of cell acquisition and the upper bound for service area size. Assessing the CA-model accuracy requires comparisons to actual service areas. These actual service areas can be extracted from distribution maps. Quantitative assessment of the CA-model accuracy can be accomplished by a number of methods. Some are as simple as finding the percentage of cells predicted correctly, while others assess a penalty based on the distance from an incorrectly predicted cell to its correct service area. This is an initial report of a work in progress.

  19. Growth on ATP elicits a P-stress response in the picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Whitney, LeAnn P.; Lomas, Michael W.

    2016-05-11

    The surface waters of oligotrophic oceans have chronically low phosphate (Pi) concentrations, which renders dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) an important nutrient source. In the subtropical North Atlantic, cyanobacteria are often numerically dominant, but picoeukaryotes can dominate autotrophic biomass and productivity making them important contributors to the ocean carbon cycle. Despite their importance, little is known regarding the metabolic response of picoeukaryotes to changes in phosphorus (P) source and availability. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate P utilization in oligotrophic environments, we evaluated transcriptomes of the picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla grown under Pi-replete and -deficient conditions, with an additional investigation ofmore » growth on DOP in replete conditions. Genes that function in sulfolipid substitution and Pi uptake increased in expression with Pi-deficiency, suggesting cells were reallocating cellular P and increasing P acquisition capabilities. Pi-deficient M. pusilla cells also increased alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced their cellular P content. Cells grown with DOP were able to maintain relatively high growth rates, however the transcriptomic response was more similar to the Pi-deficient response than that seen in cells grown under Pi-replete conditions. The results demonstrate that not all P sources are the same for growth; while M. pusilla, a model picoeukaryote, may grow well on DOP, the metabolic demand is greater than growth on Pi. Lastly, these findings provide insight into the cellular strategies which may be used to support growth in a stratified future ocean predicted to favor picoeukaryotes.« less

  20. Your Records Management Responsibilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Your Records Management Responsibilities Table of Contents INTRODUCTION RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY IMPORTANCE OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT YOUR RECORDS MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES RECORDS MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE ELECTRONIC RECORDS & RECORDKEEPING LAW, REGULATION, AND POLICY ASSISTANCE RECORDS MANAGEMENT TERMS 2 INTRODUCTION If you are a government employee or contractor working for a federal agency, records management is part of your

  1. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  2. CRA Comments & Responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRA Comments & Responses Home CRA - 2004 Final Recertification Decision CRA Comments & Responses CCA - 1996 CRA CARDs & TSDs CCA CARDs & TSDs Regulatory Tools Completeness Determination-Related Correspondence All EPA & DOE correspondence related to the determination of completeness and the CRA are provided below. Letter Transmitting EPA's CRA Completeness Determination (9/29/05) Notification of Completeness Determination EPA Letter # Subject 1 CRA Comments (5/20/04)

  3. Questions and Responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Responses: Question 1: Would the Government consider accepting either CMMI-DEV or CMMI-SVC Level 3 or higher since there is majority of process areas are shared between the two constellations and repeatability of processes will not be reduced since both will require Level 3 or higher? Government Response: The Government has determined that CMMI-SVC is a relatively new methodology and is in agreement that there is a considerable overlap of process areas shared between the two constellations. The

  4. Decipher the Molecular Response of Plant Single Cell Types to Environmental Stresses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the molecular response of entire plants or organs to environmental stresses suffers from the cellular complexity of the samples used. Specifically, this cellular complexity masks cell-specific responses to environmental stresses and logically leads to the dilution of the molecular changes occurring in each cell type composing the tissue/organ/plant in response to the stress. Therefore, to generate a more accurate picture of these responses, scientists are focusing on plant single cell type approaches. Several cell types are now considered as models such as the pollen, the trichomes, the cotton fiber, various root cell types including the root hairmore » cell, and the guard cell of stomata. Among them, several have been used to characterize plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Lastly, in this review, we are describing the various -omic studies performed on these different plant single cell type models to better understand plant cell response to biotic and abiotic stresses.« less

  5. Direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular compartments using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Deves, Guillaume; Ortega, Richard

    2010-07-15

    Identification of arsenic chemical species at a sub-cellular level is a key to understanding the mechanisms involved in arsenic toxicology and antitumor pharmacology. When performed with a microbeam, X-ray absorption near-edge structure ({mu}-XANES) enables the direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular compartments avoiding cell fractionation and other preparation steps that might modify the chemical species. This methodology couples tracking of cellular organelles in a single cell by confocal or epifluorescence microscopy with local analysis of chemical species by {mu}-XANES. Here we report the results obtained with a {mu}-XANES experimental setup based on Kirkpatrick-Baez X-ray focusing optics that maintains high flux of incoming radiation (>10{sup 11} ph/s) at micrometric spatial resolution (1.5x4.0 {mu}m{sup 2}). This original experimental setup enabled the direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular organelles with a 10{sup -15} g detection limit. {mu}-XANES shows that inorganic arsenite, As(OH){sub 3}, is the main form of arsenic in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondrial network of cultured cancer cells exposed to As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the other hand, a predominance of As(III) species is observed in HepG2 cells exposed to As(OH){sub 3} with, in some cases, oxidation to a pentavalent form in nuclear structures of HepG2 cells. The observation of intra-nuclear mixed redox states suggests an inter-individual variability in a cell population that can only be evidenced with direct sub-cellular speciation analysis.

  6. Identification and characterization of cellular binding proteins (receptors) for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2B, an initiator of bone differentiation cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paralkar, V.M.; Reddi, A.H. ); Hammonds, R.G. )

    1991-04-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2B (BMP 2B), is a heparin-binding bone differentiation factor that initiates endochondral bone formation in rats when implanted subcutaneously. The molecular mechanism of action of this differentiation factor is not known, and as a first step the authors have examined BMP 2B-responsive cells for the presence of specific cellular binding proteins. Using {sup 125}I-labeled BMP 2B, specific high-affinity binding sites for recombinant human BMP 2B on MC3T3 E1 osteoblast-like cells as well as on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were identified. Platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor {beta} did not compete for the binding of radiolabeled BMP 2B. The binding of BMP 2B is a time- and temperature-dependent process. Chemical crosslinking of radiolabeled BMP showed two components. These data demonstrate specific, high-affinity cell-surface binding proteins for BMP 2B.

  7. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  8. Activation of human natural killer cells by the soluble form of cellular prion protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong, Yeon-Jae; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Young-Soon; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Bum-Chan; Park, Su-Hyung; Park, Young Woo; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-08-21

    Cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) is widely expressed in various cell types, including cells of the immune system. However, the specific roles of PrP{sup C} in the immune system have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C} protein on human natural killer (NK) cells. Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} protein was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with the Fc portion of human IgG{sub 1} (PrP{sup C}-Fc). PrP{sup C}-Fc binds to the surface of human NK cells, particularly to CD56{sup dim} NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced the production of cytokines and chemokines and the degranulation of granzyme B from NK cells. In addition, PrP{sup C}-Fc facilitated the IL-15-induced proliferation of NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK in NK cells, and inhibitors of the ERK or the JNK pathways abrogated PrP{sup C}-Fc-induced cytokine production in NK cells. In conclusion, the soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} (PrP{sup C}-Fc) was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with IgG1 Fc portion. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein induces the production of cytokines and degranulation from human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein enhances the IL-15-induced proliferation of human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

  9. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yi; Tao, Shasha; Lian, Fangru; Chau, Binh T.; Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan; Fang, Deyu; Lantz, R. Clark; Zhang, Donna D.

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  10. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  11. Roles & Responsibilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roles & Responsibilities PDF icon Roles & Responsibilities.pdf Responsible Contacts Donna Friend HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST E-mail donna.friend@hq.doe.dov Phone 202-586-5880 More ...

  12. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  13. Supervisor Responsibilities at Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supervisor Responsibilities at Berkeley Lab This online course will help both new and experienced supervisors better understand key knowledge and responsibilities needed to be an...

  14. Evolutionarily conserved IMPACT impairs various stress responses that require GCN1 for activating the eIF2 kinase GCN2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cambiaghi, Tavane D.; Pereira, Catia M.; Shanmugam, Renuka; Bolech, Michael; Wek, Ronald C.; Sattlegger, Evelyn; Castilho, Beatriz A.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •GCN1 is required for mammalian and yeast GCN2 function in a variety of conditions. •Mammalian IMPACT competes with GCN2 for GCN1 binding. •IMPACT and its yeast counterpart YIH1 downregulate GCN1-dependent GCN2 activation. -- Abstract: In response to a range of environmental stresses, phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) represses general protein synthesis coincident with increased translation of specific mRNAs, such as those encoding the transcription activators GCN4 and ATF4. The eIF2α kinase GCN2 is activated by amino acid starvation by a mechanism involving GCN2 binding to an activator protein GCN1, along with association with uncharged tRNA that accumulates during nutrient deprivation. We previously showed that mammalian IMPACT and its yeast ortholog YIH1 bind to GCN1, thereby preventing GCN1 association with GCN2 and stimulation of this eIF2α kinase during amino acid depletion. GCN2 activity is also enhanced by other stresses, including proteasome inhibition, UV irradiation and lack of glucose. Here, we provide evidence that IMPACT affects directly and specifically the activation of GCN2 under these stress conditions in mammalian cells. We show that activation of mammalian GCN2 requires its interaction with GCN1 and that IMPACT promotes the dissolution of the GCN2–GCN1 complex. To a similar extent as the overexpression of YIH1, overexpression of IMPACT in yeast cells inhibited growth under all stress conditions that require GCN2 and GCN1 for cell survival, including exposure to acetic acid, high levels of NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or benomyl. This study extends our understanding of the roles played by GCN1 in GCN2 activation induced by a variety of stress arrangements and suggests that IMPACT and YIH1 use similar mechanisms for regulating this eIF2α kinase.

  15. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  16. General Responsibilities and Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The material presented in this guide provides suggestions and acceptable ways of implementing DOE M 435.1-1 and should not be viewed as additional or mandatory requirements. The objective of the guide is to ensure that responsible individuals understand what is necessary and acceptable for implementing the requirements of DOE M 435.1-1.

  17. Improving the accuracy and efficiency of time-resolved electronic spectra calculations: Cellular dephasing representation with a prefactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; ulc, Miroslav; Van?ek, Ji?

    2013-08-07

    Time-resolved electronic spectra can be obtained as the Fourier transform of a special type of time correlation function known as fidelity amplitude, which, in turn, can be evaluated approximately and efficiently with the dephasing representation. Here we improve both the accuracy of this approximationwith an amplitude correction derived from the phase-space propagatorand its efficiencywith an improved cellular scheme employing inverse Weierstrass transform and optimal scaling of the cell size. We demonstrate the advantages of the new methodology by computing dispersed time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine, and the NCO molecule. In contrast, we show that in strongly chaotic systems such as the quartic oscillator the original dephasing representation is more appropriate than either the cellular or prefactor-corrected methods.

  18. The role of cellular structure on increasing the detonability limits of three-step chain-branching detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Mark; Kiyanda, Charles B; Quirk, James J; Sharpe, Gary J

    2011-01-27

    In [1], the dynamics of a pulsating three-step chain-branching detonation were studied. The reaction model consists of, sequentially, chain-initiation, chain-branching and chain-termination steps. The chain-initiation and chain-branching steps are taken to be thermally neutral, with chemical energy release occuring in the chain-termination stage. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether cellular detonation structure can increase the value of the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b} at which fully coupled detonation solutions are observed over those in 1 D. The basic concept is straightforward and has been discussed in [1] and [3]; if T{sub s} drops below T{sub b} at the lead shock, the passage of a transverse shock can increase both the lead shock temperature and the temperature behind the transverse wave back above T{sub b}, thus sustaining an unstable cellular detonation for values of T{sub b} for which a one-dimensional pulsating detonation will fail. Experiments potentially supporting this hypothesis with irregular detonations have been shown in [3] in a shock tube with acoustically absorbing walls. Removal of the transverse waves results in detonation failure, giving way to a decoupled shock-flame complex. A number of questions remain to be addressed regarding the possibility of such a mechanism, and, if so, about the precise mechanisms driving the cellular structure for large T{sub b}. For instance, one might ask what sets the cell size in a chain-branching detonation, particularly could the characteristic cell size be set by the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b}: after a transverse wave shock collision, the strength of the transverse wave weakens as it propagates along the front. If the spacing between shock collisions is too large (cell size), then the transverse shocks may weaken to the extent that the lead shock temperature or that behind the transverse waves is not raised above T{sub b}, losing chemical energy to

  19. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-03-10

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  20. Climate Change Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural resources across America, and tribal communities are often the hardest hit by severe weather events such as droughts, floods and wildfires" - Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell "Impacts of climate change are increasingly evident for American Indian and Alaska Native communities and, in some cases, threaten

  1. Response Resources Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY Final Technical Report Award Number: DE-FC26-08NT02869 Project Type: Regional Demonstration Principal Investigator: Andre Wellington, Project Manager, Smart Grid Implementation Group Recipient: Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. Team members: Innoventive Power and Verizon Communications Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. Taxpayer ID Number: 13-5009340 Organizational DUNS: 00-698-2359 4 Irving Place New York,

  2. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  3. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  4. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  5. Chk2 regulates transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Chen [Department of Geriatric Research, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Shimizu, Shigeomi [Department of Post-Genomics Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Yoshihide [Department of Post-Genomics Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Motoyama, Noboru [Department of Geriatric Research, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: motoyama@nils.go.jp

    2005-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. The protein kinase Chk2 is an important regulator of p53 function in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Cells derived from Chk2-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of apoptosis by IR, and this resistance has been thought to be a result of the defective transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. It was recently shown, however, that p53 itself and histone H1.2 translocate to mitochondria and thereby induces apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner in response to IR. We have now examined whether Chk2 also regulates the transcription-independent induction of apoptosis by p53 and histone H1.2. The reduced ability of IR to induce p53 stabilization in Chk2-deficient thymocytes was associated with a marked impairment of p53 and histone H1 translocation to mitochondria. These results suggest that Chk2 regulates the transcription-independent mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing stabilization of p53 in response to IR.

  6. Mechanisms of disease: epithelial-mesenchymal transition and back again: does cellular plasticity fuel neoplastic progression?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, Mina J; Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a conversion that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. A similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, which is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often seems to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. In this Review, we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the RAS-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  7. Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis through suppressing cellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wenhao; Xu, Chan; Hong, Zongguo; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2014-12-01

    Kurarinol is a flavonoid isolated from roots of the medical plant Sophora flavescens. However, its cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and toxic effects on mammalians remain largely unexplored. Here, the pro-apoptotic activities of kurarinol on HCC cells and its toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The molecular mechanisms underlying kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis were also investigated. We found that kurarinol dose-dependently provoked HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In addition, kurarinol gave rise to a considerable decrease in the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in HCC cells. Suppression of STAT3 signaling is involved in kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that kurarinol injection substantially induced transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with low toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, the transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues was significantly suppressed after kurarinol treatment. Collectively, our current research demonstrated that kurarinol has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with undetectable toxic impacts on the host. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in kurarinol-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis. • Kurarinol induces HCC cell apoptosis via inhibiting STAT3. • Kurarinol exhibits low toxic effects on tumor-bearing animals.

  8. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  9. Numerical study of mechanical behavior of ceramic composites under compression loading in the framework of movable cellular automaton method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konovalenko, Igor S. Smolin, Alexey Yu. Konovalenko, Ivan S.; Promakhov, Vladimir V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2014-11-14

    Movable cellular automaton method was used for investigating the mechanical behavior of ceramic composites under uniaxial compression. A 2D numerical model of ceramic composites based on oxides of zirconium and aluminum with different structural parameters was developed using the SEM images of micro-sections of a real composite. The influence of such structural parameters as the geometrical dimensions of layers, inclusions, and their spatial distribution in the sample, the volume content of the composite components and their mechanical properties (as well as the amount of zirconium dioxide that underwent the phase transformation) on the fracture, strength, deformation and dissipative properties was investigated.

  10. Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authoritie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and ...

  11. Open-air direct current plasma jet: Scaling up, uniformity, and cellular control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-10-15

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets are commonly used in many fields from medicine to nanotechnology, yet the issue of scaling the discharges up to larger areas without compromising the plasma uniformity remains a major challenge. In this paper, we demonstrate a homogenous cold air plasma glow with a large cross-section generated by a direct current power supply. There is no risk of glow-to-arc transitions, and the plasma glow appears uniform regardless of the gap between the nozzle and the surface being processed. Detailed studies show that both the position of the quartz tube and the gas flow rate can be used to control the plasma properties. Further investigation indicates that the residual charges trapped on the inner surface of the quartz tube may be responsible for the generation of the air plasma plume with a large cross-section. The spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the air plasma plume is uniform as it propagates out of the nozzle. The remarkable improvement of the plasma uniformity is used to improve the bio-compatibility of a glass coverslip over a reasonably large area. This improvement is demonstrated by a much more uniform and effective attachment and proliferation of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells on the plasma-treated surface.

  12. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10 CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues.

  13. Temporal Scattering And Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  14. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  15. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  16. Expancel Foams: Fabrication and Characterization of a New Reduced Density Cellular Material for Structural Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Whinnery; S. Goods; B. Even

    2000-08-01

    This study was initiated to produce a low-density centering medium for use in experiments investigating the response of materials to shock-loading. While the main drivers for material selection were homogeneity, dimensional stability, performance and cost, other secondary requirements included fine cell size, the ability to manufacture 5--10 cm-sized parts and an extremely compressed development time. The authors chose a non-traditional methodology using a hollow, expandable, polymeric microballoon material system called Expancel{reg_sign}. These microballoons are made from a copolymer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN) and use iso-pentane as the blowing agent. The average diameter (by volume) of the unexpanded powder is approximately 13 {micro}m, while the average of the expanded powder is 35--55 {micro}m, with a few large microballoons approaching 150--200 p.m. A processing method was developed that established a pre-mixed combination of unexpanded and expanded Expancel at a ratio such that the tap (or vibration) density of the mixed powders was the same as that desired of the final part. Upon heating above the tack temperature of the polymer, this zero-rise approach allowed only expansion of the unexpanded powder to fill the interstices between the pre-expanded balloons. The mechanical action of the expanding powder combined with the elevated processing temperature yielded flee-standing and mechanically robust parts. Although mechanical properties of these foams were not a key performance requirement, the data allowed for the determination of the best temperature to heat the samples. Processing the foam at higher temperatures enhanced both modulus and strength. The maximum allowable temperature was limited by dimensional stability and shrinkback considerations. Tomographic analysis of foam billets revealed very flat density profiles. Parts of any density between the low density expanded powder (approximately 0.013 g/cm{sup 3}) and the

  17. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  18. Microbial Protein-Protein Interactions (MiPPI) Data from the Genomics: GTL Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Genomic Science Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS), established in 2002, seeks to identify and characterize the complete set of protein complexes within a cell to provide a mechanistic basis for the understanding of biochemical functions. The CMCS is anchored at ORNL and PNNL. CMCS initially focused on the identification and characterization of protein complexes in two microbial systems,Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) and Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis). These two organisms have also been the focus of major DOE Genomic Science/Microbial Cell Program (MCP) projects. To develop an approach for identifying the diverse types of complexes present in microbial organisms, CMCS incorporates a number of molecular biology, microbiology, analytical and computational tools in an integrated pipeline.

  19. Emergency Response Exercise | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preparedness Emergency Preparedness ISER is responsible for coordinating the protection of critical energy assets and assisting Federal, State, and local governments with disruption preparation, response, and mitigation in support of Presidential Policy Directive 8. DOE (through ISER) is the lead office for executing the Emergency Support Function 12 Energy (ESF-12) mission. This mission is outlined in the National Response Framework (NRF), and it facilitates the assessment, reporting, and

  20. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  1. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  2. Advice and Responses - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advice Letters Response to Advice Description Date Adopted 289 Master Acquisition Plan ... Engineering EvaluationCost Analysis for 105-KE Reactor Decommissioning November 5, 2010 ...

  3. BPA-2013-01679-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    following: "BPA's response to the Redman Report, which was provided to Public Power Council (PPC) in February of 2008." Response: BPA is releasing the enclosed responsive...

  4. Departmental Radiological Emergency Response Assets

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-06-27

    The order establishes requirements and responsibilities for the DOE/NNSA national radiological emergency response assets and capabilities and Nuclear Emergency Support Team assets. Supersedes DOE O 5530.1A, DOE O 5530.2, DOE O 5530.3, DOE O 5530.4, and DOE O 5530.5.

  5. Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for developing an emergency response plan, as outlined in OSHA’s 29 CFR 1910.120(q), for facility response.  This model has been adopted and...

  6. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  7. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  8. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  9. NNSA Conducts International Radiological Response Training in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA Conducts International Radiological Response Training in Vienna August 01, 2013 ... Radiological Assistance Program Training for Emergency Response Advanced ...

  10. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers Authors:...

  11. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  12. The host immunological response to cancer therapy: An emerging concept in tumor biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voloshin, Tali; Voest, Emile E.; Shaked, Yuval

    2013-07-01

    Almost any type of anti-cancer treatment including chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and targeted drugs can induce host molecular and cellular immunological effects which, in turn, can lead to tumor outgrowth and relapse despite an initial successful therapy outcome. Tumor relapse due to host immunological effects is attributed to angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination from the primary tumors and seeding at metastatic sites. This short review will describe the types of host cells that participate in this process, the types of factors secreted from the host following therapy that can promote tumor re-growth, and the possible implications of this unique and yet only partially-known process. It is postulated that blocking these specific immunological effects in the reactive host in response to cancer therapy may aid in identifying new host-dependent targets for cancer, which in combination with conventional treatments can prolong therapy efficacy and extend survival. Additional studies investigating this specific research direction—both in preclinical models and in the clinical setting are essential in order to advance our understanding of how tumors relapse and evade therapy. -- Highlights: • Cancer therapy induces host molecular and cellular pro-tumorigenic effects. • Host effects in response to therapy may promote tumor relapse and metastasis. • The reactive host consists of immunological mediators promoting tumor re-growth. • Blocking therapy-induced host mediators may improve outcome.

  13. MNK1 expression increases during cellular senescence and modulates the subcellular localization of hnRNP A1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaei, Samira; The Graduate School and University Center of CUNY, New York, NY ; Shimada, Naoko; Kucharavy, Herman; Hubbard, Karen; The Graduate School and University Center of CUNY, New York, NY

    2012-03-10

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is an RNA-binding protein that modulates splice site usage, polyadenylation, and cleavage efficiency. This protein has also been implicated in mRNA stability and transport from the nucleus. We have previously demonstrated that hnRNP A1 had diminished protein levels and showed cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts. Furthermore, we have shown that inhibition of p38 MAPK, a key regulator of cellular senescence, elevated hnRNP A1 protein levels and inhibited hnRNP A1 cytoplasmic localization. In this study, we have explored the possible involvement of MNK1, one of the downstream effector of p38 MAPK, in the regulation of hnRNP A1. We have demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of MNK1 by CGP 57380 decreased the phosphorylation levels of hnRNP A1 in young and senescent fibroblast cells and blocked the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in senescent cells. In addition, MNK1 formed a complex with hnRNP A1 in vivo. The expression levels of MNK1, phospho-MNK1, and phospho-eIF4E proteins were found to be elevated in senescent cells. These data suggest that MNK1 regulates the phosphorylation and the subcellular distribution of hnRNP A1 and that MNK1 may play a role in the induction of senescence. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MNK1 and not MAPKAPK2 phosphorylates hnRNP A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MNK1 has elevated levels in senescent cells, this has not been reported previously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MNK1 activity induces cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in senescent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Altered cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1 may alter gene expression patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our studies may increase our understanding of RNA metabolism during cellular aging.

  14. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  15. Systematic identification of genes and transduction pathways involved in radio-adaptive response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Honglu

    2015-05-22

    Low doses of radiation have been shown to protect against the biological effects of later exposure to toxic levels of radiation. In this study, we propose to identify the molecular mechanisms of this adaptive response by systematically identifying the genes that play a role in radio-protection. In the original proposal, a human cell line that is well-documented to exhibit the radio-adaptive effect was to be used. In this revised study plan, we will use a mouse model, C57BL/6, which has also been well investigated for radio-adaptation. The goal of the proposed study is to enhance our understanding of cellular responses to low doses of radiation exposure at the molecular level.

  16. Demand Response- Policy: More Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE's commitment to ensuring non-wires options to modernize the nation's electricity delivery system includes ongoing support of a number of national and regional activities in support of demand response.

  17. Freedom of Information Act Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information because it does not shed any light on how BPA has performed its statutory duties. Due to the size of the responsive documents they cannot be posted. To obtain a...

  18. Comment and Response Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-06-09

    CRMS is a Web-based client/server application that helps manage, track, and report on institutional responses to public comments on published documents such as environmental impact statements.

  19. Freedom of Information Act Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You will have to assume risk of loss, or injury result from. your use of BPA's prop , -for such loss, or injury for which BPA may be responsible under the pmAom of the...

  20. CD147 and AGR2 expression promote cellular proliferation and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeny, Larissa; Liu, Zhiyong; Bush, Benjamin D.; Hartman, Yolanda; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2012-08-15

    The signaling pathways facilitating metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells are not fully understood. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein known to induce cell migration and invasion. AGR2 is a secreted peptide also known to promote cell metastasis. Here we describe their importance in the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells (FADU and OSC-19) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 decreased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 expression decreased primary tumor growth as well as regional and distant metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated AGR2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explored the relationship between AGR2 and CD147 for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AGR2 and CD147 appear to co-localize in head and squamous cell carcinoma samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of both AGR2 and CD147 reduced migration and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of both AGR2 and CD147 decreased metastasis in vivo.

  1. Structure of modified [epsilon]-polylysine micelles and their application in improving cellular antioxidant activity of curcuminoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hailong; Li, Ji; Shi, Ke; Huang, Qingrong

    2015-10-15

    The micelle structure of octenyl succinic anhydride modified {var_epsilon}-polylysine (M-EPL), an anti-microbial surfactant prepared from natural peptide {var_epsilon}-polylysine in aqueous solution has been studied using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results revealed that M-EPLs formed spherical micelles with individual size of 24-26 {angstrom} in aqueous solution which could further aggregate to form a larger dimension with averaged radius of 268-308 {angstrom}. Furthermore, M-EPL micelle was able to encapsulate curcuminoids, a group of poorly-soluble bioactive compounds from turmeric with poor oral bioavailability, and improve their water solubility. Three loading methods, including solvent evaporation, dialysis, and high-speed homogenization were compared. The results indicated that the dialysis method generated the highest loading capacity and curcuminoids water solubility. The micelle encapsulation was confirmed as there were no free curcuminoid crystals detected in the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. It was also demonstrated that M-EPL encapsulation stabilized curcuminoids against hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and the encapsulated curcuminoids showed elevated cellular antioxidant activity compared with free curcuminoids. This work suggested that M-EPL could be used as new biopolymer micelles for delivering poorly soluble drugs/phytochemicals and improving their bioactivities.

  2. Cellular Functions and X-ray Structure of Anthrolysin O, a Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin Secreted by Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Malito, Enrico; Chenal, Alexandre; Bishop, Brian L.; Musch, Mark W.; Villereal, Mitch L.; Chang, Eugene B.; Mosser, Elise M.; Rest, Richard F.; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2009-06-02

    Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of ALO in anthrax pathogenesis. Here, we show that the apical application of ALO decreases the barrier function of human polarized epithelial cells as well as increases intracellular calcium and the internalization of the tight junction protein occludin. Using pharmacological agents, we also found that barrier function disruption requires increased intracellular calcium and protein degradation. We also report a crystal structure of the soluble state of ALO. Based on our analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering studies, ALO exists as a monomer. Our ALO structure provides the molecular basis as to how ALO is locked in a monomeric state, in contrast to other CDCs that undergo antiparallel dimerization or higher order oligomerization in solution. ALO has four domains and is globally similar to perfringolysin O (PFO) and intermedilysin (ILY), yet the highly conserved undecapeptide region in domain 4 (D4) adopts a completely different conformation in all three CDCs. Consistent with the differences within D4 and at the D2-D4 interface, we found that ALO D4 plays a key role in affecting the barrier function of C2BBE cells, whereas PFO domain 4 cannot substitute for this role. Novel structural elements and unique cellular functions of ALO revealed by our studies provide new insight into the molecular basis for the diverse nature of the CDC family.

  3. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  4. No Effect of the Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 Promoter Polymorphism C-509T on TGFB1 Gene Expression, Protein Secretion, or Cellular Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuther, Sebastian; Metzke, Elisabeth; Bonin, Michael; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Raabe, Annette

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To study whether the promoter polymorphism (C-509T) affects transforming growth factor {beta}1 gene (TGFB1) expression, protein secretion, and/or cellular radiosensitivity for both human lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with lymphocytes taken either from 124 breast cancer patients or 59 pairs of normal monozygotic twins. We used 15 normal human primary fibroblast strains as controls. The C-509T genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. The cellular radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was measured by G0/1 assay and that of fibroblasts by colony assay. The amount of extracellular TGFB1 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and TGFB1 expression was assessed via microarray analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The C-509T genotype was found not to be associated with cellular radiosensitivity, neither for lymphocytes (breast cancer patients, P=.811; healthy donors, P=.181) nor for fibroblasts (P=.589). Both TGFB1 expression and TGFB1 protein secretion showed considerable variation, which, however, did not depend on the C-509T genotype (protein secretion: P=.879; gene expression: lymphocytes, P=.134, fibroblasts, P=.605). There was also no general correlation between TGFB1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity (lymphocytes, P=.632; fibroblasts, P=.573). Conclusion: Our data indicate that any association between the SNP C-509T of TGFB1 and risk of normal tissue toxicity cannot be ascribed to a functional consequence of this SNP, either on the level of gene expression, protein secretion, or cellular radiosensitivity.

  5. Responsibility

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    involved. Can we have our cake and eat it too? RE THINK NEW STORE 9 Challenges and Lessons Being Learned 1. Project Evaluation and Approval a) Communicating the total value...

  6. Response

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of New Funding Constructs for Energy R&D in the Department of Energy Introduction ... Typical awards are 2-5 millionyear, for an initial five-year project period. Forty-six ...

  7. ATVM Response to MEMA | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ATVM Response to MEMA ATVM Response to MEMA ATVM Response to MEMA.pdf (282.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Interested Parties - MEMA MEMA: Letter MEMA: Appendix to Comments

  8. Deepwater_Response.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater_Response.pdf Deepwater_Response.pdf (22.56 KB) More Documents & Publications UDAC Meeting - September 2012 UDAC Meeting - January 2012 DOE_Gulf_Response.pdf

  9. bpa-2013-01407-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or DOE Human Capital, or any inquiries, reviews and investigations into BPA hiring and promotion practices." Response: We have located 26 pages of material responsive to your...

  10. BPA-2012-01842-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the transfer of land at Craig Mountain from BPA to Idaho Department of Fish and Game. Response: BPA's Congressional Correspondence Office has no records responsive to your...

  11. BPA-2013-01310-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (OPM) or DOE Human Capital, or any inquiries, reviews and investigations into BPA hiring and promotion practices." Response We have located 471 pages of material responsive...

  12. BPA-2014-01685-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    no responsive records (the winning proposal). There has been no contract awarded for the Demand Response Program Demonstration Project RFP dated May 23,2014. This notification...

  13. BPA-2014-01901-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014, and the agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and Energy Northwest for Demand Response Pilot announced in September 2014." Response We conducted a search ofthe...

  14. Section 2.2 (Roles and Responsibilities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes responsibilities of program managers, office directors, and the peer review leader, as well as corporate responsibilities, for conducting peer reviews.

  15. WIPP Receives New Emergency Response Vehicle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 19, 2015 WIPP Receives New Emergency Response Vehicle WIPP recently placed a new emergency response vehicle into service. The new fire engine "Engine 24" will enhance...

  16. Demand Response in the ERCOT Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.

  17. Hanford Contractor Assumes Responsibility of Three Wastewater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Assumes Responsibility of Three Wastewater Facilities Hanford Contractor Assumes Responsibility of Three Wastewater Facilities April 29, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis The ...

  18. radiological response | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home radiological response radiological response Fukushima: Five Years Later After the March 11, 2011, Japan earthquake, tsunami, ...

  19. BPA-2013-00334-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    but not limited to, the use of existing access roads and tower locations on wetlands. Response: BPA has no documents responsive to your request. Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  20. Digital Data Management Roles and Responsibilities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digital Data Management Roles and Responsibilities The roles and responsibilities associated with Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) data management plans ...

  1. BPA-2011-00384-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damaged due to gunfire, on or around January 2010, in the Tiger Mountain Summit area of King County Washington. Response: BPA has provided a responsive document with the...

  2. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  3. Cloning, characterization and sub-cellular localization of gamma subunit of T-complex protein-1 (chaperonin) from Leishmania donovani

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaskar,; Kumari, Neeti [Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow (India)] [Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow (India); Goyal, Neena, E-mail: neenacdri@yahoo.com [Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow (India)] [Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow (India)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study presents cloning and characterization of TCP1{gamma} gene from L. donovani. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCP1{gamma} is a subunit of T-complex protein-1 (TCP1), a chaperonin class of protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LdTCP{gamma} exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LdTCP{gamma} co-localized with actin, a cytoskeleton protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The data suggests that this gene may have a role in differentiation/biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on this chapronin in Leishmania. -- Abstract: T-complex protein-1 (TCP1) complex, a chaperonin class of protein, ubiquitous in all genera of life, is involved in intracellular assembly and folding of various proteins. The gamma subunit of TCP1 complex (TCP1{gamma}), plays a pivotal role in the folding and assembly of cytoskeleton protein(s) as an individual or complexed with other subunits. Here, we report for the first time cloning, characterization and expression of the TCP1{gamma} of Leishmania donovani (LdTCP1{gamma}), the causative agent of Indian Kala-azar. Primary sequence analysis of LdTCP1{gamma} revealed the presence of all the characteristic features of TCP1{gamma}. However, leishmanial TCP1{gamma} represents a distinct kinetoplastid group, clustered in a separate branch of the phylogenic tree. LdTCP1{gamma} exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. The non-dividing stationary phase promastigotes exhibited 2.5-fold less expression of LdTCP1{gamma} as compared to rapidly dividing log phase parasites. The sub-cellular distribution of LdTCP1{gamma} was studied in log phase promastigotes by employing indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The protein was present not only in cytoplasm but it was also localized in nucleus, peri-nuclear region, flagella, flagellar pocket and apical region. Co-localization of LdTCP1{gamma} with actin suggests

  4. Synthesis and Application of an Environmentally Insensitive Cy3-Based Arsenical Fluorescent Probe to Identify Adaptive Microbial Responses Involving Proximal Dithiol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Na; Su, Dian; Cort, John R.; Chen, Baowei; Xiong, Yijia; Qian, Weijun; Konopka, Allan; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2013-03-06

    Reversible disulfide oxidation between proximal cysteines in proteins represents a common regulatory control mechanism to modulate flux through metabolic pathways in response to changing environmental conditions. To enable in vivo measurements of cellular redox changes linked to disulfide bond formation, we have synthesized a cell-permeable monosubstituted cyanine dye derivatized with arsenic (i.e., TRAP_Cy3) to trap and visualize dithiols in cytosolic proteins. Alkylation of reactive thiols prior to displacement of the bound TRAP-Cy3 by ethanedithiol permits facile protein capture and mass spectrometric identification of proximal reduced dithiols to the exclusion of individual cysteines. Applying TRAP_Cy3 to evaluate cellular responses to increases in oxygen and light levels in the photosynthetic microbe Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, we observe large decreases in the abundance of reduced dithiols in cellular proteins, which suggest redox-dependent mechanisms involving the oxidation of proximal disulfides. Under these same growth conditions that result in the oxidation of proximal thiols, there is a reduction in the abundance of post-translational oxidative modifications involving nitrotyrosine and methionine sulfoxide formation. These results suggest that the redox status of proximal cysteines respond to environmental conditions, acting to regulate metabolic flux and minimize the formation of reactive oxygen species to decrease oxidative protein damage.

  5. Roles and Responsibilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Responsibilities Roles and Responsibilities Roles & Responsibilities.pdf (174.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Roles & Responsibilities Operational Plan and Desktop Reference for the Disability Employment Program Operational Plan and Desktop Reference for the Veterans Employment Program

  6. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  7. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  8. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  9. Method for improving instrument response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahn, David W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Johnsen, Howard A.; Flower, William L.

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  10. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  11. Clean Cities Technical Response Service

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Response Service 800-254-6735 * technicalresponse@icfi.com To view this and other Clean Cities publications online, visit cleancities.energy. gov/publications. DOE/GO-102016-4867 * July 2016 Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; NREL is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles Electric-drive vehicles can offer several

  12. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  13. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  14. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Hongzhi; Zhou, Tong; Qu, Weidong; Teng, Weiping; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2013-12-15

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBP? and PPAR?. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBP? and C/EBP? was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis.

  15. SU-E-J-105: Stromal-Epithelial Responses to Fractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qayyum, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The stromal-epithelial-cell interactions that are responsible for directing normal breast-tissue development and maintenance play a central role in the progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we developed three-dimensional (3-D) cell co-cultures used to study cancerous mammary cell responses to fractionated radiotherapy. In particular, we focused on the role of the reactive stroma in determining the therapeutic ratio for postsurgical treatment. Methods: Cancerous human mammary epithelial cells were cultured in a 3-D collagen matrix with human fibroblasts stimulated by various concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). These culture samples were designed to model the post-lumpectomy mammary stroma in the presence of residual cancer cells. We tracked over time the changes in medium stiffness, fibroblast-cell activation (conversion to cancer activated fibroblasts (CAF)), and proliferation of both cell types under a variety of fractionated radiotherapy protocols. Samples were exposed to 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator in daily fraction sizes of 90, 180 and 360 cGy over five days in a manner consistent with irradiation exposure during radiotherapy. Results: We found in fractionation studies with fibroblasts and CAF that higher doses per fraction may be more effective early on in deactivating cancer-harboring cellular environments. Higher-dose fraction schemes inhibit contractility in CAF and prevent differentiation of fibroblasts, thereby metabolically uncoupling tumor cells from their surrounding stroma. Yet, over a longer time period, the higher dose fractions may slow wound healing and increase ECM stiffening that could stimulate proliferation of surviving cancer cells. Conclusion: The findings suggest that dose escalation to the region with residual disease can deactivate the reactive stroma, thus minimizing the cancer promoting features of the cellular environment. Large-fraction irradiation may be used to sterilize

  16. Thermoplastic Response in Anisotr Rock

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-10-14

    UTAH-2 is a two-dimensional, thermomechanical finite element program designed to analyze elastic, elastic-plastic, and elastic brittle response in anisotropic geologic media. Both constant strain triangles and quadrilateral elements composed of four constant strain trangles are used. The yield function for either elastic-plastic or elastic-brittle response is an extended von Mises criteria for the yield function considers the effects of confining pressure. UTAH-2 is able to consider temperature dependence of material properties. The elastic and plasticmore » moduli as well as the thermal expansion coefficients can vary with temperature based on a polynomial fit of experimental data. UTAH-2 is intended for use in analyzing stress and displacement fields associated with repository excavation, canister emplacement, salt over short time periods and in other geological media for any time scale; for evaluating room stability and generating boundary conditions (stress fields) used in canister sleeve studies; for analyzing bedded sedimentary regions; and for sensitivity and stability studies where temperature dependence of material properties may be a factor.« less

  17. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  18. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, Ranu Schtz, G.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-03-14

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H{sub C}) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700?C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism.

  19. Table of QTR comments in response to Federal Register RFI | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy response

  20. BPA-2010-00494 FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552. Response: In response to your request for copies of any Hydro Optimization Team (HOT) meeting scheduling, agendas, minutes andor notes from...

  1. BPA-2014-01172-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    31, 2011." Response: We conducted a search of the paper and electronic records of the Fish and Wildlife Department. We have located 9 pages of material responsive to your...

  2. BPA-2014-00207-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charles Johnson Physicians for Social Responsibility 812 SW Washington St, Suite 1050 Portland, OR 97205 FOIA BPA-2014-00207-F Dear Mr. Johnson: This is a final response to your...

  3. BPA-2014-00615-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charles Johnson Physicians for Social Responsibility 812 SW Washington St, Suite 1050 Portland, OR 97205 FOIA BPA-2014-00615-F Dear Mr. Johnson: This is the final response to your...

  4. Site Data System Engineering Roles and Responsibilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data System Engineering Roles and Responsibilities Version: 1.2 July 2014 DOE... DOESC-ARM-14-022 Site Data System Engineering Roles and Responsibilities Version: 1.2 ...

  5. BPA-2011-01724-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the following: 1. An e-mail dated April 5, 2011 from Scott Bettin, BPA biologist, to Philip Key, BPA attorney. Response: BPA has provided the responsive record in the attached....

  6. Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-10-08

    This Manual defines safety management functions, responsibilities, and authorities for DOE senior management with responsibilities for line, support, oversight, and enforcement actions. Canceled by DOE M 411.1-1A. Does not cancel other directives.

  7. BPA-2014-00388-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power, Caithness Development, LLC, representatives and BPA employees, Ken Johnson, Eric Taylor and Angela DeClerck on August 5, 2010." Response: Ms. DeClerck found no responsive...

  8. BPA-2014-00538-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    archaeological survey done for the BPA line east of Missoula, in the area of Beavertail Hill to Bearmouth stretch." Response: BPA has found no responsive records. There are no fees...

  9. Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-12-31

    This Manual defines safety management functions, responsibilities, and authorities for DOE senior management with responsibilities for line, support, oversight, and enforcement actions. Cancels DOE M 411.1-1B. Canceled by DOE O 450.2.

  10. Transmitted virus fitness and host T cell responses collectively define divergent infection outcomes in two HIV-1 recipients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ling; Pfafferott, Katja J.; Baalwa, Joshua; Conrod, Karen; Dong, Catherine C.; Chui, Cecilia; Rong, Rong; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica L.; Tang, Jianming; et al

    2015-01-08

    Control of virus replication in HIV-1 infection is critical to delaying disease progression. While cellular immune responses are a key determinant of control, relatively little is known about the contribution of the infecting virus to this process. To gain insight into this interplay between virus and host in viral control, we conducted a detailed analysis of two heterosexual HIV-1 subtype A transmission pairs in which female recipients sharing three HLA class I alleles exhibited contrasting clinical outcomes: R880F controlled virus replication while R463F experienced high viral loads and rapid disease progression. Near full-length single genome amplification defined the infecting transmitted/foundermore » (T/F) virus proteome and subsequent sequence evolution over the first year of infection for both acutely infected recipients. T/F virus replicative capacities were compared in vitro, while the development of the earliest cellular immune response was defined using autologous virus sequence-based peptides. The R880F T/F virus replicated significantly slower in vitro than that transmitted to R463F. While neutralizing antibody responses were similar in both subjects, during acute infection R880F mounted a broad T cell response, the most dominant components of which targeted epitopes from which escape was limited. In contrast, the primary HIV-specific T cell response in R463F was focused on just two epitopes, one of which rapidly escaped. This comprehensive study highlights both the importance of the contribution of the lower replication capacity of the transmitted/founder virus and an associated induction of a broad primary HIV-specific T cell response, which was not undermined by rapid epitope escape, to long-term viral control in HIV-1 infection. It underscores the importance of the earliest CD8 T cell response targeting regions of the virus proteome that cannot mutate without a high fitness cost, further emphasizing the need for vaccines that elicit a breadth of

  11. Transmitted virus fitness and host T cell responses collectively define divergent infection outcomes in two HIV-1 recipients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ling; Pfafferott, Katja J.; Baalwa, Joshua; Conrod, Karen; Dong, Catherine C.; Chui, Cecilia; Rong, Rong; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica L.; Tang, Jianming; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Cormier, Emmanuel; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Perelson, Alan S.; Shaw, George M.; Karita, Etienne; Gilmour, Jill; Goepfert, Paul; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Allen, Susan A.; Borrow, Persephone; Hunter, Eric; Douek, Daniel C.

    2015-01-08

    Control of virus replication in HIV-1 infection is critical to delaying disease progression. While cellular immune responses are a key determinant of control, relatively little is known about the contribution of the infecting virus to this process. To gain insight into this interplay between virus and host in viral control, we conducted a detailed analysis of two heterosexual HIV-1 subtype A transmission pairs in which female recipients sharing three HLA class I alleles exhibited contrasting clinical outcomes: R880F controlled virus replication while R463F experienced high viral loads and rapid disease progression. Near full-length single genome amplification defined the infecting transmitted/founder (T/F) virus proteome and subsequent sequence evolution over the first year of infection for both acutely infected recipients. T/F virus replicative capacities were compared in vitro, while the development of the earliest cellular immune response was defined using autologous virus sequence-based peptides. The R880F T/F virus replicated significantly slower in vitro than that transmitted to R463F. While neutralizing antibody responses were similar in both subjects, during acute infection R880F mounted a broad T cell response, the most dominant components of which targeted epitopes from which escape was limited. In contrast, the primary HIV-specific T cell response in R463F was focused on just two epitopes, one of which rapidly escaped. This comprehensive study highlights both the importance of the contribution of the lower replication capacity of the transmitted/founder virus and an associated induction of a broad primary HIV-specific T cell response, which was not undermined by rapid epitope escape, to long-term viral control in HIV-1 infection. It underscores the importance of the earliest CD8 T cell response targeting regions of the virus proteome that cannot mutate without a high fitness cost, further emphasizing the need for vaccines that elicit a

  12. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, Peter; Anderson, Jennifer

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  13. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  14. OPOWER RFI Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OPOWER RFI Response OPOWER RFI Response OPOWER submits these comments to the Department of Energy in response to the recently issued Request for Information on smart grid implementation challenges. In particular, OPOWER writes to comment on the importance of effective customer engagement in smart grid policy making. OPOWER RFI Response (51.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs Voices of Experience:

  15. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Spectral Responsivity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectral Responsivity Spectral responsivity (SR) measurement is an important part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) photovoltaic (PV) device performance assessment process. Spectral responsivity systems measure how a device responds to selected narrow (spectral) bands of irradiance. Responsivity is measured in units of amps per watt versus wavelength and reported in terms of quantum efficiency (QE) - a measure of how efficiently a device converts incoming photons to charge

  16. Predicting Stimulation Response Relationships For Engineered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Predicting Stimulation Response Relationships For Engineered Geothermal Reservoirs Project objectives: Using existing LLNL computer programs, develop realistic models of EGS ...

  17. Your Records Management Responsibilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Your Records Management Responsibilities Your Records Management Responsibilities This pamphlet explains the objectives and requirements of DOE O 243.1 and the responsibilities of Federal and contractor employees If you are a government employee or contractor working for a federal agency, records management is part of your job. This pamphlet explains your responsibilities for federal records and provides the context for understanding records management in the federal government and in the

  18. BPA-2014-01715-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compensation Employee Records Employee Rights & Responsibilities Employee Safety, Health & Wellbeing Employee Separation Labor Relations Leave, Absence & Hours of Work ...

  19. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Services » Environment » Environmental Policy and Assistance » Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or commonly known as Superfund) in response to a growing national concern about the release of hazardous substances from abandoned waste sites. Under CERCLA Congress gave

  20. TEPP Training - Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Training (MERRTT) | Department of Energy Training - Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) TEPP Training - Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) Once the jurisdiction has completed an evaluation of their plans and procedures, they will need to address any gaps in training. To assist, TEPP has developed the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) program. MERRTT provides fundamental knowledge

  1. Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shihui; Pan, Chongle; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Engle, Nancy L; Zhou, Wen; Dam, Phuongan; Xu, Ying; Dice, Lezlee T; Davison, Brian H; Brown, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanogenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and high level of ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol stress response have not been elucidated fully. In this study, ethanol stress responses were investigated using systems biology tools. Medium supplementation with an initial 47.3 g/L (6% v/v) ethanol reduced Z. mobilis ZM4 glucose consumption, growth rate and ethanol productivity compared to that of untreated controls. Metabolomic profiling showed that ethanol-treated ZM4 cells accumulated greater amounts of glycerol during the entire fermentation process, which may indicate an important role for this metabolite. A proteomic analysis of early exponential growth identified about one thousand proteins, or approximately 56% of the predicted ZM4 proteome. Proteins related to metabolism and stress response such as chaperones and key regulators were more abundant in the early ethanol stress condition. Transcriptomic studies indicated the response of ZM4 to ethanol is dynamic, complex and involves many genes from all the different functional categories. There were fewer genes significantly differentially expressed in the exponential phase compared to that of stationary phase and early stationary phase. Most down-regulated genes were related to translation and ribosome biogenesis, while the ethanol-upregulated genes were mostly related to cellular processes and metabolism. Correlations among the transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolism were examined and among significantly expressed genes or proteins, we observe higher correlation coefficients when fold-change values are higher. This systems biology study elucidates key Z. mobilis ZM4 metabolites, genes and proteins that form the foundation of its distinctive physiology and its multifaceted response to

  2. Binding of formyl peptides to Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells and the chemotactic response of these cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, D.C.; Orr, F.W.; Shiu, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    N-Formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) induces chemotaxis in leukocytes, the response being mediated by peptide binding to a receptor on the plasma membrane. In tumor cells, this peptide has been reported to induce cellular swelling and chemotaxis in vitro and to enhance the localization of circulating tumor cells in vivo. In the Boyden chamber, the authors evaluated the migratory responses of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 cells to varying concentrations of fMLP. Sigmoidal dose-response curves were obtained with the dose of chemotactic factor that elicits a half-maximal chemotactic response of 5.0 +/- 2.5 X 10(-8) M. Checkerboard analysis indicated that these responses were dependent upon a concentration gradient of fMLP with increases in migration of circa 2 to 2.5 times that of random movement. To examine the binding of fMLP, the tumor cells were incubated with 5 X 10(-9) M fML-(/sup 3/H)P in Hanks balanced salt solution. Specific binding (0.5 to 1% of total radioligand, to whole cells inhibited by 5 X 10(-6) M fMLP) approached equilibrium after 4 to 6 h at 4 degrees C and after 6 to 10 h at 22 degrees C. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated heterogeneous binding of the peptide by tumor cells and also showed its intracellular localization. In homogenates of Walker cells prepared in 0.1 M Tris HCl, pH 7.4, with 10 mM MgCl2 and bovine serum albumin (1 mg/ml), specific binding of approximately 0.5% of total fML-(/sup 3/H)P reached equilibrium after 60 min at 4 degrees C. In whole cells and homogenates, binding was reversible by addition of unlabeled fMLP.

  3. Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Garcia, Cristiana B.; Matos-Silva, Flavia A.; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andria M.

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: hnRNPK is a new target of SET. SET regulates hnRNPK. SET and hnRNPK accumulation promotes tumorigenesis. SET accumulation is a potential model to study genes regulated by SET-hnRNPK. - Abstract: SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SEThnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

  4. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Feaks, Debra A.; Shelly, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  5. Alkylation damage repair in mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, S.; Roy, R.; Kim, N.K. |; Tano, K. |; Ibeanu, G.C. |; Dunn, W.C.; Natarajan, A.T.; Hartenstein, B.; Kaina, B.

    1992-11-01

    The repair of O{sup 6} -alkylguanine in DNA involves only O{sup 6} -methyltransferase (MGMT) while the repair of N-alkylpurines requires multiple proteins including N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG). While the biochemical properties human and mouse MGMTs are very similar, the mouse MPG removes 7-methylguanine more efficiently than the human protein. An increased level of MGMT, without a change in the level of MPG associated with gene amplification, was observed in a mouse cell line resistant to 2-chloroethyl-N-nitrosourea. In contrast, no correlation was observed between MPG level and resistance to methyl methanesulfonate in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This result suggests a protein other than MPG limits the repair rate of N-alkylpurine in CHO cells.

  6. Alkylation damage repair in mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, S.; Roy, R.; Kim, N.K. . Sealy Center for Molecular Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Tano, K. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Ibeanu, G.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Dunn, W.C. (

    1992-01-01

    The repair of O{sup 6} -alkylguanine in DNA involves only O{sup 6} -methyltransferase (MGMT) while the repair of N-alkylpurines requires multiple proteins including N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG). While the biochemical properties human and mouse MGMTs are very similar, the mouse MPG removes 7-methylguanine more efficiently than the human protein. An increased level of MGMT, without a change in the level of MPG associated with gene amplification, was observed in a mouse cell line resistant to 2-chloroethyl-N-nitrosourea. In contrast, no correlation was observed between MPG level and resistance to methyl methanesulfonate in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This result suggests a protein other than MPG limits the repair rate of N-alkylpurine in CHO cells.

  7. Compositions for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Feaks, Debra Arlene; Shelly, Kenneth John

    2001-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can utilize X.sub.y B.sub.20 H.sub.17 L where X is an alkali metal, y is 1 to 4, and L is a two electron donor such as NH.sub.3, and Na.sub.2 B.sub.10 H.sub.9 NCO, among others. These borane salts may be used free or encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes may also have embedded within their bilayers carboranes to increase the amount of delivered .sup.10 B and/or to increase the tumor specificity of the liposome.

  8. Transient Response in LMFBR System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-04-26

    SSC-L (the Super System Code) calculates the thermohydraulic response of loop-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) systems during operational, incidental, and accidental transients, especially natural circulation events. Modules simulated and parameters calculated include: core flow rates and temperatures, loop flow rates and temperatures, pump performance, and heat exchanger operation. Additionally, SSC-L accounts for all plant protection and plant control systems. Although the primary emphasis is on transients for safety analysis, SSC-L can be usedmore » for many other applications, such as scoping analysis for plant design and specification of various components. Any number of user-specified loops, pipes, and nodes are permitted. Both single- and two-phase thermal-hydraulics are used in a multi-channel core representation. Inter-assembly flow redistribution is accounted for using a detailed fuel pin model. The heat transport system geometry is user-specified. SSC-L provides steady-state and transient options and a restart capability. Input is free format in a modular structure that makes use of abstract data management techniques.« less

  9. Oxidative phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cancer cell apoptosis in response to anticancer agents

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yadav, N.; Kumar, S.; Marlowe, T.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Wang, J.; O'Malley, J.; Boland, P. M.; Jayanthi, S.; Kumar, T. K. S.; et al

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells tend to develop resistance to various types of anticancer agents, whether they adopt similar or distinct mechanisms to evade cell death in response to a broad spectrum of cancer therapeutics is not fully defined. Current study concludes that DNA-damaging agents (etoposide and doxorubicin), ER stressor (thapsigargin), and histone deacetylase inhibitor (apicidin) target oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for apoptosis induction, whereas other anticancer agents including staurosporine, taxol, and sorafenib induce apoptosis in an OXPHOS-independent manner. DNA-damaging agents promoted mitochondrial biogenesis accompanied by increased accumulation of cellular and mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial protein-folding machinery, and mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Induction of mitochondrialmore » biogenesis occurred in a caspase activation-independent mechanism but was reduced by autophagy inhibition and p53-deficiency. Abrogation of complex-I blocked DNA-damage-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, whereas inhibition of complex-II or a combined deficiency of OXPHOS complexes I, III, IV, and V due to impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis did not modulate caspase activity. Mechanistic analysis revealed that inhibition of caspase activation in response to anticancer agents associates with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in complex-I-deficient cells compared with wild type (WT) cells. Gross OXPHOS deficiencies promoted increased release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria compared with WT or complex-I-deficient cells, suggesting that cells harboring defective OXPHOS trigger caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent apoptosis in response to anticancer agents. Interestingly, DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin showed strong binding to mitochondria, which was disrupted by complex-I-deficiency but not by complex-II-deficiency. Thapsigargin-induced caspase activation was reduced upon abrogation of complex-I or gross OXPHOS

  10. Distinctive Oxidative Stress Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Aifen; He, Zhili; Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Bender, Kelly S.; Keasling, Jay D.; Stahl, David A.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mM) was investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. Microarray data demonstrated that gene expression was extensively affected by H2O2 with the response peaking at 120 min after H2O2 treatment. Genes affected include those involved with energy production, sulfate reduction, ribosomal structure and translation, H2O2 scavenging, posttranslational modification and DNA repair as evidenced by gene coexpression networks generated via a random matrix-theory based approach. Data from this study support the hypothesis that both PerR and Fur play important roles in H2O2-induced oxidative stress response. First, both PerR and Fur regulon genes were significantly up-regulated. Second, predicted PerR regulon genes ahpC and rbr2 were derepressedin Delta PerR and Delta Fur mutants and induction of neither gene was observed in both Delta PerR and Delta Fur when challenged with peroxide, suggesting possible overlap of these regulons. Third, both Delta PerR and Delta Fur appeared to be more tolerant of H2O2 as measured by optical density. Forth, proteomics data suggested de-repression of Fur during the oxidative stress response. In terms of the intracellular enzymatic H2O2 scavenging, gene expression data suggested that Rdl and Rbr2 may play major roles in the detoxification of H2O2. In addition, induction of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin appeared to be independent of PerR and Fur. Considering all data together, D. vulgaris employed a distinctive stress resistance mechanism to defend against increased cellular H2O2, and the temporal gene expression changes were consistent with the slowdown of cell growth at the onset of oxidative stress.

  11. Oxidative phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cancer cell apoptosis in response to anticancer agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, N.; Kumar, S.; Marlowe, T.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Wang, J.; O'Malley, J.; Boland, P. M.; Jayanthi, S.; Kumar, T. K. S.; Yadava, N.; Chandra, D.

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells tend to develop resistance to various types of anticancer agents, whether they adopt similar or distinct mechanisms to evade cell death in response to a broad spectrum of cancer therapeutics is not fully defined. Current study concludes that DNA-damaging agents (etoposide and doxorubicin), ER stressor (thapsigargin), and histone deacetylase inhibitor (apicidin) target oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for apoptosis induction, whereas other anticancer agents including staurosporine, taxol, and sorafenib induce apoptosis in an OXPHOS-independent manner. DNA-damaging agents promoted mitochondrial biogenesis accompanied by increased accumulation of cellular and mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial protein-folding machinery, and mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis occurred in a caspase activation-independent mechanism but was reduced by autophagy inhibition and p53-deficiency. Abrogation of complex-I blocked DNA-damage-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, whereas inhibition of complex-II or a combined deficiency of OXPHOS complexes I, III, IV, and V due to impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis did not modulate caspase activity. Mechanistic analysis revealed that inhibition of caspase activation in response to anticancer agents associates with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in complex-I-deficient cells compared with wild type (WT) cells. Gross OXPHOS deficiencies promoted increased release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria compared with WT or complex-I-deficient cells, suggesting that cells harboring defective OXPHOS trigger caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent apoptosis in response to anticancer agents. Interestingly, DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin showed strong binding to mitochondria, which was disrupted by complex-I-deficiency but not by complex-II-deficiency. Thapsigargin-induced caspase activation was reduced upon abrogation of complex-I or gross OXPHOS deficiency

  12. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress responses in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Redding-Johanson, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Joachimiak, M.P.; Bender, K.S.; Keasling, J.D.; Stahl, D.A.; Fields, M.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Luo, F.; Deng, Y.; He, Q.

    2010-07-01

    To understand how sulphate-reducing bacteria respond to oxidative stresses, the responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stresses were investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and induced chemical species (e.g. polysulfide, ROS) and redox potential shift increased the expressions of the genes involved in detoxification, thioredoxin-dependent reduction system, protein and DNA repair, and decreased those involved in sulfate reduction, lactate oxidation and protein synthesis. A gene coexpression network analysis revealed complicated network interactions among differentially expressed genes, and suggested possible importance of several hypothetical genes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress. Also, most of the genes in PerR and Fur regulons were highly induced, and the abundance of a Fur regulon protein increased. Mutant analysis suggested that PerR and Fur are functionally overlapped in response to stresses induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reaction products, and the upregulation of thioredoxin-dependent reduction genes was independent of PerR or Fur. It appears that induction of those stress response genes could contribute to the increased resistance of deletion mutants to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stresses. In addition, a conceptual cellular model of D. vulgaris responses to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress was constructed to illustrate that this bacterium may employ a complicated molecular mechanism to defend against the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stresses.

  13. Your Records Management Responsibilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Employee Orientation » Your Records Management Responsibilities Your Records Management Responsibilities As a DOE federal or contractor employee, you will create or receive official records, and you are responsible for managing those records as part of accomplishing the Department's mission and ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. Records are any recorded information relating to the work of your office -- regardless of who created it or how the information was recorded. "Your

  14. Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-05-22

    This Manual provides the responsibilities of Headquarters and field element offices required by DOE P 411.1, Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities and Authorities Policy, dated 1-28-97. It also contains detailed requirements to supplement the policy's direction for each DOE organization having safety management functions to establish and maintain separate documentation of their responsibilities and authorities. Cancels DOE M 411.1-1A. Canceled by DOE M 411.1-1C.

  15. 3510T1 Emergency Response Protocol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    510 Appendix T1 Emergency Response Protocol 1.0 Purpose This emergency response procedure is used by everyone at Jefferson Lab as the basis for response during an emergency situation in the absence of management direction. By their very nature, emergencies pose unique challenges, Jefferson Lab recognizes that listing the requirements for every possible emergency is prohibitive, but has used identified plausible situations to produce this guidance. For general lab-wide emergency procedures: 2.0

  16. About Emergency Response | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Emergency Response About Emergency Response NNSA's Office of Emergency Operations is the United States government's primary capability for radiological and nuclear emergency response and for providing security to the nation from the threat of nuclear terrorism. The Office of Emergency Operations maintains a high level of readiness for protecting and serving the U.S. and its allies through the development, implementation and coordination of programs and systems designed to serve as a

  17. Predicting Stimulation Response Relationships For Engineered Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoirs | Department of Energy Predicting Stimulation Response Relationships For Engineered Geothermal Reservoirs Predicting Stimulation Response Relationships For Engineered Geothermal Reservoirs Project objectives: Using existing LLNL computer programs, develop realistic models of EGS stimulation-response scenarios involving hydraulic and explosive propagation of tensile/shear fracture systems in hard rock formations where a pre-existing fracture network may be present along with

  18. Time-course analysis of the Shewanella amazonensis SB2B proteome in response to sodium chloride shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, John J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Rompato, Giovanni; Nicora, Carrie D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Williamson, Ashley; Pfrender, Michael E.

    2011-06-29

    Organisms in the genus Shewanella have become models for response to environmental stress. One of the most important environmental stresses is change in osmolarity. In this study, we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during osmotic stress. Osmotic stress in SB2B was induced through exposure to NaCl, and the time-course proteomics response was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Protein trends were qualitatively compared to gene expression trends and to phenotypic characterization. Osmotic stress affects motility, and has also been associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition (due to induction of branched chain amino acid degradation pathways); however, we show this is not the case for SB2B. Although proteins and genes involved with branched chain amino acid degradation are induced, fatty acid degradation pathways are not induced and no change in the fatty acid profile occurs in SB2B as a result of osmotic shock. The most extensive response of SB2B over the time course of acclimation to high salt involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased expression of signal transduction associated with motility and restricted cell division and DNA replication. After SB2B has switched to increased branched chain amino acid degradation, motility, and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels.

  19. Virtual Institute of Microbial Stress and Survival: Deduction of Stress Response Pathways in Metal and Radionuclide Reducing Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-04-17

    The projects application goals are to: (1) To understand bacterial stress-response to the unique stressors in metal/radionuclide contamination sites; (2) To turn this understanding into a quantitative, data-driven model for exploring policies for natural and biostimulatory bioremediation; (3) To implement proposed policies in the field and compare results to model predictions; and (4) Close the experimental/computation cycle by using discrepancies between models and predictions to drive new measurements and construction of new models. The projects science goals are to: (1) Compare physiological and molecular response of three target microorganisms to environmental perturbation; (2) Deduce the underlying regulatory pathways that control these responses through analysis of phenotype, functional genomic, and molecular interaction data; (3) Use differences in the cellular responses among the target organisms to understand niche specific adaptations of the stress and metal reduction pathways; (4) From this analysis derive an understanding of the mechanisms of pathway evolution in the environment; and (5) Ultimately, derive dynamical models for the control of these pathways to predict how natural stimulation can optimize growth and metal reduction efficiency at field sites.

  20. BPA-2014-01847-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (and 2014 once it becomes available this fall). I am particularly interested in the Digital Elevation Models ofthe topographic surveys." Response: We conducted a search of the...

  1. ESPC Risk, Responsibility and Performance Matrix

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document helps determine the risk, responsibility, and performance of a contractor's proposed approach under a Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC).

  2. BPA-2015-01485-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the final response regarding documents transferred from the Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS-2015-00279) for Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA)...

  3. BPA-2011-01632-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coordination Committee's Response to BPA Regarding the Proposed Transmission Line Hello, Thank you for your visit to the Lewis River Terrestrial Coordination Committee (TCC)...

  4. Climate Responsive Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... could serve as precedents across these zones Evaluate the thermal environments produced by climate-responsive design strategies in India and the US, with a focus on strategies ...

  5. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings Addthis 1 of 5 An oxygen plasma etcher is ... Kyle Alvine checks on the progress of the plasma etch. Image: Pacific Northwest National ...

  6. Demand Response Performance and Communication Strategy: AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Demand Response Performance and Communication Strategy: AHRI and CEE DOE Building Technologies Office Conference NREL, Golden, Colorado, May 1, 2014 | 2 A Growing Crisis: Peak ...

  7. Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Volttron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY, DEMAND RESPONSE, AND VOLTTRON Presented by Justin Sipe SEEMINGLY SIMPLE STATEMENTS Utilities need more capacity to handle growth on the grid ...

  8. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Demand Response (transactional control) Pacific Northwest ...

  9. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy ...

  10. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore ...

  11. BPA-2014-00013-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Coordinator's duties, the System shall, to the extent not inconsistent with other duties, cooperate with the Coordinato in the discharge of the foregoing responsibilities....

  12. Search Response Team | National Nuclear Security Administration...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    General response procedures include: Coordinate with law enforcement agencies to select particular target areas. Map the areas in a Geographical Information System (GIS) formatted ...

  13. Introducing a More Responsive Energy.gov

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy.gov now features a responsive design that automatically optimizes the browsing experience for smartphones and tablets, and makes it easier to find consumer energy saving information.

  14. BPA-2013-01311-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (OPM), or DOE Human Capital, or any inquiries, reviews and investigations into BPA hiring and promotion practices." Response: FOIA generally requires the release of all...

  15. BPA-2011-02052-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the rate pressure is still negative Cons: Not as transparent, may seem disingenuous Pros: Most responsive and considerate which is consistent with transparent NOS process...

  16. BPA-2015-01157-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that there are no records responsive to your request. In accordance with the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI) (see the following website for more information: http:...

  17. BPA-2012-01628-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency, demand response, integration of renewables and preparing the grid for electric vehicle deployment. Third, he said, administrations should begin partnering with...

  18. BPA Response to Customer Comments-EBBA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration Team Responses to Customer Comments Received on BPA's Proposed Enhanced BPA Balancing Authority (EBBA) - 61212 Table of Contents 1. Market-based Mechanisms...

  19. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable...

  20. BPA-2015-00646-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydroelectric dams during the time period 111940 - 123111979. Name of Hydroelectric Dam: John Day The Dalles Bonneville" Response: After conducting a thorough search of paper...

  1. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decision making...

  2. BPA-20110-00524-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marked "Freedom of Information Act Appeal." Sincerely, sChristina J. Munro Christina J. Munro Freedom of Information ActPrivacy Act Officer Enclosure: Responsive document 1k...

  3. ORISE: Helping Strengthen Emergency Response Capabilities for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) helps strengthen government agencies' emergency response capabilities through a variety of exercises, from tabletop training to...

  4. Advice and Response 100 - 1 - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advice Letters Response to Advice Description Date Adopted 100 100 100a TPA Agency ... EPA-060 DOE-060 ECY-060 100 Area Decontamination Decommissioning December 5, 1996 59 ...

  5. BPA-2012-01829-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You have requested the following: 4. Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) Workbook Response: BPA has provided this document in its entirety on the enclosed CD. You have...

  6. INL Equipment to Aid Regional Response Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INL Equipment to Aid Regional Response Team DOE-ID is transferring equipment to the Idaho Falls Police Department's Hazardous Materials Response Team for their use in responding to suspected hazardous devices. The new IFPD Team will be the Regional Response Team covering the I-15 corridor from Utah/Idaho border to the Montana/Idaho border. The IFPD Team will respond to the INL if/when we need them. Helping to outfit the IFPD Team will allow much more timely response on this side of the state.

  7. BPA-2011-01316-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the following: Information or records detailing the bid responses for RFP: 1928, Ross Complex Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Disposal. Specifically, you request the pricing...

  8. START Program: Alaska Strategic Technical Assistance Response...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assistance Response Team (START) Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Offce of Indian Energy Policy and ... and helps tribal communities strategically plan their energy future. ...

  9. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  10. BPA, Energy Northwest launch demand response pilot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA-Energy-Northwest-launch-demand-response-pilot Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...

  11. BPA-2014-01335-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including overtime for Garry Brower and Ian Ogilvie for 2009 while employed at the Port Angeles, WA substation for BPA as maintenance electricians." Response We conducted a...

  12. BPA-2010-01009-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the plans for routing new 500 KVA power lines from Castle Rock, Washington, to Gresham, Oregon. BPA has completed the search for responsive documents. The search found...

  13. BPA-2013-01131-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    following: The contact information for the Director of Contracting and the Director of Human Resources. Response: We have reviewed your request and have determined that it does...

  14. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy....

  15. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Emergencies 2012 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012.pdf (3.86 MB) More Documents & Publications IEA Response ...

  16. Recognizing and Assigning ESPC Risks and Responsibilities Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using the Risk, Responsibility, and Performance Matrix Recognizing and Assigning ESPC Risks and Responsibilities Using the Risk, Responsibility, and Performance Matrix ...

  17. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) ...

  18. Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive ...

  19. DOE_Gulf_Response.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GulfResponse.pdf DOEGulfResponse.pdf (98.71 KB) More Documents & Publications DeepwaterResponse.pdf UDAC Meeting - September 2012 April 30, 2010 Situation Report

  20. PoliResponse to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PoliResponse to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. PoliResponse to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy,...

  1. Final Report [The c-Abl signaling network in the radioadaptive response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chi-Min, Yuan

    2014-01-28

    The radioadaptive response, or radiation hormesis, i.e. a low dose of radiation can protect cells and organisms from the effects of a subsequent higher dose, is a widely recognized phenomenon. Mechanisms underlying such radiation hormesis, however, remain largely unclear. Preliminary studies indicate an important role of c-Abl signaling in mediating the radioadaptive response. We propose to investigate how c-Abl regulates the crosstalk between p53 and NFκB in response to low doses irradiation. We found in our recent study that low dose IR induces a reciprocal p53 suppression and NFκB activation, which induces HIF-a and subsequently a metabolic reprogramming resulting in a transition from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Of importance is that this glycolytic switch is essential for the radioadaptive response. This low-dose radiationinduced HIF1α activation was in sharp contrast with the high-dose IR-induced p53 activation and HIF1α inhibition. HIF1α and p53 seem to play distinct roles in mediating the radiation dose-dependent metabolic response. The induction of HIF1α-mediated glycolysis is restricted to a low dose range of radiation, which may have important implications in assessing the level of radiation exposure and its potential health risk. Our results support a dose-dependent metabolic response to IR. When IR doses are below the threshold of causing detectable DNA damage (<0.2Gy) and thus little p53 activation, HIF1α is induced resulting in induction of glycolysis and increased radiation resistance. When the radiation dose reaches levels eliciting DNA damage, p53 is activated and diminishes the activity of HIF1α and glycolysis, leading to the induction of cell death. Our work challenges the LNT model of radiation exposure risk and provides a metabolic mechanism of radioadaptive response. The study supports a need for determining the p53 and HIF1α activity as a potential reliable biological readout of radiation exposure in humans. The

  2. The proteome and phosphoproteome of Neurospora crassa in response to cellulose, sucrose and carbon starvation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Yi; Coradetti, Samuel T.; Li, Xin; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese; Petyuk, Vlad; Camp, David; Smith, Richard; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Yang, Feng; et al

    2014-05-29

    Improving cellulolytic enzyme production by plant biomass degrading fungi holds great potential in reducing costs associated with production of next-generation biofuels generated from lignocellulose. How fungi sense cellulosic materials and respond by secreting enzymes has mainly been examined by assessing function of transcriptional regulators and via transcriptional profiling. Here, we obtained global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of the plant biomass degrading filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa grown on different carbon sources, i.e. sucrose, no carbon, and cellulose, by performing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) -based LC-MS/MS analyses. A comparison between proteomes and transcriptomes under identical carbon conditions suggestsmore » that extensive post-transcriptional regulation occurs in N. crassa in response to exposure to cellulosic material. Several hundred amino acid residues with differential phosphorylation levels on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) or carbon-free medium versus sucrose medium were identified, including phosphorylation sites in a major transcriptional activator for cellulase genes, CLR1, as well as a cellobionic acid transporter, CBT1. Finally, we found mutation of phosphorylation sites on CLR1 did not have a major effect on transactivation of cellulase production, while mutation of phosphorylation sites in CBT1 increased its transporting capacity. Our data provides rich information at both the protein and phosphorylation levels of the early cellular responses to carbon starvation and cellulosic induction and aids in a greater understanding of the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in filamentous fungi.« less

  3. ERK Oscillation-Dependent Gene Expression Patterns and Deregulation by Stress-Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Cummings, Brian S.; Shankaran, Harish; Scholpa, Natalie E.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2014-09-15

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether ERK oscillations regulate a unique subset of genes in human keratinocytes and subsequently, whether the p38 stress response inhibits ERK oscillations. A DNA microarray identified many genes that were unique to ERK oscillations, and network reconstruction predicted an important role for the mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) node in mediating ERK oscillation-dependent gene expression. Increased ERK-dependent phosphorylation of MED1 was observed in oscillating cells compared to non-oscillating counterparts as validation. Treatment of keratinocytes with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) increased ERK oscillation amplitudes and MED1 and phospho-MED1 protein levels. Bromate is a probable human carcinogen that activates p38. Bromate inhibited ERK oscillations in human keratinocytes and JB6 cells and induced an increase in phospho-p38 and decrease in phospho-MED1 protein levels. Treatment of normal rat kidney cells and primary salivary gland epithelial cells with bromate decreased phospho-MED1 levels in a reversible fashion upon treatment with p38 inhibitors (SB202190; SB203580). Our results indicate that oscillatory behavior in the ERK pathway alters homeostatic gene regulation patterns and that the cellular response to perturbation may manifest differently in oscillating vs non-oscillating cells.

  4. The proteome and phosphoproteome of Neurospora crassa in response to cellulose, sucrose and carbon starvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Yi; Coradetti, Samuel T.; Li, Xin; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Cate, Jamie H.; Yang, Feng; Glass, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Improving cellulolytic enzyme production by plant biomass degrading fungi holds great potential in reducing costs associated with production of next-generation biofuels generated from lignocellulose. How fungi sense cellulosic materials and respond by secreting enzymes has mainly been examined by assessing function of transcriptional regulators and via transcriptional profiling. Here, we obtained global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of the plant biomass degrading filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa grown on different carbon sources, i.e. sucrose, no carbon, and cellulose, by performing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) -based LC-MS/MS analyses. A comparison between proteomes and transcriptomes under identical carbon conditions suggests that extensive post-transcriptional regulation occurs in N. crassa in response to exposure to cellulosic material. Several hundred amino acid residues with differential phosphorylation levels on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) or carbon-free medium versus sucrose medium were identified, including phosphorylation sites in a major transcriptional activator for cellulase genes, CLR1, as well as a cellobionic acid transporter, CBT1. Mutation of phosphorylation sites on CLR1 did not have a major effect on transactivation of cellulase production, while mutation of phosphorylation sites in CBT1 increased its transporting capacity. Our data provides rich information at both the protein and phosphorylation levels of the early cellular responses to carbon starvation and cellulosic induction and aids in a greater understanding of the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in filamentous fungi.

  5. The proteome and phosphoproteome of Neurospora crassa in response to cellulose, sucrose and carbon starvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Yi; Coradetti, Samuel T.; Li, Xin; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese; Petyuk, Vlad; Camp, David; Smith, Richard; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Yang, Feng; Glass, N. Louise

    2014-05-29

    Improving cellulolytic enzyme production by plant biomass degrading fungi holds great potential in reducing costs associated with production of next-generation biofuels generated from lignocellulose. How fungi sense cellulosic materials and respond by secreting enzymes has mainly been examined by assessing function of transcriptional regulators and via transcriptional profiling. Here, we obtained global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of the plant biomass degrading filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa grown on different carbon sources, i.e. sucrose, no carbon, and cellulose, by performing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) -based LC-MS/MS analyses. A comparison between proteomes and transcriptomes under identical carbon conditions suggests that extensive post-transcriptional regulation occurs in N. crassa in response to exposure to cellulosic material. Several hundred amino acid residues with differential phosphorylation levels on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) or carbon-free medium versus sucrose medium were identified, including phosphorylation sites in a major transcriptional activator for cellulase genes, CLR1, as well as a cellobionic acid transporter, CBT1. Finally, we found mutation of phosphorylation sites on CLR1 did not have a major effect on transactivation of cellulase production, while mutation of phosphorylation sites in CBT1 increased its transporting capacity. Our data provides rich information at both the protein and phosphorylation levels of the early cellular responses to carbon starvation and cellulosic induction and aids in a greater understanding of the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in filamentous fungi.

  6. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, Mayo; Johkura, Kohei; Sato, Takehiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN

  7. Commercial Building Motor Protection Response Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Daniel P.; Kueck, John

    2015-06-17

    When voltages recover, motors may immediately reenergize and reaccelerate, or delay for a few minutes, or stay stalled. The estimated motor response is given for both the voltage sag magnitude and voltage sag duration. These response estimates are based on experience and available test data. Good data is available for voltage sag response for many components such as relays and contactors, but little data is available for both voltage sag and recovery response. The tables in Appendix A include data from recent voltage sag and recovery tests performed by SCE and BPA on air conditioners and energy management systems. The response of the motor can vary greatly depending on the type of protection and control. The time duration for the voltage sag consists of those times that are of interest for bulk power system modelers.

  8. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  9. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident This Transportation Emergency...

  10. Ambient Corporation's response to NBP RFI: Communications Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ambient Corporation's response to NBP RFI: Communications Requirements Ambient Corporation's response to NBP RFI: Communications Requirements Ambient Corporation's comments on ...

  11. G2 Checkpoint Responses in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, Anne

    2013-03-18

    This project focused on the mechanism and biological significance of the G2 arrest response to replication stress in plants. We employed both forward and reverse genetic approaches to identify genes required for this response. A total of 3 different postdocs, 5 undergraduates, and 2 graduate students participated in the project. We identified several genes required for damage response in plants, including homologs of genes previously identified in animals (ATM and ATR), novel, a plant-specific genes (SOG1) and a gene known in animals but previously thought to be missing from the Arabidopsis genome (ATRIP). We characterized the transcriptome of gamma-irradiated plants, and found that plants, unlike animals, express a robust transcriptional response to damage, involving genes that regulate the cell cycle and DNA metabolism. This response requires both ATM and the transcription factor SOG1. We found that both ATM and ATR play a role in meiosis in plants. We also found that plants have a cell-type-specific programmed cell death response to ionizing radiation and UV light, and that this response requires ATR, ATM, and SOG1. These results were published in a series of 5 papers.

  12. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  13. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  14. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  15. Nucleolar exit of RNF8 and BRCA1 in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Mateo, Francesca; Franke, Kristin; Huen, Michael S.Y.; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodriguez, Manuel S.; Plans, Vanessa; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-11-01

    The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicits a plethora of responses that redirect many cellular functions to the vital task of repairing the injury, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR). We have found that, in the absence of DNA damage, the DSB repair factors RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus. Shortly after exposure of cells to {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci, a traffic that was reverted several hours after the damage. RNF8 interacted through its FHA domain with the ribosomal protein RPSA, and knockdown of RPSA caused a depletion of nucleolar RNF8 and BRCA1, suggesting that the interaction of RNF8 with RPSA is critical for the nucleolar localization of these DDR factors. Knockdown of RPSA or RNF8 impaired bulk protein translation, as did {gamma}-irradiation, the latter being partially countered by overexpression of exogenous RNF8. Our results suggest that RNF8 and BRCA1 are anchored to the nucleolus through reversible interactions with RPSA and that, in addition to its known functions in DDR, RNF8 may play a role in protein synthesis, possibly linking the nucleolar exit of this factor to the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to DNA damage. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus of undamaged cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 are translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ribosomal protein RPSA anchors RNF8 to the nucleolus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 may play previously unsuspected roles in protein synthesis.

  16. Sensitivity to methylmercury toxicity is enhanced in oxoguanine glycosylase 1 knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and is dependent on cellular proliferation capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondovcik, Stephanie L.; Tamblyn, Laura; McPherson, John Peter; Wells, Peter G.

    2013-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental contaminant with potent neurotoxic action for which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be conclusively delineated. Our objectives herein were twofold: first, to corroborate our previous findings of an increased sensitivity of spontaneously-immortalized oxoguanine glycosylase 1-null (Ogg1{sup ?/?}) murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to MeHg through generation of Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen-immortalized wild-type and Ogg1{sup ?/?} MEFs; and second, to determine whether MeHg toxicity is proliferation-dependent. As with the spontaneously-immortalized cells used previously, the SV40 large T antigen-immortalized cells exhibited similar tendencies to undergo MeHg-initiated cell cycle arrest, with increased sensitivity in the Ogg1{sup ?/?} MEFs as measured by clonogenic survival and DNA damage. Compared to exponentially growing cells, those seeded at a higher density exhibited compromised proliferation, which proved protective against MeHg-mediated cell cycle arrest and induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), measured by phosphorylation of the core histone H2A variant (H2AX) on serine 139 (?H2AX), and by its functional confirmation by micronucleus assessment. This enhanced sensitivity of Ogg1{sup ?/?} MEFs to MeHg toxicity using discrete SV40 immortalization corroborates our previous studies, and suggests a novel role for OGG1 in minimizing MeHg-initiated DNA lesions that trigger replication-associated DSBs. Furthermore, proliferative capacity may determine MeHg toxicity in vivo and in utero. Accordingly, variations in cellular proliferative capacity and interindividual variability in repair activity may modulate the risk of toxicological consequences following MeHg exposure. - Highlights: SV40 large T antigen-immortalized Ogg1{sup ?/?} cells are more sensitive to MeHg. Sensitivity to MeHg is dependent on cellular proliferation capacity. OGG1 maintains genomic integrity following Me

  17. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease. Particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-07-10

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleteriousmore » nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 min and measured systematically for up to 24 h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management.« less

  18. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease. Particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-07-10

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleterious nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 min and measured systematically for up to 24 h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management.

  19. BPA-2014-01869-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    records of BP A Fish & Wildlife Department. We have located one page of material in an Excel spreadsheet format responsive to your request. We are releasing these records in...

  20. NNSA emergency response assets highlighted | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    disasters using real-time response management system DC Survey 2013 NNSA displays helicopter in Baltimore NNSA to Conduct Aerial Radiation Monitoring Survey over Boston April 17-20

  1. BPA-2010-01237-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    George Porter Lake Oswego Consulting Group 16193 Matthew Court Lake Oswego, OR 97034 RE: BPA-2010-01237-F Dear Mr. Porter: This is your final response to your request for...

  2. BPA-2011-00506-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Penny Thomas Ex 6 FOIA BPA-2011-00506-F Dear Ms. Thomas: This is a final response to your request for information that you made to the Bonneville...

  3. BPA-2010-02000-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 In reply refer to: DK-7 Lance Zifka Business Representative IBEW Local 280 32969 Hwy 99E Tangent, OR 97389 RE: BPA-2010-02000-F Dear Mr. Zifka: This letter is your final response...

  4. BPA-2010-01891-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joseph M. Williams Ex 6 RE: BPA-2010-01891-F Dear Mr. Williams: This is the final response to your request for information that you made to the Bonneville Power Administration...

  5. BPA-2015-01544-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dec 9, 2014 at 9:15 AM, DeClerck,Angela (BPA) - TSE-TPP-2 wrote: Hello Jason, We are putting together responses to a comment letter we received in July from...

  6. BPA-2014-00312-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Appeals (OHA) received your appeal of BPA's May 27 , 20I4, final response to your Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. Your appeal challenged BPA's detennination to...

  7. BPA-2014-00358-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552. You requested: "All communications between David Clark and Elliot Mainzer since June 1, 2013 to present." Response: BPA conducted a...

  8. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...

  9. BPA-2011-01795-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and departments. You also ask that the chart contain the names of the next level of management, their business addresses, phone numbers and business e-mails. Response: BPA...

  10. BPA-2011-01104-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    257-F Dear Mr. Seligman: This is a final response to your request for records that you made to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Freedom of Information Act...

  11. BPA-2014-01155-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charles Johnson Physicians for Social Responsibility 812 SW Washington St., Suite 1050 Portland, OR 97205 FOIA BPA-2014-01155-F Dear Mr. Johnson: Thank you for your request for...

  12. BPA-2013-00058-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2012 In reply refer to: DK-7 Michaelyn Sanders 185 South Fairview Lane Sonora, CA 95370 FOIA BPA-2013-00058-F Dear Ms. Sanders: This is the final response to your request for...

  13. BPA-2010-01925-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2010 In reply refer to: DK-7 John Provencal Ex 6 BPA-2010-01925-F Dear Mr. Provencal: This letter is a final response to the request for information that you made to the...

  14. BPA-2012-00235-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information because it does not shed any light on how BPA has performed its statutory duties. Due to the size of the responsive documents they cannot be posted. To obtain a...

  15. BPA-2013-01739-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2013 In reply refer to: NN-1 Charles Johnson Physicians for Social Responsibility 812 SW Washington St, Suite 1050 Portland, OR 97205 FOIA BPA-2013-01739-F Dear Mr. Johnson:...

  16. BPA-2015-00158-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17,2014 In reply refer to: FOIA BPA 2015-00158-F Chuck Johnson Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility 812 SW Washington Street, Suite 1050 Portland, OR 97202 Mr. Johnson:...

  17. BPA-2010-01715-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 2010 In reply refer to: DK-7 Tara Kelly 700 Louisiana Houston, TX 77008 RE: FOIA BPA-2010-01715-F Dear Ms. Kelly: This is a final response to your Freedom of Information...

  18. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings 1 of 5 An oxygen plasma etcher is used to ... Kyle Alvine checks on the progress of the plasma etch. Image: Pacific Northwest National ...

  19. BPA-2011-01051-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You have requested the following: A copy of the United States Department of Energy Corona and Field Effects Program Version 3.0 computer program. Response: This software was...

  20. BPA-2011-2011-00697-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You have requested the following: A copy of the United States Department of Energy Corona and Field Effects Program Version 3.0 computer program. Response: BPA has provided the...

  1. BPA-2010-01306-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lon Peters Northwest Economic Research, Inc. 607 SE Manchester Place Portland, OR 97202 RE: BPA-2010-01306-F Dear Mr. Peters: This is a final response to your request for...

  2. BPA-2010-1462-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2010 In reply refer to: DK-7 Leslie Stewart-Bell Ex 6 RE: BPA-2010-01462-F Dear Ms. Stewart-Bell: This is a final response to your request for information that you made to the...

  3. BPA-2010-01020-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kim L. Smith RE: FOIA BPA-2010-01020-F Dear Mr. Smith: This is the final response to your request for information that you made to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under...

  4. BPA-2014-00555-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Log Book should be archived at Bonneville Powerhouse." BPA has no responsive records. The Bonneville Dam is owned and operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. We are...

  5. BPA-2011-00940-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, on March 21, 2011, was transferred to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on April 6, 2011, for response. You have requested...

  6. BPA-2012-01355-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17s O N PUBLIC AFFAIRS July 23, 2012 In reply refer to: DK-7 Christine Kim Ex 6 FOIA 131"A-2012-0 1355-F Dear Ms. Kim: This is a partial response to your request for information...

  7. BPA-2010-01855-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keith Benjamin Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt LLC 1211 SW 5 th Avenue, Suite 1900 Portland, OR 97204 RE: BPA-2010-01855-F Dear Mr. Benjamin: This is a final response to your request...

  8. ORISE: REAC/TS Emergency Response Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    management of radiation incidents. Our response teams are equipped with state-of-the-art medical equipment that can be transported to a site or used in our unique facility in...

  9. BPA-2011-00987-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the times the Castle Rock - Lexington line have been cleared or trimmed by BPA brushtree trimming crews for the past 20 years." Response: BPA has performed a reasonable search...

  10. BPA-2011-02053-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    955 Hazel Dell Road, Castle Rock, WA 98611 in 2005 or 2006 notifying homeowners on the Ross-Lexington Row of vegetation control crews entering private property. Response: BPA has...

  11. BPA-2012-00089-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Findley Smith Lewis LLP PO Box 918 Columbia, MO 65205-0918 FOIA BPA-2012-00089-F Dear Ms. Findley: This is a final response to your request for records that you made to the...

  12. BPA-2014-01241-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a final response to your request for records under the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). You requested: The hourly average MID-Columbia Day Ahead Market Clearing Price,...

  13. BPA-2011-00123-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for information that you made from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Freedom of Information Act...

  14. BPA-2012-00009-Consult Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 In reply refer to: DK-7 Mr. Richard van Dijk Ex 6 RE: FOIA BPA-2012-00009-C Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to...

  15. BPA-2011-00124-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for information that you made from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Freedom of Information Act...

  16. BPA-2011-01630-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oregon 97208-3621 PUBLIC AFFAIRS October 8, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard van Dijk FOIA BPA-2011-01630-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a partial response to your request...

  17. BPA-2011-00358-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard van Dijk Another Way BPA Ex 6 RE: BPA-2011-00358-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for information that you made...

  18. BPA-2011-01631-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard van Dijk Ex 6 FOIA BPA-2011-01631-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for records that you made to the Bonneville...

  19. BPA-2011-00121 FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 In reply refer to: DK-7 Mr. Richard van Dijk Another Way BPA Ex 6 RE: FOIA BPA-2011-00121-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for information that you...

  20. BPA-2010-00122-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mr. Richard van Dijk Another Way BPA P.O. Box 820152 Vancouver, WA 98682 RE: FOIA BPA-2011-00122-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for information...

  1. BPA-2011-01634-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oregon 97208-3621 PUBLIC AFFAIRS August 30, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard van Dijk FOIA BPA-2011-01634-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for...

  2. BPA-2011-01636-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    97208-3621 P PUBLIC AFFAIRS August 23, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard van Dijk FOIA BPA-2011-01636-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for...

  3. BPA-2011-00125-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to your request for information that you made from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Freedom of Information Act...

  4. BPA 2011-00359-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2011 In reply refer to: DK-7 Mr. Richard van Dijk Another Way BPA P.O. Box 820152 Vancouver, WA 98682 RE: FOIA BPA-2011-00359-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is a final response to...

  5. BPA-2012-01336-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refer to: DK-7 Ryan Neale Wester Public Agencies Group 16504 9th Ave, SE, Suite 203 Mill Creek, WA 98012 FOIA BPA-2012-0 1336-F Dear Mr. Neale: This is a partial response to...

  6. BPA-2011-00973-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Myrtle June Chapman Ex 6 RE: FOIA BPA-2011-00973-F Dear Ms. Chapman: This is a final response to your request for records that you made to the Bonneville Power Administration...

  7. BPA-2013-01286-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laura Beane Iberdrola Renewables, LLC 1125 NW Couch Street, Suite 700 Portland, OR 97205 FOIA BPA-2013-01286-F Dear Ms. Beane: This is a final response to your request for...

  8. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  9. BPA-2012-00189-C Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2012 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard van Dijk Ex 6 FOIA Consult BPA-2012-00189-C Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is the final response to the request for documents you made through the...

  10. BPA-2015-01645-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM In reply refer to: FOIA BPA-2015-01645-F Michael Hom Art eric 475 Springfield Avenue Summit, NJ 08816 Mr. Hom: This is a final response to your...

  11. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  12. BPA-2010-01696-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eric Hansen Spectron Group 500 Broadway Street, Suite 260 Vancouver, WA 98660 RE: BPA-2010-01696-F Dear Mr. Hansen: This is the final response to your request for information that...

  13. Emergency Response | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Emergency Response Department of Energy's chief risk officer visits Nevada National Security Site Earlier this month, Associate Deputy Secretary John MacWilliams visited the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in his role as Chief Risk Officer for the Department of Energy. He reviewed the various ways the NNSS contributes to the department's and NNSA's missions, including radiological... NNSA sites prepared for disasters using real-time response management system Pantex Emergency Services now

  14. Response to Weatherization Questions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Response to Weatherization Questions Response to Weatherization Questions August 30, 2010 - 4:53pm Addthis Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Last week as part of Vice President Biden's announcement of 200,000 homes weatherized under the Recovery act, we asked you to send us your questions and comments about the weatherization process. Today, we're following up with answers experts from the Department's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: 1) From

  15. SCE Responses to Customer Data Questions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SCE Responses to Customer Data Questions 1. Who owns energy consumption data? SCE Response: Customer-specific data gathered or developed by a utility in the course of providing utility services is owned by the utility. Such data is subject to confidentiality and privacy requirements. In California, customers have the right to access their customer- specific information and can authorize third-party access to their information. 2. Who should be entitled to privacy protections relating to energy

  16. Advice and Response 200 - 101 - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    200 - 101 Hanford Advisory Board Convening Report SSAB Guidance Memorandum of Understanding Membership Nomination and Appointment Process Operating Ground Rules Calendars Advice and Responses Full Board Meeting Information Committee Meeting Information Outgoing Board Correspondence Key Board Products and Special Reports HAB Annual Report HAB and Committee Lists Points of Contact Related Links Advice and Response 200 - 101 Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease

  17. ORSSAB Recommendations & Responses | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Services » Community Engagement » ORSSAB » ORSSAB Recommendations & Responses ORSSAB Recommendations & Responses Documents Available for Download May 18, 2016 Recommendation 232: Recommendations on the FY 2018 DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management Budget Request ORSSAB provides recommendations on the DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management budget request for FY 2018. January 14, 2016 Recommendation 230: Recommendation on the Final Proposed Plan for Soils in Zone 1 at East Tennessee

  18. Emergency Response | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Programs Emergency Response NNSA's Office of Emergency Operations is the United States government's primary capability for radiological and nuclear emergency response and for providing security to the nation from the threat of nuclear terrorism. The Office of Emergency Operations maintains a high level of readiness for protecting and serving the U.S. and its allies through the development, implementation and coordination of programs and systems designed to serve as a last line of defense in the

  19. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  20. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  1. Impact of Nuclear Medicine on Emergency Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February » Impact of Nuclear Medicine on Emergency Response Impact of Nuclear Medicine on Emergency Response WHEN: Feb 26, 2016 6:00 PM - 8:00 PM WHERE: Courtyard Marriott, Santa Fe CONTACT: Evelyn Mullen (505) 665-7576 CATEGORY: Community TYPE: Meeting INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description A number of novel isotopes and associated drug compounds are being developed, both in the US and elsewhere, for diagnosis and therapy in the field of nuclear medicine. The accelerator at Los Alamos is

  2. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  3. CBERD: Climate Responsive Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Responsive Buildings CBERD: Climate Responsive Buildings Figure 1: Chamber experiment to study impact of air movement on thermal comfort using personally controlled fans and eight different thermal conditions. Preliminary results show that air movement allowed people to stay thermally neutral up to 32°C (89.6°F), 60% RH. Source: UC-Berkeley. Figure 1: Chamber experiment to study impact of air movement on thermal comfort using personally controlled fans and eight different thermal

  4. Application of the Accurate Mass and Time Tag Approach to the Proteome Analysis of Sub-cellular Fractions Obtained from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 Aerobic and Photosynthetic Cell Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callister, Stephen J.; Dominguez, Migual; Nicora, Carrie D.; Zeng, Xiaohua; Tavano, Christine; Kaplan, Samuel; Donohue, Timothy; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2006-08-04

    Abstract The high-throughput accurate mass and time tag (AMT) proteomic approach was utilized to characterize the proteomes for cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm, and outer membrane fractions from aerobic and photosynthetic cultures of the gram-nagtive bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. In addition, we analyzed the proteins within purified chromatophore fractions that house the photosynthetic apparatus from photosynthetically grown cells. In total, 8300 peptides were identified with high confidence from at least one sub-cellular fraction from either cell culture. These peptides were derived from 1514 genes or 35% percent of proteins predicted to be encoded by the genome. A significant number of these proteins were detected within a single sub-cellular fraction and their localization was compared to in-silico predictions. However, the majority of proteins were observed in multiple sub-cellular fractions, and the most likely sub-cellular localization for these proteins was investigated using a Z-score analysis of peptide abundance along with clustering techniques. Good (81%) agreement was observed between the experimental results and in-silico predictions. The AMT tag approach provides localization evidence for those proteins that have no predicted localization information, those annotated as putative proteins, and/or for those proteins annotated as hypothetical and conserved hypothetical.

  5. Rigidity of a spherical capsule switches the localization of encapsulated particles between inner and peripheral regions under crowding condition: Simple model on cellular architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shew, Chwen-Yang Kondo, Kenta; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2014-01-14

    We have investigated the inhomogeneous interior of confined spherical cavities as capsules containing encapsulated binary hard sphere mixtures for different compositions and cavity wall rigidity. Such a greatly simplified model manifests the effects of macromolecular crowding arising from excluded volume interactions in a tiny cell or a cellular nucleus. By fixing the number of large particles, the level of crowding is adjusted by changing the amount of small hard spheres in the cavity. For a rigid cavity, large spheres tend to pack in liquid-like order apart from the surface to the center of the cavity as the crowding level is increased. Whereas, for a soft cavity, larger spheres tend to blend with small spheres in the peripheral region at near the boundary of the cavity, and are susceptible to be depleted from the interior of the cavity as the cavity becomes more crowded. These results may help future elucidation of the thermodynamic pathways to stabilize the inhomogeneous structure of mixtures confined in cavities, such as the derepression of genome materials around the interior rim of the nucleus in a cancerous cell.

  6. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-07-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  7. Recognizing and Assigning ESPC Risks and Responsibilities Using the Risk,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Responsibility, and Performance Matrix | Department of Energy Recognizing and Assigning ESPC Risks and Responsibilities Using the Risk, Responsibility, and Performance Matrix Recognizing and Assigning ESPC Risks and Responsibilities Using the Risk, Responsibility, and Performance Matrix Document offers guidance on how to recognize and assign energy savings performance contract (ESPC) risks and responsibilities using the risk, responsibility, and performance matrix, also known as RRPM.

  8. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  9. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. SCHEDULE FOR CHIEF OF STAFF Wednesday, July 11, 2001 nepdg_10751_11000.pdf Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. (5.74 MB) More Documents & Publications Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.

  10. Ozone response relationships in healthy nonsmokers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Chatham, M.D.

    1985-07-01

    Significant concentration responses were observed in FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75, SGaw, IC, and TLC in 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers exposed randomly to 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/. In addition, significant response changes for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were shown with time over the 2-h exposure. Intermittent, heavy exercise (VE, 68 L/min) lasting 14 min was employed every 30 min during exposure. Inspection of the concentration and time response curves suggests that the threshold for the group response is at or below 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/. Six subjects experienced decreases greater than 5% in FEV1 or greater than 15% in SGaw at 0.15 ppm. This concentration is only slightly higher than the 1-h O/sub 3/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard. A dose-related response was also seen for cough, nose and throat irritation, and chest discomfort. The work load, length of exposure, and individual sensitivity must be considered for establishing a safe O/sub 3/ exposure level.

  11. Ozone-response relationships in healthy nonsmokers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Chatham, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Significant concentration responses were observed in FVC1 FEV1, FEF 25-75, SGaw, IC, and TLC in 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers exposed randomly to 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm O3. In addition, significant response changes for FVC1 FEV1, FEF25-75 were shown with time over the 2-h exposure. Intermittent, heavy exercise (VE1 68L/min) lasting 14 min was employed every 30 min during exposure. Inspection of the concentration and time-response curves suggests that the threshold for the group response is at or below 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/. Six subjects experienced decreases > 5% in SGaw at 0.15 ppm. The concentration is only slightly higher than the 1-h O/sub 3/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard. A dose-related response was also seen for cough, nose and throat irritation, and chest discomfort. The work load, length of exposure, and individual sensitivity must be considered for establishing a safe O/sub 3/ exposure level.

  12. Modeling the mechanical response of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragaswamy, Partha; Lewis, Matthew W; Liu, Cheng; Thompson, Darla G

    2010-01-01

    An engineering overview of the mechanical response of Plastic-Bonded eXplosives (PBXs), specifically PBX 9501, will be provided with emphasis on observed mechanisms associated with different types of mechanical testing. Mechanical tests in the form of uniaxial tension, compression, cyclic loading, creep (compression and tension), and Hopkinson bar show strain rate and temperature dependence. A range of mechanical behavior is observed which includes small strain recoverable response in the form of viscoelasticity; change in stiffness and softening beyond peak strength due to damage in the form microcracks, debonding, void formation and the growth of existing voids; inelastic response in the form of irrecoverable strain as shown in cyclic tests, and viscoelastic creep combined with plastic response as demonstrated in creep and recovery tests. The main focus of this paper is to elucidate the challenges and issues involved in modeling the mechanical behavior of PBXs for simulating thermo-mechanical responses in engineering components. Examples of validation of a constitutive material model based on a few of the observed mechanisms will be demonstrated against three point bending, split Hopkinson pressure bar and Brazilian disk geometry.

  13. Coastal ocean current response to storm winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.L.

    1982-03-20

    Design of offshore structures requires knowledge of the appropriate current profile to be used in conjunction with the design wave. Accurate determination of the current profile will depend on reliable current models. Vertical transfer of momentum in storm-driven current models is commonly treated either by using eddy viscosity or by assuming 'slab-like' mixed layer flow. These two fundamentally different approaches predict different current speeds and profiles during severe storms. The existing data base is inadequate to determine which approach is better, but most existing data sets are subject to one or more of four limitations that can lead one improperly to interpret the data as supporting the existence of current velocity shear in otherwise uniform mixed layers. One-dimensional slab models are found to compare favorably with observed wind-driven currents at the Ocean Test Structure in the Gulf of Mexico (deployed in 20 m deep water). By using some reasonably simple assumptions, these slab models are able to replicate many of the significantly features of the wide range of different responses. The character of the response appears to depend on an interaction of stratification and topography. Barotropic responses are characteristic of typical coastal responses; current oriented longshore and are in phase with the wind. Baroclinic responses are dominantly inertial as might be expected in the deep sea, but with an additional near-bottom cross-shore counter flow. The structure of one observed barotropic response is compared to detail to predictions of both slab and eddy viscosity models and found consistent with a slab model and inconsistent with eddy viscosity models. Shear observed during this event was not significantly different from zero, but was significantly below estimated shear predictions of four eddy viscosity models given the peak 0.4 N/m/sup 2/ wind stress.

  14. FOIA May 2009 Responses (000362 - 000369)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mr. Phillip Manske 195 W. Puetz Road H-114 Oak Creek, WI 53154 RE: FOIA Request No. 2009-00362 Dear Mr. Manske: This is in response to the request for information that you made to the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552. l h s office is considered to be the office most likely to contain documents responsive to the request. You requested documentation that was submitted by the applicant that was hired for the Associate Chief Financial Officer

  15. Incident Prevention, Warning, and Response (IPWAR) Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-09-30

    This Manual defines a structured, cohesive, and consistent process for performing incident prevention, warning, and response for DOE's Federal information systems and is consistent with the requirements of Federal laws, Executive orders, national security directives, and other regulations. The Manual also provides requirements and implementation instructions for the Department's Incident Prevention, Warning and Response process, and supplements DOE O 205.1, Department of Energy Cyber Security Management Program, dated 3-21-03. DOE N 205.17 cancels this manual. This manual cancels DOE N 205.4, Handling Cyber Security Alerts and Advisories and Reporting Cyber Security Incidents, dated 3/18/2002.

  16. Side-welded fast response sheathed thermocouple

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    A method of fabricating the measuring junction of a grounded-junction sheathed thermocouple to obtain fast time response and good thermal cycling performance is provided. Slots are tooled or machined into the sheath wall at the measuring junction, the thermocouple wires are laser-welded into the slots. A thin metal closure cap is then laser-welded over the end of the sheath. Compared to a conventional grounded-junction thermocouple, the response time is 4-5 times faster and the thermal shock and cycling capabilities are substantially improved.

  17. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, B E

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  18. Subcellular Spatial Correlation of Particle Traversal and Biological Response in Clinical Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niklas, Martin; Abdollahi, Amir; Akselrod, Mark S.; Debus, Jrgen; Jkel, Oliver; and others

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report on the spatial correlation of physical track information (fluorescent nuclear track detectors, FNTDs) and cellular DNA damage response by using a novel hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD). Methods and Materials: The FNTDs were coated with a monolayer of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549) cells and irradiated with carbon ions (270.55 MeV u{sup ?1}, rising flank of the Bragg peak). Phosphorylated histone variant H2AX accumulating at the irradiation-induced double-strand break site was labeled (RIF). The position and direction of ion tracks in the FNTD were registered with the location of the RIF sequence as an ion track surrogate in the cell layer. Results: All RIF sequences could be related to their corresponding ion tracks, with mean deviations of 1.09 ?m and ?1.72 ?m in position and of 2.38 in slope. The mean perpendicular between ion track and RIF sequence was 1.58 ?m. The mean spacing of neighboring RIFs exhibited a regular rather than random spacing. Conclusions: Cell-Fit-HD allows for unambiguous spatial correlation studies of cell damage with respect to the intracellular ion traversal under therapeutic beam conditions.

  19. NAHB_RequestandResponse.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NAHB_RequestandResponse.pdf NAHB_RequestandResponse.pdf (1.05 MB) More Documents & Publications PCA_RequestandResponse.pdf CSS Letter - Final.tif CSS Letter - Final.tif

  20. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Response Events Response Events Emergency preparedness and response activities help to facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply, thereby reducing the impact of these events. As such, the ISER approach for emergency response is to leverage a coordinated integration of several DOE capabilities and resources to emergency response situations. These capabilities and resources include personnel with emergency response and/or energy systems operations experience, leading-edge

  1. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  2. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. PROPOSED MEEETING WITH GENERAL ATOMICS, nepdg65016750.pdf PDF icon Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy....

  3. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4141-4142 nepdg1500115250.pdf PDF icon Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. More Documents & Publications Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable...

  4. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Subject: Chapter 2 Energy Impacts, nepdg82518500.pdf Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. More Documents &...

  5. NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas Development NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas ...

  6. Model Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportation Incidents Model Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportation Incidents This part should...

  7. Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 July 3, 2002 Public ...

  8. Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  9. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops The project was initiated and informed...

  10. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy ...

  11. Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Officials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the ...

  12. National Action Plan on Demand Response, June 2010 | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Action Plan on Demand Response, June 2010 National Action Plan on Demand Response, June 2010 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is required to develop the National ...

  13. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstrati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY ...

  14. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential - Measurement and Verification Working Group A National Forum on Demand Response: ...

  15. Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law Enforcement and ... Administration's (NNSA) Alarm Response Training (ART) program for local law enforcement ...

  16. Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law Enforcement and ... This week marks the fifth anniversary of NNSA's Alarm Response Training (ART) program for ...

  17. NNSA, NATO Conduct Emergency Response Training in the Czech Republic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA, NATO Conduct Emergency Response Training in the Czech Republic June 04, 2014 ... Radiological Assistance Program Training for Emergency Response (I-RAPTER) course ...

  18. Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Program Washington, DC In accordance with the ...

  19. Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration You are accessing a...

  20. Software Quality: A Guide to Responsibilities and Resources,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Software Quality: A Guide to Responsibilities and Resources, SQAS Software Quality: A Guide to Responsibilities and Resources, SQAS This Guide provides guidance to the software...

  1. Response of Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response of Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response of Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles. ...

  2. V-220: Juniper Security Threat Response Manager Lets Remote Authentica...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Threat Response Manager Lets Remote Authenticated Users Execute Arbitrary Commands V-220: Juniper Security Threat Response Manager Lets Remote Authenticated Users Execute...

  3. Department of Energy Response to Hurricane Katrina | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Department of Energy Response to Hurricane Katrina More Documents & Publications Fact Sheet Department of Energy Response to Hurricane Katrina PRICE GOUGING PRICE GOUGING

  4. Terrestrial Climate Change and Ecosystem Response Recorded in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terrestrial Climate Change and Ecosystem Response Recorded in Lake Sediments and Related Deposits Reconstruction of past terrestrial climate and ecosystem response relies on ...

  5. Demand Response Energy Consulting LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Response Energy Consulting LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Response & Energy Consulting LLC Place: Delanson, New York Zip: NY 12053 Sector: Efficiency Product:...

  6. Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010 Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley October 9, ... 2010 Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley October 9, ...

  7. Global health response more accurate with automated influenza...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global health response more accurate with automated influenza surveillance Global health response more accurate with automated influenza surveillance Public health officials will...

  8. Transition of Long-Term Response Action Management Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition of Long-Term Response Action Management Requirements Transition of Long-Term Response Action Management Requirements The purpose of this memorandum is to provide you ...

  9. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report Data Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.

  10. Experimental and Statistical Comparison of Engine Response as...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental and Statistical Comparison of Engine Response as a Function of Fuel Chemistry ... Engine Response as a Function of Fuel Chemistry and Properties in CI and HCCI Engines ...

  11. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation We derive ...

  12. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response ...

  13. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    response to severe nuclear power plant accidents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant ...

  14. POINT OF CONTACT RESPONSIBILITIES FOR RECORDS MANAGEMENT | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POINT OF CONTACT RESPONSIBILITIES FOR RECORDS MANAGEMENT POINT OF CONTACT RESPONSIBILITIES FOR RECORDS MANAGEMENT A list of point of contact responsibilites for Records Management...

  15. Booz Allen Hamilton Response to Department of Energy Request...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Booz Allen Hamilton Response to Department of Energy Request for Information on ... Booz Allen Hamilton Response to Department of Energy Request for Information on ...

  16. Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys ...

  17. Response to IG Recommendation to Create a Formal Lessons Learned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Response to IG Recommendation to Create a Formal Lessons Learned Process Response to IG Recommendation to Create a Formal Lessons Learned Process Attachment 1: Recommendations ...

  18. Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey Of The Experimental Evidence Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Household Response To Dynamic...

  19. DOE Efforts in Preparing and Improving First Response Capabilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Efforts in Preparing and Improving First Response Capabilities and Performance through Drills and Exercises DOE Efforts in Preparing and Improving First Response Capabilities and...

  20. Organizations' Assignment of Responsibility - DOE Directives,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delegations, and Requirements Organizations' Assignment of Responsibility Current By Functional Area By Position Designations Assignments Rescinded by Diane Johnson More filters Less filters Filters applied Δ Hide filters ∇ Show filters (0) [X] Remove all Issue Date Start date End date ffe8aa65e5ad705f837fe439ace37780

  1. Responsive Copolymers for Enhanced Petroleum Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Charles; Hester, Roger

    2002-02-27

    The objectives of this work was to: (1) synthesize responsive, amphiphilic systems; (2) characterize molecular structure and solution behavior; (3) measure rheological properties of the aqueous fluids including behavior in fixed geometry flow profiles and beds; and (4) to tailor polymer compositions for in situ rheology control under simulated reservoir conditions.

  2. 09-008 FOIA Response.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2008 In reply refer to: DK-7 Mr. Wei Xu UWO 33-463 Platts Ln London, Ontario CANADA N6G3H2 RE: FOIA 09-008 Dear Mr. Xu: This letter is a final response to your request for...

  3. BPA-2010-01867-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-5 EXPOSURES are provided on the enclosed DVDs. Response BPA-2010-01876-F: Aerial Photography: 11-02-1977 BPA-BIA Roll 4 Frames 6 through 9; 09-12-1977 BPA-BIA Frame 8 plus...

  4. Special Access Program Policies, Responsibilities, and Procedures

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-07-11

    Special Access Program Policies, Responsibilities, and Procedures This Manual is for OFFICIAL USE ONLY and will not be distributed on the Directives Portal. For distribution, please contact the Director, Office of Security, at 202-586-6775. Cancels: DOE M 471.2-3

  5. Silicon Timing Response to Particles and Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is observed growing interest to fast timing detectors in high energy physics, related, for example, with collider luminosity increase (LHC) [1]. The options of CMS [2] calorimeter upgrade based on silicon detectors renewed interest to the timing study of this type of detectors. The article is devoted to study of silicon timing response to particles and light.

  6. BPA-2014-00720-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2014 In reply refer to: D-B1 Richard van Dijk Another Way BPA Ex 6 FOIA BPA-2014-00720-F Dear Mr. van Dijk: This is the final response to your request for records that you made...

  7. BPA-2010-00902-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 In reply refer to: DK-7 Mr. John Parr P.O. Box 603 Lyle, WA 98635 RE: FOIA BPA-2010-00902-F Dear Mr. Parr: This is a final response to your request for information that you made...

  8. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  9. MO-G-BRF-05: Determining Response to Anti-Angiogenic Therapies with Monte Carlo Tumor Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentinuzzi, D; Simoncic, U; Jeraj, R; Titz, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Patient response to anti-angiogenic therapies with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKIs) is heterogeneous. This study investigates key biological characteristics that drive differences in patient response via Monte Carlo computational modeling capable of simulating tumor response to therapy with VEGFR TKI. Methods: VEGFR TKIs potently block receptors, responsible for promoting angiogenesis in tumors. The model incorporates drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, as well as patientspecific data of cellular proliferation derived from [18F]FLT-PET data. Sensitivity of tumor response was assessed for multiple parameters, including initial partial oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}), cell cycle time, daily vascular growth fraction, and daily vascular regression fraction. Results were benchmarked to clinical data (patient 2 weeks on VEGFR TKI, followed by 1-week drug holiday). The tumor pO{sub 2} was assumed to be uniform. Results: Among the investigated parameters, the simulated proliferation was most sensitive to the initial tumor pO{sub 2}. Initial change of 5 mmHg can already Result in significantly different levels of proliferation. The model reveals that hypoxic tumors (pO{sub 2} ? 20 mmHg) show the highest decrease of proliferation, experiencing mean FLT standardized uptake value (SUVmean) decrease for at least 50% at the end of the clinical trial (day 21). Oxygenated tumors (pO{sub 2} 20 mmHg) show a transient SUV decrease (3050%) at the end of the treatment with VEGFR TKI (day 14) but experience a rapid SUV rebound close to the pre-treatment SUV levels (70110%) at the time of a drug holiday (day 1421) - the phenomenon known as a proliferative flare. Conclusion: Model's high sensitivity to initial pO{sub 2} clearly emphasizes the need for experimental assessment of the pretreatment tumor hypoxia status, as it might be predictive of response to antiangiogenic therapies and the occurrence of

  10. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Brooks, D.

    2012-05-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. This article discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  11. Process for Transition of Responsibilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Responsibilities Process for Transition of Responsibilities Process for Transition of Responsibilities (Waste Management Conference 2006) Process for Transition of Responsibilities (323.56 KB) More Documents & Publications FUSRAP Overview Managing Legacy Records for Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Sites Assessing and Implementing LTS&M Requirements for Remediation Sites Under the FUSRAP Program

  12. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  13. Errors in response calculations for beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, H.; Wurburton, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    When the finite element method is used to idealize a structure, its dynamic response can be determined from the governing matrix equation by the normal mode method or by one of the many approximate direct integration methods. In either method the approximate data of the finite element idealization are used, but further assumptions are introduced by the direct integration scheme. It is the purpose of this paper to study these errors for a simple structure. The transient flexural vibrations of a uniform cantilever beam, which is subjected to a transverse force at the free end, are determined by the Laplace transform method. Comparable responses are obtained for a finite element idealization of the beam, using the normal mode and Newmark average acceleration methods; the errors associated with the approximate methods are studied. If accuracy has priority and the quantity of data is small, the normal mode method is recommended; however, if the quantity of data is large, the Newmark method is useful.

  14. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  15. OTEC plant response and control analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, W.L.

    1982-08-01

    An analysis is presented which allows prediction of closed-cycle OTEC power plant system response and control. Two basic operational control schemes are presented, which are primarily related to the type of seawater pumps employed. Variable flow seawater pumps allow optimization of the OTEC thermal-cycle state points for maximization of net generated power. Constant flow pumps are cheaper and simpler, but do not allow direct control over the evaporator and condenser operating temperatures. A system of nonlinear differential equations representing the basic elements of a constant seawater flow OTEC plant with turbine bypass flow control has been formulated for computer solution. Typical normalized response curves are presented for pressures, temperatures, mass flow rates, and generator speed for a small-scale, 50-kW OTEC plant design.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring response time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, E.W.; August, C.

    1983-08-11

    A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring response time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, Edward W.; August, Charles

    1985-01-01

    A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

  18. Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? | Department of Energy Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: About Sandia: Environmental Responsibility:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia's Environment, Safety & Health Policy Environment, Safety & Health Policy Policy Statement It is the policy of Sandia National Laboratories to perform work in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by committing to: Maintain a safe workplace, prevent incidents, and protect the public. Protect the environment, conserve resources, and prevent pollution. Maintain compliance with legal and other requirements. Strive for continual improvement. DOE's Integrated Safety

  20. Operational Guidelines/Radiological Emergency Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operational Guidelines/Radiological Emergency Response. Provides information and resources concerning the development of Operational Guidelines as part of planning guidance for protection and recovery following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and/or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) incidents. Operational Guidelines Technical (OGT) Manual, 2009 RESRAD-RDD Complementing Software to OGT Manual EPA Protective Action Guidelines (2013), Interim Final Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC)

  1. emergency response assets | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    emergency response assets Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal asset available on request by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. The FRMAC is an interagency organization with representation... Radiation Emergency Assistance Center / Training Site NNSA's Radiation Emergency Assistance Center / Training Site (REAC/TS)

  2. Regulatory Burden RFI - Hussmann Corporation Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Burden RFI - Hussmann Corporation Response January 3, 2012 Below are the list of questions with answers from the December 5 RFI: (1) How can the Department best promote meaningful periodic reviews of its existing rules and how can it best identify those rules that might be modified, streamlined, expanded, or repealed? DOE should maintain a list of all manufacturers impacted by legislation/rules and make sure these manufacturers are notified of all rule changes. A full review cycle

  3. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- FRMAC Response Phases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phases NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Response Phases Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT) PDF icon CMHT Brochure (pdf, 2 MB) The Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT) functions as a virtual extension of the FRMAC when a full FRMAC has not yet been, or will not be, deployed. The same products and assistance are available in CMHT as with a full FRMAC with the exception of field monitoring capabilities.

  4. Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Volttron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY, DEMAND RESPONSE, AND VOLTTRON Presented by Justin Sipe      SEEMINGLY SIMPLE STATEMENTS Utilities need more capacity to handle growth on the grid Utilities need to balance the load on the grid for stability Business want lower their operating expenses. Business want remote control over their facilities How can bring these different users together to accomplish these goals Transformative Wave | 1012 Central Ave S Kent, WA 98032 |

  5. Microsoft Word - OPower RFI Response_110510.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OPOWER submits these comments to the Department of Energy in response to the recently issued Request for Information on smart grid implementation challenges. In particular, OPOWER writes to comment on the importance of effective customer engagement in smart grid policy making. OPOWER is an energy efficiency software company that uses behavioral science and data analytics to help utilities better engage their customers and motivate them to use less energy. OPOWER is partnering with 43 utilities

  6. Microsoft Word - RFI_Response.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concise, High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy Santiago Grijalva, Ph.D. Associate Professor Director, Advanced Computational Electricity Systems (ACES) Laboratory School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology November 1, 2010 Abstract This document responds to DOE questions regarding smart grid policy. The approach followed herein is to write concise comments addressing the overall RFI document at a higher level. This is necessary because: a) Smart

  7. Departmental Response: SEAB Task Force Recommendations on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Response: SEAB Task Force Recommendations on Technology Development for Environmental Management Introduction In May 2014, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz charged the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) to provide advice as to how the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) could more effectively ensure the development of technology necessary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to complete its mission, cleanup of legacy waste sites. The SEAB formed a Task

  8. Stimuli responsive magnetic nanogels for biomedical application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craciunescu, I.; Petran, A.; Turcu, R.; Daia, C.; Marinica, O.; Vekas, L.

    2013-11-13

    We report the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanogels based on magnetite nanoparticles sterically stabilized by double layer oleic acid in water carrier and chemically cross linked poly (N-isopropylacril amide) (pNIPA) and poly (acrylic acid) (pAAc). In this structure the magnetite nanoparticles are attached to the flexible network chain by adhesive forces, resulting in a direct coupling between magnetic and elastic properties. Stable water suspensions of dual responsive magnetic nanogels based on temperature-responsive N-isopropyl acryl amide, pH responsive acrylic acid were obtained. The FTIR spectra of p(NIPA-AAc) ferrogel samples, showed the absorption region of the specific chemical groups associated with pNIPA, pAAc and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the as prepared materials were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the size distribution was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic microgels have high magnetization and superparamagnetic behaviour being suitable materials for biomedical application.

  9. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  10. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model Marissa Hummon, David Palchak, Paul Denholm, and Jennie Jorgenson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel J. Olsen, Sila Kiliccote, Nance Matson, Michael Sohn, Cody Rose, Junqiao Dudley, and Sasank Goli Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Ookie Ma U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-58492 December 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy

  11. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Olsen, Daniel J.; Kiliccote, Sila; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Ma, Ookie

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  12. Vilnius Energy Secretary Conference 2007: Responsible Energy for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Responsible Partners | Department of Energy Vilnius Energy Secretary Conference 2007: Responsible Energy for Responsible Partners Vilnius Energy Secretary Conference 2007: Responsible Energy for Responsible Partners October 11, 2007 - 3:14pm Addthis Remarks As Prepared for Deputy Secretary Sell Thank you Excellencies, fellow Ministers, and distinguished ladies and gentlemen. And thank you, President Adamkus and President Kaczynski, for hosting this important international discussion on the

  13. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy pages 4001 - 4250 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy pages 4001 - 4250 Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy pages 4001 - 4250 Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. nepdg_4001_4250.pdf R.eport Statement/Recommendation Background Pros/Cons discussion Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.. (5.64 MB) More Documents & Publications Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.

  14. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Xiao; Whitten, Douglas A.; Wu, Ming; Chan, Christina; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Pestka, James J.

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  15. Enhanced T-lymphocyte blastogenic response to tuberculin (PPD) in children of northeast (NE) Thailand supplemented with vitamin A (VA) and zinc (Zn)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, T.R.; Udomkesmalee, E.; Dhanamitta, S.; Sirisinha, S.; Charoenkiatkul, S.; Tantipopipat, S.; Banjong, O.; Rojroongwasinkul, N.; Smith, J.C. Jr. Mahidol Univ., Nakhon Pathom )

    1991-03-15

    Beneficial effects of Va and/or Zn supplementation of children in NE Thailand are described in a companion abstract. In the same study, blastogenic response (BR) of T-lymphocytes to concanavalin-A (ConA) and PPD were assayed in cultures containing mononuclear cells (MNC) or whole blood (WB). Methods were previously described. Children were previously vaccinated with BCG. BR to ConA of MNC or WB from children supplemented with VA, Zn, VA + Zn or placebo were similar. BR to PPD of MNC was higher in children receiving VA + Zn than placebo, but not in children supplemented with VA or Zn alone. Data indicate that children with suboptimal VA and Zn nutriture supplemented with < 2 times RDA of these nutrients showed enhanced cellular immunity to PPD. This observation is relevant to BCG immunization program and thus may benefit public health.

  16. Identification of host response signatures of infection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for

  17. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and

  18. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  19. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  20. Intelligent Software Agents: Sensor Integration and Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulesz, James J; Lee, Ronald W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In a post Macondo world the buzzwords are Integrity Management and Incident Response Management. The twin processes are not new but the opportunity to link the two is novel. Intelligent software agents can be used with sensor networks in distributed and centralized computing systems to enhance real-time monitoring of system integrity as well as manage the follow-on incident response to changing, and potentially hazardous, environmental conditions. The software components are embedded at the sensor network nodes in surveillance systems used for monitoring unusual events. When an event occurs, the software agents establish a new concept of operation at the sensing node, post the event status to a blackboard for software agents at other nodes to see , and then react quickly and efficiently to monitor the scale of the event. The technology addresses a current challenge in sensor networks that prevents a rapid and efficient response when a sensor measurement indicates that an event has occurred. By using intelligent software agents - which can be stationary or mobile, interact socially, and adapt to changing situations - the technology offers features that are particularly important when systems need to adapt to active circumstances. For example, when a release is detected, the local software agent collaborates with other agents at the node to exercise the appropriate operation, such as: targeted detection, increased detection frequency, decreased detection frequency for other non-alarming sensors, and determination of environmental conditions so that adjacent nodes can be informed that an event is occurring and when it will arrive. The software agents at the nodes can also post the data in a targeted manner, so that agents at other nodes and the command center can exercise appropriate operations to recalibrate the overall sensor network and associated intelligence systems. The paper describes the concepts and provides examples of real-world implementations