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  1. Mali | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Mali

  2. Maldives-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maldives-NREL Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Maldives-NREL Cooperation Name Maldives-NREL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy...

  3. Maldives: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Maldives Population 393,500 GDP 1,944,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MV 3-letter ISO code MDV Numeric ISO...

  4. Mauritania | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Mauritania NNSA Supports IAEA Regional Training in Zambia on Management Practices for Uranium The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), European Commission and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) co-sponsored a training course in Livingstone, Zambia this week focusing on good management practices for uranium ore concentrate (UOC). The Zambia Radiation Protection Authority

  5. Mauritania-IAEA Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agency Sector Energy Topics Background analysis Website http:www-tc.iaea.orgtcwebt Country Mauritania Western Africa References IAEA project database1 IAEA is working...

  6. Mauritania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Mauritania Population 3,537,368 GDP 4,547,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MR 3-letter ISO code MRT Numeric ISO...

  7. Mali: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CIA World Factbook, Appendix D Reegle Clean Energy Datasets Mali is a country in Africa. External Links Mali Renewable Energy Data from IEA Mali Contacts from Climate-Eval...

  8. Mali: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (SREP) Mali-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification Mali-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Mali-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services view all Add a...

  9. Mali-USAID Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Agriculture Topics Background analysis Website http:www.usaid.govourwork Country Mali...

  10. Mali-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Mali-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector...

  11. Mali-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  12. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  13. Maldives-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (GIZ) Partner Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Low emission...

  14. Mauritania-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  15. Maldives-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  16. Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IFAD). The purpose was to identify constraints to agricultural growth and poverty reduction that might be eased through better policy, both domestically and...

  17. Mali-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  18. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  19. Mali-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  20. Mali-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  1. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  2. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  3. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM field campaigns on Gan Island, Maldives and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea will contribute significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing ...

  4. ARM - ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) ARM field campaigns on Gan Island, Maldives, and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, will contribute significantly to concurrent national and ...

  5. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Instruments : Gan Island, Maldives Active Retired Active instruments...

  6. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM's two mobile facilities have completed field campaigns in the United States, Africa, Germany, the Azores, India, and the Maldives. They are currently preparing for yearlong...

  7. Morocco

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    MAURITANIA) SUMMARY In addition to large accumulations of Late-Cretaceous immature oil shale (kerogen) at depths suitable for surface mining 1 , Morocco and its two neighboring...

  8. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMIE, What You Wanna Do? Bookmark and Share Data spanning the Maldives to Papua New Guinea will help scientists analyze far-reaching tropical weather cycle This view shows a subset ...

  9. Scheuten SolarWorld Solizium GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Scheuten SolarWorld Solizium GmbH Place: Maldives Sector: Solar Product: Joint Venture of SolarWorld AG and Scheuten Solarholding for production of solar-grade...

  10. bectcom-intdry | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... R. Smith (Fossil Energy Research Corporation), D. Jones (NOELL, Inc.), E. Mali (Babcock & Wilcox), and J. Stallings (Electric Power Research Corporation), Fourth Annual Clean Coal ...

  11. Namibia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  12. UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  13. Indonesia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  14. Ghana-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  15. Senegal-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  16. South Korea-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  17. Rwanda-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  18. Egypt-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  19. Morocco-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  20. Barbados-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  1. Peru-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  2. Armenia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  3. Serbia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  4. Philippines-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  5. Kenya-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  6. Moldova-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  7. Burkina Faso-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  8. Mexico-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  9. Russian-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  10. Mongolia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  11. Jordan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  12. Nepal-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  13. Ukraine-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  14. Montenegro-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  15. Category:Economic Community of West African States | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. B Benin Burkina Faso C Cape Verde G Gambia Ghana G cont. Guinea Guinea-Bissau I Ivory Coast L Liberia M Mali N Niger Nigeria...

  16. Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesMobile Facility AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010

  17. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesInstruments AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa

  18. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesInstruments AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa

  19. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs,

  20. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  1. Mineral accretion technology for coral reef restoration, shore protection, and adaptation to rising sea level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goreau, T.J.; Hilbertz, W.

    1997-12-31

    Electrolysis of seawater is used to precipitate limestone on top of underwater steel structures to create growing artificial reefs to enhance coral growth, restore coral reef habitat, provide shelter for fish, shellfish, and other marine organisms, generate white sand for beach replenishment, and protect shore lines from wave erosion. Films and slides will be shown of existing structures in Jamaica, Panama, and the Maldives, and projects being developed in these and other locations will be evaluated. The method is unique because it creates the only artificial reef structures that generate the natural limestone substrate from which corals and coral reefs are composed, speeding the settlement and growth of calcareous organisms, and attracting the full range of other reef organisms. The structures are self-repairing and grow stronger with age. Power sources utilized include batteries, battery chargers, photovoltaic panels, and windmills. The cost of seawalls and breakwaters produced by this method is less than one tenth that of conventional technology. Because the technology is readily scaled up to build breakwaters and artificial islands able to keep pace with rising sea level it is capable of playing an important role in protecting low lying coastal areas from the effects of global climate change.

  2. Enhancing the effectiveness of governmental and non-governmental partnership in natural resources management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, K.L.; Gow, D.; Brown, C.; Christophersen, K.; Gaylord, E.

    1990-08-01

    The African sub-continent (Sub-Saharan Africa) is a vast continent of mangroves and deserts, rainforests, mountains and, miles upon thousands of miles of flat wooded plains. It is a continent whose people rely directly on its basic natural resources--land, water, soils, animals and vegetation--for their day-to-day subsistence and development. The effects of environmental degradation have taught bilateral and multilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and national governments harsh lessons about the critical importance of natural resources management to food security and development. The report examines the role of NGO's as resource stewards and explores the relationship between NGO's and donors in the environmental field, with particular reference to experiences from the Natural Resources Management Support Project for Africa and from the literature. Practical guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of donor- collaboration are suggested. Annexes present case studies of Cameroon, Madagascar, and Mali.

  3. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  4. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Kohl: A lead-hazardous eye makeup from the third world to the first world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, C.; Eaton, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Kohl is a widely used traditional cosmetic. It is mainly worn around the eyes in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. It may be a pervasive source of lead poisoning in those areas and among individuals from those areas who have immigrated to developed nations. Samples of kohl were purchased in Morocco, Mauritania, Great Britain, and the United States. Some of these samples originated from Pakistan, India, and Saudi Arabia. Kohl is widely believed to consist of antimony, but analysis consistently revealed only trace amounts of antimony. Nine of the twenty-two samples tested contained less than 0.6% lead; however, seven samples had lead levels in excess of 50%. The remainder ranged from 3.31 to 37.3%. Third-world-manufactured kohls were purchased in the United States and Britain, suggesting that this hazard is no longer confined to the third world. Those kohls that contained lead were sold in violation of laws on lead in cosmetics in both of these nations. Third-world physicians and health care workers appear to be unaware of possible lead uptake from unsuspected traditionally used items. Physicians in developed nations with patients from Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa need to factor in the possibility of past or present lead intake from unorthodox sources such as kohl.

  6. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  7. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination.

  8. Climate Induced Spillover and Implications for U.S. Security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Naugle, Asmeret Bier; Backus, George A.; Lott, Kathryn Marie; Keller, Elizabeth; Kobos, Peter H.; Villa, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    /changes in the economy, labor, population, conflict, water, and food. A regional model focused on Mali in western Africa was used as a test case to demonstrate the efficacy of the model.