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Sample records for malta pf paracel

  1. PF-4 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    PF-4

  2. Malta: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 0 Cubic Meters (cu m) 113 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (bbl) 138 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring Malta Malta...

  3. Malta, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malta is a town in Saratoga County, New York.1 Registered Energy Companies in Malta, New York Saratoga Technology Energy Park STEP References US Census Bureau Incorporated...

  4. 21PF overpack problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovac, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    The 21PF overpack has had severe metal corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for many years. The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have disallowed the use of overpacks containing high chloride foam. Corrosion and SCC of 21PF overpacks have been documented and papers have been presented at conferences about these issues. Regulatory agencies have restricted 21PF overpack use and have requested data to determine if phenolic foam overpacks not meeting original design specifications will be authorized for continued use. This paper details some of the problems experienced by users and relates actions of the DOT and NRC concerning these packages. Industry is working to correct deficiencies, but if they are not successful, the entire uranium enrichment industry will be severely impacted.

  5. TRAC-PF1 independent assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, T.D.; Metzger, V.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the Los Alamos results of the second assessment phase, independent assessment for TRAC-PF1. We documented the results of the developmental assessment for TRAC-PF1 in an earlier report. This report described calculations run with the released versions of TRAC-PF1. We analyzed separate-effects tests in the Semiscale facility to investigate natural-circulation and reflux cooling. We analyzed integral tests from the Semiscale and the Loss-of-Fluid Test facilities to explore the small- and intermediate-break loss-of-coolnt-accident (LOCA) capability and the non-LOCA capability. We also analyzed the loss-of-feedwater transient in the Crystal River plant. The results show reasonably good agreement with the data, but indicate that improvements are required for the critical-flow model and the interphasic-condensation model. 38 refs., 224 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 2, PF systems engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, H.A.

    1995-07-28

    This system development specification covers the Poloidal Field (PF) Magnet System, WBS 14 in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory TPX Program to build a tokamak fusion reactor. This specification establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements of the PF Magnet System.

  7. LOCA analysis evaluation model with TRAC-PF1/NEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orive Moreno, Raul; Gallego Cabezon, Ines; Garcia Sedano, Pablo

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays regulatory rules and code models development are progressing on the goal of using best-estimate approximations in applications of license. Inside this framework, IBERDROLA is developing a PWR LOCA Analysis Methodology with one double slope, by a side the development of an Evaluation Model (upper-bounding model) that covers with conservative form the different aspects from the PWR LOCA phenomenology and on the other hand, a proposal of CSAU (Code Scaling Applicability and Uncertainty) type evaluation, methodology that strictly covers the 95/95 criterion in the Peak Cladding Temperature. A structured method is established, that basically involves the following steps: 1. Selection of the Large Break LOCA like accident to analyze and of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 V99.1 NEM (PSU version) computer code like analysis tool. 2. Code Assessment, identifying the most remarkable phenomena (PIRT, Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tabulation) and estimation of a possible code deviation (bias) and uncertainties associated to the specific models that control these phenomena (critical flow mass, heat transfer, countercurrent flow, etc...). 3. Evaluation of an overall PCT uncertainty, taking into account code uncertainty, reactor initial conditions, and accident boundary conditions. Uncertainties quantification requires an excellent experiments selection that allows to define a complete evaluation matrix, and the comparison of the simulations results with the experiments measured data, as well as in the relative to the scaling of these phenomena. To simulate these experiments it was necessary to modify the original code, because it was not able to reproduce, in a qualitative way, the expected phenomenology. It can be concluded that there is a good agreement between the TRAC-PF1/NEM results and the experimental data. Once average error ({epsilon}) and standard deviation ({sigma}) for those correlations under study are obtained, these factors could be used to correct in a conservative way code models in point, in order to meet requirements given in the Appendix K of 10CFR50.46. At last, a conservative evaluation model is proposed to cover conservatively the test results. A specific plant model development and validation is being developed, all aimed to a generic analysis of methodology application. For further applications, and based on performed uncertainties quantification, a methodology of CSAU type realistic approach will be considered in a nearby future. (authors)

  8. Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF 6 and water vapor to form ...

  9. Structural basis of HIV-1 capsid recognition by PF74 and CPSF6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhattacharya, Akash; Alam, Steven L.; Fricke, Thomas; Zadrozny, Kaneil; Sedzicki, Jaroslaw; Taylor, Alexander B.; Demeler, Borries; Pornillos, Owen; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; et al

    2014-12-17

    Upon infection of susceptible cells by HIV-1, the conical capsid formed by ~250 hexamers and 12 pentamers of the CA protein is delivered to the cytoplasm. In this study, the capsid shields the RNA genome and proteins required for reverse transcription. In addition, the surface of the capsid mediates numerous host–virus interactions, which either promote infection or enable viral restriction by innate immune responses. In the intact capsid, there is an intermolecular interface between the N-terminal domain (NTD) of one subunit and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the adjacent subunit within the same hexameric ring. The NTD–CTD interface is criticalmore » for capsid assembly, both as an architectural element of the CA hexamer and pentamer and as a mechanistic element for generating lattice curvature. Here we report biochemical experiments showing that PF-3450074 (PF74), a drug that inhibits HIV-1 infection, as well as host proteins cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6) and nucleoporin 153 kDa (NUP153), bind to the CA hexamer with at least 10-fold higher affinities compared with nonassembled CA or isolated CA domains. The crystal structure of PF74 in complex with the CA hexamer reveals that PF74 binds in a preformed pocket encompassing the NTD–CTD interface, suggesting that the principal inhibitory target of PF74 is the assembled capsid. Likewise, CPSF6 binds in the same pocket. Given that the NTD–CTD interface is a specific molecular signature of assembled hexamers in the capsid, binding of NUP153 at this site suggests that key features of capsid architecture remain intact upon delivery of the preintegration complex to the nucleus.« less

  10. Structural basis of HIV-1 capsid recognition by PF74 and CPSF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Akash; Alam, Steven L.; Fricke, Thomas; Zadrozny, Kaneil; Sedzicki, Jaroslaw; Taylor, Alexander B.; Demeler, Borries; Pornillos, Owen; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Ivanov, Dmitri N.; Yeager, Mark

    2014-12-17

    Upon infection of susceptible cells by HIV-1, the conical capsid formed by ~250 hexamers and 12 pentamers of the CA protein is delivered to the cytoplasm. In this study, the capsid shields the RNA genome and proteins required for reverse transcription. In addition, the surface of the capsid mediates numerous host–virus interactions, which either promote infection or enable viral restriction by innate immune responses. In the intact capsid, there is an intermolecular interface between the N-terminal domain (NTD) of one subunit and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the adjacent subunit within the same hexameric ring. The NTD–CTD interface is critical for capsid assembly, both as an architectural element of the CA hexamer and pentamer and as a mechanistic element for generating lattice curvature. Here we report biochemical experiments showing that PF-3450074 (PF74), a drug that inhibits HIV-1 infection, as well as host proteins cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6) and nucleoporin 153 kDa (NUP153), bind to the CA hexamer with at least 10-fold higher affinities compared with nonassembled CA or isolated CA domains. The crystal structure of PF74 in complex with the CA hexamer reveals that PF74 binds in a preformed pocket encompassing the NTD–CTD interface, suggesting that the principal inhibitory target of PF74 is the assembled capsid. Likewise, CPSF6 binds in the same pocket. Given that the NTD–CTD interface is a specific molecular signature of assembled hexamers in the capsid, binding of NUP153 at this site suggests that key features of capsid architecture remain intact upon delivery of the preintegration complex to the nucleus.

  11. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Srivastava, Akhil

    2012-12-03

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  12. Pf1 bacteriophage hydration by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergeyev, Ivan V.; Bahri, Salima; McDermott, Ann E.; Day, Loren A.

    2014-12-14

    High resolution two- and three-dimensional heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy ({sup 1}H–{sup 13}C, {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C–{sup 13}C HETCOR) has provided a detailed characterization of the internal and external hydration water of the Pf1 virion. This long and slender virion (2000 nm × 7 nm) contains highly stretched DNA within a capsid of small protein subunits, each only 46 amino acid residues. HETCOR cross-peaks have been unambiguously assigned to 25 amino acids, including most external residues 1–21 as well as residues 39–40 and 43–46 deep inside the virion. In addition, the deoxyribose rings of the DNA near the virion axis are in contact with water. The sets of cross-peaks to the DNA and to all 25 amino acid residues were from the same hydration water {sup 1}H resonance; some of the assigned residues do not have exchangeable side-chain protons. A mapping of the contacts onto structural models indicates the presence of water “tunnels” through a highly hydrophobic region of the capsid. The present results significantly extend and modify results from a lower resolution study, and yield a comprehensive hydration surface map of Pf1. In addition, the internal water could be distinguished from external hydration water by means of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. The internal water population may serve as a conveniently localized magnetization reservoir for structural studies.

  13. PF2010-38 Mission Critical Solutions v US No. 09-864 C (Fed. Cl.)(Feb. 26,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2010), Priority of HUBZone Program over 8(a) Business Dev Prog | Department of Energy PF2010-38 Mission Critical Solutions v US No. 09-864 C (Fed. Cl.)(Feb. 26, 2010), Priority of HUBZone Program over 8(a) Business Dev Prog PF2010-38 Mission Critical Solutions v US No. 09-864 C (Fed. Cl.)(Feb. 26, 2010), Priority of HUBZone Program over 8(a) Business Dev Prog The attached letter from the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) to the Small Business Administration (SBA) clarifying that the

  14. Independent Review of Siesmic Performance Assessments for the Plutonium Facility PF-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittaker, Andrew; Goen, Lawrence Kenneth; Kennedy, Robert; McDonald, Brian; Morgan, Troy; Wyllie, Loring

    2015-11-25

    The Plutonium Facility, designated PF-4, is located in Technical Area 55 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The facility is a one-story rectangular structure above a complete basement; the building was constructed of cast-in-place reinforced concrete, with small interior frames of structural steel. The plan dimensions of the building are 265’×284’. The overall height of the building varies between 39’-0” at the north and south ends, and 40’-6” at the center ridge. The programmatic work performed in the building is vital to our national security and its functions and storage purposes are not replicated elsewhere in the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Ultrafast gigantic photo-response in (EDO-TTF)2PF6 initiated by 10-fs laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenlein, Robert William; Itatani, Jiro; Rini, Matteo; Cavalleri, Andrea; Onda, Ken; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2006-08-07

    We photo-exited a charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with sub-10-fs optical pulses. The photo-induced metallic phase appeared within 80-fs after pumping, characterized by large changes in reflectivity (DELTA R/R~0.8) followed by strong coherent phonon modulation

  16. Direct measurement of the chemical reactivity of silicon electrodes with LiPF6-based battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith, Gabriel M; Baggetto, Loic; Sacci, Robert L; Unocic, Raymond R; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Browning, Jim

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the chemistry and extent of reactivity between a lithium ion battery electrode surface (Si) and a liquid electrolyte (1.2M LiPF6-3:7 wt% ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate). This layer is estimated to be 3.6 nm thick and partially originates from the consumption of the silicon surface.

  17. Coupling of TRAC-PF1/MOD2, Version 5.4.25, with NESTLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knepper, P.L.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Ivanov, K.N.; Feltus, M.A.

    1999-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) spatial kinetics capability within a thermal-hydraulics system code provides a more correct description of the core physics during reactor transients that involve significant variations in the neutron flux distribution. Coupled codes provide the ability to forecast safety margins in a best-estimate manner. The behavior of a reactor core and the feedback to the plant dynamics can be accurately simulated. For each time step, coupled codes are capable of resolving system interaction effects on neutronics feedback and are capable of describing local neutronics effects caused by the thermal hydraulics and neutronics coupling. With the improvements in computational technology, modeling complex reactor behaviors with coupled thermal hydraulics and spatial kinetics is feasible. Previously, reactor analysis codes were limited to either a detailed thermal-hydraulics model with simplified kinetics or multidimensional neutron kinetics with a simplified thermal-hydraulics model. The authors discuss the coupling of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-PF1/MOD2, Version 5.4.25, with the NESTLE code.

  18. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-10-15

    The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

  19. Electrochemical Investigation of Li–Al Anodes in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y.N.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.J.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Haas, O.

    2010-11-01

    1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 500 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of 0.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 30.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 100 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 280 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

  20. Electrochemical Investigation of Li-Al Anodes in Oligo (ethylene glycol) Dimethyl ether/LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhou; X Wang; H Lee; K Nam; X Yang; O Haas

    2011-12-31

    LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

  1. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 US/Japanese PWR conservative LOCA prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, G E; Fisher, J E

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of a 200%, double-ended, cold-leg-break, loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) calculation using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code. The reactor system represented a typical United States/Japanese pressurized water reactor with a 15 x 15 fuel bundle arrangement 12-ft long, four loops, and cold-leg Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) Systems. Conservation boundary and initial conditions were used. Reactor power was 102% of the 3250 MWt rated power, decay heat was set to 120% of American Nuclear Society Standard 5.1, highest core lifetime values for power peaking and fuel stored energy were used, and the LOCA occurred simultaneously with a loss of offsite power. Best estimate assumptions were used for the break flow model, fuel rod heat transfer and metal-water reaction correlations, and steady-state fuel temperature profiles. A flow blockage model, having the capability to account for the effects of cladding ballooning or rupturing, was not used. Except for these best estimate assumptions, the boundary and initial conditions were consistent with those used in licensing calculations. Maximum fuel rod temperatures were 1380 K (2020/sup 0/F) and 1040 K (1410/sup 0/F) on the hottest evaluation model rod and hottest best estimate rod, respectively. The high reported values or fuel cladding temperature were a direct consequence of the conservative boundary and initial conditions used for the calculation, primarily the 2% overpower condition, the core decay heat assumption, and the degraded ECCS. The calculation demonstrated successful core reflooding before 1478 K (2200/sup 0/F) cladding temperature was exceeded on any fuel rod. 7 refs., 47 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Computational Studies of [Bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular-dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems, and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase while the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ion liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotate more freely near the interface than in the bulk, while the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of the effect of alkyl chain length on melting points of [CnMIM][PF6] ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Maginn, EJ

    2014-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, the melting points T-m of a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquids [CnMIM][PF6] with n = 2, 4, 10, 12, and 14 were studied using the free energy-based pseudosupercritical path (PSCP) method. The experimental trend that the Tm decreases with increasing alkyl chain length for ILs with short alkyl chains and increases for the ones with long alkyl chains was correctly captured. Further analysis revealed that the different trends are the results of the balance between fusion enthalpy and fusion entropy. For the ILs with short alkyl chains (ethyl and butyl groups), fusion entropy plays the dominant role so that [C4MIM][PF6], which has a larger fusion entropy due to its higher liquid phase entropy has the lower melting temperature. As for the ILs with long alkyl chains, due to the enhanced van der Waals interactions brought about by the long non-polar alkyl chains, enthalpy becomes the deciding factor and the melting points increase when the alkyl chain goes from C10 to C14. While the melting points for [C2MIM][PF6] and [C4MIM][PF6] were quantitatively predicted and the trends for the long chain ILs were captured correctly, the absolute melting points for [C10MIM][PF6], [C12MIM][PF6] and [C14MIM][PF6] were systematically overestimated in the simulations. Three possible reasons for the overestimation were studied but all ruled out. Further simulation or experimental studies are needed to explain the difference.

  4. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Housholder, W.R.

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  5. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment: Semiscale Mod-2A intermediate break test S-IB-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetyk, L N

    1986-02-01

    The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment project at Sandia National Laboratories is part of an overall effort funded by the NRC to determine the ability of various system codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of light water reactors during accident and off-normal conditions. The TRAC code is being assessed at SNLA against test data from various integral and separate effects test facilities. As part of this assessment matrix, an intermediate break test (S-IB-3), performed at the Semiscale Mod-2A facility, has been analyzed. Using an input model with a 3-D VESSEL component, the vessel and downcomer inventories during 3-IB-3 were generally well predicted, but the core heatup was underpredicted compared to data. An equivalent calculation with an all 1-D input model ran about twice as fast as our basecase analysis using a 3-D VESSEL in the input model, but the results of the two calculations diverged significantly for many parameters of interest, with the 3-D VESSEL model results in better agreement with data. 22 refs., 100 figs.

  6. Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

    2011-02-01

    1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

  7. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 analysis of a 200% cold-leg break in a US/Japanese PWR with four loops and 15 x 15 fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spore, J.W.; Cappiello, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the results of a TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculation that simulated a 200% double-ended cold-leg-break loss-of-coolant accident in a generic US/Japanese pressurized water reactor. This is a best-estimate analysis using conservative boundary conditions and minimum safeguards. The calculation shows that the peak cladding temperature (PCT) occurs during blowdown and that the core reheat is minimal during reflood. The results also show that for an evaluation-model peak rod linear power of 15.85 kW/ft, a PCT of 1084 K is reached at 3.5 s into the blowdown transient, which is approx.394 K below the design basis limit of 1478 K. 10 figs.

  8. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients.

  9. Structure/function studies of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) copolymer ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.

  10. PF2011-28.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PERT Peer Review Schedule Review Site Los Alamos National Lab Argonne National Lab Strategic Petroleum Reserve Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Dates January 26-31,2015 June 22-26, 2015 July 13-17, 2015 August 17-21, 2015 Team Lead Michelle Wiest John Roybal Vicki Worthington Sergio Martinez Team Members Al Garcia Linda Jones Laura Justice Anthony Guadagni Karen Lingua Kevin Heaton Andrea Spiker Patrick Schurott Anne Howe Daniel Saiz Patrick Padilla Carolyn Lucas NNSA Contractor (TBD) Jan Frensdorf

  11. PF2011-35.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  12. PF2011-46.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  13. Pageflex Server [document: PF4577458_00001

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You'll enjoy more value and the lowest out-of-pocket costs. * High Quality Vision Care. You'll get the best care from a VSP provider, including a WellVision Exam -the most...

  14. Pageflex Server [document: PF1888317_00001

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    when you see a VSP provider. Diabetic EyeCare Annual eye exams can help prevent diabetes related blindness. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you can get both your...

  15. Microsoft Word - S04617_PF.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... or dose from collection and use of contaminated natural gas. ... Consistent with federal requirements, DOE has made available ... DOE believes that the probability of gas developers ...

  16. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  17. Pageflex Server [document: PF4577458_00001]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Under Construction Page Under Construction This page is currently under construction.

    Protect your vision with VSP. Get the best in eyecare and eyewear with Los Alamos National Labs and VSP ® Vision Care. At VSP, we invest in the things you value most-the best care at the lowest out-of-pocket costs. Because we're the only national not-for-profit vision care company, you can trust that we'll always put your wellness first. You'll like what you see with VSP. * Value and Savings. You'll

  18. PF-2014-39b.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Division, PM | Department of Energy PEP TALK "Policy - EVMS - PARS" Update, Mel Frank, Chief, Project Systems Division, PM PEP TALK "Policy - EVMS - PARS" Update, Mel Frank, Chief, Project Systems Division, PM Topics Discussed: New Handbooks New Terms and Definitions Training Opportunities/Snippets Data Driven Reviews Improvement Initiative Interpretation Handbook Current State/Challenges* Planned Enhancements Policy and Guidance / EVMS / PARS IIe PDF icon PEP Talk

  19. PF2013-21a.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  20. PF2013-32a.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  1. PF2013-42a.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  2. PF2013-59b.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  3. PF2013-74a.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  4. Microsoft Word - PF Training Final 0624051.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... training program at the Oak Ridge Reservation relied on the best information available. ... same day, including a team tactical exercise and chemical and biological warfare training. ...

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (PF-4) Seismic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications EIS-0236-SA-06: Draft Supplement Analysis FPD's Perspective Photos - Los Alamos National Labratory - NISA EIS-0236-SA-06: Final Supplement Analysis

  6. Pseudo-Symmetry and Majorana Operators in pf-Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valencia, J. P.; Wu, H. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Majorana operator of the pseudo ds-shell preserves the SU-tilde(4) symmetry, and in a unified manner it reproduces reasonably well the ground state energies of the nine nuclei in this shell. The study of {beta} decay in the same shell provides further support for the SU-tilde(4) symmetry.

  7. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt014_es_oleary_2012

  8. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt014_es_oleary_2011

  9. PF coil voltage optimization for start-up scenarios in air core tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albanese, R.; Martone, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.

    1994-09-01

    The basic features of a procedure for the optimization of the plasma scenario in an air core tokamak are presented. The method takes into account the eddy currents in the passive conducting structures. The problem is reduced to the synthesis of time-varying magnetic field. The solution of this inverse electromagnetic problem is carried out by means of an optimization procedure based on the receding horizon approach. The paper includes an example of application to the ITER tokamak.

  10. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt014esoleary2012

  11. High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt014esoleary2011

  12. High Field Magnetization measurements of uranium dioxide single crystals (P08358- E003-PF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gofryk, K.; Harrison, N.; Jaime, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our preliminary high field magnetic measurements of UO2 are consistent with a complex nature of the magnetic ordering in this material, compatible with the previously proposed non-collinear 3-k magnetic structure. Further extensive magnetic studies on well-oriented (<100 > and <111>) UO2 crystals are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states at high fields.

  13. Magnetization measurements of uranium dioxide single crystals (P08358-E002-PF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gofryk, K.; Zapf, V.; Jaime, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our preliminary magnetic susceptibility measurements of UO2 point to complex nature of the magnetic ordering in this material, consistent with the proposed non-collinear 3-k magnetic structure. Further extensive magnetic studies are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states.

  14. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Yang, Hui ; Zhuang, Guorong V ; Ross, Jr, Philip N Publication Date: 2006-03-08 OSTI Identifier: 898281 Report Number(s): LBNL--58758 Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753; JPSODZ; ...

  15. Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    *, Guorong V. Zhuang b, * ,z and Philip N. Ross, Jr. b, * Environmental Energy ... Acta, 207, 337 (1992). 8. G. V. Zhuang, P. N. Ross, Jr., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., ...

  16. Materials Data on AgPF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on NaPF3 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Microsoft Word - S09IS004 _LLNL_PF_Authority_08262009a FINAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stops for administrative traffic violations. We noted that the protective force was using the California Law Enforcement Telecommunication System (CLETS) to access the ...

  19. Saline County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malta Bend, Missouri Marshall, Missouri Miami, Missouri Mount Leonard, Missouri Nelson, Missouri Slater, Missouri Sweet Springs, Missouri Retrieved from "http:...

  20. DeKalb County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Illinois Genoa, Illinois Hinckley, Illinois Kingston, Illinois Kirkland, Illinois Lee, Illinois Malta, Illinois Maple Park, Illinois Sandwich, Illinois Shabbona, Illinois...

  1. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  2. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  3. R&D Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  4. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  5. Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  6. Section - - SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE IN MOST GRANTS...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, ... Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, ...

  7. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  8. CI-OFF Ex A (Rev. 0.2, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  9. CONST Ex A (Rev. 5.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  10. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  11. NCIPO Ex A (Rev. 2.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  12. D-B CONST Ex A (Rev. 4.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  13. IDIQ BS Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  14. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or United ...

  15. Post-test analysis of semiscale tests S-UT-6 and S-UT-7 using TRAC PF1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyack, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    A posttest study of Semiscale Tests S-UT-6 and S-UT-7 has been completed to assess TRAC-PFl predictions of pressurized water-reactor (PWR) small-break transients. The comparisons of the TRAC calculations and experimental results show that the correct qualitative influence of upper-head injection (UHI) was predicted. The major phenomenological difference predicted was the mode of core voiding. The data show a slow boiloff from the top of the core resulting in a dryout near the top of the core only. TRAC predicted a more extensive voiding with fluid forced from the bottom of the core by a pressure increase in the upper vessel plenum. The pressure increase was the primary consequence of a failure to predict a complete clearance of the seal in the intact-loop pump-suction upflow leg. Further review of the interphasic drag correlations, entrainment correlations, and critical-flow model is recommended. 20 figures.

  16. Spin-lattice coupling in uranium dioxide probed by magnetostriction measurements at high magnetic fields (P08358-E001-PF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gofryk, K.; Jaime, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our preliminary magnetostriction measurements have already shown a strong interplay of lattice dynamic and magnetism in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states, and give unambiguous evidence of strong spin- phonon coupling in uranium dioxide. Further studies are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in magnetic and paramagnetic states and details of the spin-phonon coupling.

  17. Saratoga County, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New York Lake Luzerne-Hadley, New York Malta, New York Mechanicville, New York Milton, New York Moreau, New York North Ballston Spa, New York Northumberland, New York...

  18. 123 Agreements for Peaceful Cooperation | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. 2 Pursuant to Section 6 of ...

  19. Microsoft Word - Foreign Obligation Codes.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - 10_ROSE_MARTYN_UPDATED_NMMSS_2014_Foreign...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and The United Kingdom NMMSS Obligation ...

  1. Saratoga Technology Energy Park STEP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Energy Park STEP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Saratoga Technology + Energy Park (STEP) Place: Malta, New York Product: An economic development project of the New...

  2. Commissioning of a Soft X-ray Beamline PF-BL-16A with a Variable-Included-Angle Varied-Line-Spacing Grating Monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amemiya, Kenta; Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kosuge, Takashi; Nigorikawa, Kazuyuki; Sumii, Ryohei; Ito, Kenji

    2010-06-23

    The design and commissioning of a new soft X-ray beamline, BL-16A, at the Photon Factory is presented. The beamline consists of a pre-focusing mirror, an entrance slit, a variable-included-angle varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, and a post-focusing system as usual, and provides circularly and linearly polarized soft X rays in the energy range 200-1500 eV with an APPLE-II type undulator. The commissioning procedure for the beamline optics is described in detail, especially the check of the focal position for the zero-th order and diffracted X rays.

  3. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Biofuel: Making Sustainable Fuels Through Organic Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Clean Technologies and Sustainable Industries Early College High School in Malta, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME...

  4. CX-011208: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Danger Tree Management on Malta-Mount Elbert 230-Kilovolt Transmission Line CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 09/09/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Maldives of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Exports to Mali of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Exports to Malta of Crude...

  6. INL Researchers Advance Detection of Brucellosis

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Roberto, Frank; Newby, Deborah

    2010-01-08

    What do cattle ranchers in the greater Yellowstone region have in common with British soldiers garrisoned on the island of Malta in the late 1800s? Hint: it's a pathogen that starts with the letter B. It's Brucella Abortus.

  7. MidMissouri Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: MidMissouri Energy LLC Place: Malta Bend, Missouri Zip: 65339 Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock. References: MidMissouri Energy LLC1 This article...

  8. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: The Miracles of Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Clean Technologies and Sustainable Industries Early College High School in Malta, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME...

  9. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Job Opportunities in Bioenergy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Clean Technologies and Sustainable Industries Early College High School in Malta, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME...

  10. Residential Exchange Program Settlement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B - PF-02 Customer Percentages and Customer-Specific PF-02 Refunds Exhibit C - Renewable Energy Certificates and Carbon Attributes to IOUs Exhibit D - Illustrative Table for...

  11. 2012 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B - PF-02 Customer Percentages and Customer-Specific PF-02 Refunds Exhibit C - Renewable Energy Certificates and Carbon Attributes to IOUs Exhibit D - Illustrative Table for...

  12. Assignment of the luminescing states of [Au{sup 1}Rh{sup 1}({sup t}BuNC){sub 2}({mu}-dppm){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striplin, D.R.; Crosby, G.A.

    1995-07-13

    Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and excitation spectra were measured on the title compound. These results were augmented with polarization ratios obtained at 77 K and detailed studies of the temperature dependence of the phosphorescence in the 77-4 K range. The phosphorescence decay rate at K was also recorded as a function of an applied magnetic field. All the results are consistent with a 4d{sub z}Rh{sup 1} {yields} 6p{sub 2}Au{sup 1} orbital promotion leading to emitting {sup 1}A, {sup 3}A{sub 1} terms in pseudo-C{sub 2v} symmetry. The {sup 3}A{sub 1} term is split by spin-orbit coupling into a forbidden A{sub 2} state lying lowest followed by a quasi-degenerate pair, [B{sub 1}(x), B{sub 2}(y)] lying approximately 16 cm{sup -1} higher that decays >500 times faster than the lowest one. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  13. DPF heater attachment mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-04-26

    An exhaust filter system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A fastener limits expansion movement of the heating element relative to the PF.

  14. Estimation of the Dynamic States of Synchronous Machines Using an Extended Particle Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Ning; Meng, Da; Lu, Shuai

    2013-11-11

    In this paper, an extended particle filter (PF) is proposed to estimate the dynamic states of a synchronous machine using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. A PF propagates the mean and covariance of states via Monte Carlo simulation, is easy to implement, and can be directly applied to a non-linear system with non-Gaussian noise. The extended PF modifies a basic PF to improve robustness. Using Monte Carlo simulations with practical noise and model uncertainty considerations, the extended PFs performance is evaluated and compared with the basic PF and an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The extended PF results showed high accuracy and robustness against measurement and model noise.

  15. The Role of Platelet Factor 4 in Radiation-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Michele P.; Xiao Liqing; Nguyen, Yvonne; Kowalska, M. Anna; Poncz, Mortimer

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Factors affecting the severity of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia (RIT) are not well described. We address whether platelet factor 4 (PF4; a negative paracrine for megakaryopoiesis) affects platelet recovery postradiation. Methods and Materials: Using conditioned media from irradiated bone marrow (BM) cells from transgenic mice overexpressing human (h) PF4 (hPF4+), megakaryocyte colony formation was assessed in the presence of this conditioned media and PF4 blocking agents. In a model of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia, irradiated mice with varying PF4 expression levels were treated with anti-hPF4 and/or thrombopoietin (TPO), and platelet count recovery and survival were examined. Results: Conditioned media from irradiated BM from hPF4+ mice inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation, suggesting that PF4 is a negative paracrine released in RIT. Blocking with an anti-hPF4 antibody restored colony formation of BM grown in the presence of hPF4+ irradiated media, as did antibodies that block the megakaryocyte receptor for PF4, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Irradiated PF4 knockout mice had higher nadir platelet counts than irradiated hPF4+/knockout litter mates (651 vs. 328 x 106/mcL, p = 0.02) and recovered earlier (15 days vs. 22 days, respectively, p <0.02). When irradiated hPF4+ mice were treated with anti-hPF4 antibody and/or TPO, they showed less severe thrombocytopenia than untreated mice, with improved survival and time to platelet recovery, but no additive effect was seen. Conclusions: Our studies show that in RIT, damaged megakaryocytes release PF4 locally, inhibiting platelet recovery. Blocking PF4 enhances recovery while released PF4 from megakaryocytes limits TPO efficacy, potentially because of increased release of PF4 stimulated by TPO. The clinical value of blocking this negative paracrine pathway post-RIT remains to be determined.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  17. Update to the Department of Energy Acquisition Guide Chapter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon PF2014-37 Update to DOE AG Chap 16.2, Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plans for Cost-Reimbursement, Non-M and O Contracts PDF icon PF-2014-37a.pdf More Documents & ...

  18. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  19. July 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview Accomplishments: 1. Progress on the completion of the 10 CFR 1046 modifications to address barriers to workforce retention. Written response to public comment is being drafted by HS-51. 2. Pro-Force (PF) union representative, Randy Lawson, identified this accomplishment as the single most significant step toward PF workforce retention in over 20 years. 3. Draft re-charter of PF Career Options Committee (PFCOC) to establish a PF Working Group

  20. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  1. Acquisition Guide, Chapters 42.15, Contractor Performance Information...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon PF2013-70 AG 42.15 Contr Perf Info and 42.16 Reporting Other Contr Info in Fed Awardee Perf and Integrity Info PDF icon PF2013-70a.pdf PDF icon PF2013-70b.pdf More ...

  2. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 1, Presentation and design description. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, D.; Naumovich,; Walstrom, P.; Clarkson, I.; Schultheiss, J.; Burger, A.

    1995-09-22

    This first volume of the five volume set begins with a CPDR overview and then details the PF magnet system, manufacturing R&D, Westinghouse R&D, the central solenoid, the PF 5 ring coil, the PF 6/7 ring coil, quality assurance, and the system design description.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  4. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  5. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  6. Solvate Structures and Computational/Spectroscopic Characterization of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LiPF6 Electrolytes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Solvate Structures and Computational/Spectroscopic Characterization of LiPF6 Electrolytes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solvate Structures and Computational/Spectroscopic Characterization of LiPF6 Electrolytes Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method for identifying ion-ion interactions, but only if the vibrational band signature for the anion coordination modes can be accurately deciphered. The present study characterizes

  7. Keystone Clean Air | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with PF meters and our optimizing equipment (patent 5440442 - an apparatus and methodology patent)on "live" loads. A reduction is thereby shown at the utility company's meter...

  8. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  9. Most Viewed Documents for Environmental Sciences: September 2014...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    27 The Geysers Geothermal Field Update19902010 Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B. (2010) 25 Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981 ...

  10. Overview of Fuel Cell Activities With a Focus on AEMFC R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... manufactured at high volume. * Non-PGM catalysts ...air (maximum pressure of 1.5 atma) in PGM-free MEA . ... Project Perfluoro (PF) polymer electrolytes exhibit ...

  11. Acquisition Guide, Chapter 42.16, Reporting Other Contractor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon PF2010-56 AG 42.16, Reporting Other Contractor Information into the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System More Documents & Publications ...

  12. AUDIT REPORT Follow-up on Nuclear Safety: Safety Basis and Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... nuclear facilities-PF-4, the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF), and the Radioassay and Nondestructive Testing ... review identified a long history of operational issues that ...

  13. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in permafrost occurrence (PF) and organic layer thickness (OLT) in more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships...

  14. Solvate Structures and Computational/Spectroscopic Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solvate Structures and ComputationalSpectroscopic Characterization of LiPF6 Electrolytes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solvate Structures and Computational...

  15. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Los Alamos National Laboratory...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... performance of the contractor's programs and management systems. (DOE Order 226.1B 4b(1)) 21 PF-4 Facility Representatives The two Facility Representatives assigned to ...

  16. EA-1963: Elba Liquefaction Project, Savannah, Georgia | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Terminal near Savannah, Georgia. Additional information is available at FERC's eLibrary website, elibrary.ferc.govidmwsdocketsearch.asp; search for docket number PF13-3....

  17. FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM ELIMINATION REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SENECA ARMY DEPOT ROMULUS, NEW YORK Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Office ... INTRODUCTION The Department pf Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Remedial ...

  18. Revised DOE Acquisition Guide Chapter 15.4-2 Weighted Guidelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon PF2010-72 Revised DOE AG 15.4-2 Weighted Guidelines; DOE AG 15.4-4 General Guide for Tech Analysis of Cost Proposals for Acq Contracts PDF icon PF2010-72a.pdf PDF icon ...

  19. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  20. Green Skies of Brazil |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green Skies of Brazil Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Green Skies of Brazil Lucas Malta 2014.08.28 Not every professional gets to see on a daily basis the impact of her/his work on other people's lives. If you happen to be a physician you might; however, if like me you decided to become an engineer, it

  1. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-38 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    38 Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-38 Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-3 8, which makes miscellaneous changes to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), was published in the December 10, 2009 issue of the Federal Register. A summary of the changes is attached. Due to the publication of two rules item I11 and item V, additional guidance is provided in this flash. PDF icon PF2010-18 Policy PF 2010-18 Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-38 PDF icon PF2010-18a.pdf More Documents &

  3. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  4. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  5. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  6. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  7. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  8. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  9. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  10. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  11. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  12. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: High-Energy Results From the First Year","Michelson, P.F.; KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; Ritz, S.; UC, Santa Cruz UC, Santa Cruz, Phys....

  13. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: High-Energy Results From the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: High-Energy Results From the First Year Michelson, P.F.; KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; Ritz, S.; UC, Santa Cruz UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept....

  14. Microsoft Word - NOI to prepare EA - Elba GA _04-22-2013_

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    L.L.C. Docket No. PF13-3-000 Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. Elba Express Company, ... Liquefaction Company, LLC (ELC); Southern LNG Company, LLC (SLNG); and Elba Express ...

  15. M 470.4-4 Rewrite 2007

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... closed cargo areas of vehicles, vans, and railroad cars. ... Destruction techniques vary depending on the medium on which ... 4 hours by PF or by cleared duty personnel when unattended. ...

  16. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: High-Energy Results From the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Michelson, P.F. ; KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Atwood, W.B. ; Ritz, S. ; UC, Santa Cruz UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. Publication Date: 2013-06-20 OSTI Identifier: 1084278 Report ...

  17. Most Viewed Documents for Geosciences: December 2014 | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...2010 Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B. (2010) 15 Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to study reservoir stimulation with low hydraulic ...

  18. Notice

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... and a citizens' guide entitled "An Interstate Natural Gas Facility On My Land? What Do I Need to Know?" ... PF14-17-000 - 3 - Land Requirements for Construction The planned construction ...

  19. Effect of molecular electrical doping on polyfuran based photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shuwen; Opitz, Andreas; Salzmann, Ingo; Frisch, Johannes; Cohen, Erez; Bendikov, Michael; Koch, Norbert

    2015-05-18

    The electronic, optical, and morphological properties of molecularly p-doped polyfuran (PF) films were investigated over a wide range of doping ratio in order to explore the impact of doping in photovoltaic applications. We find evidence for integer-charge transfer between PF and the prototypical molecular p-dopant tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) and employed the doped polymer in bilayer organic solar cells using fullerene as acceptor. The conductivity increase in the PF films at dopant loadings ?2% significantly enhances the short-circuit current of photovoltaic devices. For higher doping ratios, however, F4TCNQ is found to precipitate at the heterojunction between the doped donor polymer and the fullerene acceptor. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that its presence acts beneficial to the energy-level alignment by doubling the open-circuit voltage of solar cells from 0.2?V to ca. 0.4?V, as compared to pristine PF.

  20. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

  1. Acquisition Guide, Chapter 38.1, Strategic Acquisition Transactions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    See the Recovery Act Guide for those requirements at http:management.energy.govpolicyguidance1672.htm. PDF icon PF2010-24 AG 38.1 Strategic Acquisition Transactions A Guide ...

  2. Acquisition Guide Chapter 17.1 - Interagency Acquisitions, Interagency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The revised chapter is attached with this flash. All other attachments from Policy Flash 2012-32 remain the same. PDF icon PF2012-49 AG 17.1- Interagency Acquisitions, Interagency ...

  3. Issue a New Department of Energy Acquisition Guide Chapter 6...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6.1 and 7.1. PDF icon PF2011-40 Issue a New AG 6.5 Competition Advocate Responsibilities ... Guide Chapter 6.1 - Competition Requirements Microsoft Word - AG Chapter 6 1 Nov 2010

  4. Longitudinal Resistive Charge Division in Multi-Channel Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For an electrode with distributed resistance and capacitance of 600 kOmega and 12.5 pF, respectively (similar to values expected for a 10 cm long resistive silicon microstrip), ...

  5. Microsoft Word - DOENV--FY2007.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, TN PD PANTEX PLANT, TX PX PERMAFIX (M&CE), TN PF PORTSMOUTH ... JOINT VENTURE, NV 4 IT WASHINGTON SAVANNAH RIVER, SC SR WEST VALLEY DEMONSTARTION ...

  6. Microsoft Word - FINAL DOENV--1187.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... (M&CE) PF PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT PO PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LAB PL ... DEMONSTARTION PROJECT WV WESTINGHOUSE SAVANNAH RIVER SR 3 On-site and Outbound Only 4 ...

  7. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... TN PF 15 PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, OH PO 16 PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS ... IT 19 UT-BATTELLE, TN OL 20 WASHINGTON SAVANNAH RIVER COMPANY, SC SR 21 WEST VALLEY ...

  8. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Targeted Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... in the TA-55 DSA. The intent of the ISIs is to periodically ensure that the design ... ISIs for the PF-4 SC confinement system include a visual inspection of visible portions of ...

  9. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

  10. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Administrative Login

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Logon Reset Forgot your username or password or need to change your e-mail address? Send e-mail to pf-lepd@osti.gov. Need to change OPMO contact (i.e., e-mail, name, telephone ...

  11. Administrator's Record of Decision (ROD) on New Large Single...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    continued PF firm power service from a new serving utility upon the following set of conditions: First, the transfer is to a public utility. Second, the load does not change...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Lab News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    played a key role in the early years of the affirmative action and equal employment movements as one of the first organizations to sign on to the Plans for Progress (PfP), a...

  13. Results from the ANITA Experiment (Analysis A) (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    London ; Dowkontt, P.F. more ; Washington U., St. Louis ; DuVernois, M.A. ; Hawaii U. ; Field, R.C. ; SLAC ; Goldstein, D.J. ; UC, Irvine ; Goodhue, A. ; UCLA ; Hast, C. ; ...

  14. Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product ofChemical and Electrochemical Reduction of EC in EC:EMC1.2M LiPF6Electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  15. TRAC Code Modifications Made for APT Blanket Safety Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report provides documentation of the necessary source code modifications made to the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code version 5.4.28a developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  16. Microsoft Word - DRAFT_NDA_VR1-2016_10212011_CLEAN.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to certain pricing information for potential use in assisting Customer Name to make elections regarding the purchase of power from BPA at the PF Tier 2 Vintage Market Sourced...

  17. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and fluxFor various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  18. Acquisition Guide Chapter 35.1, Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Reporting PDF icon PF2011-58a.pdf More Documents & Publications Chapter 35 - Research and Development Contracting AcqGuide35pt1rev2.doc&0; POLICY FLASH 2015-01

  19. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Enabling Practical p-Type...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hence enable unopposed p-type doping in easily grown materials. Reference: J.D. Perkins, T.R. Paudel, A. Zakutayev, P.F. Ndione, P.A. Parilla, D.L. Young, S. Lany, D.S....

  20. NERSC-Overview-NUG12.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Accomplishments and Plans Kathy Yelick Associate Laboratory Director for Computing Sciences NERSC Facility Leads DOE in Scientific Computing Productivity Computing for science * 4000 users, 500 projects * 48 states; 65% from universities * Hundreds of users each day * 1500 publications per year Systems for science * 1.3PF Cray system, Hopper * .5 PF in smaller systems, including those for JGI, HEP/NP 2 Data Analysis Grows more Automated with the Explosion of Scientific Data Sets 3 NERSC

  1. Revised Guide for Financial Assistance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide for Financial Assistance Revised Guide for Financial Assistance Attached is a revised Guide for Financial Assistance. The Guide has been updated to reflect changes to web sites, organization names, systems, and DOE policies and practices since the guide was last issued. PDF icon PF2013-58 Revised Guide for Financial Assistance PDF icon PF2013-58a.pdf More Documents & Publications Financial Assistance Guide (2013) U.S. Department of Energy - Guide to Financial Assistance - Audit

  2. Fiscal Year 2013 Small Business Contracting Goals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fiscal Year 2013 Small Business Contracting Goals Fiscal Year 2013 Small Business Contracting Goals DOE has received the following revised small business contracting goals for FY13: PDF icon PF2013-32 Fiscal Year 2013 Small Business Contracting Goals PDF icon PF2013-32a.pdf More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2016-06 POLICY FLASH 2015-26 Extension of SBA-DOE 8(a) Partnership Agreement

  3. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  4. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 3, Design and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-30

    Several models have been formed for investigating the maximum electromagnetic loading and magnetic field levels associated with the Tokamak Physics eXperiment (TPX) superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The analyses have been performed to support the design of the individual fourteen hoop coils forming the PF system. The coils have been sub-divided into three coil systems consisting of the central solenoid (CS), PF5 coils, and the larger radius PF6 and PF7 coils. Various electromagnetic analyses have been performed to determine the electromagnetic loadings that the coils will experience during normal operating conditions, plasma disruptions, and fault conditions. The loadings are presented as net body forces acting individual coils, spatial variations throughout the coil cross section, and force variations along the path of the conductor due to interactions with the TF coils. Three refined electromagnetic models of the PF coil system that include a turn-by-turn description of the fields and forces during a worst case event are presented in this report. A global model including both the TF and PF system was formed to obtain the force variations along the path of the PF conductors resulting from interactions with the TF currents. In addition to spatial variations, the loadings are further subdivided into time-varying and steady components so that structural fatigue issues can be addressed by designers and analysts. Other electromagnetic design issues such as the impact of the detailed coil designs on field errors are addressed in this report. Coil features that are analyzed include radial transitions via short jogs vs. spiral type windings and the effects of layer-to-layer rotations (i.e clocking) on the field errors.

  5. Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casteel, K.

    2009-04-15

    Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

  6. DOE Acquisition Guide Chapter 23 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    23 DOE Acquisition Guide Chapter 23 The purpose of this flash is to provide you an updated copy of the DOE Acquisition Guide Chapter 23. The Chapter has been updated to reflect the more recent requirements of Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance which updates Executive Order 13423. PDF icon PF2010-83 DOE Acquisition Guide Chapter 23 PDF icon PF2010-83a.pdf More Documents & Publications Chapter 23 - Environment, Energy and Water

  7. Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle The Senior Procurement Executive has issued guidance that revises the PERT Review Cycle requirement from every three years to every five years. PDF icon PF2013-21 Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle PDF icon PF2013-21a.pdf More Documents & Publications Procurement

  8. TO: Procurement Directors Heads of Contracting Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 DATE: February 04, 2016 TO: Procurement Directors Heads of Contracting Activities FROM: Acting Chief Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: New Policy Flash Distribution Process SUMMARY: This office is automating the policy flash (PF) distribution process by using a listserv. As of February 18, 2016, the listserv will send PF notifications without attachments. PFs will no longer be sent via the email distribution list. PFs

  9. Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    52 Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52 Attached for your information is a summary of rules incorporated in the FAR by Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52. PDF icon PF2011-82 Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52 PDF icon PF2011-82a.pdf More Documents & Publications Policy Flash Archive Search File Federal Acquisition Circulars 2005-45 and 2005-46 Policy Flash 2015-07 - FAC 2005-78

  10. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Port Arthur LNG, LLC and Docket Nos. PF15-18-000 and Port Arthur Pipeline, LLC PF15-19-000 NOTICE OF INTENT TO PREPARE AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR THE PLANNED PORT ARTHUR LIQUEFACTION PROJECT AND PORT ARTHUR PIPELINE PROJECT, REQUEST FOR COMMENTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, AND NOTICE OF PUBLIC SCOPING MEETINGS (June 24, 2015) The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that will discuss the environmental

  11. DOE Vendor Communication Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vendor Communication Plan DOE Vendor Communication Plan As described in Policy Flash 2011-44, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) memorandum entitled "Myth-Busting: Addressing Misconceptions to Improve Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process" required agencies to develop and submit a high-level vendor communication plan for OFPP approval. DOE's approved plan is attached. PDF icon PF2012-12 DOE Vendor Communication Plan PDF icon PF2012-12a.pdf PDF icon

  12. September 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview 2 Subgroups: Pro-Force and Non-Pro-Force Pro-Force Subgroup: Accomplishments: 1. Completion of 10 CFR 1046 [Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards] as a final rule that includes modification efforts to address barriers to workforce retention. 2. Pro-Force (PF) union representative, Randy Lawson, identified this accomplishment as the single most significant step toward PF workforce

  13. SASSI Subtraction Method Effects at Various DOE projects

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Subtraction Method Effects at Various DOE projects U.S. Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Workshop October 25-26, 2011 Greg E. Mertz, Michael C. Costantino, Thomas W. Houston, Andrew S. Maham CJCAssociates 2 Outline  PF-4  CMRR  UPF  Generic Study  Lessons Learned Note: Project results represent work-in-progress and do imply regulatory acceptance CJCAssociates 3 SASSI Solution Methods for Embedded Structures CJCAssociates 4 PF-4 Two story Box-type RC Structure

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities, Security and Safeguards Division, Safeguards and Security Program Office, Protective Force Oversight Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-30

    The purpose of this document is to identify and describe the duties and responsibilities of Facility Security and Safeguards (FSS) Safeguards and Security (SS) organizations (groups/offices) with oversight functions over the Protection Force (PF) subcontractor. Responsible organizations will continue their present PF oversight functions under the Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) assessment, but now will be required to also coordinate, integrate, and interface with other FSS S and S organizations and with the PF subcontractor to measure performance, assess Department of Energy (DOE) compliance, reduce costs, and minimize duplication of effort. The role of the PF subcontractor is to provide the Laboratory with effective and efficient protective force services. PF services include providing protection for the special nuclear material, government property and classified or sensitive information developed and/or consigned to the Laboratory, as well as protection for personnel who work or participate in laboratory activities. FSS S and S oversight of both performance and compliance standards/metrics is essential for these PF objectives to be met.

  15. Development of ITER 15 MA ELMy H-mode Inductive Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessel, C. E.; Campbell, D.; Gribov, Y.; Saibene, G.; Ambrosino, G.; Casper, T.; Cavinato, M.; Fujieda, H.; Hawryluk, R.; Horton, L. D.; Kavin, A.; Kharyrutdinov, R.; Koechl, F.; Leuer, J.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; Luce, T.; Lukash, V.; Mattei, M.; Nunes, I.; Parail, V.; Polevoi, A.; Portone, A.; Sartori, R.; Sips, A. C.C.; Thomas, P. R.; Welander, A.; Wesley, J.

    2008-10-16

    The poloidal field (PF) coil system on ITER, which provides both feedforward and feedback control of plasma position, shape, and current, is a critical element for achieving mission performance. Analysis of PF capabilities has focused on the 15 MA Q = 10 scenario with a 300-500 s flattop burn phase. The operating space available for the 15 MA ELMy H-mode plasma discharges in ITER and upgrades to the PF coils or associated systems to establish confidence that ITER mission objectives can be reached have been identified. Time dependent self-consistent free-boundary calculations were performed to examine the impact of plasma variability, discharge programming, and plasma disturbances. Based on these calculations a new reference scenario was developed based upon a large bore initial plasma, early divertor transition, low level heating in L-mode, and a late H-mode onset. Equilibrium analyses for this scenario indicate that the original PF coil limitations do not allow low li (<0.8) operation or lower flux states, and the flattop burn durations were predicted to be less than the desired 400 s. This finding motivates the expansion of the operating space, considering several upgrade options to the PF coils. Analysis was also carried out to examine the feedback current reserve required in the CS and PF coils during a series of disturbances and a feasibility assessment of the 17 MA scenario was undertaken. Results of the studies show that the new scenario and modified PF system will allow a wide range of 15 MA 300-500 s operation and more limited but finite 17 MA operation.

  16. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing andmore » Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  17. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  18. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  19. Five-megawatt geothermal-power pilot-plant project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    This is a report on the Raft River Geothermal-Power Pilot-Plant Project (Geothermal Plant), located near Malta, Idaho; the review took place between July 20 and July 27, 1979. The Geothermal Plant is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) overall effort to help commercialize the operation of electric power plants using geothermal energy sources. Numerous reasons were found to commend management for its achievements on the project. Some of these are highlighted, including: (a) a well-qualified and professional management team; (b) effective cost control, performance, and project scheduling; and (c) an effective and efficient quality-assurance program. Problem areas delineated, along with recommendations for solution, include: (1) project planning; (2) facility design; (3) facility construction costs; (4) geothermal resource; (5) drilling program; (6) two facility construction safety hazards; and (7) health and safety program. Appendices include comments from the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications, the Controller, and the Acting Deputy Director, Procurement and Contracts Management.

  20. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  1. Temperature-dependent structural property and power factor of n type thermoelectric Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, K.; Das, Diptasikha; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra; Center for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, JD-2, Sector-III, Saltlake City, Kolkata 700 098 ; Mandal, P.; Srihari, Velaga

    2013-12-09

    Thermal variation of structural property, linear thermal expansion coefficient (?), resistivity (?), thermopower (S), and power factor (PF) of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} (x?=?0.10 and 0.14) samples are reported. Temperature-dependent powder diffraction experiments indicate that samples do not undergo any structural phase transition. Rietveld refinement technique has been used to perform detailed structural analysis. Temperature dependence of ? is found to be stronger for Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10}. Also, PF for direct band gap Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} is higher as compared to that for indirect band gap Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}. Role of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering on ?, S, and PF has been discussed.

  2. Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-05-01

    The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

  3. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  4. Notices

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    189 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 127 / Thursday, July 2, 2015 / Notices 1 The appendices referenced in this notice will not appear in the Federal Register. Copies of the appendices were sent to all those receiving this notice in the mail and are available at www.ferc.gov Continued Dated: June 24, 2015. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2015-16308 Filed 7-1-15; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6717-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. PF15-18-000 and PF15-19-

  5. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1999-06-13

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described.

  6. Acquisition Guide Chapter 19 Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    19 Update Acquisition Guide Chapter 19 Update Acquisition Guide Chapter 19, concerning small business considerations for DOE contracts, has been updated. The update includes changes in federal procurement policy made by P.L. 111-240, Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, and changes in reporting thresholds for awards issued on or after October 1, 2010. PDF icon PF2011-28 Acquisition Guide Chapter 19 Update PDF icon PF2011-28a.pdf More Documents & Publications Chapter 19 - Small Business Programs

  7. Acquisition Guide Chapter 35.1, Scientific and Technical Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reporting | Department of Energy 35.1, Scientific and Technical Information Reporting Acquisition Guide Chapter 35.1, Scientific and Technical Information Reporting The Acquisition Guide Chapter 35.1, Scientific and Technical Information Reporting, is updated to include changes to the Scientific and Technical Information website and DOE Order 241.1 B. PDF icon PF2011-58 Acquisition Guide Chapter 35.1, Scientific and Technical Information Reporting PDF icon PF2011-58a.pdf More Documents &

  8. DOE O 206.2 Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy O 206.2 Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) DOE O 206.2 Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) The Department issued a Contractor Requirements Document (CRD) for the subject Directive on February 19, 2013. PDF icon PF2013-33 Department of Energy Order 206.2 Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) PDF icon PF2013-33a.pdf More Documents & Publications Status IT Reporting Format and Requirements for the BY 2017 Budget Submission Audit Report:

  9. Structure and sequence analyses of Bacteroides proteins BVU_4064 and BF1687 reveal presence of two novel predominantly-beta domains, predicted to be involved in lipid and cell surface interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Natarajan, Padmaja; Punta, Marco; Kumar, Abhinav; Yeh, Andrew P; Godzik, Adam; Aravind, L.

    2015-01-16

    N-terminal domains of BVU_4064 and BF1687 proteins from Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides fragilis respectively are members of the Pfam family PF12985 (DUF3869). Proteins containing a domain from this family can be found in most Bacteroides species and, in large numbers, in all human gut microbiome samples. Both BVU_4064 and BF1687 proteins have a consensus lipobox motif implying they are anchored to the membrane, but their functions are otherwise unknown. The C-terminal half of BVU_4064 is assigned to protein family PF12986 (DUF3870); the equivalent part of BF1687 was unclassified.

  10. Model Arbitration Provision | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Model Arbitration Provision Model Arbitration Provision The attached "GC Guidance: Model Arbitration Provision" is issued for use by Contracting Officers for M&O contracts as needed. PDF icon PF2011-11 Model Arbitration Provision PDF icon PF2011-11a.pdf More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Arbitration Guidance for M&amp;O Contractors.docx DOE General Counsel Issues Arbitration Guidance for M&O Contractors Arbitration Guidance for Management & Operating

  11. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  12. Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dobson, Patrick

    2013-02-11

    Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

  13. Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dobson, Patrick

    Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

  14. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

  15. RR UECX I DEUEetdJ16 T LEMON7 ILL =@I9 V

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 , RR UECX I DEUEetdJ16 T LEMON7 ILL @I9 V : w ?g+QZ FM USAEC NYK @5 TO USAEC LEMUMT Ill.. AEC WWC ; I . ' FOR A TAMwsflO h@G NR tt0 PD Tti181810 APPROVE pf TWJNTY GRAM8 ...

  16. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-09

    Much of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL`s main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers.

  17. Compatibility of Lithium Salts with Solvent of the Non-Aqueous Electrolyte in LiO2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Peng; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Luo, Xiangyi; Bareno, Javier; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Curtiss, Larry A.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-20

    The stability of lithium salts, especially in the presence of reduced oxygen species, O2 and H2O (even in a small amount), plays an important role in the cyclability and capacity of LiO2 cells. This combined experimental and computational study provides evidence that the stability of the electrolyte used in LiO2 cells strongly depends on the compatibility of lithium salts with solvent. In the case of the LiPF61NM3 electrolyte, the decomposition of LiPF6 occurs in the cell as evidenced by in situ XRD, FT-IR and XPS analysis, which triggers the decomposition of 1NM3 solvent due to formation of HF from the decomposition of LiPF6. These reactions lead to degradation of the electrolyte and cause poor cyclability of the cell. The same reactions are not observed when LiTFSI and LiCF3SO3 are used as the lithium salts in 1NM3 solvent, or LiPF6 is used in TEGDME solvent.

  18. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30

    Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clem, J.M. (1) Connolly, A. (1) Dowkontt, P.F. (1) DuVernois, M.A. (1) Field, R.C. (1) Goldstein, D.J. (1) Goodhue, A. (1) Gorham, P.W. (1) Hast, C. (1) Hebert, C.L. (1) Hoover, S. ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Binns, W.R. (1) Chen, C. (1) Chen, P. (1) Clem, J.M. (1) Connolly, A. (1) Dowkontt, P.F. (1) DuVernois, M.A. (1) Field, R.C. (1) Goldstein, D. (1) Gorham, P.W. (1) Grashorn, E. (1) ...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Binns, W.R. (1) Chen, C. (1) Chen, P. (1) Clem, J.M. (1) Connolly, A. (1) Dowkontt, P.F. (1) DuVernois, M.A. (1) Field, R.C. (1) Goldstein, D. (1) Gorham, P.W. (1) Grashorn, E. (1) ...

  2. Two-pulse rapid remote surface contamination measurement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2010-11-01

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of a 'pump-probe' optical detection method for standoff sensing of chemicals on surfaces. Such a measurement uses two optical pulses - one to remove the analyte (or a fragment of it) from the surface and the second to sense the removed material. As a particular example, this project targeted photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) to detect of surface deposits of low-volatility chemical warfare agents (LVAs). Feasibility was demonstrated for four agent surrogates on eight realistic surfaces. Its sensitivity was established for measurements on concrete and aluminum. Extrapolations were made to demonstrate relevance to the needs of outside users. Several aspects of the surface PF-LIF physical mechanism were investigated and compared to that of vapor-phase measurements. The use of PF-LIF as a rapid screening tool to 'cue' more specific sensors was recommended. Its sensitivity was compared to that of Raman spectroscopy, which is both a potential 'confirmer' of PF-LIF 'hits' and is also a competing screening technology.

  3. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  4. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Shaber, C.R.; Thurow, T.L.

    1981-11-17

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  5. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Spencer, S.G.; Shaber, C.R.

    1980-05-30

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  6. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  7. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  8. Spatially resolved high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZajaPc, S.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Rosmej, O.; Yongtao, Zhao; Gojska, A.

    2010-10-15

    Soft x-ray emission from a Mather-type plasma-focus device (PF-1000) operated at {approx}400 kJ was measured. The high density and temperature plasma were generated by the discharge in the deuterium-argon gas mixture in the modified (high-current) plasma-focus configuration. A spherically bent mica crystal spectrograph viewing the axial output of the pinch region was used to measure the x-ray spectra. Spatially resolved spectra including the characteristic x-ray lines of highly ionized Ar and continua were recorded by means of an x-ray film. The x-ray emission of PF-1000 device was studied at different areas of the pinch.

  9. TRAC analysis of the Crystal River Unit-3 Plant transient of February 26, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, P.; Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the TRAC-PD2 and TRAC-PF1 codes to analyze the Crystal River transient. The PD2 and PF1 analyses used the three-dimensional and one-dimensional vessel models, respectively. Both calculations predicted the plant depressurization caused by the open PORV and the subsequent repressurization caused by closing the PORV and continuing high-pressure injection flow. Also, natural circulation was calculated in loop B following reestablishment of feedwater to the loop-B steam generator. After system repressurization, the codes calculated that pressure was relieved through the safety valves, and an intermittent flow occurred in loop A because of high-pressure-injection-driven density variations.

  10. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics pore-scale simulations of unstable immiscible flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandara, Dunusinghe Mudiyanselage Uditha C.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Oostrom, Martinus; Palmer, Bruce J.; Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong

    2013-12-01

    We have conducted a series of high-resolution numerical experiments using the Pair-Wise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) multiphase flow model. First, we derived analytical expressions relating parameters in the PF-SPH model to the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we used the model to study viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media for a wide range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios. We demonstrated that the steady state saturation profiles and the boundaries of viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement regions compare favorably with micromodel laboratory experimental results. For displacing fluid with low viscosity, we observed that the displacement pattern changes from viscous fingering to stable displacement with increasing injection rate. When a high viscosity fluid is injected, transition behavior from capillary fingering to stable displacement occurred as the flow rate was increased. These observation also agree with the results of the micromodel laboratory experiments.

  11. Bipolar monolithic preamplifiers for SSC silicon calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Todd, R.A.; Bauer, M.L. ); Kennedy, E.J. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Bugg, W.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes preamplifiers designed specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Eight different preamplifiers designed for detector capacitances ranging from 20 pF to 500 pF and operating temperatures from 25{degree}C to {minus}20{degree}C are discussed. The preamplifiers were fabricated with two different high-frequency processes (one with the VTC, Inc. VJ900 process, seven with the Harris Semiconductor VHF Process). The different topologies and their features are discussed in addition to the design methodologies employed. The results for noise, power consumption, speed, and radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are presented for the VTC process preamplifier. Simulations for the VHF Process circuits are presented. This work was funded through SSC Generic Detector funding, SSC Detector Subsystem funding, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Detector Center.

  12. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli; Zhou, Lingyu; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-23

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

  13. Lithium Salts for Advanced Lithium Batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  14. Instability of Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polymeric Binder in Lithium-Ion Cells: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, M.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Tallant, D.R.; Roth, E.P.

    1999-05-01

    Thermal instabilities were identified in SONY-type lithium-ion cells and correlated with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the state of charge (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 100 degree C involving the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and the LiPF(6) salt in the electrolyte (EC-PC:DEC/IM LiPF(6)). These reactions could account for the thermal runaway observed in these cells beginning at 100 degree C. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 degree C to 300 degree C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF(6) salt, and the PVDF. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 degree C to 400 degree C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. The solvent was not directly involved in these reactions but served as a moderator and transport medium. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 degree C and increased with the state of charge (decreasing Li content). The stability of the PVDF binder as a function of electrochemical cycling was studied using FTIR. The infrared spectra from the extracts of both electrodes indicate that PVDF is chemically modified by exposure to the lithium cell electrolyte (as well as electrochemical cycling) in conjunction with NMP extraction. Preconditioning of PVDF to dehydrohalogenation, which may be occurring by reaction with LiPf(6), makes the PVDF susceptible to attack by a range of nucleophiles.

  15. PJM Presentation - The Silver Bullet: Storage! (July 12, 2011) | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy PJM Presentation - The Silver Bullet: Storage! (July 12, 2011) PJM Presentation - The Silver Bullet: Storage! (July 12, 2011) Presentation by Terry Boston, President and CEO pf PJM Interconnection before the Electricity Advisorty Committee, July 12, 2011, on storage for the smart grid. PDF icon The Silver Bullet: Storage! More Documents & Publications Support for Steffes Corporation, Application for Exception, OHA Case No. EXC-14-0002 Ex Parte Communication, Docket

  16. Acquisition Guide Chapter 17.3, Acquisition, Use, and Disposal of Real

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estate | Department of Energy 3, Acquisition, Use, and Disposal of Real Estate Acquisition Guide Chapter 17.3, Acquisition, Use, and Disposal of Real Estate The Acquisition Guide Chapter 17.3, Acquisition, Use, and Disposal of Real Estate, is updated to include the involvement of Certified Realty Specialist. PDF icon PF2011-61 Acquisition Guide chapter 17.3, Acquisition, Use, and Disposal of Real Estate More Documents & Publications OPAM Policy Acquisition Guides Acquisition, Use, and

  17. Acquisition Guide Chapter 3.3 - Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulations, and Policies | Department of Energy 3.3 - Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies Acquisition Guide Chapter 3.3 - Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies The subject guide chapter provides introductory information on compliance with applicable U.S. export control laws, regulations and policies when exporting. PDF icon PF2012-20 Acquisition Guide Chapter 3.3 - Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and

  18. Competitive lithium solvation of linear and cyclic carbonates from quantum chemistry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kent, Paul R. C.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Borodin, Oleg; Olguin, Marco; Allen, Joshua L.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2015-11-17

    The composition of the lithium cation (Li+) solvation shell in mixed linear and cyclic carbonate-based electrolytes has been re-examined using Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) as a function of salt concentration and cluster calculations with ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC)–LiPF6 as a model system. A coordination preference for EC over DMC to a Li+ was found at low salt concentrations, while a slightly higher preference for DMC over EC was found at high salt concentrations. Analysis of the relative binding energies of the (EC)n(DMC)m–Li+ and (EC)n(DMC)m–LiPF6 solvates in the gas-phase and for an implicit solvent (as a function of the solvent dielectricmore » constant) indicated that the DMC-containing Li+ solvates were stabilized relative to (EC4)–Li+ and (EC)3–LiPF6 by immersing them in the implicit solvent. Such stabilization was more pronounced in the implicit solvents with a high dielectric constant. Results from previous Raman and IR experiments were reanalyzed and reconciled by correcting them for changes of the Raman activities, IR intensities and band shifts for the solvents which occur upon Li+ coordination. After these correction factors were applied to the results of BOMD simulations, the composition of the Li+ solvation shell from the BOMD simulations was found to agree well with the solvation numbers extracted from Raman experiments. Finally, the mechanism of the Li+ diffusion in the dilute (EC:DMC)LiPF6 mixed solvent electrolyte was studied using the BOMD simulations.« less

  19. Project Facilitators for Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Project Facilitators for Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Project Facilitators for Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Federal agencies developing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects are required to work with a DOE-approved federal project facilitator (PF). PFs are experienced, unbiased advisors who guide the agency acquisition team through the ESPC process. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

  20. old.new.factsheets.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 PF-4 LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities National Security At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), virtually all plutonium operations occur within the Plutonium Facility at Tech- nical Area 55 (TA-55). TA-55 is the nation's most modern plu- tonium science and manufacturing facility, and it is the only fully operational, full capability plutonium facility in the nation. Thus, TA-55 supports a wide range of national security programs that involve stockpile stewardship, plutonium

  1. Polymer filtration systems for dilute metal ion recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a metal recovery system that meets the global treatment demands for all kinds of industrial and metal-processing streams. The Polymer Filtration (PF) System--a process that is easily operated and robust--offers metal-finishing businesses a convenient and inexpensive way to recover and recycle metal ions in-house, thus reducing materials costs, waste removal costs, and industrial liability. As a valuable economic and environmental asset, the PF System has been named a winner of a 1995 R and D 100 Award. These awards are presented annually by R and D Magazine to the one hundred most significant technical innovations of the year. The PF System is based on the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and on advanced ultrafiltration membranes. Customers for this technology will receive new soluble polymers, especially formulated for their waste stream, and the complete PF processing unit: a reaction reservoir, pumps, plumbing, controls, and the advanced ultrafiltration membranes, all in a skid mounted frame. Metal-bearing waste water is treated in the reaction reservoir, where the polymer binds with the metal ions under balanced acid/base conditions. The reservoir fluid is then pumped through the ultrafiltration system--a cartridge packed with ultrafiltration membranes shaped in hollow fibers. As the fluid travels inside the fiber, water and other small molecules--simple salts such as calcium and sodium, for example--pass through the porous membrane walls of the fibers and are discharged through the outlet as permeate. The polymer-bound metal, which is too large to pass through the pores, is both purified and concentrated inside the hollow fibers and is returned to the fluid reservoir for further waste water treatment.

  2. In-Reactor Measurement of Tritium Permeation through Stainless Steel

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Improving Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process Improving Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process The Office of Federal Procurement Policy, (OFPP) issued the attached memorandum entitled "Myth-Busting: Addressing Misconceptions to Improve Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process" on February 2, 2011. PDF icon PF2011-44 Improving Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process PDF icon

  3. ATNI Energy & Technology Training Summit

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Problems and Solutions: Training Disaster Organizations on the Use of PV Author Young, William Presented at: ASES 2003 Publication Number FSEC- PF-371-03 Copyright Copyright © Florida Solar Energy Center/University of Central Florida 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, Florida 32922, USA (321) 638-1000 All rights reserved. Disclaimer The Florida Solar Energy Center/University of Central Florida nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes

  4. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 20 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 4.3V 4.4V 4.5V 4.6V 4.7V Average Voltage, V Cycle Cut-off volt corrected LiHE5050 cell 1.2M LiPF6 ECEMC (37) 4.7V formation Less Volt fade Capacity ...

  5. Consumer Electronics Show 2013 Highlights Sustainable Energy Technology |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Special H Clause | Department of Energy purpose of Acquisition Letter (AL) 2013-09 is to communicate the revisions to Chapters IV, Compensation; Chapter V, Benefits; and Chapter VI, DOE Contractor Pension Plans of DOE Order 350.1, Contractor Human Resource Management Programs (approved on April 29, 2013), and require COs to modify contracts, as appropriate, to reflect changes incorporated in the newly revised H clauses that are currently in STRIPES. PDF icon PF2013-62 Acquisition Letter

  6. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hlander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-03-01

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS.

  7. ORNL OLCF Facilities Plans Jack Wells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL OLCF Facilities Plans Jack Wells Director of Science Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Oak Ridge National Laboratory HEP-ASCR Requirements Workshop Bethesda 10 June 2015 2 DOE's Office of Science Computation User Facilities * DOE is leader in open High- Performance Computing * Provide the world's most powerful computational tools for open science * Access is free to researchers who publish * Boost US competitiveness * Attract the best and brightest researchers NERSC Edison is 2.57 PF

  8. ASES Solar 2003 Americas Secure Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Problems and Solutions: Training Disaster Organizations on the Use of PV Author Young, William Presented at: ASES 2003 Publication Number FSEC- PF-371-03 Copyright Copyright © Florida Solar Energy Center/University of Central Florida 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, Florida 32922, USA (321) 638-1000 All rights reserved. Disclaimer The Florida Solar Energy Center/University of Central Florida nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any

  9. EA-1963: Elba Liquefaction Project, Savannah, Georgia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, an EA to analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to add natural gas liquefaction and export capabilities at the existing Elba Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal near Savannah, Georgia. Additional information is available at FERCs eLibrary website, elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/docket_search.asp; search for docket number PF13-3.

  10. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration Title: Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material

  11. The TPX Cryostat Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravenscroft, D.; Posey, A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Brown, T.

    1993-10-06

    The TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) will be the first tokamak to employ both superconducting TF (toroidal field) and PF (poloidal field) magnets. Consequently, the entire device is located within an evacuated cryostat to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the ambient temperature test cell and the magnets that are cooled by supercritical liquid helium at 5{degrees}K. This paper describes the cryostat design requirements, design concepts, and the cryostat fabrication and installation.

  12. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Corporation Docket No. PF14-21-000 BP Alaska LNG, LLC Conoco Phillips Alaska LNG Company ExxonMobil Alaska LNG, LLC TransCanada Alaska Midstream, LP NOTICE OF INTENT TO PREPARE AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR THE PLANNED ALASKA LNG PROJECT AND REQUEST FOR COMMENTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES (March 4, 2015) The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Alaska LNG

  13. US ITER | About

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ITER Magnet System ITER Magnet System (WBS 1.1.1) The ITER Magnet System magnetically confines, shapes and controls the plasma inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. For maximum efficiency and to limit energy consumption, ITER uses superconducting magnets that lose their resistance when cooled to very low temperatures. The magnet system for ITER consists of: 18 toroidal field (TF) coils | more on US contribution Central solenoid (CS) with 6 segments | more on US contribution 6 poloidal field (PF)

  14. POLICY FLASH 2016-24 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 POLICY FLASH 2016-24 DATE: May 11, 2016 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Chief Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: New Policy Flash Page SUMMARY: We have revamped the Policy Flash (PF) webpage to provide you better access to current and historical PFs. Its new capabilities allow you to: * Search key words or terms that are included in the subject and summary of PFs; * Filter the list and search results by fiscal year; *

  15. Degradation Reactions in SONY-Type Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Roth, E. Peter

    1999-05-04

    Thermal instabilities were identified in SONY-type lithium-ion cells and correlated with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the state of charge (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 100°C involving the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and the LiPF6 salt in the electrolyte (EC: PC: DEC/LiPF6). These reactions could account for the thermal runaway observed in these cells beginning at 100°C. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200°C-300°C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF6 salt and the PVDF. These reactions were followed by a high- temperature reaction region, 300°C-400°C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. The solvent was not directly involved in these reactions but served as a moderator and transport medhun. Cathode exotherrnic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200oC and increased with the state of charge (decreasing Li content). This offers an explanation for the observed lower thermal runaway temperatures for charged cells.

  16. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses producedmore » during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.« less

  17. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses produced during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.

  18. Effects of the density of collision cascades: Separating contributions from dynamic annealing and energy spikes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, A I; Karaseov, P A; Azarov, A Y; Kucheyev, S O

    2008-08-13

    We present a quantitative model for the efficiency of the molecular effect in damage buildup in semiconductors. Our model takes into account only one mechanism of the cascade density dependence: nonlinear energy spikes. In our three-dimensional analysis, the volume of each individual collision cascade is divided into small cubic cells, and the number of cells that have an average density of displacements above some threshold value is calculated. We assume that such cells experience a catastrophic crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition, while defects in the cells with lower displacement densities have perfect annihilation. For the two limiting cases of heavy (500 keV/atom {sup 209}Bi) and light (40 keV/atom {sup 14}N) ion bombardment of Si, theory predictions are in good agreement with experimental data for a threshold displacement density of 4.5 at.%. For intermediate density cascades produced by small 2.1 keV/amu PF{sub n} clusters, we show that dynamic annealing processes entirely dominate cascade density effects for PF{sub 2} ions, while energy spikes begin contributing in the case of PF{sub 4} cluster bombardment.

  19. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  20. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  1. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  2. LOCA feasibility study of Almaraz NPP 110% power up-rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orive, Raul; Gallego, Ines; Garcia, Pablo; Concejal, Alberto; Martinez-Murillo, Juan-Carlos

    2006-07-01

    Knowledge about accidents and fuel response in extreme conditions has progressed in parallel with the simulation tools development and consequently results are today highly satisfactory. This fact allows nuclear power plants (NPP) to carry out optimization processes of its operation and yield improvements due to the development of new methodologies and tools. Power up-rates open a demand in areas like the analyses of Loss Of Coolant Accidents (LOCA's), which impact on plant design may limit the maximum operation power in a nuclear power plant. TRAC-PF1 is a thermal-hydraulic calculation code that allows the complete treatment of two-phase flows in balance, combining a three dimensional vessel, that simulates in detail the accident phenomena, with one dimensional components. TRAC-PF1 code capacities in the reproduction of experiments, transients and accidents have been widely proved. IBERINCO has modified the original code to develop a conservative model applicable to a 3-loop Westinghouse NPP. These circumstances have allowed Almaraz NPP to get deeper in the study of the plant behaviour during a LOCA, after a hypothetical Power Up-rate. The scope of the study includes the development of the plant model and the reproduction of several accidents with loss of coolant. These accidents have been simulated with the improved option and the conservative version of the modified code (TRAC-PF1/IBER). The limiting case at the current power is analyzed in 110% Power Up-rate conditions and different sensitivity studies are performed, focused in impact of axial power distribution, discharge coefficients and emergency core cooling system availability. These studies allow to verify the effectiveness of Almaraz NPP safety systems in LOCA scenarios to guarantee the required safety margins. (authors)

  3. The importance of ion size and electrode curvature on electrical double layers in ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, G.; Qiao, R.; Huang, J; Dai, S.; Sumpter, B. G.; Meunier, V.

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the positive electrode) ? [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) ? [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

  4. The Importance of Ion Size and Electrode Curvature on Electrical Double Layers in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Guang; Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Dai, Sheng; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF(6)], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the positive electrode) {approx} [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) {approx} [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a 'Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening' (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

  5. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-07-01

    Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that corrodes battery materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a controlled trace-amount of water (25-100 ppm) can be an effective electrolyte additive for achieving dendrite-free Li metal deposition in LiPF6-based electrolytes and avoid its detrimental effect at the same time. Detailed analyses reveal that the trace amount of HF formed by the decomposition reaction of LiPF6 with water will be electrochemically reduced during initial Li deposition process to form a uniform and dense LiF-rich SEI layer on the surface of the substrate. This LiF-rich SEI layer leads to a uniform distribution of the electric field on the substrate surface and enables uniform and dendrite-free Li deposition. Meanwhile the detrimental effect of HF is diminished due to the consumption of HF in the LiF formation process. Microscopic analysis reveals that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films exhibit a self-aligned and highly-compacted Li nanorods structure which is consistent with their charming blue color or known as structure color. These findings clearly demonstrate a novel approach to control the nucleation and grow process of Li metal films using well-controlled trace-amount of water. They also shine the light on the effect of water on other electrodeposition processes.

  6. Effects of lithium salt concentration on graphited carbon microbead anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kun; Li, Shu-Dan

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: “Lithium aggregates” usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. Therefore, as important as the problem of SEI, the content of lithium salt and the interaction between Li{sup +} and ILs’ anions should be taken into consideration in the optimization of ILs-based electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • “Lithium aggregates” in piperidinium-based electrolytes are evidenced by IR and NMR. • High LiPF{sub 6} content could decrease Li{sup +} mobility due to “ionic aggregates”. • Lithium salt concentration is an important factor affecting graphite performances. - Abstract: The variations in LiPF{sub 6} concentration lead to the very different electrochemical performances of carbon microbeads anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes. The “two peaks” behaviors of lithium plating observed in cyclic voltammetry tests, and some detailed changes in infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance indicates that the formation of “ionic aggregates” related to lithium ions”. Therefore, the excessive lithium salts in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes, usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. The main behaviors are that, when LiPF{sub 6} concentrations increased from 0.2 to 1.2 mol kg{sup −1}, the apparent migration energies (E{sub a}) increase largely from 8.83 to 21.16 kJ mol{sup −1}, while the lithium transference numbers (t{sub Li{sup +}}) drop markedly from 0.538 to 0.292.

  7. Use of the Charlson Combined Comorbidity Index To Predict Postradiotherapy Quality of Life for Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Levitt, Seymour; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sten; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact of pretreatment comorbidity on late health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after patients have undergone combined radiotherapy for prostate cancer, including high-dose rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire survey of 158 patients 5 years or more after completion of therapy were used from consecutively accrued subjects treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution, with no signs of disease at the time of questionnaire completion. HRQoL scores were compared with the Charlson combined comorbidity index (CCI), using analysis of covariance and multivariate regression models together with pretreatment factors including tumor stage, tumor grade, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, neoadjuvant hormonal treatment, diabetes status, cardiovascular status, and age and Charlson score as separate variables or the composite CCI. Results: An inverse correlation between the two HRQoL domains, long-term global health (QL) and physical function (PF) scores, and the CCI score was observed, indicating an impact of comorbidity in these function areas. Selected pretreatment factors poorly explained the variation in functional HRQoL in the multivariate models; however, a statistically significant impact was found for the CCI (with QL and PF scores) and the presence of diabetes (with QL and emotional function). Cognitive function and social function were not statistically significantly predicted by any of the pretreatment factors. Conclusions: The CCI proved to be valid in this context, but it seems useful mainly in predicting long-term QL and PF scores. Of the other variables investigated, diabetes had more impact than cardiovascular morbidity on HRQoL outcomes in prostate cancer.

  8. Polymer considerations in rechargeable lithium ion plastic batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gozdz, A.S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Schmutz, C.N.; Warren, P.C.; Gebizlioglu, O.S.; Shokoohi, F.

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymers have been investigated in order to determine their suitability as ionically conductive binders of the active electrode materials and as hybrid electrolyte matrices in plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Hybrid electrolyte films used in this study have been prepared by solvent casting using a 1:1 w/w mixture of the matrix polymer with 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/PC. Based on electrochemical stability, mechanical strength, liquid electrolyte retention, and softening temperature, random copolymers of vinylidene fluoride containing ca. 12 mole % of hexafluoropropylene have been selected for this application.

  9. ORIGINAL UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ORIGINAL UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGION III 1050 Arch Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 10103-2029 November 15, 2012 I 'D.J cri rn n n~ nrv I Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 888 First Street NE, Room 1A Washington, DC 20426 ~s- ~l RE: EPA Region 3 Seeping Comments in Response to FERC's Netic&iklnfent ton= Prepare an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Planned Cove Po@P " g Liquefaction Project; FERC Docket Ne. PF12-16-000

  10. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additive (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that

  11. COTNAINSETREFERENCE NO OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED ~AGE OF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED ~AGE OF CONINUTIO SHE PF, , '-C c NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHAINGTON. 1 IVEP, PPOTFCIO SDO2LUYI, roLT ITEM NO SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT App-rl Usel fU))J ( P~~PA 14 CIYBI Pr-' T 1, Contract N umber I)E-AC27-08RVI 4800 Continuation Page, Modification 106 Pagye 3 of 4 Attachment DE-AC27-O8RVI 4800, MODIFICATION 106 Replacement Pages Section B, Page B-3, (2 pages total including this cover page) Tank Operations Contract Section B

  12. Mark F. Davis | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mark D. Mitchell About Us Mark D. Mitchell - Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E Mark Mitchell is a Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E. Most Recent ARPA-E Celebrates Five Years of Changing What's Possible April 28 Energy Innovators to Convene for 2014 ARPA-E Summit February 20 Interview with ARPA-E: The Future of Semiconductors February 4 <p>F. Davis Mark F. Davis Acting Center Director, Biosciences Mark.Davis@nrel.gov | 303-384-6140 Research Interests Dr. Mark Davis is serving

  13. No I .+,o L

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    pf- ,'46-G 1 No I .+,o L ---+-~"~----* ARMY SERVICE FORCES UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE if?GFERGaD L~'Z EID.u CGA 3ll MANHATTAN DISTRJCT D0uMm-l CHlMOO AllU orncz P. 0. BOX 6140 A CHICAGO 80. tLLlNOlS 17 October 1945 Subject: The l24th F'ield Artillery Anmy Building, Chicago, Illinois '1 \ To: The District Zugiaeer, U. S. Engineer Office, b&n&tan District, Oak Eidge, Tennessee . "-2 -\, - Attention: Contract Section Q? ( sip ( Uhder date of 15 September 1943, The University,of

  14. Spectroscopy of {sup 52,53}Sc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Gelin, M.; Mittig, W.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Poves, A.; Theisen, Ch.

    2009-01-15

    Excited states of neutron-rich odd-A and odd-odd Sc isotopes, populated in deep inelastic multinucleon transfer reactions, induced by a {sup 238}U beam on a thin {sup 48}Ca target, have been identified. A strong feeding of both yrast and nonyrast states in such a reaction is illustrated using a combination of a large efficiency spectrometer and a {gamma} detector array. The structure of the populated states is interpreted in terms of the role of the valence proton and neutrons and compared to shell model calculations in the full pf shell.

  15. US/German Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC Docket No. PF13-4-000 Gulf LNG Energy, LLC Gulf LNG Pipelines, LLC NOTICE OF EXTENSION OF TIME (August 27, 2014) On July 31, 2014, the Commission issued a "Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Gulf LNG Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting" (NOI). The NOI identified September 1, 2014 as the close of the scoping period. It has come to our

  16. IDO-19300bfigs.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fig. 58 )... ~ ~ ~ ~ G ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ .,,;:0) ~ ~ " ~ --J)... ~~ ~~ ~ ~ I() ~ l4:: I 4 fi } ~ ~ ,- c "' Pf/()TO-ANALYSIS OF VESSEL INTERIOR. i8ERRJNrE:QFROM tJSNPIC REPORT N-PZII P.6) 59. 4 MINIATURE CAMERA PHOTOGRAPH THROUGH PORT No.8 Fig. 61 ~ .0 - I - - " .I~ , . ~ ~ / Q fr) WATER PROBE ENTRY REFERENCE DIMENSIONS Fig.63 CORE SHP.OUD ~ ~ (() .~ t( ." O}'PICJAL USE ON1.f .50RVEYE./) - J/IN. /0. /96'/ RAOIATION SURVEYOF SL -I MILITARY TRAINING BUILOING Fig.69 5VA v£YED

  17. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  18. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC Docket No. PF13-4-000 Gulf LNG Energy, LLC Gulf LNG Pipelines, LLC NOTICE OF EXTENSION OF TIME (August 27, 2014) On July 31, 2014, the Commission issued a "Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Gulf LNG Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting" (NOI). The NOI identified September 1, 2014 as the close of the scoping period. It has come to our

  19. untitled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SURFACES, INTERFACES AND THIN FILMS MAGNETIC PROPERTIES AND MATERIALS Received 22 October 2014 Accepted 29 January 2015 Published 5 March 2015 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to R.S. (r.streubel@ifw- dresden.de) or P.F. (pjfischer@lbl.gov) Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non-Collinear Spin Textures Robert Streubel1, Luyang Han1, Mi-Young lm2,3, Florian Kronast4, Ulrich K. Roller5, Florin Radu4, Radu Abrudan4,6, Gungun Lin1, Oliver G. Schmidt1,7, Peter

  20. Modelling of the internal dynamics and density in a tens of joules plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez, Ariel; Gonzalez, Jose; Tarifeno-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Clausse, Alejandro

    2012-01-15

    Using MHD theory, coupled differential equations were generated using a lumped parameter model to describe the internal behaviour of the pinch compression phase in plasma focus discharges. In order to provide these equations with appropriate initial conditions, the modelling of previous phases was included by describing the plasma sheath as planar shockwaves. The equations were solved numerically, and the results were contrasted against experimental measurements performed on the device PF-50J. The model is able to predict satisfactorily the timing and the radial electron density profile at the maximum compression.

  1. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use inhybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-06-22

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature.

  2. Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    1999-09-17

    A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to <5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature.

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Han, Kee Sung; Baggetto, Loic; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Custelcean, Radu; Lee, Dr. Eun-Sung; Guo, Bingkun; Bi, Zhonghe; Jiang, Deen; Veith, Gabriel M; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Brown, Gilbert M; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    A new orthochelated salt, lithium bis(monofluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB), has been synthesized and purified for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in the borate anion of LiBFMB increases its oxidation potential and also facilitates ion dissociation, as reflected by the ratio of ionic conductivity measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( exp) and that by ion diffusivity coefficients obtained using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) technique ( NMR). Half-cell tests using 5.0 V lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) as a cathode and EC/DMC/DEC as a solvent reveals that the impedance of the LiBFMB cell is much larger than those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based cells, which results in lower capacity and poor cycling performance of the former. XPS spectra of the cycled cathode electrode suggest that because of the stability of the LiBFMB salt, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the cathode surface is significantly different from those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based electrolytes, resulting in more solvent decomposition and thicker SEI layer. Initial results also indicate that using high dielectric constant solvent PC alters the surface chemistry, reduces the interfacial impedance, and enhances the performance of LiBFMB based 5.0V cell.

  5. Current sheath formation dynamics and structure for different insulator lengths of plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-11-15

    The breakdown phase of the UNU-ICTP plasma focus (PF) device was successfully simulated using the electromagnetic particle in cell method. A clear uplift of the current sheath (CS) layer was observed near the insulator surface, accompanied with an exponential increase in the plasma density. Both phenomena were found to coincide with the surge in the electric current, which is indicative of voltage breakdown. Simulations performed on the device with different insulator lengths showed an increase in the fast ionization wave velocity with length. The voltage breakdown time was found to scale linearly with the insulator length. Different spatial profiles of the CS electron density, and the associated degree of uniformity, were found to vary with different insulator lengths. The ordering, according to the degree of uniformity, among insulator lengths of 19, 22, and 26?mm agreed with that in terms of soft X-ray radiation yield observed from experiments. This suggests a direct correlation between CS density homogeneity near breakdown and the radiation yield performance. These studies were performed with a linearly increasing voltage time profile as input to the PF device.

  6. Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility. Part II

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Sandoval, Arnold N.; George, Gerald L.; Gubernatis, David C.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2015-07-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previouslymore » described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. The data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.« less

  7. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Hanjun; Driscoll, Peter; Lucht, Brett; Kerr, John

    2011-09-30

    A new class of lithium salts of malonatoborate anions has been synthesized. These six-membered-ring salts provided slightly lower ionic conductivity than that of LiBOB and LiBF4. Nevertheless, compared with LiBOB and LiPF6, the lowered ring strains in the malonatoborate structures and reduced numbers of fluorine atoms in the molecules was found to enhance the thermal and water stabilities and compatibilities of these salts with ether solvents. Small amount LiDMMDFB when used as an additive, was found to stabilize LiPF6 in carbonate electrolytes at 80°C for one month. Employing LiMDFB as the electrolyte in Li/Li cells and full cells, large interfacial impedances were observed on lithium metal and the cathode. Moreover, the large impedances are at least partially attributed to the acidic hydrogen atoms in the malonate structure. This issue can be addressed by replacing the acidic atoms with methyl groups.

  8. Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility. Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Sandoval, Arnold N.; George, Gerald L.; Gubernatis, David C.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2015-07-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previously described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. The data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.

  9. Tool and Fixture Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Mark W.

    2015-07-28

    In a manufacturing process, a need is identified and a product is created to fill this need. While design and engineering of the final product is important, the tools and fixtures that aid in the creation of the final product are just as important, if not more so. Power supplies assembled at the TA-55 PF-5 have been designed by an excellent engineering team. The task in PF-5 now is to ensure that all steps of the assembly and manufacturing process can be completed safely, reliably, and in a quality repeatable manner. One of these process steps involves soldering fine wires to an electrical connector. During the process development phase, the method of soldering included placing the power supply in a vice in order to manipulate it into a position conducive to soldering. This method is unacceptable from a reliability, repeatability, and ergonomic standpoint. To combat these issues, a fixture was designed to replace the current method. To do so, a twelve step engineering design process was used to create the fixture that would provide a solution to a multitude of problems, and increase the safety and efficiency of production.

  10. gamma-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich {sup 40}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Burns, M.; Hodsdon, A.; Keyes, K.; Kumar, V.; Papenberg, A.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Haas, F.; Caurier, E.; Curien, D.; Nowacki, F.; Azaiez, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.

    2010-05-15

    Yrast states up to (6{sup +}) in the neutron-rich {sup 40}S nucleus have been studied using binary grazing reactions produced by the interaction of a 215 MeV beam of {sup 36}S ions with a thin {sup 208}Pb target. The novel experimental setup that combines the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, PRISMA, and the high-efficiency gamma-ray detection array, CLARA, was used. A new gamma-ray transition at an energy of 1572 keV was observed and tentatively assigned to the (6{sup +})->(4{sup +}) transition. A comparison of experimental observations and the results of large-scale 0(Planck constant/2pi)omega sd-pf shell-model calculations indicates that one- and two-proton excitations from the 2s{sub 1/2} to the 1d{sub 3/2} orbitals play an important role in reproducing the {sup 40}S yrast level structure and the published B(E2;0{sub g.s.}{sup +}->2{sub 1}{sup +}) value. The structure of the yrast states of the even-A isotopes of sulfur is interpreted in terms of the configurations of valence protons and neutrons within the context of large-scale 0(Planck constant/2pi)omega sd-pf shell-model calculations.

  11. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3??} ceramics originating from nonuniform distribution of Pr dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; He, Jian; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2014-05-12

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement (>70% at 500?C) in the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics employing a novel synthesis strategy which led to the highest ever reported values of PF among doped polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3}. It was found that the formation of Pr-rich grain boundary regions gives rise to an enhancement in carrier mobility. In this Letter, we investigate the electronic and thermal transport in Sr{sub 1?x}Pr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics in order to determine the optimum doping concentration and to evaluate the overall thermoelectric performance. Simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity in these samples resulted in more than 30% improvement in the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values. Maximum ZT value of 0.35 was obtained at 500?C.

  12. Anomalous resistivity effect on multiple ion beam emission and hard x-ray generation in a Mather type plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behbahani, R. A.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2011-10-15

    Multi ion beam and hard x-ray emissions were detected in a high inductance (more than 100 nH) Mather type plasma focus (PF) device at different filling gas pressures and charging voltages. The signal analysis was performed through the current trace, as it is the fundamental signal from which all of the phenomena in a PF device can be extracted. Two different fitting processes were carried out according to Lee's computational (snow-plow) model. In the first process, only plasma dynamics and classical (Spitzer) resistances were considered as energy consumer parameters for plasma. This led to an unsuccessful fitting and did not answer the energy transfer mechanism into plasma. A second fitting process was considered through the addition of anomalous resistance, which provided the best fit. Anomalous resistance was the source of long decrease in current trace, and multi dips and multi peaks of high voltage probe. Multi-peak features were interpreted considering the second fitting process along with the mechanisms for ion beam production and hard x-ray emission. To show the important role of the anomalous resistance, the duration of the current drop was discussed.

  13. Combined propellant for pulse MHD generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogadayev, R.V.; Dyogtev, Yu.G.; Gomozov, V.A.; Klyachko, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The results of the experimental researches and calculations of the pulse MHD generator equilibrium plasma which is the products of the solid pyrotechnical (metal) fuel (PF) combustion in the air (combined propellant - CP) are presented. The optimum fuel composition and the excess air factor have been determined. The magnesium- and aluminium-based PF experimental samples have been calculated, manufactured and tested. The conception has been suggested, the model plasma generator has been designed and manufactured. The dependencies of pressure, temperature, heat losses, electrical conductivity and electron mobility and their pulsations in the small-scale MHD generator channel (m{approx}1.5 kg/s, M{approx}3, p{approx}0.07MPa, T{approx}2800K) upon different factors have been determined experimentally. Under these conditions the electrical conductivity reached 25 S/m. The solid MgO particles spectrum in the supersonic flow has been determined. The MHD conversion with the use of the CP has been demonstrated. The maximum electrical power of the {open_quotes}Pamir-0-KT{close_quotes} small-scale MHD generator was 68 kW with the magnetic field 1.9 T.

  14. Use of bark-derived pyrolysis oils ass a phenol substitute in structural panel adhesives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louisiana Pacific Corp

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of this program was to pilot the world's first commercial-scale production of an acceptable phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin containing natural resin (NR) ingredients, for use as an adhesive in Oriented-Strand Board (OSB) and plywood panel products. Natural Resin products, specifically MNRP are not lignin ''fillers''. They are chemically active, natural phenolics that effectively displace significant amounts of phenol in PF resins, and which are extracted from bark-derived and wood-derived bio-oils. Other objectives included the enhancement of the economics of NR (MNRP) production by optimizing the production of certain Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{trademark}) byproducts, particularly char and activated carbon. The options were to activate the char for use in waste-water and/or stack gas purification. The preliminary results indicate that RTP{trademark} carbon may ultimately serve as a feedstock for activated carbon synthesis, as a fuel to be used within the wood product mill, or a fuel for an electrical power generating facility. Incorporation of the char as an industrial heat source for use in mill operations was L-P's initial intention for the carbon, and was also of interest to Weyerhaeuser as they stepped into in the project.

  15. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  16. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  17. Transport of triplet excitons along continuous 100 nm polyfluorene chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, Liang; Bird, Matthew; Mauro, Gina; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Cook, Andrew R.; Chen, Hung -Cheng; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trapped triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 s timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into segments, perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 s. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. As a result, a second set of polyfluorenes with 2-butyloctyl side chains was found to have a much lower completeness of end capping.

  18. Transport of triplet excitons along continuous 100 nm polyfluorene chains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xi, Liang; Bird, Matthew; Mauro, Gina; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Cook, Andrew R.; Chen, Hung -Cheng; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trappedmore » triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 µs timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into “segments,” perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 µs. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. As a result, a second set of polyfluorenes with 2-butyloctyl side chains was found to have a much lower completeness of end capping.« less

  19. A Molecular Copper Catalyst for Hydrogenation of CO­2 to Formate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zall, Christopher M.; Linehan, John C.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-09-04

    There is widespread interest in the hydrogenation of CO2 to energy-rich products such as formate. However, first-row transition metal complexes that catalyze the hydrogenation of CO2 to formate remain rare. Copper phosphine complexes are widely used in the reduction of organic substrates but have not previously been used as catalysts for the conversion of H2 and CO2 to formate. Here we demonstrate that the triphosphine-ligated copper(I) complex LCu(MeCN)PF6 is an active catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation in the presence of a suitable base. Screening of bases and studies of catalytic reactions by in operando spectroscopy revealed important and unusual roles for the base in promoting H2 activation and turnover.

  20. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Taliman; Seo, D. M.; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2015-03-06

    Solvate crystal structures serve as useful models for the molecular-level interactions within the diverse solvates present in liquid electrolytes. Although acyclic carbonate solvents are widely used for Li-ion battery electrolytes, only three solvate crystal structures with lithium salts are known for these and related solvents. The present work, therefore, reports six lithium salt solvate structures with dimethyl and diethyl carbonate: (DMC)2:LiPF6, (DMC)1:LiCF3SO3, (DMC)1/4:LiBF4, (DEC)2:LiClO4, (DEC)1:LiClO4 and (DEC)1:LiCF3SO3 and four with the structurally related methyl and ethyl acetate: (MA)2:LiClO4, (MA)1:LiBF4, (EA)1:LiClO4 and (EA)1:LiBF4.

  1. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  2. UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, F.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

  3. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  4. On the explanation and calculation of anomalous reflood hydrodynamics in large PWR cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Reflood hydrodynamics from large-scale (1:20) test facilities in Japan have yielded apparently anomalous behavior relative to FLECHT tests. Namely, even at reflooding rates below one inch per second, very large liquid volume fractions (10-15%) exist above the quench fronts shortly after flood begins; thus cladding temperature excursions are terminated early in the reflood phase. This paper discusses an explanation for this behavior: liquid films on the core's unheated rods. The experimental findings are shown to be correctly simulated with a new four-field (vapor, films, droplets) version of the best-estimate TRAC-PF1 computer code, TRAC-FF. These experimental and analytical findings have important implications for PWR large-break LOCA licensing.

  5. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-15

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  6. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  7. NMR studies of chiral P,S-chelate platinum, rhodium, and iridium complexes and the X-ray structure of a palladium(II) allyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albinati, A. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)] [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pregosin, P.; Ruegger, H.; Salzmann, R.; Stoessel, C. [ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-02-18

    Several Rh(I), Ir(III), and Pt(II) complexes of the chiral P,S-bidentate ligand 2 have been prepared and characterized. Detailed two-dimensional NMR studies show that (i) the boat-type chelate ring and the stereogenic sulfur center can invert rapidly at ambient temperature and (ii) the sulfur donor may dissociate, essentially destroying the chiral pocket. The solid-state structure of [Pt({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5})(2)]PF{sub 6} (3) has been determined and the sulfur substituent shown to have an axial orientation. The six-membered chelate ring takes up a boat-like conformation. As shown by an X-ray diffraction study for 3, and via incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (IINS) measurements for the Pd analog, 4, the OH group is remote from the metal atom. 42 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 5, Manufacturing R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J.F.; Urban, W.M.; Hartman, D.

    1995-08-04

    TPX Insulation & Impregnation R&D test results are reported for 1x2 samples designed for screening candidate conduit insulation systems for TPX PF and TF coils. The epoxy/glass insulation system and three proposed alternate insulation systems employing Kapton, was evaluated in as received sample condition and after 10 thermal cycles in liquid nitrogen. Two DGBA impregnation systems, Shell 826 and CTD101K were investigated. Square incoloy 908 and 316 LN stainless hollow conduits were used for 1x2 sample fabrication. Capacitance, dielectric loss, and insulation resistance dielectric characteristics were measured for all samples. Partial discharge performance was measured for samples either in air, under silicon oil, or under liquid nitrogen up to 10kVrms at 60 Hz. Hipot screening was performed at 10 kVdc. The samples were cross sectioned and evaluated for impregnation quality. The implications of the test results on the TPX preliminary design decision are discussed.

  9. Magnetic field distribution in the plasma flow generated by a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. Myalton, V. V.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.

    2014-11-15

    The magnetic field in the plasma jet propagating from the plasma pinch region along the axis of the chamber in a megajoule PF-3 plasma focus facility is studied. The dynamics of plasma with a trapped magnetic flow is analyzed. The spatial sizes of the plasma jet region in which the magnetic field concentrates are determined in the radial and axial directions. The magnetic field configuration in the plasma jet is investigated: the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field inside the jet is determined. It is shown that the magnetic induction vector at a given point in space can change its direction during the plasma flight. Conclusions regarding the symmetry of the plasma flow propagation relative to the chamber axis are drawn.

  10. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy ARM Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    t a * r - m * - HarmI cf r * f f - -* f * * - s - g pf -*L n sf af * L - t f w * - p L f * arm a f f f L - - - * * - * f - * - f f* i- -L arm m f f f * HamfI f -* - f * - - * - * f * - R - *L - - - - - L f f * * t * f f L amf L * * f - RPP * - f L amfRL * * f * * f - - o RP P c -* * - * f f * f *L * f - * -* - *L - -*L - * * *L amf * * f -* a- - * f f * * f * - -* - * amf - f * - f f - - fM b * * f - f L amf * - f f - - ff * - - f s - - - * * f f ff f -- - *L - * * * f f f f -M* f * ff - * - * *

  11. PROCESS OF PREPARING A FLUORIDE OF TETRAVLENT URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    A method is described for producing a fluoride salt pf tetravalent uranium suitable for bomb reduction to metallic uranium. An aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate is treated with acetic acid and a nitrite-suppressor and then contacted with metallic lead whereby uranium is reduced from the hexavalent to the tetravalent state and soluble lead acetate is formed. Sulfate ions are then added to the solution to precipitate and remove the lead values. Hydrofluoric acid and alkali metal ions are then added causing the formation of an alkali metal uranium double-fluoride in which the uranium is in the tetravalent state. After recovery, this precipitate is suitable for using in the limited production of metallic uranium.

  12. Scales in the fine structure of the magnetic dipole resonance: A wavelet approach to the shell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, I.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Nowacki, F.; Richter, A.

    2010-01-15

    Wavelet analysis is applied as a tool for the examination of magnetic dipole (M1) strength distributions in pf-shell nuclei by the extraction of wavelet scales. Results from the analysis of theoretical M1 strength distributions calculated with the KB3G interaction are compared to experimental data from (e,e{sup '}) experiments and good agreement of the deduced wavelet scales is observed. This provides further insight into the nature of the scales from the model results. The influence of the number of Lanczos iterations on the development and stability of scales and the role of the model space in terms of the truncation level are studied. Moreover, differences in the scales of spin and orbital parts of the M1 strength are investigated, as is the use of different effective interactions (KB3G, GXPF1, and FPD6).

  13. Business Case Analysis of Prototype Fabrication Division Recapitalization Plan. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, Steven Richard; Benson, Faith Ann; Dinehart, Timothy Grant

    2015-04-30

    Business case studies were completed to support procurement of new machines and capital equipment in the Prototype Fabrication (PF) Division SM-39 and TA-03-0102 machine shops. Economic analysis was conducted for replacing the Mazak 30Y Mill-Turn Machine in SM-39, the Haas Vertical CNC Mill in Building 102, and the Hardinge Q10/65-SP Lathe in SM-39. Analysis was also conducted for adding a NanoTech Lathe in Building 102 and a new electrical discharge machine (EDM) in SM-39 to augment current capabilities. To determine the value of switching machinery, a baseline scenario was compared with a future scenario where new machinery was purchased and installed. Costs and benefits were defined via interviews with subject matter experts.

  14. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  15. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  16. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys. The effects of electricity on fish have been widely studied and include injury or death (e.g., Sharber and Carothers 1988; Dwyer et al. 2001; Snyder 2003), physiological dysfunction (e.g., Schreck et al. 1976; Mesa and Schreck 1989), and altered behavior (Mesa and Schreck 1989). Much of this work was done to investigate the effects of electrofishing on fish in the wild. Because electrofishing operations would always use more severe electrical settings than those proposed for the pinniped barrier, results from these studies are probably not relevant to the work proposed by SRI. Field electrofishing operations typically use high voltage and amperage settings and a variety of waveforms, pulse widths (PW), and pulse frequencies (PF), depending on conditions and target species. For example, when backpack electrofishing for trout in a small stream, one might use settings such as 500 V pulsed DC, a PW of 1 ms, and a PF of 60 Hz. In contrast, the electrical barrier proposed by SRI will produce electrical conditions significantly lower than those used in electrofishing, particularly for PW and PF (e.g., PW ranging from 300-1,000 {micro}s and PF from 2-3 Hz). Further, voltage gradients (in V/cm) are predicted to be lower in the electric barrier than those produced during typical electrofishing. Although the relatively weak, pulsed DC electric fields to be produced by the barrier may be effective at deterring pinnipeds, little, if anything, is known about the effects of such low intensity electrical fields on fish behavior. For this research, we evaluated the effects of weak, pulsed DC electric currents on the behavior of adult steelhead and Pacific lamprey and the incidence of injury in steelhead only. In a series of laboratory experiments, we: (1) documented the rate of passage of fish over miniature, prototype electric barriers when they were on and off; (2) determined some electric thresholds beyond which fish would not pass over the barrier; and (3) assessed the incidence and severity of injury in steelhead exposed to relatively severe electrical conditions. The results of this study should be useful for making decisions about whether to install electrical barriers in the lower Columbia River, or elsewhere, to reduce predation on upstream migrating salmonids and other fishes by marine pinnipeds.

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    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  18. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  19. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  20. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  1. Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel mixed valence iron compound, ((/eta//sup 5/-cyclopentadienyl)(/eta//sup 6/-tetralin)Fe(II))/sub 3/(Fe(III)(NCS)/sub 6/)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, A.W.; Baskar, A.J.; Bott, S.G.; Atwood, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The title compound was encountered in the course of preparing ((/eta//sup 5/-C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(/eta//sup 6/-C/sub 10/H/sub 12/)Fe)SCN from ((/eta//sup 5/-C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(/eta//sup 6/-C/sub 10/H/sub 12/)Fe)PF/sub 6/. The mixed valence iron compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//c with four formula unite per unit cell. There are three crystallographically independent cations and two anions (each residing on a center of inversion) in the asymmetric unit. Lattice constants are a = 17.231(7), b = 18.167(6), c = 16.572(7) /angstrom/, and /beta/ = 97.86(4)/degree/. 23 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, D. M.; Afroz, Taliman; Allen, Joshua L.; Boyle, Paul D.; Trulove, Paul C.; De Long, Hugh C.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-11-13

    Only limited information is available regarding the manner in which cyclic carbonate and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine crystalline solvate structures. To this end, eight new solvate structures are reported with ethylene carbonate, ?-butyrolactone and ?-valerolactone: (EC)3:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiBF4, (GBL)4:LiPF6, (GBL)1:LiClO4, (GVL)1:LiClO4, (GBL)1:LiBF4 and (GBL)1:LiCF3SO3. The crystal structure of (EC)1:LiCF3SO3 is also re-reported for comparison. These structures enable the factors which govern the manner in which the ions are coordinated and the ion/solvent packingin the solid-stateto be scrutinized in detail.

  3. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Labbe, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora; Pelletier, Dale A.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2014-10-24

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite trophic interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two other Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were also included as reference in the screening process. We analyzed Laccaria bicolor S238N growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes induced by the contrasting Pseudomonas strains (i.e., inhibitory, neutral and beneficial).more » We characterized 17 out of the 21 Pseudomonas strains from the Populus rhizosphere with positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on Populus root architecture and colonization by L. bicolor S238N across three Populus species. Four of seven reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5 and Cipc1, thought to be specific to the interaction with strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed while interacting with six (i.e., GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5 and BBc6R8) of the tested Pseudomonas strains. GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise, poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve roots colonization. This tripartite relationship could be exploited in nursery production for target Populus species/genotypes as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.« less

  4. Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enriquez, A. E.; Matonic, J. H.; Scott, B. L.; Neu, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

  5. Current parallel I/O limitations to scalable data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, Ajith Arthur; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the limitations to parallel scalability which we have encountered when applying our otherwise optimally scalable parallel statistical analysis tool kit to large data sets distributed across the parallel file system of the current premier DOE computational facility. This report describes our study to evaluate the effect of parallel I/O on the overall scalability of a parallel data analysis pipeline using our scalable parallel statistics tool kit [PTBM11]. In this goal, we tested it using the Jaguar-pf DOE/ORNL peta-scale platform on a large combustion simulation data under a variety of process counts and domain decompositions scenarios. In this report we have recalled the foundations of the parallel statistical analysis tool kit which we have designed and implemented, with the specific double intent of reproducing typical data analysis workflows, and achieving optimal design for scalable parallel implementations. We have briefly reviewed those earlier results and publications which allow us to conclude that we have achieved both goals. However, in this report we have further established that, when used in conjuction with a state-of-the-art parallel I/O system, as can be found on the premier DOE peta-scale platform, the scaling properties of the overall analysis pipeline comprising parallel data access routines degrade rapidly. This finding is problematic and must be addressed if peta-scale data analysis is to be made scalable, or even possible. In order to attempt to address these parallel I/O limitations, we will investigate the use the Adaptable IO System (ADIOS) [LZL+10] to improve I/O performance, while maintaining flexibility for a variety of IO options, such MPI IO, POSIX IO. This system is developed at ORNL and other collaborating institutions, and is being tested extensively on Jaguar-pf. Simulation code being developed on these systems will also use ADIOS to output the data thereby making it easier for other systems, such as ours, to process that data.

  6. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora; Pelletier, Dale A.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2014-10-24

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite trophic interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two other Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were also included as reference in the screening process. We analyzed Laccaria bicolor S238N growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes induced by the contrasting Pseudomonas strains (i.e., inhibitory, neutral and beneficial). We characterized 17 out of the 21 Pseudomonas strains from the Populus rhizosphere with positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on Populus root architecture and colonization by L. bicolor S238N across three Populus species. Four of seven reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5 and Cipc1, thought to be specific to the interaction with strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed while interacting with six (i.e., GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5 and BBc6R8) of the tested Pseudomonas strains. GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise, poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve roots colonization. This tripartite relationship could be exploited in nursery production for target Populus species/genotypes as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.

  7. Quantum calculations of the IR spectrum of liquid water using ab initio and model potential and dipole moment surfaces and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.

    2015-05-21

    The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.

  8. MAR flow mapping of Analytical Chemistry Operations (Preliminary Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-06-13

    The recently released Supplemental Directive, NA-1 SD 1027, updates the radionuclide threshold values in DOE-STD-1027-92 CN1 to reflect the use of modern parameters for dose conversion factors and breathing rates. The directive also corrects several arithmetic errors within the original standard. The result is a roughly four-fold increase in the amount of weapons-grade nuclear material allowed within a designated radiological facility. Radiological laboratory space within the recently constructed Radiological Laboratory Office and Utility Building (RLUOB) is slated to house selected analytical chemistry support activities in addition to small-scale actinide R&D activities. RLUOB is within the same facility operations envelope as TA-55. Consolidation of analytical chemistry activities to RLUOB and PF-4 offers operational efficiency improvements relative to the current pre-CMRR plans of dividing these activities between RLUOB, PF-4, and CMR. RLUOB is considered a Radiological Facility under STD-1027 - 'Facilities that do not meet or exceed Category 3 threshold criteria but still possess some amount of radioactive material may be considered Radiological Facilities.' The supplemental directive essentially increases the allowable material-at-risk (MAR) within radiological facilities from 8.4 g to 38.6 g for {sup 239}Pu. This increase in allowable MAR provides a unique opportunity to establish additional analytical chemistry support functions in RLUOB without negatively impacting either R&D activities or facility operations. Individual radiological facilities are tasked to determine MAR limits (up to the Category 3 thresholds) appropriate to their operational conditions. This study presents parameters that impact establishing MAR limits for RLUOB and an assessment of how various analytical chemistry support functions could operate within the established MAR limits.

  9. Augmented atherogenesis in ApoE-null mice co-exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Qiuli; Wang, Jing; Huang, Fengchen; Lv, Xiaowen; Ma, Min; Du, Yuguo

    2014-04-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants found as complex mixtures in the environment throughout the world. Therefore, humans are ubiquitously and simultaneously exposed to TCDD and PCBs. TCDD and PCBs alone have been linked to atherosclerosis. However, the effects of interactions or synergism between TCDD and PCBs on atherogenesis are unknown. We investigated the possible enhanced atherogenesis by co-exposure to TCDD and PCBs and the potential mechanism(s) involved in this enhancement. Male ApoE{sup −/−} mice were exposed to TCDD (15 μg/kg) and Aroclor1254 (55 mg/kg, a representative mixture of PCBs) alone or in combination by intraperitoneal injection four times over six weeks of duration. Our results showed that mice exposed to TCDD alone, but not Aroclor1254 alone, developed atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, we found that atherosclerotic disease was exacerbated to the greatest extent in mice co-exposed to TCDD and Aroclor1254. The enhanced lesions correlated with several pro-atherogenic changes, including a marked increase in the accumulation of the platelet-derived chemokine PF4, and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine MCP-1 and the critical immunity gene-RIG-I. Our data demonstrated that co-exposure to TCDD and Aroclor1254 markedly enhanced atherogenesis in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. Significantly, our observations suggest that combined exposure to TCDD and PCBs may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than previously anticipated from individual studies. - Highlights: • Augmented atherogenesis was found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice co-exposed to Aroclor1254 and TCDD. • Enhanced expression of PF4, MCP-1 and RIG-I correlated with augmented lesions. • POPs combination may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than individual POPs.

  10. Determining the exchange parameters of spin-1 metal-organic molecular magnets in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdonald, Ross D; Singleton, John; Lancaster, Tom; Goddard, Paul; Manson, Jamie

    2011-01-14

    We nave measured the high-field magnetization of a number of Ni-based metal-organic molecular magnets. These materials are self-assembly coordination polymers formed from transition metal ions and organic ligands. The chemistry of the compounds is versatile allowing many structures with different magnetic properties to be formed. These studies follow on from previous measurements of the Cu-based analogues in which we showed it was possible to extract the exchange parameters of low-dimensional magnets using pulsed magnetic fields. In our recent experiments we have investigated the compound (Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2})PF{sub 6}, where pyz = pyrazine, and the Ni-ions are linked in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) square lattice via the pyrazine molecules, with the layers held together by HF{sub 2} ligands. We also investigated Ni(NCS){sub 2}(pyzdo){sub 2}, where pyzdo = pyrazine dioxide. The samples are grown at Eastern Washington University using techniques described elsewhere. Measurements are performed at the pulsed magnetic field laboratory in Los Alamos. The magnetization of powdered samples is determined using a compensated coil magnetometer in a 65 T short pulse magnet. Temperatures as low as 500 mK are achievable using a {sup 3}He cryostat. The main figure shows the magnetization of the spin-1 [Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]PF{sub 6} compound at 1.43 K. The magnetization rises slowly at first, achieving a rounded saturation whose midpoint is around 19 T. A small anomaly is also seen in the susceptibility at low fields ({approx}3 T), which might be attributed to a spin-flop transition. In contrast, the spin-1/2 [Cu(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]PF{sub 6} measured previously has a saturation magnetization of 35.5 T and a strongly concave form of M(B) below this field. This latter compound was shown to be a good example of a Q2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet with the strong exchange coupling (J{sub 2D} = 12.4 K, J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 2D} {approx} 10{sup -2}) directed along the Cu-pyz-Cu directions. The structure of the two compounds is similar, but in the case of the Cu-compound the Cu-Cu pathways are linear, whereas in the Ni-compound they are kinked. The pulsed-field data combined with information from temperature-dependent susceptibility, muon-spin rotation, electron-spin resonance and ligand-field calculations suggest that, far from being magnetically Q2D, the Ni-compound is fairly one-dimensional with the dominant exchange (J{sub 1D} = 3.1 K and J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 1D} = 0.63) directed along the Ni-FHF-Ni direction. Ni(NCS){sub 2}(pyzdo){sub 2} was also investigated. Previous ultra-high field measurements using the 100 T magnet have shown that this compound has a saturation field close to 80 T. The purpose of the present studies is to map out the phase diagram of this material at mid-range fields. The data are shown in the inset to the figure. This continuing project probes the ability of organic ligands to mediate magnetic exchange, the link between structure, dimensionality and bulk magnetic properties, as well as the role of spin number in quantum magnets. Ultimately the investigations aim to determine to what extent it is possible to produce self-assembly molecular materials with tailor-made magnetic characteristics.

  11. Computational estimates of fluoride affinity of boron-based anion receptors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Amine, K.

    2009-01-01

    Coin cells were prepared using a metallic lithium anode, a Li4Ti5O12 cathode, and a 1.2 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate (30:70 wt %) electrolyte. The cells were cycled galvanostatically between 1 and 2 V vs Li/Li+ (i=2.0 mA/cm2) at a 2C rate. After a specific number of cycles, the cells were disassembled and the morphology of the lithium anode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the surface morphology of the lithium metal electrode transitioned from a flat and smooth morphology to a microscopically rugged structure that shows three distinct layers: a top dendritic layer, an intermediate porous layer, and a residual metallic lithium layer. Morphological and electrochemical evidence points to the depletion of the electrolyte and the active metallic lithium that reacted to produce the porous layer as the most likely cause of cell failure under the conditions studied.

  12. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  13. Density functional and neutron diffraction studies of lithium polymer electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baboul, A. G.

    1998-06-26

    The structure of PEO doped with lithium perchlorate has been determined using neutron diffraction on protonated and deuterated samples. The experiments were done in the liquid state. Preliminary analysis indicates the Li-O distance is about 2.0 {angstrom}. The geometries of a series of gas phase lithium salts [LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N, Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH, LiClO{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6}, LiAsF{sub 6}] used in polymer electrolytes have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional level of theory. All local minima have been identified. For the triflate, imide, methanide, and perchlorate anions, the lithium cation is coordinated to two oxygens and have binding energies of ca 141 kcal/mol at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)/B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. For the hexafluoroarsenate and hexafluorophosphate the lithium cation is coordinated to three oxygens and have binding energies of ca. 136 kcal/mol.

  14. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  15. Impedance studies of the thin film LiMn2O4/electrolyteinterface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; Sakai, E.; Cairns, Elton J.

    2001-04-07

    Room-temperature impedance measurements of a thin-film LiMn2O4/LiPF6-EC-DMC interface have been used to identify the spontaneous formation Li2Mn2O4 at the interface at room temperature at voltages of 3.7 and higher. The impedance of the LiMn2O4 films exhibited two time constants: at about 14 kHz and 60 to 200 Hz. The high frequency loop is dependent on film morphology and was attributed to the substrate/oxide interface. The low frequency behavior was dependent on both state-of-charge (SOC) and time at a given SOC. At full charge the impedance in this electrolyte was stable at room temperature over several days. At high lithium contents, film OCV and impedance tended to grow logarithmically with time, with lower rates for lower Mn3+ content in the film. The increased impedance was removed by oxidation of the film to 4.5V vs. Li/Li+. The observations are consistent with a reversible disproportionation of part of the LiMn2O4 into Li2Mn2O4 and a lithium-deficient spinel. With extended constant current cycling part of the Li2Mn2O4 degrades to the Mn2O3 and the process is no longer reversible.

  16. Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Truher, J.B.; Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1994-09-13

    A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate is disclosed. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900 C), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180 C for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180 C) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide. 5 figs.

  17. Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Truher, Joel B.; Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900.degree. C.), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180.degree. C. for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180.degree. C.) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide.

  18. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  19. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-29

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

  20. Progression of soot cake layer properties during the systematic regeneration of diesel particulate filters measured with neutron tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toops, Todd J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Gregor, Jens; Bilheux, Hassina

    2015-01-01

    Although particulate filters (PFs) have been a key component of the emission control system for modern diesel engines, there remain significant questions about the basic regeneration behavior of the filters and how it changes with accumulation of increasing soot layers. This effort describes a systematic deposition and regeneration of particulate matter in 25-mm diameter × 76-mm long wall-flow PFs composed of silicon carbide (SiC) material. The initial soot distributions were analyzed for soot cake thickness using a nondestructive neutron imaging technique. With the PFs intact, it was then possible to sequentially regenerate the samples and reanalyze them, which was performed after nominal 20, 50, and 70 % regenerations. The loaded samples show a relatively uniform distribution of particulate with an increasing soot cake thickness and nearly identical initial density of 70 mg/cm3. Throughout regeneration, the soot cake thickness initially decreases significantly while the density increases to 80–90 mg/cm3. After ~50 % regeneration, the soot cake thickness stays relatively constant, but instead, the density decreases as pores open up in the layer (~35 mg/cm3 at 70 % regeneration). Complete regeneration initially occurs at the rear of the PF channels. With this information, a conceptual model of the regeneration is proposed.

  1. Design and Construction of the NSTX Bakeout, Cooling and Vacuum Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Dudek; M. Kalish; R. Gernhardt; R.F. Parsells; W. Blanchard

    1999-11-01

    This paper will describe the design, construction and initial operation of the NSTX bakeout, water cooling and vacuum systems. The bakeout system is designed for two modes of operation. The first mode allows heating of the first wall components to 350 degrees C while the external vessel is cooled to 150 degrees C. The second mode cools the first wall to 150 degrees C and the external vessel to 50 degrees C. The system uses a low viscosity heat transfer oil which is capable of high temperature low pressure operation. The NSTX Torus Vacuum Pumping System (TVPS) is designed to achieve a base pressure of approximately 1x10 (superscript -8) Torr and to evacuate the plasma fuel gas loads in less than 5 minutes between discharges. The vacuum pumping system is capable of a pumping speed of approximately 3400 l/s for deuterium. The hardware consists of two turbo molecular pumps (TMPs) and a mechanical pump set consisting of a mechanical and a Roots blower pump. A PLC is used as the control system to provide remote monitoring, control and software interlock capability. The NSTX cooling water provides chilled, de ionized water for heat removal in the TF, OH and PF, power supplies, bus bar systems, and various diagnostics. The system provides flow monitoring via a PLC to prevent damage due to loss of flow.

  2. Molecular metal-Oxo catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2015-02-24

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition having the general formula [(PY5W.sub.2)MO].sup.2+, wherein PY5W.sub.2 is (NC.sub.5XYZ)(NC.sub.5H.sub.4).sub.4C.sub.2W.sub.2, M is a transition metal, and W, X, Y, and Z can be H, R, a halide, CF.sub.3, or SiR.sub.3, where R can be an alkyl or aryl group. The two accompanying counter anions, in one embodiment, can be selected from the following Cl.sup.-, I.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, and CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water containing electrolyte or straight sea water can be subject to an electric potential of between 1.0 V and 1.4 V relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, which at pH 7 corresponds to an overpotential of 0.6 to 1.0 V, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen with an optimal turnover frequency of ca. 1.5 million mol H.sub.2/mol catalyst per h.

  3. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  4. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-10-15

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of fluid velocity having high ion kinetic energy.

  5. A=17O (71AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    71AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 17O) GENERAL: See also (59AJ76) and Table 17.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (WI57H, BR59M, FE59E, KH59, SA59C, AK60, TA60L, BA61N, NE61C, BH62, TA62, TA62F, CO63B, HA63A, KU63I, PA63C, BR64Z, RI64B, GI65D, LE65G, MA65J, ZA65B, AR66H, BO66J, BR66C, BR66S, BR66CC, DE66M, LA66L, MA66BB, QU66, RI66G, SO66A, ZA66A, BO67B, EL67C, EN67, FE67A, GO67B, LY67, NI67, PA67K, PF67, BI68A, DE68K, EL68, EL68E, HE68J, HO68, KA68, MA68DD, NI68,

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5?-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-06-01

    Orotidine 5?-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5?-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5?-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 . With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V{sub M} = 2.3 {sup 3} Da{sup ?1})

  7. Fluoroalkyl containing salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Erickson, Michael Jason

    2015-04-21

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte may include a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6 salt or a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salt. In some embodiments, at least one fluorinated alkyl of the salt has a chain length of from 1 to 8 or, more specifically, between about 2 and 8. These fluorinated alkyl groups, in particular, relatively large fluorinated alkyl groups improve solubility of these salts in fluorinated solvents that are less flammable than, for example, conventional carbonate solvents. At the same time, the size of fluoroalkyl-substituted salts should be limited to ensure adequate concentration of the salt in an electrolyte and low viscosity of the electrolyte. In some embodiments, the concentration of a fluoroalkyl-substituted salt is at least about 0.5M. Examples of fluorinated solvents include various fluorinated esters, fluorinated ethers, and fluorinated carbonates, such a 1-methoxyheptafluoropropane, methyl nonafluorobutyl ether, ethyl nonafluorobutyl ether, 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-pentane, 3-ethoxy-1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-hexane, and 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropoxy)-pentane.

  8. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, D.J.; Hubaud, A.A.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  9. Coordinating Tectons: Bipyridyl Terminated Allenylidene Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G.; Koutsantonis, George A.; Lengkeek, Nigel A.; Petrie, Simon; Sanford, Vanessa; Schauer, Phil A.; Skelton, Brian W.; Stranger, Robert; White, Allan H.

    2009-01-15

    A series of complexes with {pi}-conjugated carbon chains terminated by bipyridyl moieties has been prepared. These allenylidene complexes were derived from 9-hydroxy-9-ethynyl-4,5-diazafluorene, the preparation of which is reported; the new allenylidene complexes are highly colored with the cumulated carbon chain terminating in a bipyridyl unit providing a site for further coordination. The synthesis, characterization, and X-ray structure determination of trans-[MCl(P{intersection}P){sub 2}{sub {double_bond}}C{sub {double_bond}}C{sub {double_bond}}(4,5-diazafluoren-9-yl)]PF{sub 6} (M = Ru, P{intersection}P = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm), 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe), 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe); M = Os, P{intersection}P = dppm) are described. The effect of the variation in metal and ligand on electronic and electrochemical characteristics of these complexes has been investigated by using UV-vis, solution electrochemistry, and a combination of these techniques in spectroelectrochemical experiments. DFT calculations have been performed on trans-[RuCl(P{intersection}P){sub 2}{sub {double_bond}}C{sub {double_bond}}C{sub {double_bond}}(4,5-diazafluoren-9-yl)]{sup q} (P{intersection}P = dppm, bis(dimethylphosphino)methane (dmpm); q = -1, 0, +1, +2) and subsequently solvent-corrected calculations with use of COSMO were also undertaken to examine the nature of electronic transitions in various oxidation states.

  10. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  11. Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Kuppan, Saravanan; Li, Qiuyan; Lv, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-11-10

    Immersion of a solid into liquid often leads to the modification of both the structure and chemistry of surface of the solid, which subsequently affects the chemical and physical properties of the system. For the case of the rechargeable lithium ion battery, such a surface modification is termed as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which has been perceived to play critical role for the stable operation of the batteries. However, the structure and chemical composition of SEI layer and its spatial distribution and dependence on the battery operating condition remain unclear. By using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with ultra-high sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we probed the structure and chemistry of SEI layer on several high voltage cathodes. We show that layer-structured cathodes, when cycled at a high cut off voltage, can form a P-rich SEI layer on their surface, which is a direct evidence of Li-salt (LiPF6) decomposition. Our systematical investigations indicate such cathode/Li-salt side reaction shows strong dependence on structure of the cathode materials, operating voltage and temperature, indicating the feasibility of SEI engineering. These findings provide us valuable insights into the complex interface between the high-voltage cathode and the electrolyte.

  12. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  13. Intruder negative-parity states of neutron-rich {sup 33}Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Burns, M.; Hodsdon, A.; Keyes, K.; Kumar, V.; Papenberg, A.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Haas, F.; Bouhelal, M.; Caurier, E.; Curien, D.; Nowacki, F.; Azaiez, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.

    2010-06-15

    Yrast states in the neutron-rich {sub 14}{sup 33}Si{sub 19} nucleus have been studied using binary grazing reactions produced by the interaction of a 215-MeV beam of {sup 36}S ions with a thin {sup 208}Pb target. An experimental setup that combines the large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer PRISMA and the high-efficiency gamma-ray detection array CLARA was used in the experiment. Four new gamma-ray photopeaks at energies of 971, 1724, 1772, and 2655 keV were observed and assigned to the {sup 33}Si level scheme. The experimental level scheme is compared with the results of 1(Planck constant/2pi)omega p-sd-pf large-scale shell-model calculations using the recently developed PSDPFB effective interaction; good agreement is obtained. The structure of the populated states of {sup 33}Si is discussed within the context of an odd neutron coupled to states of the {sup 32}Si core.

  14. Lifetime measurements in {sup 63}Co and {sup 65}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijon, A.; Clement, E.; France, G. de; Van Isacker, P.; Rejmund, M.; Schmitt, C.; Goergen, A.; Obertelli, A.; Korten, W.; Dewald, A.; Hackstein, M.; Pissulla, Th.; Rother, W.; Zell, K. O.; Gadea, A.; Gaudefroy, L.; Mengoni, D.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.

    2011-06-15

    Lifetimes of the 9/2{sub 1}{sup -} and 3/2{sub 1}{sup -} states in {sup 63}Co and the 9/2{sub 1}{sup -} state in {sup 65}Co were measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift and the differential decay curve methods. The nuclei were populated by multinucleon transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. {gamma} rays were measured with the EXOGAM Ge array and the recoiling fragments were fully identified using the large-acceptance VAMOS spectrometer. The E2 transition probabilities from the 3/2{sub 1}{sup -} and 9/2{sub 1}{sup -} states to the 7/2{sup -} ground state could be extracted in {sup 63}Co as well as an upper limit for the 9/2{sub 1}{sup -}{yields}7/2{sub 1}{sup -} B(E2) value in {sup 65}Co. The experimental results were compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the pf and pfg{sub 9/2} model spaces, allowing us to draw conclusions on the single-particle or collective nature of the various states.

  15. Influence of the counteranion on the ability of 1-dodecyl-3-methyltriazolium ionic liquids to form mesophases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stappert, Kathrin; Ünal, Derya; Spielberg, Eike T.; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2014-11-25

    The influence of the counteranion on the ability of the mesogenic cation 1-methyl-3-dodecyl-triazolium to form mesophases is explored. To that avail, salts of the cation with anions of different size, shape, and hydrogen bonding capability such as Cl–, Br–, I–, I3–, PF6–, and Tf2N– [bis(trifluorosulfonyl)amide] were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structures of the bromide, the iodide, and the triiodide reveal that the cations form bilayers with cations oriented in opposite directions featuring interdigitated alkyl tails. Within the layers, the cations are separated by anions. The rod-shaped triiodide anion forces the triazolium cation to align with it in this crystalmore » structure but due to its space requirement reduces the alkyl chain interdigitation which prevents the formation of a mesophase. Rather the compound transforms directly from a crystalline solid to an (ionic) liquid like the analogous bis(trifluorosulfonyl)amide. In contrast, the simple halides and the hexafluorophosphate form liquid crystalline phases. As a result, their clearing points shift with increasing anion radius to lower temperatures.« less

  16. Minor antigen graft-versus-host reactions revealed in irradiated spleen and popliteal lymph node assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claman, H.N.; Jaffee, B.D.

    1984-10-01

    The graft-versus-hot (GVH) reaction across minor (non-H-2) histocompatibility barriers was studied in mice, in vivo. To increase GVH potential and to mimic clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, we modified the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and the splenomegaly assays by irradiating the recipients before they received allogeneic lymphoid cell suspensions. In several combinations across major (H-2), minor (non-H-2) and multiple minor (non-H-2 plus minor lymphocyte stimulation) barriers, increased recipient organ weight (a measure of GVH activity) was seen with irradiated F1 recipients of parental cells. The irradiated splenomegaly (x-splenomegaly) assay was more sensitive than the (x-PLN) assay, but both correlated with in vivo GVH experiments of the P----F1 variety. The x-splenomegaly test indicated histoincompatibility in a system (B10.D2----BALB/c) in which the primary in vitro mixed leukocyte reactions is nonreactive, but in which systemic GVH can be induced. The x-splenomegaly test should be useful in analyzing complex reactions involving minor histocompatibility antigens in vivo.

  17. Infrared signature of micro-hydration in the organophosphate sarin: An ab initio study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alam, Todd M.; Pearce, Charles Joseph

    2015-06-28

    The infrared (IR) spectra of micro-hydrated Sarin•(H2O)n clusters containing between one and four explicit waters have been studied using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. The phosphate group P=O bond vibration region (~1270 to 1290 cm–1) revealed the largest frequency variation with hydration, with a frequency red shift reflecting the direct hydrogen bond formation between the P=O of Sarin and water. Small variations to the P-F stretch (~810 to 815 cm–1) and the C-O-P vibrational modes (~995 to 1004 cm–1) showed that the water interactions with these functional groups were minor, and that the structures of Sarin were notmore » extensively perturbed in the hydrated complexes. Increasing the number of explicit hydration waters produced only small vibrational changes in the lowest free energy complexes. These minor changes were consistent with a single water-phosphate hydrogen bond being the dominant structure, though a second water-phosphate hydrogen bond was observed in some complexes and was identified by an additional red shift of the P=O bond vibration. As a result, the H2O•H2O vibrational modes (~3450 to 3660 cm–1) increased in complexity with higher hydration levels and reflect the extended hydrogen bonding networks formed between the explicit waters in the hydrated Sarin clusters.« less

  18. Progression of soot cake layer properties during the systematic regeneration of diesel particulate filters measured with neutron tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toops, Todd J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Gregor, Jens; Bilheux, Hassina

    2015-01-01

    Although particulate filters (PFs) have been a key component of the emission control system for modern diesel engines, there remain significant questions about the basic regeneration behavior of the filters and how it changes with accumulation of increasing soot layers. This effort describes a systematic deposition and regeneration of particulate matter in 25-mm diameter × 76-mm long wall-flow PFs composed of silicon carbide (SiC) material. The initial soot distributions were analyzed for soot cake thickness using a nondestructive neutron imaging technique. With the PFs intact, it was then possible to sequentially regenerate the samples and reanalyze them, which was performedmore » after nominal 20, 50, and 70 % regenerations. The loaded samples show a relatively uniform distribution of particulate with an increasing soot cake thickness and nearly identical initial density of 70 mg/cm3. Throughout regeneration, the soot cake thickness initially decreases significantly while the density increases to 80–90 mg/cm3. After ~50 % regeneration, the soot cake thickness stays relatively constant, but instead, the density decreases as pores open up in the layer (~35 mg/cm3 at 70 % regeneration). Complete regeneration initially occurs at the rear of the PF channels. With this information, a conceptual model of the regeneration is proposed.« less

  19. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, A. J.; Li, L.; He, R.; Gong, J. J.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J. -M.; Ren, Z. F.

    2016-03-07

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half- Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k codemore » and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley’s deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens’ equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Tidoped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. Lastly, the present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.« less

  20. Solid-state chemistry of molecular metal oxide clusters. Multiple, sequential C-H activation processes in the hydrogenation of coordinated cyclooctene. Lattice mobility of small organic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siedle, A.R.; Newmark, R.A.; Sahyun, M.R.V.; Lyon, P.A.; Hunt, S.L.; Skarjune, R.P. )

    1989-10-25

    Reaction of solid ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Ir(C{sub 8}H{sub 12})){sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} with D{sub 2} gas produces cyclooctane containing up to 16 deuterium atoms. The c-C{sub 8}D{sub n}H{sub 16-n} isotopomer distribution is analyzed by Poisson statistics and interpreted in terms of C-H activation involving Ir-D-C-H exchange in an intermediate species containing coordinated cyclooctene. The results are compared with those from D{sub 2} reduction of ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Ir(C{sub 8}H{sub 12}))(PF{sub 6}) in the solid state and in acetone solution, in which cases, an additional exchange process operates. Solid-state {sup 2}H NMR shows that, even at low temperatures, small organic molecules such as cyclooctane and benzene undergo nearly isotropic motion.

  1. Assessment of the Electrohol process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol electrogeneratively. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevino, A.A.

    1985-04-10

    Preliminary process economics data for the electrogenerative process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol were generated based on patent information. The technology was assessed in four alternative processing options. The Electrohol process is viable in the US only if integrated to the production of 190 pf ethanol from corn in a large scale unit. To be competitive, the Electrohol process must show yields in excess of 93%. Its attractiveness depends on corn prices remaining under $2.90/bu and DDG selling for more than $132/T. A corn price of $2.00/bu is needed to make a farm-size corn-based processing alternative competitive. A plant based on the fermentation of molasses proved too expensive under the US economic assumptions. The Electrohol technology based on purchased ethanol cannot compete with the existing ethylene-based process under current conditions. To become attractive, the Electrohol process must have access to cheap ethanol ($1.43/gal). The zero electricity generation mode is the most attractive mode of operation for the Electrohol technology in the US. The penalty for low levels of generation (0.130 kwh/kg AcH) is, however, negligible. The optimum operating mode in W. Europe is the generation of 0.312 kwh/kg AcH. In Japan, the low generation level is perferred (0.130 kwh/kg AcH). In general, higher energy prices improve the competitiveness of the Electrohol processing alternatives.

  2. Structural Analysis of a Putative Aminoglycoside N-Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimecka, Maria M.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Font, Jose; Skarina, Tatiana; Shumilin, Igor; Onopryienko, Olena; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Cymborowski, Marcin; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Hasseman, Jeremy; Glomski, Ian J.; Lebioda, Lukasz; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2012-02-15

    For the last decade, worldwide efforts for the treatment of anthrax infection have focused on developing effective vaccines. Patients that are already infected are still treated traditionally using different types of standard antimicrobial agents. The most popular are antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. While aminoglycosides appear to be less effective antimicrobial agents than other antibiotics, synthetic aminoglycosides have been shown to act as potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor and may have potential application as antitoxins. Here, we present a structural analysis of the BA2930 protein, a putative aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, which may be a component of the bacterium's aminoglycoside resistance mechanism. The determined structures revealed details of a fold characteristic only for one other protein structure in the Protein Data Bank, namely, YokD from Bacillus subtilis. Both BA2930 and YokD are members of the Antibiotic-NAT superfamily (PF02522). Sequential and structural analyses showed that residues conserved throughout the Antibiotic-NAT superfamily are responsible for the binding of the cofactor acetyl coenzyme A. The interaction of BA2930 with cofactors was characterized by both crystallographic and binding studies.

  3. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  4. Polarizability effects on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalcante, Ary de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Skaf, Munir S.

    2014-04-14

    Polarization effects on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Four different ionic liquids were simulated, formed by the anions Cl{sup ?} and PF{sub 6}{sup ?}, treated as single fixed charge sites, and the 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (1-ethyl and 1-butyl-), which are polarizable. The partial charge fluctuation of the cations is provided by the electronegativity equalization model (EEM) and a complete parameter set for the cations electronegativity (?) and hardness (J) is presented. Results obtained from a non-polarizable model for the cations are also reported for comparison. Relative to the fixed charged model, the equilibrium structure of the first solvation shell around the imidazolium cations shows that inclusion of EEM polarization forces brings cations closer to each other and that anions are preferentially distributed above and below the plane of the imidazolium ring. The polarizable model yields faster translational and reorientational dynamics than the fixed charges model in the rotational-diffusion regime. In this sense, the polarizable model dynamics is in better agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  6. Self-assembly molecular squares with metal complexes as bridging ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.S.; Silva, A.S.; Brinn, I.M.; Lees, A.J.

    2000-04-03

    Polynuclear transition metal complexes containing multichromophoric units, such as metal polypyridyl complexes, are of considerable current interest. Much attention has been paid to the synthesis of multicomponent systems that exhibit photoinduced intercomponent electron and/or energy-transfer processes and to their potential applications for photonic and electronic devices. Systems incorporating Re(I)- Ru(II)-, and Os(II)-based polypyridyl chromophores are the most commonly studied because of their favorable redox and spectroscopic characteristics. In this communication, the authors combine the concepts of self-assembly and complexes as ligands and report the preparation of a series of molecular squares with the general molecular formula [fac-Br(CO){sub 3}Re({mu}-(pyterpy){sub 2}M)]{sub 4}(PF{sub 6}){sub 8}, where pyterpy is 4{prime}-(4{prime}{double_prime}-pyridyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime}2{double_prime}-terpyridine and M = Fe, Ru, or Os. The spectroscopic properties and a preliminary anion binding study of these novel octanuclear molecular squares are also presented.

  7. Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, P.; Jiang, D.; Kent, P.R.C.

    2011-03-31

    Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry, as they did for wireless communication. A judicious choice of the liquid electrolytes used in these systems is required to achieve a good balance among high-energy storage, long cycle life and stability, and fast charging. Ethylene-carbonate (EC) and propylene-carbonate (PC) are popular electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of Li-ion batteries will eventually require quantum mechanics. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of ethylene- and propylene-carbonate with LiPF6 at experimental concentrations to build solvation models which explain available neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results and to compute Li-ion solvation energies and diffusion constants. Our results suggest some similarities between the two liquids as well as some important differences. Simulations also provide useful insights into formation of solid-electrolyte interphases in the presence of electrodes in conventional Li-ion batteries.

  8. Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid-electrolytes for Li-ion batteries from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Jiang, Deen; Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry, as they did for wireless communication. A judicious choice of the liquid electrolytes used in these systems is required to achieve a good balance among high-energy storage, long cycle life and stability, and fast charging. Ethylene-carbonate (EC) and propylene-carbonate (PC) are popular electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of Li-ion batteries will eventually require quantum mechanics. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of ethylene- and propylene-carbonate with LiPF6 at experimental concentrations to build solvation models which explain available neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results and to compute Li-ion solvation energies and diffusion constants. Our results suggest some similarities between the two liquids as well as some important differences. Simulations also provide useful insights into formation of solid-electrolyte interphases in the presence of electrodes in conventional Li-ion batteries.

  9. Structure, Function and Inhibition of the Phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases of the Human Malaria Parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garg, Aprajita; Lukk, Tiit; Kumar, Vidya; Choi, Jae-Yeon; Augagneur, Yoann; Voelker, Dennis R.; Nair, Satish; Mamoun, Choukri Ben

    2015-03-12

    Phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (PMTs) catalyze the three-step methylation of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine, a critical step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in a select number of eukaryotes including human malaria parasites, nematodes and plants. Genetic studies in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown that the methyltransferase PfPMT plays a critical function in parasite development and differentiation. The presence of PMT orthologs in other malaria parasites that infect humans and their absence in mammals make them ideal targets for the development of selective antimalarials with broad specificity against different Plasmodium species. Here we describe the X-ray structures and biochemical properties ofmore » PMT orthologs from Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi and show that both enzymes are inhibited by amodiaquine and NSC158011, two drugs with potent antimalarial activity. Metabolic studies in a yeast mutant that relies on PkPMT or PvPMT for survival demonstrated that these compounds inhibit phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from ethanolamine. Our structural and functional data provide insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of PMT enzymes and set the stage for a better design of more specific and selective antimalarial drugs.« less

  10. Rhodium mediated bond activation: from synthesis to catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Hung-An

    2012-03-06

    Recently, our lab has developed monoanionic tridentate ligand, To{sup R}, showing the corresponding coordination chemistry and catalyst reactivity of magnesium, zirconium, zinc and iridium complexes. This thesis details synthetic chemistry, structural study and catalytic reactivity of the To{sup R}-supported rhodium compounds. Tl[To{sup R}] has been proved to be a superior ligand transfer agent for synthesizing rhodium complexes. The salt metathesis route of Tl[To{sup M}] with [Rh({mu}-Cl)(CO)]{sub 2} and [Rh({mu}- Cl)(COE)]{sub 2} gives To{sup M}Rh(CO){sub 2} (2.2) and To{sup M}RhH({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 8}H{sub 13}) (3.1) respectively while Tl[To{sup P}] with [Rh({mu}-Cl)(CO)]{sub 2} affords To{sup P}Rh(CO){sub 2} (2.3). 2.2 reacts with both strong and weak electrophiles, resulting in the oxazoline N-attacked and the metal center-attacked compounds correspondingly. Using one of the metal center-attacked electrophiles, 2.3 was demonstrated to give high diastereoselectivity. Parallel to COE allylic C-H activation complex 3.1, the propene and allylbenzene allylic C-H activation products have also been synthesized. The subsequent functionalization attempts have been examined by treating with Brnsted acids, Lewis acids, electrophiles, nucleophiles, 1,3-dipolar reagents and reagents containing multiple bonds able to be inserted. Various related complexes have been obtained under these conditions, in which one of the azide insertion compounds reductively eliminates to give an allylic functionalization product stoichiometrically. 3.1 reacts with various primary alcohols to give the decarbonylation dihydride complex To{sup M}Rh(H){sub 2}CO (4.1). 4.1 shows catalytic reactivity for primary alcohol decarbonylation under a photolytic condition. Meanwhile, 2.2 has been found to be more reactive than 4.1 for catalytic alcohol decarbonylation under the same condition. Various complexes and primary alcohols have been investigated as well. The proposed mechanism is based on the stochiometric reactions of the possible metal and organic intermediates. Primary amines, hypothesized to undergo a similar reaction pathway, have been verified to give dehydrogenative coupling product, imines. In the end, the well-developed neutral tridentate Tpm coordinates to the rhodium bis(ethylene) dimer in the presence of TlPF{sub 6} to give the cationic complex, [TpmRh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}] (5.1). 5.1 serves as the first example of explicit determination of the solid state hapticity, evidenced by X-ray structure, among all the cationic Tpm{sup R}M(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup +} (Tpm{sup R} = Tpm, Tpm*, M = Rh, Ir) derivatives. The substitution chemistry of this compound has been studied by treating with soft and hard donors. The trimethylphosphine-sbustituted complex activates molecular hydrogen to give the dihydride compound.

  11. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-10-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li{sub x}C{sub 6} {vert{underscore}bar} 1 M LiPF{sub 6}, 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) {vert{underscore}bar} LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized.

  13. Layered Nickel Oxide-Based Cathodes for Lithium Cells: Analysis ofPerformance Loss Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlau, Marie; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Cairns, Elton J.

    2004-10-01

    Spectroscopic and electrochemical diagnostic measurements are reported for the cell components of a Generation 2 (Gen 2) Li-Ion cell from the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project. The cells are composed of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} positive electrodes (cathode), carbon graphite anodes and electrolyte consisting of 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC:EMC 3:7. Fluorophosphates were observed by {sup 19}F and {sup 31}P NMR in the electrolyte obtained from a Gen 2 cell aged 72 weeks at 45 C and presenting 50% power fade. These electrolyte decomposition products were also observed by {sup 31}P solid-state NMR on the surface of the cathode of the same cell. Samples were cut from the aged cathode from the original cell, subjected to different treatments (ultrasonic washing in anhydrous DMC, pressing, ultrasonic washing and pressing), and subsequently reassembled into small lab cells for electrochemical characterization. These treatments recovered the capacity of the electrodes to within a few percent of the original value, with the most improvement being obtained with the washed and pressed cathode. The impedance of the cathodes was also lowered after the ultrasonic washing and pressing treatments. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrasonic washing of the aged Gen 2 cathode material resulted in the removal of small particles covering the surface of the active cathode. These findings are interpreted in terms of a model whereby capacity loss, and thus power capability, is restored by removing the fluorophosphate deposit and restoring electronic contact to the active cathode material.

  14. Influence of electrolyte on lithium cycling efficiency with pressurized electrode stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, Junichi )

    1994-03-01

    The limited cycle life of rechargeable lithium cells has been one of the most important barriers for developing commercial cells and many factors have been investigated in attempts to improve cycle ability. The dependency of lithium cycling efficiency on stack pressure was studied for several electrolytes. To evaluate the cycling efficiency E, the authors calculated the figure of merit (FOM) of lithium as FOM = 1/(1-E). The effect of solvents on the FOM change with pressure was examined for LiAsF[sub 6] solute electrolytes containing 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), ethylene carbonate (EC)/2MeTHF, propylene carbonate (PC), or EC/PC. The electrolyte LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF showed the largest FOM (80 at 125 kg/cm[sup 2]). With the electrolytes LiAsF[sub 6] [minus] PC and LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/PC, FOM was less dependent on stack pressure than it was with the electrolytes LiAsF[sub 6]-2MeTHF and EC/2MeTHF, probably because a different separator was used for the former electrolytes. Examining the effect of the solute on the FOM change with pressure showed that the FOMs for LiPF[sub 6]- and LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]-EC/2MeTHF reached maximum values at 50 and 75 kg/cm[sup 2], respectively, and that the FOM values for LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF increased with increasing stack pressure up to at least 125 kg/cm[sup 2].

  15. Screening of low cost sorbents for arsenic and mercury capture in gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cedric Charpenteau; Revata Seneviratne; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-09-15

    A novel laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor has been developed to investigate trace metal capture on selected sorbents for cleaning the hot raw gas in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. The new reactor design is presented, together with initial results for mercury and arsenic capture on five sorbents. It was expected that the capture efficiency of sorbents would decrease with increasing temperature. However, a commercial activated carbon, Norit Darco 'Hg', and a pyrolysis char prepared from scrap tire rubber exhibit similar efficiencies for arsenic at 200 and at 400{sup o}C (70% and 50%, respectively). Meta-kaolinite and fly ash both exhibit an efficiency of around 50% at 200{sup o}C, which then dropped as the test temperature was increased to 400{sup o}C. Activated scrap tire char performed better at 200{sup o}C than the pyrolysis char showing an arsenic capture capacity similar to that of commercial Norit Darco 'Hg'; however, efficiency dropped to below 40% at 400{sup o}C. These results suggest that the capture mechanism of arsenic (As4) is more complex than purely physical adsorption onto the sorbents. Certain elements within the sorbents may have significant importance for chemical adsorption, in addition to the effect of surface area, as determined by the BET method. This was indeed the case for the mercury capture efficiency for all four sorbents tested. Three of the sorbents tested retained 90% of the mercury when operated at 100{sup o}C. As the temperature increased, the efficiency of activated carbon and pyrolysis char reduced significantly. Curiously, despite having the smallest Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, a pf-combustion ash was the most effective in capturing mercury over the temperature range studied. These observations suggest that the observed mercury capture was not purely physical adsorption but a combination of physical and chemical processes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A.

    1986-09-01

    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.

  17. Determining the Radiation Damage Effect on Glovebox Glove Material.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Balkey, J. J.; Andrade, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Material Technology (NMT) Division has the largest inventory of glove box gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The minimization of unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures, is a primary concern in the daily operations in NMT Division facilities, including the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at TA-55 and Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility. Glovebox gloves in these facilities are exposed to elevated temperatures and exceptionally aggressive radiation environments (particulate {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu). Predictive models are needed to estimate glovebox glove service lifetimes, i.e. change-out intervals. Towards this aim aging studies have been initiated that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on previously reported mechanical data of thermally aged hypalon glove samples. Specifications for 30 mil tri-layered hypalon/lead glovebox gloves (TLH) and 15 mil hypalon gloves (HYP) have already been established. The relevant mechanical properties are shown on Table 1. Tensile strength is defined as the maximum load applied in breaking a tensile test piece divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece (Also termed maximum stress and ultimate tensile stress). Ultimate elongation is the elongation at time of rupture (Also termed maximum strain). The specification for the tensile test and ultimate elongation are the minimum acceptable values. In addition, the ultimate elongation must not vary 20% from the original value. In order to establish a service lifetimes for glovebox gloves in a thermal environment, the mechanical properties of glovebox glove materials were studied.

  18. Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    Aryl carbon-oxygen bond cleavage is a chemical transformation of importance in coal liquefaction and the upgrading of coal liquids as well as in the synthesis of natural products. There have been numerous attempts to discover general methods for the cleavage of aryl carbon-oxygen bonds. All the stoichiometric organic methods for phenol deoxygenation have limited applications and involve expensive reagents. Catalytic method, for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenols involve supported transition metal oxides, such as Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-MO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}. Typical phenol hydrodeoxygenation conditions involve hydrogen pressures in excess of 100 atm and temperatures in excess of 200{degrees}C. Under these conditions arene ring hydrogenation is generally found to compete with phenol deoxygenation; and the coproduct water is found to impair the activity of the catalysts. This proposed research offers the possibility of effecting the selective catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups using CO. The deoxygenation of phenols by carbon monoxide mediated by Ir(triphos)OAr has provided us with a catalytic Phenol deoxygenation pathway, through the elimination of CO{sub 2} and formation of a benzyne intermediate. Although the [Pt(triphos)(O-Ph-Me)]PF{sub 6} system is not expected to be as efficient a catalyst as some of the other transition metals systems we are currently exploring, it will provide more information about the deoxygenation mechanism in these triphos complexes. This is due to the presence of the structurally sensitive {sup 3l}P--{sup 195}Pt coupling constant and comparisons to the extensively studied Pt(dppe)(O-Ph){sub 2} systems.

  19. Develop and Manufacture an airlock sliding tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Cindy M.

    2014-02-26

    Objective: The goal of this project is to continue to develop an airlock sliding tray and then partner with an industrial manufacturing company for production. The sliding tray will be easily installed into and removed from most glovebox airlocks in a few minutes. Technical Approach: A prototype of a sliding tray has been developed and tested in the LANL cold lab and 35 trays are presently being built for the plutonium facility (PF-4). The current, recently approved design works for a 14-inch diameter round airlock and has a tray length of approximately 20 inches. The grant will take the already tested and approved round technology and design for the square airlock. These two designs will be suitable for the majority of the existing airlocks in the multitude of DOE facilities. Partnering with an external manufacturer will allow for production of the airlock trays at a much lower cost and increase the availability of the product for all DOE sites. Project duration is estimated to be 12-13 months. Benefits: The purpose of the airlock sliding trays is fourfold: 1) Mitigate risk of rotator cuff injuries, 2) Improve ALARA, 3) Reduce risk of glovebox glove breaches and glove punctures, and 4) Improve worker comfort. I have had the opportunity to visit many other DOE facilities including Savannah, Y-12, ORNL, Sandia, and Livermore for assistance with ergonomic problems and/or injuries. All of these sites would benefit from the airlock sliding tray and I can assume all other DOE facilities with gloveboxes built prior to 1985 could also use the sliding trays.

  20. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  1. The performance of magnetic lens for focusing VCN-SANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, M.; Iwashita, Y.; Kanaya, T.; Ichikawa, M.; Tongu, H.; Kennedy, S. J.; Shimizu, H. M.; Mishima, K.; Yamada, N. L.; Hirota, K.; Carpenter, J..; Lal, J.; Anderson, K.; Geltenbort, P.; Guerard, B.; Manzin, G.; Hino, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Bleuel, M.; NOP Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a prototype rotating-permanent magnet sextupole lens (named rot-PMSx) for more efficient experiments with neutron beams in time of flight (ToF) mode. This lens can modulate the focusing strength over range 1.5 x 10{sup 4} T/m{sup 2} {le} g' {le} 5.9 x 10{sup 4} T/m{sup 2}. Synchronization between the modulation and the beam pulse produces a focused beam without significant chromatic aberration. We anticipate that this lens could be utilized in focusing small angle neutron scattering (SANS) instruments for novel approach to high resolution SANS. We carried out experiments testing the principle of this lens at the very cold neutron (VCN) beamline (PF2) at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), France. The focused beam image size at the detector was kept constant at the same beam size as the source ({approx} 3 mm) over a wavelength range of 30 {angstrom} {le} {lambda} {le} 48 {angstrom} in focal length of {approx} 1.14 m. The flux gain was about 12 relative to a beam without focusing, and the depth of focus was quite large. These results show the good performance of this lens and the system. Thereupon we have demonstrated the performance of this test bed for high resolution focusing of VCN-SANS for a well-studied softmatter sample; a deuterium oxide solution of Pluronic F127, an (PEO){sub 100}(PPO){sub 65}(PEO){sub 100} tri-block copolymer in deuterium oxide. The results of the focusing experiment and the focusing VCN-SANS are presented.

  2. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Hubbard, Alan E.; Forrest, Matthew S.; Vermeulen, Roel; Chen, Jinsong; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2009-03-01

    Benzene is an established cause of leukemia and a possible cause of lymphoma in humans but the molecular pathways underlying this remain largely undetermined. This study sought to determine if the use of two different microarray platforms could identify robust global gene expression and pathway changes associated with occupational benzene exposure in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression of a population of shoe-factory workers with well-characterized occupational exposures to benzene. Microarray data was analyzed by a robust t-test using a Quantile Transformation (QT) approach. Differential expression of 2692 genes using the Affymetrix platform and 1828 genes using the Illumina platform was found. While the overall concordance in genes identified as significantly associated with benzene exposure between the two platforms was 26% (475 genes), the most significant genes identified by either array were more likely to be ranked as significant by the other platform (Illumina = 64%, Affymetrix = 58%). Expression ratios were similar among the concordant genes (mean difference in expression ratio = 0.04, standard deviation = 0.17). Four genes (CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN and PF4), which we previously identified by microarray and confirmed by real-time PCR, were identified by both platforms in the current study and were among the top 100 genes. Gene Ontology analysis showed over representation of genes involved in apoptosis among the concordant genes while Ingenuity{reg_sign} Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified pathways related to lipid metabolism. Using a two-platform approach allows for robust changes in the PBMC transcriptome of benzene-exposed individuals to be identified.

  3. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small independent producer to identify efficiently candidate reservoirs and also to predict the performance of horizontal well applications.

  4. Development and application of LEESA (Low Energy Electrostatic Sensitivity Apparatus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, R.S. ); Wood, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A precision Low Energy Electrostatic Sensitivity Apparatus (LEESA) was developed in the voltage range 0--3000 volts dc and was employed over a capacitance range of 25--50,000 pF on sensitive, very sensitive, and extremely sensitive pyrotechnic fuels and compositions. Zirconium powder, Zr/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic, titanium powder, Ti/KClO{sub 4} and TiH{sub x}/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnics (x = 0.65, 1.65) and several other sensitive materials were evaluated. LEESA simulates casual human contact with potentially hazardous materials. In operation, a hand-held probe is applied to the sample to discharge the capacitance. As the probe approaches the sample, a spark jumps from the probe tip to the sample when the gap closes to the appropriate distance. This is analagous to a finger or a tool touching a sensitive material during which maneuver a spark jumps to the material. LEESA defines the probability of ignition over a voltage or energy range and is capable of thousands of trials on a test material in the span of a few hours. In addition to evaluating static sensitivity, the effect of electrode polarity, individual differences between operators, test method, humidity, sample size, particle size, capacitance, time constant RC, and voltage versus energy have been determined. The equipment is inexpensive and easy to build and use and is a low risk method because of the small quantities of sensitive material being tested at any one time. The accuracy and precision of the results surpasses that of methods currently in use. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Unified EDGE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-06-18

    UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines,more » and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in “Basis Manual Set” by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.« less

  6. Physics and Engineering Assessments ?of the K-DEMO Magnet Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, George H.; Brown, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Increased attention is being given now to studies of next-step fusion facilities with nuclear missions. Among these, South Korea's K DEMO is unique in its focus on a high toroidal magnetic field, large major radius, steady-state tokamak design for the core of a facility to test fusion nuclear components in Phase I and, after upgrades, produce 500 MW of electricity in a Phase II. Innovative features of the K DEMO magnet set include the use of two toroidal field (TF) coil winding packs with conductor grading and a machine configuration designed for vertical maintenance. The magnet arrangement features large TF coils and widelyspaced poloidal field (PF) coils to accommodate removal of in-vessel components as large modules. Physics and engineering assessments of the pre-conceptual K-DEMO magnet configuration are reported, including: 1) design point and operating space assessment, 2) conductor assessment, and 3) structural assessment. It is found that a reference design point at 6.8 m major radius and 7.4 T toroidal field provides sufficient operating margins for the 500 MWe Phase II mission. Analyses of candidate cable-in-conduit conductors provide predictions of critical current degradation, both in the initial load cycle and an additionally with cyclic loading. A first-pass global analysis of the magnet system found minimal out-of-plane deformations of the TF coil, but an overstress condition in the inner leg of the TF coil. However an analysis taking into account elastic-plastic behavior, frictional sliding, and displacement shows that the structure can safely carry the load. Although the design evolution is still at an early stage, these assessments support the design point choices to date and the expectation that a feasible solution for the high-field K DEMO magnet system can be found.

  7. Catalytic ionic hydrogenation of ketones using tungsten or molybdenum catalysts with increased lifetimes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, R. Morris; Kimmich, Barbara F. M.; Fagan, Paul J.; Hauptman, Elisabeth

    2003-09-02

    The present invention is a process for the catalytic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes to alcohols at low temperatures and pressures using organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes and the catalyst used in the process. The reactants include a functional group which is selected from groups represented by the formulas R*(C.dbd.O)R' and R*(C.dbd.O)H, wherein R* and R' are selected from hydrogen or any alkyl or aryl group. The process includes reacting the organic compound in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst to form a reaction mixture. The catalyst is prepared by reacting Ph.sub.3 C.sup.+ A.sup.- with a metal hydride. A.sup.- represents an anion and can be BF.sub.4.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.- or Bar'.sub.4.sup.-, wherein Ar'=3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl. The metal hydride is represented by the formula: HM(CO).sub.2 [.eta..sup.5 :.eta..sup.1 --C.sub.5 H.sub.4 (XH.sub.2).sub.n PR.sub.2 ] wherein M represents a molybdenum (Mo) atom or a tungsten (W) atom; X is a carbon atom, a silicon atom or a combination of carbon (C) and silicon (Si) atoms; n is any positive integer; R represents two hydrocarbon groups selected from H, an aryl group and an alkyl group, wherein both R groups can be the same or different. The metal hydride is reacted with Ph.sub.3 C.sup.+ A.sup.- either before reacting with the organic compound or in the reaction mixture.

  8. Accident Conditions versus Regulatory Test for NRC-Approved UF6 Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLS, G. SCOTT; AMMERMAN, DOUGLAS J.; LOPEZ, CARLOS

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves new package designs for shipping fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}. Currently there are three packages approved by the NRC for domestic shipments of fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}: NCI-21PF-1; UX-30; and ESP30X. For approval by the NRC, packages must be subjected to a sequence of physical tests to simulate transportation accident conditions as described in 10 CFR Part 71. The primary objective of this project was to relate the conditions experienced by these packages in the tests described in 10 CFR Part 71 to conditions potentially encountered in actual accidents and to estimate the probabilities of such accidents. Comparison of the effects of actual accident conditions to 10 CFR Part 71 tests was achieved by means of computer modeling of structural effects on the packages due to impacts with actual surfaces, and thermal effects resulting from test and other fire scenarios. In addition, the likelihood of encountering bodies of water or sufficient rainfall to cause complete or partial immersion during transport over representative truck routes was assessed. Modeled effects, and their associated probabilities, were combined with existing event-tree data, plus accident rates and other characteristics gathered from representative routes, to derive generalized probabilities of encountering accident conditions comparable to the 10 CFR Part 71 conditions. This analysis suggests that the regulatory conditions are unlikely to be exceeded in real accidents, i.e. the likelihood of UF{sub 6} being dispersed as a result of accident impact or fire is small. Moreover, given that an accident has occurred, exposure to water by fire-fighting, heavy rain or submersion in a body of water is even less probable by factors ranging from 0.5 to 8E-6.

  9. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind generation.

  10. Infrared signature of micro-hydration in the organophosphate sarin: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Todd M.; Pearce, Charles Joseph

    2015-06-28

    The infrared (IR) spectra of micro-hydrated Sarin•(H2O)n clusters containing between one and four explicit waters have been studied using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. The phosphate group P=O bond vibration region (~1270 to 1290 cm–1) revealed the largest frequency variation with hydration, with a frequency red shift reflecting the direct hydrogen bond formation between the P=O of Sarin and water. Small variations to the P-F stretch (~810 to 815 cm–1) and the C-O-P vibrational modes (~995 to 1004 cm–1) showed that the water interactions with these functional groups were minor, and that the structures of Sarin were not extensively perturbed in the hydrated complexes. Increasing the number of explicit hydration waters produced only small vibrational changes in the lowest free energy complexes. These minor changes were consistent with a single water-phosphate hydrogen bond being the dominant structure, though a second water-phosphate hydrogen bond was observed in some complexes and was identified by an additional red shift of the P=O bond vibration. As a result, the H2O•H2O vibrational modes (~3450 to 3660 cm–1) increased in complexity with higher hydration levels and reflect the extended hydrogen bonding networks formed between the explicit waters in the hydrated Sarin clusters.

  11. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Burton, Sarah D.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-02-05

    It is well known that the stability of nonaqueous electrolyte is critical for the rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Although stability of many solvents used in the electrolytes has been investigated, considerably less attention has been paid to the stability of electrolyte salt which is the second major component. Herein, we report the systematic investigation of the stability of seven common lithium salts in tetraglyme used as electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries. The discharge products of Li-O2 reaction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The performance of Li-O2 batteries was strongly affected by the salt used in the electrolyte. Lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) decompose and form LiF and lithium borates, respectively during the discharge of Li-O2 batteries. Several other salts, including lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) , and lithium bromide (LiBr) led to the discharge products which mainly consisted of Li2O2 and only minor signs of decomposition of LiTFSI, LiTf, LPF6 and LiClO4 were detected. LiBr showed the best stability during the discharge process. As for the cycling performance, LiTf and LiTFSI were the best among the studied salts. In addition to the instability of lithium salts, decomposition of tetraglyme solvent was a more significant factor contributing to the limited cycling stability. Thus a more stable nonaqueous electrolyte including organic solvent and lithium salt still need to be further developed to reach a fully reversible Li-O2 battery.

  12. Nuclear quantum effects on the structure and the dynamics of [H{sub 2}O]{sub 8} at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Videla, Pablo E.; Rossky, Peter J.; Laria, D.

    2013-11-07

    We use ring-polymer-molecular-dynamics (RPMD) techniques and the semi-empirical q-TIP4P/F water model to investigate the relationship between hydrogen bond connectivity and the characteristics of nuclear position fluctuations, including explicit incorporation of quantum effects, for the energetically low lying isomers of the prototype cluster [H{sub 2}O]{sub 8} at T = 50 K and at 150 K. Our results reveal that tunneling and zero-point energy effects lead to sensible increments in the magnitudes of the fluctuations of intra and intermolecular distances. The degree of proton spatial delocalization is found to map logically with the hydrogen-bond connectivity pattern of the cluster. Dangling hydrogen bonds exhibit the largest extent of spatial delocalization and participate in shorter intramolecular O-H bonds. Combined effects from quantum and polarization fluctuations on the resulting individual dipole moments are also examined. From the dynamical side, we analyze the characteristics of the infrared absorption spectrum. The incorporation of nuclear quantum fluctuations promotes red shifts and sensible broadening relative to the classical profile, bringing the simulation results in much more satisfactory agreement with direct experimental information in the mid and high frequency range of the stretching band. While RPMD predictions overestimate the peak position of the low frequency shoulder, the overall agreement with that reported using an accurate, parameterized, many-body potential is reasonable, and far superior to that one obtains by implementing a partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics approach. Quantum effects on the collective dynamics, as reported by instantaneous normal modes, are also discussed.

  13. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Neumeyer; G. Barnes; J.H. Chrzanowski; P. Heitzenroeder; et al

    1999-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions between the PFC's and the vacuum vessel on which supports are attached. This paper will provide a brief review of the issues associated with the design, fabrication and assembly of the NSTX Torus system including those outlined above.

  14. Using the OECD/NRC Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Benchmark to Study Current Numerical and Computational Issues of Coupled Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Kostadin N.; Todorova, Nadejda K.; Sartori, Enrico

    2003-05-15

    Incorporating full three-dimensional (3-D) models of the reactor core into system transient codes allows for a 'best-estimate' calculation of interactions between the core behavior and plant dynamics. Recent progress in computer technology has made the development of coupled thermal-hydraulic (T-H) and neutron kinetics code systems feasible. Considerable efforts have been made in various countries and organizations in this direction. Appropriate benchmarks need to be developed that will permit testing of two particular aspects. One is to verify the capability of the coupled codes to analyze complex transients with coupled core-plant interactions. The second is to test fully the neutronics/T-H coupling. One such benchmark is the Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark problem. It was sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and The Pennsylvania State University. The benchmark problem uses a 3-D neutronics core model that is based on real plant design and operational data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 nuclear power plant. The purpose of this benchmark is threefold: to verify the capability of system codes for analyzing complex transients with coupled core-plant interactions; to test fully the 3-D neutronics/T-H coupling; and to evaluate discrepancies among the predictions of coupled codes in best-estimate transient simulations. The purposes of the benchmark are met through the application of three exercises: a point kinetics plant simulation (exercise 1), a coupled 3-D neutronics/core T-H evaluation of core response (exercise 2), and a best-estimate coupled core-plant transient model (exercise 3).In this paper we present the three exercises of the MSLB benchmark, and we summarize the findings of the participants with regard to the current numerical and computational issues of coupled calculations. In addition, this paper reviews in some detail the sensitivity studies on exercises 2 and 3 performed by the benchmark team using the coupled code TRAC-PF1/NEM. The purpose of these supporting studies was to aid participants in developing their models.

  15. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to allow for electron injection into, ion ejection from, and optical access to the trapping region.

  16. InP quantum dots: Electronic structure, surface effects, and the redshifted emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Zunger, A.

    1997-07-01

    We present pseudopotential plane-wave electronic-structure calculations on InP quantum dots in an effort to understand quantum confinement and surface effects and to identify the origin of the long-lived and redshifted luminescence. We find that (i) unlike the case in small GaAs dots, the lowest unoccupied state of InP dots is the {Gamma}{sub 1c}-derived direct state rather than the X{sub 1c}-derived indirect state and (ii) unlike the prediction of {bold k}{center_dot}{bold p} models, the highest occupied state in InP dots has a 1sd-type envelope function rather than a (dipole-forbidden) 1pf envelope function. Thus explanations (i) and (ii) to the long-lived redshifted emission in terms of an orbitally forbidden character can be excluded. Furthermore, (iii) fully passivated InP dots have no surface states in the gap. However, (iv) removal of the anion-site passivation leads to a P dangling bond (DB) state just above the valence band, which will act as a trap for photogenerated holes. Similarly, (v) removal of the cation-site passivation leads to an In dangling-bond state below the conduction band. While the energy of the In DB state depends only weakly on quantum size, its radiative lifetime increases with quantum size. The calculated {approximately}300-meV redshift and the {approximately}18 times longer radiative lifetime relative to the dot-interior transition for the 26-{Angstrom} dot with an In DB are in good agreement with the observations of full-luminescence experiments for unetched InP dots. Yet, (vi) this type of redshift due to surface defect is inconsistent with that measured in {ital selective} excitation for HF-etched InP dots. (vii) The latter type of ({open_quotes}resonant{close_quotes}) redshift is compatible with the calculated {ital screened} singlet-triplet splitting in InP dots, suggesting that the slow emitting state seen in selective excitation could be a triplet state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  18. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact with metallographic polishing lubricants, solvents, or chemicals. And water being one of the most reactive solutions, is not used in the preparation. Figure 2 shows an example of a plutonium sample in which an oxide film has formed on the surface due to overexposure to solutions. it has been noted that nucleation of the hydride/oxide begins around inclusions and samples with a higher concentration of impurities seem to be more susceptible to this reaction. Figure 3 shows examples of small oxide rings, forming around inclusions. Lastly, during the cutting, grinding, or polishing process there is enough stress induced in the sample that the surface can transform from the soft face-centered-cubic delta phase (30 HV) to the strain-induced monoclinic alpha{prime} phase (300 HV). Figure 4 and 5 shows cross-sectional views of samples in which one was cut using a diamond saw and the other was processed through 600 grit. The white layers on the edges is the strain induced alpha{prime} phase. The 'V' shape indentation in Figure 5 was caused by a coarser abrasive which resulted in transformations to a depth of approximately 20 {micro}m. Another example of the transformation sensitivity of plutonium can be seen in Figure 6, in which the delta phase has partly transformed to alpha{prime} during micro hardness indentation.

  19. 2012 SARA Students Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briccetti, Angelo; Lorei, Nathan; Yonkings, David; Lorio, David; Goorley, John T.; Sood, Avneet

    2012-07-30

    The Service Academy Research Associates (SARA) program provides an opportunity for Midshipmen and Cadets from US Service Academies to participate in research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory for several weeks during the summer as part of their summer training assignments. During the summer of 2012, three Midshipmen were assigned to work with the XCP Division at LANL for approximately 5-6 weeks. As one of the nation's top national security science laboratories, LANL stretches across 36 square miles, has over 2,100 facilities, and employs over 9,000 individuals including a significant number of students and postdocs. LANL's mission is to 'apply science and technology to: ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent, reduce global threats, and solve other emerging national security challenges.' While LANL officially operates under the US Department of Energy (DoE), fulfilling this mission requires mutual cooperation with the US Department of Defense (DoD) as well. LANL's high concentration of knowledge and experience provides interns a chance to perform research in many disciplines, and its connection with the DoD in both operation and personnel gives SARA students insight to career possibilities both during and after military service. SARA students have plenty of opportunity to enjoy hiking, camping, the Los Alamos YMCA, and many other outdoor activities in New Mexico while staying at the Buffalo Thunder Resort, located 20 miles east of the lab. XCP Division is the Computational Physics division of LANL's Weapons Department. Working with XCP Division requires individuals to be Q cleared by the DoE. This means it is significantly more convenient for SARA students to be assigned to XCP Division than their civilian counterparts as the DoD CNWDI clearance held by SARA students is easily transferred to the lab prior to the students arriving at the start of the summer. SARA students working with XCP Division were given a comprehensive introduction into nuclear engineering and physics, nuclear weapons, and radiation transport and detection via texts and lectures at various classification levels. Students also attended tours of several prominent facilities at LANL including TA-41 Ice House, TA-55 PF-4 plutonium facility, the Nicholas C. Metropolis Center for Modeling and Simulation, also known as the Secure Computing Center (SCC), and the Dual-Axis Radiological Hydro Test (DARHT) facility; in addition, SARA students accompanied by LANL staff traveled to Minot AFB in North Dakota for tours of the 5th Bomb Wing and 91st Missile Wing facilities. Students participated in a week long class on the Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code to supplement their understanding of radiation transport simulations. SARA students were then tasked with using this knowledge to model radiation detectors and use MCNP to compare their models to experimental data and previously accepted models.

  20. The activation of carbon dioxide by niobocene complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    The reduction of Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb(Cl)R (Cp[prime] = [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 4]CH[sub 3]) by Na/Hg under one atmosphere of CO[sub 2] produces Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CO[sub 2])R (R = CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3], CH[sub 2]CMe[sub 3], CH[sub 2]Ph, CH[sub 3]). Thermolysis of Cp [sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CO[sub 2])R (R = CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3], CH[sub 2]CMe[sub 3], CH[sub 2]Ph) in THF at 60[degrees]C (at low concentration for R = CH[sub 2]Ph) resulted in decarbonylation of the complex with first order kinetics to generate the corresponding metal-oxo complexes Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb(O)R. The same process is greatly accelerated photochemically with a quantum yield of 0.17 for R = CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3]. At higher concentration, carbonyl complex Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb(CO)Ch[sub 2]Ph is also generated in the thermolysis of Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CO[sub 2])CH[sub 2]Ph. In continuing effort to promote migratory insertion of Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CO[sub 2])CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3], its reactions with of a variety of Lewis acids (LiPF[sub 6], BF[sub 3][center dot]Et[sub 2]O, ZnCl[sub 2], HgCl[sub 2], CdCl[sub 2], and ClSiMe[sub 3]) have been investigated. The interaction of Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CO[sub 2])CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3] with several Lewis acids resulted in its facile decarbonylation. The carbonyl complexes Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb(CO)R (R = CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3], CH[sub 2]CMe[sub 3], CH[sub 2]Ph, CH[sub 3]) reacted cleanly and quantitatively with molecular oxygen under ambient conditions to produce the corresponding CO[sub 2] complexes, Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CO[sub 2])R, in high yield. The interaction of Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb(CO)H with O[sub 2] generates a novel formato complex. The reaction of Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb(CO)CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3] with elemental sulfur (S[sub 8]) gives a carbonyl sulfide complex Cp[prime][sub 2]Nb([eta][sup 2]-CSO) CH[sub 2]SiMe[sub 3], whose structure has been established crystallographically.

  1. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SMALL-SCALE SAFETY TESTING SYSTEMS AT LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HSU, P C

    2008-07-31

    Small-scale sensitivity testing is important for determining material response to various stimuli including impact, friction, and static spark. These tests, briefly described below, provide parameters for safety in handling. ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment at LLNL, shown in Figure 1, was used to determine the impact sensitivity. The equipment includes a 2.5-kg drop weight, a striker (upper anvil, 2.5 kg for solid samples and 1.0 kg for liquid samples), a bottom anvil, a microphone sensor, and a peakmeter. For each drop, sample (35 mg for solid or 45 microliter for liquid) is placed on the bottom anvil surface and impacted by the drop weight from different heights. Signs of reactions upon impact are observed and recorded. These signs include noises, flashes or sparks, smoke, pressure, gas emissions, temperature rise due to exothermic reaction, color change of the sample, and changes to the anvil surface (noted by inspection). For solid samples, a 'GO' was defined as a microphone sensor (for noise detection) response of {ge} 1.3 V as measured by a peakmeter. The higher the DH{sub 50} values, the lower the impact sensitivity. The method used to calculate DH{sub 50} values is the 'up and down' or Bruceton method. PETN and RDX have impact sensitivities of 15 and 35 cm, respectively. TATB has impact sensitivity more than 177 cm. For liquid samples, a 'GO' was determined by the noise levels as measured by the peakmeter, appearance of flashes, temperature rise of the anvil, and visual inspection of the anvil surface. Two liquid samples TMETN and FEFO have impact sensitivities of 14 and 32 cm, respectively. Figure 2 shows a 'GO' event observed during the impact sensitivity test; flashes appeared as the drop weight impacted the sample. A BAM friction sensitivity test machine, as shown in Figure 3, was used to determine the frictional sensitivity. The system uses a fixed porcelain pin and a movable porcelain plate that executes a reciprocating motion. Weight affixed to a torsion arm allows for a variation in applied force between 0.5 kg to 36.0 kg. The relative measure of the frictional sensitivity of a material is based upon the smallest load (kg) at which reaction occurs for a 1-in-10 series of attempts. The lower the load values, the higher the frictional sensitivity. PETN has a frictional sensitivity of 6.4 kg. The static spark machine at LLNL is used to evaluate the electrostatic discharge hazards (human ESD) associated with the handling of explosives. The machine was custom-built almost 30 years ago and consists of a capacitor bank (up to 20,000 pF), a voltage meter, and a discharge circuit, as shown in Figure 4. An adjustable resistor up to 510 ohms (chosen to simulate human body) is wired to the discharge circuit. A 5-mg sample is placed in a Teflon washer sealed to a steel disc and covered with a Mylar tape. High static voltage (up to 10 kv) is applied and discharged to the sample. Evidence of reaction is judged from the condition of Mylar tape, smokes, and color change of the sample. Voltage, capacitance, and resistance can be adjusted to achieve the desired static energy. The results obtained are expressed as a zero in 10 or one-in-ten at a specific voltage and joules. One reaction in ten trials at {le} 0.25 joules is considered spark-sensitive. Primary explosives show reaction at 0.1 joule.

  2. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving “dendrite-free” cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of “dead Li” created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid material that is less dense than the electrolyte is Li metal. Using these images, we can precisely quantify the total volume of Li deposition, the thickness of the SEI layer (observed as a ring of positive contrast around the electrode) and alloy formation due to Li+ ion insertion during each cycle. Furthermore, at the end of each discharge cycle we can quantify the presence of “dead Li” detached from the Pt electrode, thereby demonstrating the degree of irreversibility (and degradation of Pt electrode) associated with insertion/removal of Li+during this process with direct correlation to electrochemical performance. Such analyses provide significant insights into Li metal dendrite growth, which is critical to understand the complex interfacial reactions needed to be controlled for future Li-based and next generation energy storage systems.

  3. Poole-Frenkel-effect as dominating current mechanism in thin oxide films—An illusion?!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Herbert

    2015-06-07

    In many of the publications, over 50 per year for the last five years, the Poole-Frenkel-effect (PFE) is identified or suggested as dominating current mechanism to explain measured current–electric field dependencies in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin film stacks. Very often, the insulating thin film is a metal oxide as this class of materials has many important applications, especially in information technology. In the overwhelming majority of the papers, the identification of the PFE as dominating current mechanism is made by the slope of the current–electric field curve in the so-called Poole-Frenkel plot, i.e., logarithm of current density, j, divided by the applied electric field, F, versus the square root of that field. This plot is suggested by the simplest current equation for the PFE, which comprises this proportionality (ln(j/F) vs. F{sup 1/2}) leading to a straight line in this plot. Only one other parameter (except natural constants) may influence this slope: the optical dielectric constant of the insulating film. In order to identify the importance of the PFE simulation studies of the current through MIM stacks with thin insulating films were performed and the current–electric field curves without and with implementation of the PFE were compared. For the simulation, an advanced current model has been used combining electronic carrier injection/ejection currents at the interfaces, described by thermionic emission, with the carrier transport in the dielectric, described by drift and diffusion of electrons and holes in a wide band gap semiconductor. Besides the applied electric field (or voltage), many other important parameters have been varied: the density of the traps (with donor- and acceptor-like behavior); the zero-field energy level of the traps within the energy gap, this energy level is changed by the PFE (also called internal Schottky effect); the thickness of the dielectric film; the permittivity of the dielectric film simulating different oxide materials; the barriers for electrons and holes at the interfaces simulating different electrode materials; the temperature. The main results and conclusions are: (1) For a single type of trap present only (donor-like or acceptor-like), none of the simulated current density curves shows the expected behavior of the PFE and in most cases within the tested parameter field the effect of PFE is negligibly small. (2) For both types of traps present (compensation) only in the case of exact compensation, the expected slope in the PF-plot was nearly found for a wider range of the applied electric field, but for a very small range of the tested parameter field because of the very restricting additional conditions: first, the quasi-fermi level of the current controlling particle (electrons or holes) has to be 0.1 to 0.5 eV closer to the respective band limit than the zero-field energy level of the respective traps and, second, the compensating trap energy level has to be shallow. The conclusion from all these results is: the observation of the PFE as dominating current mechanism in MIM stacks with thin dielectric (oxide) films (typically 30 nm) is rather improbable!.