National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for making basic oxygen

  1. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  2. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  3. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintock andBasics Basics ALICE users

  4. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintock andBasics Basics ALICE

  5. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintock andBasics Basics ALICEBasics

  6. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintock andBasics Basics

  7. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  8. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria Lucia; Seibert, Michael

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides oxygen-resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H.sub.2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  9. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul (Golden, CO); Ghirardi, Maria L (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-03-10

    The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  10. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  11. Vacuum Ultraviolet Oxygen Analyzer I have developed an instrument for making continuous ppm-level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    by a radio-frequency powered xenon lamp, detected by solar-blind cesium iodide photodiodes. The instrument make measurements from a moving platform such as a ship or airplane. The VUV instrument described here

  12. Tutorial 5: R programming basics While R is perhaps best known as a statistical tool for analyzing data or for making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Thomas E.

    1 Tutorial 5: R programming basics Tom Miller While R is perhaps best known as a statistical tool for analyzing data or for making graphs, it is also really useful as a simple programming language and compiler. Using R for programming is not "machine efficient" and the programs can be a tad clunky and slow

  13. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  14. Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional change integrates technology, policy, and behavior to make new...

  15. Recycling and Reuse of Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF)/Basic Oxygen Process (BOP) Steelmaking Slags

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to develop technologies and methodologies to allow value-added utilization of steelmaking slag, thus reducing waste and saving energy.

  16. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  17. Introduction 1. Motivation and Basic Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    . Modern physics changed this view, to some extent, by making the observer a much more active participantChapter 1 Introduction Topics : 1. Motivation and Basic Concepts 2. Mathematical Formulation underlying the analysis and design of control systems. #12;C.C. Remsing 3 1.1 Motivation and Basic Concepts

  18. PARKING AND BACKING BASICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    PARKING AND BACKING BASICS BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING DRIVE SAFELY WORK WEEK in parking lots. Safe parking and backing is an important basic for all driver groups to master. GET BASICS GOT KIDS OR GRANDKIDS? ·It is estimated that backing over pedestrians causes 45% of non- traffic

  19. Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from...

  20. Basics of Photometry Photometry: Basic Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    Basics of Photometry #12;Photometry: Basic Questions · How do you identify objects in your image type of object you're studying? #12;#12;#12;Topics 1. General Considerations 2. Stellar Photometry 3. Galaxy Photometry #12;I: General Considerations 1. Garbage in, garbage out... 2. Object Detection 3

  1. ORISE: Collaboration with the CDC yields Radiation Basics Made...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Making a Difference Radiation Basics Made Simple, the first in a series of online training modules developed by the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for...

  2. Basic First Aid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoessow, Courtney

    2005-09-30

    Keep this list handy so you'll know how to give basic first aid to treat cuts, heat exhaustion, and other accidents and injuries.

  3. EFFICIENT OXYGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    EFFICIENT OXYGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANE Summary of technology Oxygen can be separated from air using a uniquely structured ceramic ion transport membrane for oxygen separation thatshowsremarkablyhighflux © Curtin University 2013 Gas diffusion in conventional membrane Gas diffusion in new membrane New membrane

  4. Basic principle of superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-11-10

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  5. Basic Microfluidic Lithographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    CHAPTER 2 Basic Microfluidic and Soft Lithographic Techniques Sindy K.Y. Tang and George M in these devices are based on those developed for microfluidics used in biochemical anal- ysis. This chapter describes the basic ideas of microfluidics. We first summarize the materials most commonly used

  6. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  7. America Makes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    America Makes advances additive manufacturing technology and products, and serves as a nationally recognized additive manufacturing center of innovation excellence, working to transform the U.S. manufacturing sector and yield significant advancements throughout industry. America Makes was formerly called the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII).

  8. Basics of Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatov, A.M. [Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15

    The paper presents an introductory review of the basic physical processes in dusty plasmas. The topics to be addressed are dust charging, forces acting on dust grains, interaction between dust grains, and dust-plasma structures.

  9. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting a Biomass Basics Webinar on August 27, 2015, from 4:00-4:40pm EDT. This webinar will provide high school students and teachers with background...

  10. Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas Some Examples Least Squares Statistical View of Least Squares of Least Squares #12;Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas Some Examples Least Squares Basic Ideas Suppose #12;Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas Some Examples Least Squares Basic Ideas Suppose we have two

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  12. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  13. Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Basics Energy Basics Below is information about the student activitylesson plan from your search. Grades K-4, 5-8 Subject Energy Basics Summary Students will complete a...

  14. Notes on basic algebraic geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-06-16

    Jun 16, 2008 ... Notes on basic algebraic geometry ...... Having discovered the basic equation ..... back to a rational function on X. Thus we get a nonzero ...

  15. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Intellectual Patent Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Intellectual Property Patent Basics Roland W. Norris Pauley Petersen Kinne & Erickson 2800 W;Introduction Intellectual property: Patents Trademarks Copyrights Trade Secrets #12;What is a Patent? A right For the term of the patent 20 years from date of filing of earliest related patent or application #12;A

  17. Cost Sharing Basics Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Cost Sharing Basics Definitions Some funding agencies require the grantee institution the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may resources or facilities. If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing

  18. CLIMATE PRODUCTS Basic Climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE PRODUCTS Basic Climatology Colorado Climate Center Funding provided by NOAA Sectoral the computer or a telephone system Data are collected by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), where) The original observations relate to WEATHER, not CLIMATE. But if we look at this information over a much longer

  19. WEATHER HAZARDS Basic Climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WEATHER HAZARDS Basic Climatology Colorado Climate Center Funding provided by NOAA Sectoral) Wildfires (Jun 02) Recent Declared Disasters in Colorado No Map from FEMA provided #12;National Weather and Warnings Outlook Indicates that hazardous weather may develop ­ useful to those who need considerable

  20. Nuclear Reactions Some Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Nuclear Reactions Some Basics I. Reaction Cross Sections #12;Common Units in Nuclear Physics sphere: = (4r2)/r2 = 4 (sr)steradians r A 2 = (r)radians r s = r A O s r O #12;Types of Nuclear Reactions · When a particle strikes a nucleus, the resulting interaction is referred to as a "nuclear

  1. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  2. Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel Kristie A. Henchir University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs currently of the lung, which is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide. Current artificial lungs are also

  3. Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

  4. Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kai

    Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU) Some graphs courtesy of KJLesker, Edwards, Veeco #12;I. VacuumI. Vacuum 1 atm= 760 torr = 1.0132 bar = 1.013x105 Pa = 14.7 psi Rough Vacuum (RV) 1 torr ­ 760 torrg ( ) Medium Vacuum (MV) 10-5 torr

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  6. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  7. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  8. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make FuelsBioindustryWBSBiomass 2014Basics:

  9. Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintock and PrincipalBasic Energy

  10. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12Working withPhoto of theSolarHydrogen Basics

  11. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  12. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  13. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  14. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  15. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  16. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  17. Modeling In situ sediment oxygen demand in the Arroyo Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasprzak, Kevin Ray

    2001-01-01

    and are targeted for rehabilitation under the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. In some rivers, sediment oxygen demand (SOD) accounts for as much as 50% of the total oxygen depletion, making SOD a critical element in water quality modeling studies. SOD...

  18. Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

  19. Introduction Basics of gravity theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    Introduction Basics of gravity theory Actions and Field Equations Phenomenology Discussion;Introduction Basics of gravity theory Actions and Field Equations Phenomenology Discussion and Conclusions Victoria U of Wellington - Feb 2nd 2009 #12;Introduction Basics of gravity theory Actions and Field

  20. Coding theory basics Toric codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from the toric world Higher-dimensional polytopes. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from the toric world(!) John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from

  1. Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hite, Larry R. (Dallas, TX); Houston, Ted (Richardson, TX); Matloubian, Mishel (Dallas, TX)

    1989-01-01

    The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

  2. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make FuelsBioindustryWBSBiomass 2014

  3. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  4. Environmental Education: Back to Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1994-01-01

    to the topic of environmental education, and has greatlyEnvironmental Education: Back to Basics Frederick W. Stoss environmental education. These resources are

  5. Health Care Basics: Choosing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    2012 Health Care Basics: Choosing the Best Option for Your Health "Creating A More Educated Georgia" #12;Health Care Basics 2 Medical Options for Plan Year 2012 The University System of Georgia's Plan of Regents will offer the following health care options: · Blue Choice HMO · Kaiser Permanente HMO · HSA Open

  6. A calcium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report preliminary work performed in their laboratory on a high-temperature electrochemically reversible calcium-oxygen cell. Following an analogous strategy to that recently discussed for the lithium-oxygen secondary system, this calcium-oxygen cell utilizes stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes to achieve effective separation between half-cell reactions.

  7. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  8. Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts 2005 - 2009 #12;LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Some Basic..........................................................................................................................30 Feeder High Schools

  9. Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts 2006 - 2010 #12;LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Some Basic..........................................................................................................................30 Feeder High Schools

  10. Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts 2004 - 2008 #12;LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Some Basic...........................................................................................................29 Feeder High Schools

  11. Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    Louisiana Tech University Some Basic Facts 2007 - 2011 #12;LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Some Basic..........................................................................................................................30 Feeder High Schools

  12. Electrolysis of Molten Iron Oxide with an Iridium Anode: The Role of Electrolyte Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-free, electrochemical technique to decompose a metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas. From an environmental perspective what makes MOE attractive is its ability ...

  13. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  14. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  15. Accounting Basic Terms and Concepts 1FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Accounting Basic Terms and Concepts 1FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Office of the Controller There are a few things you need to understand in order to make sense of the OMNI General Ledger and the accounting reports. What is a General Ledger? A listing of the accounts for your department or project (or the entire

  16. School of Basic Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    School of Basic Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine M.D./Ph.D PROGRAM ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROCEDURES #12;Objective: The combined M.D./Ph.D. program within the College of Medicine at the University will make major contributions via translational medicine to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of human

  17. PATENT LAW BASICS 1. What is a Patent?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PATENT LAW BASICS 1. What is a Patent? A patent is an agreement between an inventor and the government, granting the inventor the right, for a limited period, to exclude others from making, using is "to promote the progress of science and the useful arts..." While an inventor may financially benefit

  18. 3) What makes a species invasive? i) Disturbance and land use hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    changes in the extent and frequency of disturbance to an ecosystem #12;3) What makes a species invasive? i3) What makes a species invasive? i) Disturbance and land use hypothesis Basic concepts: · Many;3) What makes a species invasive? i) Disturbance and land use hypothesis Basic concepts: · Invasive

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  20. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  1. Cosmic Particle Acceleration: Basic Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. W. Jones

    2000-12-22

    Cosmic-rays are ubiquitous, but their origins are surprisingly difficult to understand. A review is presented of some of the basic issues common to cosmic particle accelerators and arguments leading to the likely importance of diffusive shock acceleration as a general explanation. The basic theory of diffusive shock acceleration is outlined, followed by a discussion of some of the key issues that still prevent us from a full understanding of its outcomes. Some recent insights are mentioned at the end that may help direct ultimate resolution of our uncertainties.

  2. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles...

  3. BASIC TOOLS FOR COMPUTING IN MULTIGRADED RINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    BASIC TOOLS FOR COMPUTING IN MULTIGRADED RINGS MARTIN KREUZER the useful characteristics of basic tools and some of the more advanced, and less frequently used, tools

  4. Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. Viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Basic energy properties...

  5. Basic Research Needs: Catalysis for Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Alexis T.; Gates, Bruce C.; Ray, Douglas; Thompson, Michael R.

    2008-03-11

    The report presents results of a workshop held August 6-8, 2007, by DOE SC Basic Energy Sciences to determine the basic research needs for catalysis research.

  6. Health Care Buildings : Basic Characteristics Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Basic Characteristics Tables Buildings and Size Data by Basic Characteristics for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million...

  7. Harmonic Morphisms -Basics Sigmundur Gudmundsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Sigmundur

    Harmonic Morphisms - Basics Sigmundur Gudmundsson Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science Lund University Sigmundur.Gudmundsson@math.lu.se March 11, 2014 #12;Harmonic Maps in Gaussian Geometry Harmonic Maps in Riemannian Geometry Outline 1 Harmonic Maps in Gaussian Geometry Holomorphic Functions in One

  8. Topics in Basic Maser Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshe Elitzur

    2001-05-11

    This review covers some of the developments in basic theory of astronomical masers over the past ten years. Topics included are the effects of three dimensional geometry and polarization, with special emphasis on the differences between maser and non-maser radiation.

  9. RESEARCH PROJECTS A Basic research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25 7 RESEARCH PROJECTS A Basic research SOFT SENSOR METHODS TO IMPROVE COMPETENCE OF INDUSTRIAL, Oulu University Duration of the project: 2000-2004 The aim is to improve the competence of industrial. #12;26 B Energy and process automation INTERACTION BETWEEN WOOD AND DEFIBRATION MEDIA IN GRINDING

  10. Basic Biomedical Sciences and the Future of Medical Education: Implications for Internal Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    siblings of Brass: Basic Biomedical Sciences and the FutureNorman GR. The role of biomedical knowledge in diagnosis ofIt all make sense: biomedical knowledge, causal connections

  11. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  12. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  14. Regulations and Basic Information Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Regulations and Basic Information Table of Contents Safe and Effective Use.) for Various Quantities of Water

  15. Sandia Energy - Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen GenerationTechnologies |Education STEMABasic Energy Sciences

  16. The NIEHS Superfund basic research and training program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Superfund Basic Research and Training Program; Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Basic Research and Training Program (SBRP) was established in 1986 by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This is a unique program of basic research and training grants directed towards understanding, assessing and attenuating the adverse effects on human health resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. The research findings from this program are being used by state, local, and federal agencies, private organizations and industry in making decisions related to the management of hazardous substances. Many innovative technologies for detecting, assessing and reducing toxic materials in the environment have been developed as a result of funding by the SBRP. To assist grantees, the SBRP has developed a technology transfer strategy designed to handle the unique problems associated with transferring multidisciplinary technology from basic research to applied research.

  17. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  18. Aging and decision making 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Sophie

    2010-06-30

    The study sought to clarify the effects of aging in regard to decision making abilities. Decision making is dependent upon the Frontal Cortex structures; the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. These structures are thought...

  19. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  20. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1995-04-18

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance. 8 figs.

  1. The Basicity of Texas Soils. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1929-01-01

    mixture of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia in proper proportions will not affect the acidity of the soil. THE BASICITY OF TEXAS SOILS 7 The importance of these characteristics of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda depencls upon various... to the effect of fertilizer an the reaction of soils. Some fertilizer materials, such as sulphate of ammonia, have a tendency to cause the soil to become acid. Sulphate ,of ammonia reacts with the replaceable bases in the soil silicates; the ammonia replaces...

  2. Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein Khalil HusseinH2FASTCELLHydrogenation ofBasics

  3. Biofuels Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO QuizResults in First Algae SurfboardBasics »

  4. Biopower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO QuizResults in FirstJuneBiomassBiopower Basics

  5. Which oxygenates is right for you?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent announcements of additional sources of oxygenates have generated considerable interest. Increasing demand for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) worldwide, especially in the United States for oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline (RFG), provides the primary incentive for technologies that produce additional raw material (namely isobutene) and/or alternative oxygenate compounds. Normal butene isomerization and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) are two new processes introduced in 1992 to meet the oxygenate demand. The U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have created a huge demand for capital. Between 1991 and 2000, the U.S. refining industry will need to make capital expenditures of about $37 billion (1990 dollars) to meet refinery regulatory requirements, and to manufacture reformulated gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. To obtain financing, whether internally or from external sources, projects must provide sound economics and pose minimal technological risks. These concerns have prevented several large MTBE projects, involving both established and new technologies, from going forward. The introduction of normal butene isomerization and DIPE processes has generated a great deal of enthusiasm, but neither process had been licensed by the third quarter of 1993. Technology risk is a major barrier to obtaining financing inasmuch as lenders arc unlikely to finance the first commercial application of any technology. Currently, Texas Olefins/Phillips Petroleum and Lyondell have demonstrated normal butene isomerization on a commercial scale in their plants. However, Mobil has not demonstrated the DIPE process beyond the pilot plant stage. In this paper, we assess the technological aspects of normal butene isomerization and DIPE processes, and compare their economics with existing etherification processes.

  6. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  7. 3) What makes a species invasive? d) Variable resource availability hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    3) What makes a species invasive? d) Variable resource availability hypothesis Davis et al. (2000) Basic concepts: · In most plant communities at most times, most of the resources that are available makes a species invasive? d) Variable resource availability hypothesis Davis et al. (2000) Basic

  8. Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    our visible light, radio and television waves, ultra violet (UV), and microwaves with a large spectrum speed particles and electromagnetic waves. We encounter electromagnetic waves every day. They make up of energies. These examples of electromagnetic waves do not cause ionizations of atoms because they do

  9. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating...

  10. BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING FINE-TUNE THE FUNDAMENTALS DRIVE SAFELY WORK WEEK: FRIDAY an occasional refresher. In fact, most company fleet safety programs emphasize basic skills and defensive

  11. Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 1 - In situ sensors G. D. Quartly, T. H. Guymer-320 #12;#12;Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 1 ± In situ sensors G. D. Quartly, T. H

  12. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use was held May 13-15, 2003 to assess the basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. This report is based on t

  13. University of North Carolina Basic Spending Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    University of North Carolina Wilmington Basic Spending Guidelines by Fund Source July 1, 2009 University of North Carolina Wilmington Basic Spending Guidelines by Fund Source #12;1 Table of Contents July

  14. Basic Instructor Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Basic Instructor Training Basic Instructor Training January 22, 2015 - 5:54pm Addthis The Emergency Operations Training Academy, NA 40.2, Readiness and Training, Albuquerque, NM is...

  15. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  16. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-01

    Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy. This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses.

  17. Civil Defence Manual of Basic Training volume II: Basic methods of protection against high explosive missiles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1949-01-01

    H0ME OFFICE CIVIL DEFENCE Manual of Basic Training VOLUME II BASIC METHODS OF PROTECTION AGAINST HIGH EXPLOSIVE MISSILES PAMPHLET No 5

  18. On the relationship between auroral and nebular oxygen line intensities in spectra of HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2005-04-18

    We investigate relationships between observed auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in spectra of HII regions. We find a relation that is metallicity-dependent at low metallicities, but becomes independent of metallicity (within the uncertainties of the available data) above 12+logO/H ~ 8.25, i.e. there is one-to-one correspondance (the ff - relation) between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in spectra of high-metallicity HII regions. The ff - relation allows one to estimate the flux in the auroral line from strong oxygen line measurements. This solves the problem of the electron temperature (and, consequently, abundance) determination in high-metallicity HII regions. The ff - relation confirms the basic idea of the empirical method, proposed by Pagel et al. (1979) a qurter of a century ago, that the oxygen abundance in HII region can be estimated from the strong oxygen lines measurements only.

  19. Stabilization of basic oxygen furnace slag by hot-stage carbonation treatment Rafael M. Santos a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 3001 Leuven, Belgium b KU Leuven, Dept. Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 for heavy metal leaching, is a costly burden on metallurgi- cal plants; a sustainable valorization route

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  2. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo,...

  3. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-10-14

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  4. Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

    2003-12-30

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  5. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-08-05

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  6. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  7. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  8. Process of making structure for a MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasco, W.D.; Arendt, R.H.

    1985-04-03

    A process of making a porous carbonate-containing structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed, wherein a suitable porous structure is prepared having disposed therein a metal salt selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals or mixtures thereof with at least a portion of the salt being a monobasic organic acid salt. The monobasic acid salt is converted to the carbonate in situ by heating in the presence of oxygen. Both electrode and electrolyte structures can be prepared. Formic acid is preferred.

  9. Process for making structure for a MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasco, Wayne D. (Scotia, NY); Arendt, Ronald H. (Schenectady, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A process of making a porous carbonate-containing structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell, wherein a suitable porous structure is prepared having disposed therein a metal salt selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals or mixtures thereof with at least a portion of the salt being a monobasic organic acid salt. The monobasic acid salt is converted to the carbonate in situ by heating in the presence of oxygen. Both electrode and electrolyte structures can be prepared. Formic acid is preferred.

  10. NOVA Making Stuff Season 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were successful in raising awareness and sparking interest in innovation, and increased public awareness that basic research leads to technological innovation; this interest was also sustained over a six month period. Efforts to create an online community of practice were also successful: the quality of collaboration increased, and community members felt supported while using Maker pedagogy. These findings provide clear evidence that large-scale science media projects like MS2 are an effective means of “moving the needle” on attitudes about and excitement for science. NOVA’s broadcast audience and ratings have always indicated that a large portion of the population is interested in and engages with educational science media on a weekly basis. Yet these evaluation results provide the empirical evidence that beyond being capable of attracting, maintaining, and growing a dedicated group of citizens interested in science, these shows—with their diverse content provided on a variety of media channels—are capable of sparking new interest in science, raising public awareness of the importance of science, and maintaining and growing that interest over time. In a country where approximately a quarter of the population doesn’t know the earth rotates around the sun,1 roughly half still don’t accept evolution,2 and about 20% don’t think climate change is happening,3 the importance of these findings cannot be overstated. The success of MS2 suggests that large-scale media projects dedicated to and linked by coverage of scientific “big ideas” are an effective means of shifting public opinion on—and improving understanding of—science. REFERENCES 1, 2 National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators (2014). Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding. 3 Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., Feinberg, G., & Rosenthal, S. (2014) Climate change in the American mind: April, 2014. Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.

  11. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  12. Essays in decision making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tom Y., 1976-

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of individual decision making on the functioning of firms and markets. The first chapter examines how deviations from strict rationality by individuals impact the market for consumer goods. ...

  13. Application of a Differential Fuel-Cell Analyzer for Measuring Atmospheric Oxygen Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Application of a Differential Fuel-Cell Analyzer for Measuring Atmospheric Oxygen Variations available differential fuel-cell analyzer has been adapted to make field-based ppm-level measurements of implementation of the fuel-cell analyzer make it particularly useful for a wide range of unattended field

  14. Basic category theory -Monads Gouter des doctorants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    Basic category theory - Monads Gouter des doctorants Jérémy Dubut LSV, ENS Cachan Friday, 3rd April, 2015 Jérémy Dubut (LSV, ENS Cachan) Basic category theory - Monads Friday, 3rd April, 2015 1 / 8 #12.bind(f y, g)) Jérémy Dubut (LSV, ENS Cachan) Basic category theory - Monads Friday, 3rd April, 2015 2 / 8

  15. Basic category theory -Limits Gouter des doctorants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    Basic category theory - Limits Gouter des doctorants Jérémy Dubut LSV, ENS Cachan Friday, 3rd April, 2015 Jérémy Dubut (LSV, ENS Cachan) Basic category theory - Limits Friday, 3rd April, 2015 1 / 8 #12 not necessarily exist Jérémy Dubut (LSV, ENS Cachan) Basic category theory - Limits Friday, 3rd April, 2015 2 / 8

  16. National Laboratory] Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Achievements of structural genomics Terwilliger, Thomas C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science Biological Science Abstract Not...

  17. Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  18. Future steelmaking technologies and the role of basic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The steel industry is going through a technological revolution which will not only change how steel is produced but, also, the entire structure of the industry. The drivers for the new or improved technologies, including reduction in capital requirements, possible shortages in raw materials such as coke and low residual scrap, environmental concerns and customer demands are briefly examined. The current status of research and development in the US and selected international producers was examined. As expected, it was found that the industry`s research capabilities have been greatly reduced. Furthermore, less than half of the companies which identified a given technology as critical have significant R and D programs addressing the technology. Examples of how basic research aided in process improvements in the past are given. The examples include demonstrating how fundamentals of reaction kinetics, improved nitrogen control, thermodynamics of systems helped reduce nozzle clogging and fluid flow studies reduced defects in casting. However, in general, basic research did not play a major role in processes previously developed, but helped understanding and aided optimization. To have a major impact, basic research must be focused and be an integral part of any new process development. An example where this has been done successfully is the AISI Direct Ironmaking and Waste Oxide Recycle Projects in which fundamental studies on reduction, slag foaming, and post combustion reactions have led to process understanding, control and optimization. Industry leaders recognize the value and need for basic research but insist it be truly relevant and done with industry input. From these examples the lessons learned on how to make basic research more effective are discussed.

  19. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  20. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  1. Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 2 - Space-borne sensors G. D. Quartly, T. H. Guymer-366 & ii #12;#12;Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 2 ­ Space-borne sensors G. D. Quartly, T are present the measure- ment will correspond to the cloud-top tem- peratures (see Fig. 1, back cover

  2. Patent Information Basics Andrea Twiss-Brooks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ober, Carole

    Patent Information Basics Andrea Twiss-Brooks Bibliographer for Chemistry, Physics, Geophysical Patent Information Basics What are patents? Where do patents come from? Where will I see patent references? How do I find the full text of a patent? Where to go for more information? #12;11/30/2006Page 3

  3. 1 Internet Basics evolution of the web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verschelde, Jan

    Outline 1 Internet Basics evolution of the web IP addresses and URLs client/server and HTTP 2 and the internet L-18 23 February 2015 1 / 29 #12;networking and the internet markup languages 1 Internet Basics in browser 5 Summary + Assignments Intro to Computer Science (MCS 260) networking and the internet L-18 23

  4. BASICS IP PC104 Security Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BASICS IP PC104 Security Policy Version: 1.2 Vocality International Ltd. Revision Date: 1 June 2012 revision. #12;Vocality International Ltd. Document Version 1.1 BASICS IP PC104 Security Policy Page 2 of 21 ........................................................................................................................................ 9 5 Identification and Authentication Policy

  5. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  6. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  7. Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 tutorial: Outlook basics 1 Outlook basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 tutorial: Outlook basics 1 Outlook basics Outlook is a powerful...................................................................................................................... 2 2. Explore the Outlook user interface. · Create a calendar event. Requirements · Outlook for Mac 2011 · E-mail account information (for example

  8. What Questions Do You Have About 'Energy Basics'?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Basics is a resource to help answer all of your "basic" questions about energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies.

  9. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  10. ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009 OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT & REGISTRATION INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009 OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT & REGISTRATION INFORMATION ACT Basic Training ­ May 8, 2009 PURPOSE: The ACT Basic Training is designed to help staff who are new to Assertive Community Treatment

  11. Analysis of two basic variables of timeout 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zella, William Francis

    1974-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF TWO BASIC VARIABLES OF TIMEOUT A Thesis WILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l974 Major Subjects... Psychology ANALYSI QF TWQ BASIC VARIABLES CF TINEQU '. A Thesis V/ILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Approved as to s+yle and content bye Chairman of Commi, ee Head of De artment) (Membe Member) Member ABSTRACT Analysis of Two Basic Variables of Timeout. (August...

  12. Method for making nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

    2013-06-04

    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  13. Making IGCC slag valuable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicker, K.

    2005-12-01

    All indications are that integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology will play a major role in tomorrow's generation industry. But before it does, some by-products of the process must be dealt with, for example unburned carbon that can make IGCC slag worthless. Charah Inc.'s processing system, used at Tampa Electric's Polk Station for years, segregates the slag's constituents by size, producing fuel and building materials. 3 figs.

  14. Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

  15. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01

    of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated...

  16. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  17. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  18. Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soma, Takako

    1996-01-01

    chemistry. The oxidation reactions of metal thiolates by hydrogen peroxide, molecular oxygen, dioxiranes, and peracids have been reviewed. The compounds resulting from oxidation and oxygenation of nickel thiolate complexes have been isolated, separated...

  19. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely...

  1. Hydropower Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Water Power Technologies Office. Addthis Related Articles Hydropower Technology Basics Glossary of Energy-Related Terms DOE Launches High-Tech Research Buoys to Advance U.S....

  2. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  3. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  4. Method of making an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer.

  5. Method of making an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1986-07-01

    Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer. 2 figs.

  6. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  7. Ribbon cutting makes history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serialIndustrial ConsumptionRibbon cutting makes

  8. Highly-basic large-pore zeolite catalysts for NOx reduction at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Vogtlin, George E.

    2004-02-03

    A high-surface-area (greater than 600 m2/g), large-pore (pore size diameter greater than 6.5 angstroms), basic zeolite having a structure such as an alkali metal cation-exchanged Y-zeolite is employed to convert NO.sub.x contained in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust to N.sub.2 and O.sub.2. Preferably, the invention relates to a two-stage method and apparatus for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust such as diesel engine exhaust that includes a plasma oxidative stage and a selective reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and added hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean-NO.sub.x catalyst including the basic zeolite at relatively low temperatures to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O.

  9. Introduction to Information Systems Hardware basics, computer networks and architectures, proto-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Teaching Introduction to Information Systems Hardware basics, computer networks and architectures on a use case from the information systems practice by making use of already acquired methods and concepts and documentation. Contact Prof. Dr. Frank Teuteberg c/o Univserity of Osnabrueck Accounting and Information Systems

  10. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  11. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2005-09-20

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  12. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH)

    2009-09-22

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  13. Method of making L-dopa from L-tyrosine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xun, L.; Lee, J.Y.

    1998-11-17

    The invention is a method of making a L-dopa from L-tyrosine in the presence of an enzyme catalyst and oxygen. By starting with L-tyrosine, no variant of the L-dopa is produced and the L-dopa is stable in the presence of the enzyme catalyst. In other words, the reaction favors the L-dopa and is not reversible. 3 figs.

  14. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  15. Making silicon stronger.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, Brad Lee

    2010-11-01

    Silicon microfabrication has seen many decades of development, yet the structural reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is far from optimized. The fracture strength of Si MEMS is limited by a combination of poor toughness and nanoscale etch-induced defects. A MEMS-based microtensile technique has been used to characterize the fracture strength distributions of both standard and custom microfabrication processes. Recent improvements permit 1000's of test replicates, revealing subtle but important deviations from the commonly assumed 2-parameter Weibull statistical model. Subsequent failure analysis through a combination of microscopy and numerical simulation reveals salient aspects of nanoscale flaw control. Grain boundaries, for example, suffer from preferential attack during etch-release thereby forming failure-critical grain-boundary grooves. We will discuss ongoing efforts to quantify the various factors that affect the strength of polycrystalline silicon, and how weakest-link theory can be used to make worst-case estimates for design.

  16. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 20082008707Oxygenate

  17. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-01

    II. The Unity of Theory and Computation in the Basic Energy29 THEORY AND COMPUTATION IN BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES III V.Why Invest Now in Theory and Computation in the Basic Energy

  18. GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORPORATION BASIC RESEARCH MASTER AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    1 GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORPORATION BASIC RESEARCH MASTER AGREEMENT Effective Date: ________________ Basic Research Master Agreement Number: ______________ THIS BASIC RESEARCH MASTER AGREEMENT is made that authorizes performance of specific research under this Master Agreement. Task Orders shall use the sample

  19. Developments in ITM oxygen technology for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, V.E.E.; Richards, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), an Air Products-led team (with Ceramatec, Eltron Research, McDermott Technology, NREC, Texaco, the Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Pennsylvania) is developing a new technology for air separation - Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen - based on the use of mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that have both electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity when operated at high temperature, typically 800 to 900 C. Under the influence of an oxygen partial-pressure driving force, the ITM Oxygen process achieves a high-purity, high-flux separation of oxygen from a compressed-air stream. By integrating the energy-rich, oxygen-depleted, non-permeate stream with a gas turbine system, the ITM Oxygen process becomes a co-producer of high-purity oxygen, power, and steam. Under a recent CRADA entitled ``Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) for Oxygen-Blown IGCC Systems and Indirect Coal Liquefaction,'' Air Products and DOE completed an initial quantification of the benefits of an ITM Oxygen-integrated IGCC facility. Compared to the cryogenic oxygen base case, the ITM Oxygen technology can potentially: reduce total installed costs by 7%; improve thermal efficiency for the integrated IGCC system by about 3%, leading to further decreases in carbon dioxide and sulfur emissions; and reduce the cost of generated electric power by more than 6%. The ITM Oxygen development project will proceed in three phases. Phase 1, which commenced under a DOE Cooperative Agreement in October 1998, is a 3-year effort focusing on construction of a technology development unit (TDU) for process concept validation tests at a capacity of 0.1 ton-per-day (TPD) oxygen. To accomplish this objective, the Air Products team will address relevant technical challenges in ITM Oxygen materials, engineering, membrane module development, and performance testing. During Phase 1 the team will also verify the economic prospects for integrating ITM Oxygen technology with IGCC and other advanced power generation systems. After at least one intermediate scaleup, Phase 2 and 3 activities will culminate with scaleup to a 25- to 50-TPD pre-commercial demonstration unit, fully integrated with a gas turbine. Meeting these challenges of developing cost-effective fabrication techniques for ITM Oxygen devices, and successfully integrating them with commercially available gas turbine engines, is key to bringing ITM Oxygen technology to the marketplace.

  20. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  1. Operationalization of Basic Observables in Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This novel approach to the foundation of the physical theory begins with thought experiments on measurement practice like Einstein for relativistic Kinematics. For a similar foundation of Dynamics one can start from Hermann von Helmholtz analysis of basic measurements. We define energy, momentum and mass from elemental ordering relations for "capability to execute work" and "impact" in a collision and apply Helmholtz program for quantification. From simple pre-theoretic (principle of inertia, impossibility of Perpetuum Mobile, relativity principle) and measurement methodical principles we derive all fundamental equations of Mechanics. We explain the mathematical formalism from the operationalization of basic observables.

  2. FEMA: Family Basic Disaster Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    directions below on filling the container with water. If you choose to use your own storage containers the bottle to the top with regular tap water. If the tap water has been commercially treated from a waterFEMA: Family Basic Disaster Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home: Water

  3. HTML Just the Basics Page 1 of 6 HTML Just the Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Tags Webpages are made of HTML tags placed around text to tell the web browser how to display itHTML Just the Basics Page 1 of 6 HTML Just the Basics Index of Commonly Used Tags Bold, 6 and runs on way past where you intended, check for a missing end tag. When you first learn HTML

  4. Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Life Technologies Corporation and LANL have...

  5. DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements June 4, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis...

  6. Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds) Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for...

  7. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous...

  8. Guidance on Basic Best Practices in Management of Energy Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Basic Best Practices in Management of Energy Performance Buildings Guidance on Basic Best Practices in Management of Energy Performance Buildings Building energy management best...

  9. Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Download presentation slides and a text...

  10. OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements...

  11. Merging parton showers and matrix elements -- back to basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavesson, Nils

    2008-01-01

    We make a thorough comparison between different schemes of merging fixed-order tree-level matrix element generators with parton-shower models. We use the most basic benchmark of the O(alpha_S) correction to e+e- -> jets, where the simple kinematics allows us to study in detail the transition between the matrix-element and parton-shower regions. We find that the CKKW-based schemes give a reasonably smooth transition between these regions, although problems may occur if the parton shower used is not ordered in transverse momentum. However, the so-called Pseudo-Shower and MLM schemes turn out to have potentially serious problems due to different scale definitions in different regions of phase space, and due to sensitivity to the details in the initial conditions of the parton shower programs used.

  12. Merging parton showers and matrix elements -- back to basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nils Lavesson; Leif Lonnblad

    2008-04-23

    We make a thorough comparison between different schemes of merging fixed-order tree-level matrix element generators with parton-shower models. We use the most basic benchmark of the O(alpha_S) correction to e+e- -> jets, where the simple kinematics allows us to study in detail the transition between the matrix-element and parton-shower regions. We find that the CKKW-based schemes give a reasonably smooth transition between these regions, although problems may occur if the parton shower used is not ordered in transverse momentum. However, the so-called Pseudo-Shower and MLM schemes turn out to have potentially serious problems due to different scale definitions in different regions of phase space, and due to sensitivity to the details in the initial conditions of the parton shower programs used.

  13. Evaluation of GaN substrates grown in supercritical basic ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Makoto; Yamada, Hisashi; Iso, Kenji; Sato, Hitoshi; Hirasawa, Hirohiko; Kamber, Derrick S.; Hashimoto, Tadao; Baars, Steven P. den; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2009-02-02

    GaN crystals grown by the basic ammonothermal method were investigated for their use as substrates for device regrowth. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the substrates contained multiple grains while secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) revealed a high concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium. Despite these drawbacks, the emission from the light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on both the c-plane and m-plane epitaxial wafers was demonstrated. The SIMS depth profiles showed that the diffusion of the alkali metal from the substrate into the epitaxial film was small, especially in the m-direction.

  14. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  15. High Harmonic Generation Basic Techniques & Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    High Harmonic Generation Basic Techniques & Challenges C. Michael R. Greaves #12;Regimes-cycle laser fields #12;Outline · Optical Field Atomic Ionization · High Harmonic Generation (HHG-rays · References #12;Optical Field Atomic Ionization · Harmonics are generated by the tunneling, transport

  16. Basic Fourier Series Academic Resource Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Basic Fourier Series Academic Resource Center Workshop for BME by: Neha Bansal #12;Agenda · Fourier Series · Trigonometric Fourier Series · Compact Trigonometric Fourier Series · Examples o Square Waves o Sawtooth Waves · References #12;Fourier Series · A periodic function f(t) can be represented by an infinite

  17. Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests A. Checklist: Buffer type Addition of BSA Optimum temperature Number of units of enzyme B. Plan to digest DNA with an "excess" of enzyme activity. Plan for the "excess" to be divided between time of digestion and number of units of enzyme

  18. BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING BUCKLE UP! Seat belts should never have time off DRIVE the back seat to the front seat.4 ·The back is the best place for pets. According to AAA, similar. Never place the shoulder portion under your arm or behind your back! ·Drivers should sit with at least

  19. Hunter Outlook Web App Program Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Hunter ­ Outlook Web App #12;Program Basics · To Log In to Outlook Web App (OWA): o Open up your accessing your Outlook account: o OWA will typically default to the light version when it detects a mobile, click the Use the light version of Outlook Web App check box. o Enter your e-mail address and password

  20. Line geometry and electromagnetism I: basic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Delphenich

    2013-09-11

    Some key notions of line geometry are recalled, along with their application to mechanics. It is then shown that most of the basic structures that one introduces in the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism can be interpreted directly in terms of corresponding concepts in line geometry. The results are summarized in a table.

  1. Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills For anyone working in Georgia Tech Laboratories Deborah Wolfe-Lopez Laboratory and Chemical Safety Manager Georgia Tech EHS 404-382-2964 2010 #12 Hazardous Chemical Protection and Right to Know Law (RTK) RTK is the Georgia State Equivalent of the Federal

  2. NPTEL Syllabus Basic Electrical Circuits -Video course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    with an introduction to basic linear elements used in electrical circuits. Mesh and node analysis for systematic analysis of large circuits will be studied. Fundamental circuit theorems and their use in analysis steady state analysis for simple analysis of such circuits will be studied. The concepts of power

  3. Sam Madden Basically Everyone Except My Bank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Sam Madden Physicists Biologists Basically Everyone Except My Bank #12;· Benefit(DBMS) DBMS? · DBMS setup & boundary crossings painful ­ Especially if you have to do it multiple times! MATLAB a fleet of 40 cabs on Boston streets · Pipeline ­ Raw data in DBMS ­ Trajectories with Matlab ­ Queries

  4. Cyber Security Basic Defenses and Attack Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    37 38 39 40 41 4273 MTC 4 Cyber Security Basic Defenses and Attack Trends Alvaro A. Cárdenas, Tanya for a successful defense. Cyber security is the branch of security dealing with digital or information technology.1 This chapter presents a selected overview on topics in cyber security. 1. Throughout the chapter, we use

  5. ACCEPTANCE OF OFFER BASIC SCIENCE FACULTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACCEPTANCE OF OFFER BASIC SCIENCE FACULTY 2015 - 2016 By accepting this appointment I represent of the letter of offer, I fail to satisfy the above requirements, I understand that this letter of offer obtained if it is required as a condition of my employment. This offer and my acceptance are subject

  6. Cellular Automata: Basic Intro Professor Leigh Tesfatsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Cellular Automata: Basic Intro Professor Leigh Tesfatsion Economics Dept., Iowa State University What are Cellular Automata (CA)? Illustrative Examples: · John Conway's Game of Life · Schelling (2005), and Prof. Lars-Erik Cederman (2005). #12;What are Cellular Automata? #12;Illustrations of Simple

  7. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  8. Event simulation for colliders - A basic overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Reuschle

    2014-11-26

    In this article we will discuss the basic calculational concepts to simulate particle physics events at high energy colliders. We will mainly focus on the physics in hadron colliders and particularly on the simulation of the perturbative parts, where we will in turn focus on the next-to-leading order QCD corrections.

  9. Derived critical loci I -Basics Gabriele Vezzosi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vezzosi, Gabriele

    Derived critical loci I - Basics Gabriele Vezzosi Dipartimento di Sistemi ed Informatica Universit`a di Firenze Italy Notes ­ September 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Koszul complexes and derived zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2 Affine derived zero loci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2

  10. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  11. Making big data, in theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Tom

    2013-01-01

    2012, p. 668. 74. Hacking, 2006, p. 23. 75. Geertz, 1973, p.20 September 2013. Ian Hacking, 2006. “Making up people,”www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n16/ian-hacking/making-up-people, accessed

  12. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  13. Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature and lower environmental impacts make this the carbon-based fuel of choice well into the twenty-first century chemicals.1 There is additional need for new technologies which can also allow recovery of the many remote

  14. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  15. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel...

  16. Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Clarke Alan

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

  17. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells Xue Xia.R. China Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Penn State University, 231Q Sackett Building of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen

  18. Chiral perturbation theory: a basic introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Moussallam

    2004-09-01

    Chiral perturbation theory is a very general expansion method which can be applied to any dynamical system which has continuous global symmetries and in which the ground state breaks some of these spontaneously. In these lectures we explain at a basic level and in detail how such symmetries are identified in the case of the QCD Lagrangian and describe the steps which are involved in practice in the construction of a low-energy effective theory for QCD.

  19. Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCriticalEnergySilicon Cell Basics

  20. Basic Energy Sciences Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy and Forest ServicePowerOrderBasic Energy

  1. Hydrogen Production Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSofNewsletterGuidingUpdate WebinarProduction Basics Hydrogen

  2. DOE Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Basic Energy Sciences Overview Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research...

  3. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  4. 1 JUNE 2006 Bact to basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Images Circus Seals Interactives Virtual Science! Teacher Activities Nuts 'n Bolts Search Page 1 of 5The's called getting a two-fer. Bacteria battery Instead of using bacteria to make fuel, what about using them

  5. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is focusing on new and better ways to make liquid transportation fuels, or “biofuels,” like ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable gasoline. DOE is also investigating the potential of producing power and a range of products from biomass.

  6. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  7. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  8. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  10. On the oxygen abundance in our Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; F. Ferrini; R. V. Shkvarun

    2003-02-03

    The compilation of published spectra of Galactic HII regions with available diagnostic [OIII]4363 line has been carried out. Our list contains 71 individual measurements of 13 HII regions in the range of galactocentric distances from 6.6 to 14.8 kpc. The oxygen abundances in all the HII regions were recomputed in the same way, using the classic Te - method. The oxygen abundance at the solar galactocentric distance traced by those HII regions is in agreement with the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium in the solar vicinity derived with high precision from the interstellar absorption lines towards stars. The derived radial oxygen abundance distribution was compared with that for HII regions from the Shaver et al. (1983) sample which is the basis of many models for the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. It was found that the original Shaver et al.'s oxygen abundances are overestimated by 0.2-0.3 dex. Oxygen abundances in HII regions from the Shaver et al. sample have been redetermined with the recently suggested P - method. The radial distribution of oxygen abundances from the Shaver et al. sample redetermined with the P - method is in agreement with our radial distribution of (O/H)_Te abundances.

  11. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  12. NREL: Learning - Geothermal Electricity Production Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial ToolkitElectricity Production Basics

  13. Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCriticalEnergySilicon CellSystem Basics

  14. Basic ReseaRch DiRections

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nucleara min [TypeCommittee on theiBasic

  15. Basic Plasma Science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools toBadging, Badge Office Badging,Basic Plasma

  16. Hydrogen Safety Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSofNewsletterGuidingUpdate WebinarProduction BasicsHydrogenSafety

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBigBiodiesel Fuel Basics

  18. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO QuizResults in FirstJuneBiomass Resource Basics

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanolAFDC PrintableHybridBasics to

  20. Modulating tissue mechanics to increase oxygen delivery to tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, John Daniel, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors have low oxygen tension - hypoxia - that fuels disease progression and treatment resistance. Thus, strategies for alleviating hypoxia are needed. Two factors affect tissue oxygen levels: oxygen supply via blood ...

  1. Characterization of an oxygen suspension used for intravenous infusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peña, Kristen Helen

    2012-01-01

    Oxygenated fluid mixture can be used to treat critically ill patients suffering from asphyxia, lung injury, and cardiac arrest. This oxygenated fluid delivered intravenously re-oxygenates the bloodstream, allowing for more ...

  2. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  3. Method of making monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyon; Sun, Zaicheng

    2012-10-16

    A method of making particles of either spherical or cylindrical geometry with a characteristic diameter less than 50 nanometers by mixing at least one structure directing agent dissolved in a solvent with at least one amphiphilic block copolymer dissolved in a solvent to make a solution containing particles, where the particles can be subsequently separated and dispersed in a solvent of choice.

  4. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  5. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  6. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  7. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  8. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1998-12-01

    A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

  9. Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

    2012-01-01

    In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

  10. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Oxygen-17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaelis, Vladimir K.

    Oxygen-17-detected DNP NMR of a water/glycerol glass enabled an 80-fold enhancement of signal intensity at 82 K, using the biradical TOTAPOL. The >6000-fold savings in acquisition time enable [superscript 17]O–[superscript ...

  11. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01

    IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

  12. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source...

  13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat...

  14. Oxygen Enriched Combustion System Performance Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, S. L.; Kwan, Y.; Abele, A. R.; Silver, L. S.; Kobayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    i ndustri al furnaces, such as gl ass melting furnaces, appear to be the most promising appli cations for oxygen enriched combustion. In these applications, the principal energy savings results from minimizing the fuel energy required to heat... with non-water cooled refractory burner til es. The Oxytherm Burner was developed jointly by Maxon and Corning Glass for application of oxygen/fuel combustion in glass furnaces. This burner is also a non-water cooled refractory design with a specially...

  15. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  16. Atomic Oxygen in the Comae of Comets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anita L. Cochran

    2008-07-03

    We report on the detection of atomic oxygen lines in the spectra of 8 comets. These forbidden lines are a result of the photodissociation of the parent oxygen-bearing species directly into an excited state. We used high resolution spectra obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope to resolve the cometary oxygen lines from the telluric oxygen lines and from other cometary emissions. We find that the relative intensities of the two red lines (6300.304 and 6363.776A) are consistent with theory. The green line (5577.339A) has an intensity which is about 10% of the sum of the intensities of the two red lines. We show that collisional quenching may be important in the inner coma. If we assume the relative excitation rates of potential parents which have appeared in the literature, then H2O would be the parent of the cometary green oxygen line. However, those rates have been questioned. We measured the width of the three oxygen lines and find that the green line is wider than either of the two red lines. The finding of a wider line could imply a different parent for the green and red lines. However, the constancy of the green to red line flux ratio suggests the parent is the same for these lines but that the exciting photons have different energies.

  17. On Teaching the Basics of Complexity Theory \\Lambda Oded Goldreich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldreich, Oded

    On Teaching the Basics of Complexity Theory \\Lambda Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Science a good perspective on the basic notions and results of complexity theory, because these are of funda for teaching the basics of complexity theory. The two most important suggestions were already mentioned above

  18. Coding theory basics Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    Coding theory basics Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties Interlude ­ counting rational points theory basics Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties Interlude ­ counting rational points on varieties Cubic surfaces and codes Outline 1 Coding theory basics 2 Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties 3

  19. Illustration: Sean Kelly Back to basics for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, W. Stephen

    Illustration: Sean Kelly Back to basics for the "division clueless" DECEMBER 6, 2010 | BY LISA research in algebraic topology to question basic math education. At two well- regarded private schools to only 31 percent of the 2006 students. As another experiment, Wilson gave a short test of basic math

  20. PROCESSING TIP . . . BACK TO BASICS: REVISITING BLOOD COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navara, Kristen

    MAY 2009 PROCESSING TIP . . . BACK TO BASICS: REVISITING BLOOD COLLECTION Technological advances it is often a good idea to periodically step back from the small details and revisit the basics. One of these pollution prevention basics is blood collection. The potential impact of blood on poultry processing

  1. Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    #12;Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH Prepared in cooperation with the North Carolina., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology: U .S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220, 86 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data Heath, Ralph C . Basic ground-water hydrology (Geological Survey

  2. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  3. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  4. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  5. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  6. Glossary of terms Basic feasible solutions: A basic solution which is nonnegative.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    is made). For example, suppose that a gasoline is made by blending two types of crude oil, type A and type, then the leaving variable is the basic variable chosen is the one with the smallest index. Blending constraint: For a product made from a "blend" of different items, a constraint such that the percentage of one or more

  7. Process for selection of Oxygen-tolerant algal mutants that produce H.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghirardi, Maria L. (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising: (a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase; (b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature; (c) treating the cells from step (b) with metronidazole, sodium azide, and added oxygen to controlled concentrations in the presence of white light. (d) washing off metronidazole and sodium azide to obtain final cell suspension; (e) plating said final cell suspension on a minimal medium and incubating in light at a temperature sufficient to enable colonies to appear; (f) counting the number of colonies to determine the percent of mutant survivors; and (g) testing survivors to identify oxygen-tolerant H.sub.2 -producing mutants.

  8. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  9. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  10. Making big data, in theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Tom

    2013-01-01

    3.0 Unported License. Making big data, in theory by Tommethods for analyzing big data originate in mid-twentieth2012. “Critical questions for Big Data: Provocations for a

  11. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  12. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) amore »memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.« less

  13. Basic SCADA systems - from the sensors to the screen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlie, B.

    1995-12-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are specialized control systems used to monitor and control facilities which are geographically dispersed. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric, and water transmission and distribution industries. SCADA systems differ from other control systems in that they make extensive use of remote communications and are more tolerant to outages of the communications network than a typical control system installation in a plant environment. A basic SCADA system can be broken into five functional parts. These are: (1) Sensors and Actuators; (2) Remote Terminal Units (RTUs); (3) Communications Facilities; (4) Host Computer Systems; and (5) User Interfaces While the fundamental concepts of SCADA systems have changed little in the past 20 years, more sophisticated hardware and software has altered some of the traditional paradigms associated with these control systems. This is particularly true with respect to RTUs, host computer systems, and user interfaces. While this paper will focus on the fundamentals, it will attempt to provide the reader with current trends in the industry where applicable.

  14. High energy density lithium-oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1989-02-07

    A high energy density lithium-oxygen secondary cell is described comprising a lithium-containing negative electrode; a lithium ion conducting molten salt electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting and containing the molten salt electrolyte; and an oxygen redox positive electrode contacting the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte.

  15. Oxygen abundance of open cluster dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. -X. Shen; X. -W. Liu; H. -W. Zhang; B. Jones; D. N. C. Lin

    2007-03-30

    We present oxygen abundances of dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665 deduced from the OI $\\lambda$7774 triplet lines and of dwarfs in the open cluster Pleiades derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line. Stellar parameters and oxygen abundances were derived using the spectroscopic synthesis tool SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). We find a dramatic increase in the upper boundary of the OI triplet abundances with decreasing temperature in the dwarfs of IC 4665, consistent with the trend found by Schuler et al. in the open clusters Pleiades and M 34, and to a less extent in the cool dwarfs of Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006a) and UMa (King & Schuler 2005). By contrast, oxygen abundances derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line for stars in Pleiades and Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006b) are constant within the errors. Possible mechanisms that may lead a varying oxygen triplet line abundance are examined, including systematic errors in the stellar parameter determinations, the NLTE effects, surface activities and granulation. The age-related effects stellar surface activities (especially the chromospheric activities) are suggested by our analysis to blame for the large spreads of oxygen triplet line abundances.

  16. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieke, Peter C. (Pasco, WA); Coffey, Gregory W. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Singh, Prabhaker (Richland, WA); Thomsen, Edwin C. (Richland, WA)

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  17. Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope 2012 Keywords: oxygen isotope ratios crystalline silicate comet 81P/Wild 2 solar system formation Stardust Abstract: Oxygen three-isotope ratios of nine crystalline silicate particles from comet Wild 2

  18. Nucleosynthesis Basics and Applications to Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. -K. Thielemann; T. Rauscher; C. Freiburghaus; K. Nomoto; M. Hashimoto; B. Pfeiffer; K. -L. Kratz

    1998-02-06

    This review concentrates on nucleosynthesis processes in general and their applications to massive stars and supernovae. A brief initial introduction is given to the physics in astrophysical plasmas which governs composition changes. We present the basic equations for thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear reaction networks. The required nuclear physics input for reaction rates is discussed, i.e. cross sections for nuclear reactions, photodisintegrations, electron and positron captures, neutrino captures, inelastic neutrino scattering, and beta-decay half-lives. We examine especially the present state of uncertainties in predicting thermonuclear reaction rates, while the status of experiments is discussed by others in this volume (see M. Wiescher). It follows a brief review of hydrostatic burning stages in stellar evolution before discussing the fate of massive stars, i.e. the nucleosynthesis in type II supernova explosions (SNe II). Except for SNe Ia, which are explained by exploding white dwarfs in binary stellar systems (which will not be discussed here), all other supernova types seem to be linked to the gravitational collapse of massive stars (M$>$8M$_\\odot$) at the end of their hydrostatic evolution. SN1987A, the first type II supernova for which the progenitor star was known, is used as an example for nucleosynthesis calculations. Finally, we discuss the production of heavy elements in the r-process up to Th and U and its possible connection to supernovae.

  19. Making Compressed Air System Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5121 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MAKING COMPRESSED AIR... SYSTEM DECISIONS Richard E. Porri Product Manager ABSTRACT This paper presents a decision making process that will pennit the design, installation and operation ofa high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air...

  20. Making Progress | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED1,400 JobsDepartment of Energy76MajorMakingMaking

  1. Making CARS better Max Zimmerleya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Making CARS better Max Zimmerleya , Hyun Min Kima , Desiré Whitmorea , Vishnu Vardhan is presented of recent trends in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. We briefly discuss the influence of tissue scattering on the CARS signal, methods for controlling the CARS emission and prospects

  2. Web Intelligence to Make Strategic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Using Web Intelligence to Make Strategic (Business) Decisions Staffan Truvé, PhD Co-founder & CTO truve@recordedfuture.com #12;#12;#12;#12;Recorded Future · Web Intelligence · From data collection;#7 #12;#7 #12;#1 #12;#12;Sensors + predictive models #12;Web Intelligence Metrics UNSTRUCTURED TEXT

  3. 5. Making packages Thomas Lumley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Ken

    (>= 2.2.0) Suggests: survival, MASS, KernSmooth, hexbin, mitools, lattice, RSQLite, RODBC, quantreg: other packages this can make use of but doesn't need · URL: web page for package Also Imports for otherMethodsFrom(AnnotationDbi, Definition, GOID, Secondary, Synonym, as.list, colnames, dbmeta eapply, exists, get, ls, mappedRkeys, mget

  4. 5. Making packages Thomas Lumley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Ken

    (>= 2.2.0) Suggests: survival, MASS, KernSmooth, hexbin, mitools, lattice, RSQLite, RODBC, quantreg: other packages this can make use of but doesn't need · URL: web page for package Also Imports for otherMethodsFrom(AnnotationDbi, Definition, GOID, Secondary, Synonym, as.list, colnames, dbmeta eapply, exists, get, ls, mappedRkeys, mget

  5. FEATURE ARTICLES Group Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEATURE ARTICLES Group Decision Making in Honey Bee Swarms When 10,000 bees go house hunting, how a neighboring colony. A striking example of decision mak- ing by an animal group is the choice of a nesting site paper on house hunting by honey bees. Lindauer was then a postdtx:toral stu- dent at the University

  6. Detter, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory] Basic Biological

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Detter, John C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science...

  7. Lecture 13 Numerical integration: basics Weinan E1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tiejun

    @pku.edu.cn No.1 Science Building, 1575 #12;Motivations and ideas Basic techniques Extrapolation algorithm |I(f) - Ih(f)| Chp

  8. Safety, Codes and Standards - Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Safety, Codes & Standards Basics Safe Use of Hydrogen Codes...

  9. Technical Assistance Project (TAP) Revolving Loan Funds: Basics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project (TAP) Revolving Loan Funds: Basics and Best Practices Presentation by Texas LoanSTAR Manager Theresa Sifuentes from the Texas State Energy Conservation Office...

  10. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) + O{sub 3}(?) ? 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  11. An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    problems that can cause errors. First, the output of the cell is determined by the Nernst equation (B). (B) E RT 4r logn Pl P2 where E e.m.f. (potential) R Gas Co nstant T Absolute Temperature F Faraday Constant P2 Oxygen Partial Pressure...

  12. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  13. Contributions to risk-informed decision making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael A. (Michael Alfred)

    2010-01-01

    Risk-informed decision-making (RIDM) is a formal process that assists stakeholders make decisions in the face of uncertainty. At MIT, a tool known as the Analytic Deliberative Decision Making Process (ADP) has been under ...

  14. KH Computational Physics-2015 Basic Numerical Algorithms Ordinary differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    KH Computational Physics- 2015 Basic Numerical Algorithms Ordinary differential equations The set(xl) at certain points xl. Kristjan Haule, 2015 ­1­ #12;KH Computational Physics- 2015 Basic Numerical Algorithms purpose routine · Numerov's algorithm: ¨y = f(t)y(t) ( for Schroedinger equation) · Verlet algorithm: ¨y

  15. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    June 2014 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Issues of access, quality, equity and impact Sara Humphreys with Lee Crawfurd #12;Review of the literature on basic education in Nigeria EDOREN ­ Education Data, Research and Evaluation in Nigeria i Acknowledgements Thanks are due to many individuals who

  16. Title: Ontario Base Map (OBM) [Ontario Basic Mapping] Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Ontario Base Map (OBM) [Ontario Basic Mapping] Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario/A Publication Date: N/A Coverage Date(s): N/A Updates: N/A Abstract: In 1975, the Ontario Basic Mapping (OBM) Program was created to provide a common geographic database for the Province of Ontario. This OBM program

  17. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 Protocol Title: Training for Sealed Source Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

  18. Modular Termination of Basic Narrowing and Equational Unification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escobar, Santiago

    constraint solving [4, 5], partial evaluation [6], and model checking [17], among others. TerminationModular Termination of Basic Narrowing and Equational Unification Mar´ia Alpuente Santiago Escobar steps to a set of unblocked (or basic) positions. In this work, we study the modularity of termination

  19. BESAC Subcommittee Workshop Report 20-Year Basic Energy Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    BESAC Subcommittee Workshop Report on 20-Year Basic Energy Sciences Facilities Roadmap Co Labs/Lucent (BESAC) Gabrielle Long, NIST (BESAC) Gerhard Materlik, Diamond Light Source Ltd. Les Price (U. of CA San Diego) 8:15am - 8:30am Introduction from BES Pat Dehmer, Basic Energy Sciences 8:30am

  20. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

  1. Basics of Ion Scattering in Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Zhang, Yanwen

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions interact with materials by collisions with the nuclei and electrons of the atoms that make up the material. In these collisions energy and momentum is transferred from the projectile particle which is a moving atom or ion, to the target particles (atomic nucleus or electron). Each collision leads to a slowing down of the moving projectile and also a deflection of the trajectory which gives rise to the term scattering which is often used synonymously to describe the energy transfer process. In this chapter, we introduce from an experimental viewpoint the underlying theory for interaction of ions for analysis and modification of nanometer scale materials. A more detailed theoretical overview of the topic can be found in the recent monographs by Sigmund. Detailed derivations of the formulae introduced will not be given here but can be found in standard texts that are indicated by references. The treatment here starts by considering an individual scattering event. The results are then used to consider the effects on the primary ion in the limit where a large number of collisions take place. Subsequently, the primary effects are considered in nanometer materials which approach the thin-medium limit where the primary particles encounter only limited number of scattering centers. Finally, the dissipation of the energy deposited by the primary projectiles in secondary processes such as cascades of displaced atoms and electrons will be considered in the thick and thin medium limits. This approach was chosen because it builds upon the standard concepts in ion-matter interactions that are well know and have been widely used in experimental measurements of the stopping force and applications such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), ion beam modification of materials etc.

  2. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  3. Design, measurement, and analysis of oxygenated fluid pump system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Alexander M., IV (Alexander Martin)

    2012-01-01

    The author sought out the opportunity to design and implement a system for pumping oxygenated fluid and mixing it with saline, for the purpose of providing sufficient levels of oxygen for patients undergoing forms of ...

  4. Oxygen levels in thermoplastic microfluidic devices during cell culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochs, Christopher J.

    We developed a computational model to predict oxygen levels in microfluidic plastic devices during cell culture. This model is based on experimental evaluation of oxygen levels. Conditions are determined that provide ...

  5. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  6. Phase-based regional oxygen metabolism (PROM) using MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Audrey Peiwen

    Venous oxygen saturation (Yv) in cerebral veins and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) are important indicators for brain function and disease. Although MRI has been used for global measurements of these parameters, ...

  7. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  8. Method of making diode structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Gupta, Akhlesh

    2006-11-28

    A method of making a diode structure includes the step of depositing a transparent electrode layer of any one or more of the group ZnO, ZnS and CdO onto a substrate layer, and depositing an active semiconductor junction having an n-type layer and a p-type layer onto the transparent electrode layer under process conditions that avoid substantial degradation of the electrode layer. A back electrode coating layer is applied to form a diode structure.

  9. Simulation of human decision making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Sabina E. (Albuquerque, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-06

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  10. ARM - Lesson Plans: Making Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News PublicationsClimate inMaking Clouds Outreach

  11. Making, Measuring, and Modeling Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS on theMaitrayeeEnergyMaking a

  12. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  13. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  14. 2. Basic Operation of Image Express Utility 2.0 2. Basic Operation of Image Express Utility 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    20 2. Basic Operation of Image Express Utility 2.0 2. Basic Operation of Image Express Utility 2.0 This section explains the following three cases as examples of operating Image Express Utility 2.0. (1 functions of Image Express Utility 2.0, refer to "1-1. What You Can Do with User Supportware 6" ( page 5). 2

  15. VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ^402: VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS OF SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA by William J Introduction 1 Sampling intragravel water for dissolved oxygen content 2 Obtaining water samples from

  16. The oxygen abundance distribution in M101

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2001-05-07

    The well-observed spiral galaxy M101 was considered. The radial distributions of oxygen abundances determined in three different ways (with the classic Te - method, with the R23 - method, and with the P -- method) were compared. It was found that the parameters (the central oxygen abundance and the gradient) of the radial O/H(P) abundance distribution are close to those of the O/H(Te) abundance distribution. The parameters of the O/H(R23) abundance distribution differ significantly from those of the O/H(Te) abundance distribution: the central O/H(R23) oxygen abundance is higher by around 0.4dex and the gradient is steeper by a factor of around 1.5 as compared to those values in the O/H(Te) abundance distribution. The dispersion in O/H(P) abundance at fixed radius is rather small, around 0.08 dex, and is equal to that in O/H(Te) abundance. The dispersion in O/H(R23) abundance at fixed radius is appreciably larger, around 0.16 dex, compared to that in O/H(Te) abundance. It has been shown that the extra dispersion in O/H(R23) abundances is an artifact and reflects scatter in excitation parameter P at fixed radius.

  17. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  18. Self-assembled monolayer and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA

    2003-03-11

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  19. Self-Assembled Monolayer And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA)

    2004-06-22

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  20. Self-Assembled Monolayer And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA)

    2005-01-25

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  1. Self-assembled monolayer and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Liu, Jun; Shin, Yongsoon

    2004-05-11

    According to the present invention, the previously known functional material having a self-assembled monolayer on a substrate has a plurality of assembly molecules each with an assembly atom with a plurality of bonding sites (four sites when silicon is the assembly molecule) wherein a bonding fraction (or fraction) of fully bonded assembly atoms (the plurality of bonding sites bonded to an oxygen atom) has a maximum when made by liquid solution deposition, for example a maximum of 40% when silicon is the assembly molecule, and maximum surface density of assembly molecules was 5 silanes per square nanometer. Note that bonding fraction and surface population are independent parameters. The method of the present invention is an improvement to the known method for making a siloxane layer on a substrate, wherein instead of a liquid phase solution chemistry, the improvement is a supercritical phase chemistry. The present invention has the advantages of greater fraction of oxygen bonds, greater surface density of assembly molecules and reduced time for reaction of about 5 minutes to about 24 hours.

  2. Glass-ceramic material and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-13

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  3. Process to make structured particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Angela Michelle; Richard, Monique N; Luhrs, Claudia; Blada, Timothy; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-02-04

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains structured particles. The process includes providing a first precursor in the form of a dry precursor powder, a precursor liquid, a precursor vapor of a liquid and/or a precursor gas. The process also includes providing a plasma that has a high field zone and passing the first precursor through the high field zone of the plasma. As the first precursor passes through the high field zone of the plasma, at least part of the first precursor is decomposed. An aerosol having a second precursor is provided downstream of the high field zone of the plasma and the decomposed first material is allowed to condense onto the second precursor to from structured particles.

  4. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsár, Zoltán [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  5. Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-04-07

    A method is described for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term. 4 figs.

  6. Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A method for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a "non-bridging oxygen" term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

  7. Thermodynamic stability of oxygen point defects in cubic Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samanta, Amit; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is an important material with technological applications which are affected by point defect physics. Ab-initio calculations are performed to understand the structural and electronic properties of oxygen vacancies and interstitials in different charge states in cubic zirconia. We find oxygen interstitials in cubic ZrO2 can have five different configurations - dumbbell, dumbbell, crowd-ion, octahedral, and distorted dumbbell. For a neutral and singly charged oxygen interstitial, the lowest energy configuration is the dumbbell, while for a doubly charged oxygen interstitial the octahedral site is energetically the most favorable. Both the oxygen interstitial and the oxygen vacancy are negative-U, so that the singly charged defects are unstable at any Fermi level. The thermodynamic stability of these defects are studied in terms of Fermi level, oxygen partial pressure and temperature. A method to determine the chemical potential of the system as a function of temperature and pressure is propo...

  8. Basics of F-theory from the Type IIB Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralph Blumenhagen

    2010-02-15

    These short lecture notes provide an introduction to some basic notions of F-theory with some special emphasis on its relation to Type IIB orientifolds with O7/O3-planes.

  9. Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 1:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov, Biological Small Angle...

  10. The Basics of Water Waves Theory for Analogue Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germain Rousseaux

    2012-03-14

    This chapter gives an introduction to the connection between the physics of water waves and analogue gravity. Only a basic knowledge of fluid mechanics is assumed as a prerequisite.

  11. ICF basics, NIF and IFE Mark C. Herrmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICF basics, NIF and IFE Mark C. Herrmann Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Special Thanks force balanced by g) · Magnetic (pressure force balanced by B2) · NIF= National Ignition Facility d = 1

  12. Astronomy 2291 Basic Astrophysics & Planetary Astronomy Autumn Semester 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    , I ask that everyone please observe these basic rules of classroom etiquette: Use of cell phones of Newtonian gravity and optics as applied to astronomy 3. Electromagnetic radiation and interaction of light

  13. BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 35 - BASIC TERM LIFE INSURANCE ANTHEM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY Maximum Benefits The amount of life and your family is important, especially in the event of a death or accident. Therefore, the CHEIBA Trust

  14. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore »a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  15. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Collece of Engineering and Applied Science; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Science; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Science; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Collece of Engineering and Applied Science

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were studied on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  16. Basic notions of dense matter physics: applications to astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Celebonovic

    2006-03-02

    The aim of this paper is to present basic notions of dense matter physics and some of its applications to geophysics and astronomy.Topics covered in the paper include:basic observational data,fun- damental ideas of static high pressure experiments, notions of theoretical dense matter physics, and finally some details about theoretical work on dense matter physics and its astronomical applications in Serbia.

  17. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits theCommitteeCrystalline Silicon Cell BasicsVolume 76, No. 218 -Planning

  18. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  19. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  20. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills,New York: EnergyUnlimitedEnergyJuniata,JupiterOxygen

  1. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  2. Intertemporal Decision Making: a Mental Load Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    in the present, and are helpful, for example, in coping with risks for addiction (e.g., [7]). In intertemporal, in line with basic intuitions in economics, for example, behind the well-known Labour Theory of Value (cf

  3. Method for making polysilsesquioxanes and organohydridosilanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method for disproportionation of an oligohydridosiloxane to produce a polysilsesquioxane compound and an organohydridosilane compound when contacted with a basic catalyst. The basic catalyst can be a tetraalkylammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and an alkali earth hydroxide. These basic catalysts are generally dissolved in an organic solvent for delivery. The hydroxide catalysts are attractive because many readily decompose by heating above 150.degree. C., thus being easily removed from the final materials. The oligohydridosiloxane is contacted with the basic catalyst under conditions effective to catalytically convert the oligohydridosiloxane into a polysilsesquioxane compound and an organohydridosilane compound. The reaction can occur in either an inert or oxidative atmosphere and can occur without heating, at room temperature. Both polysilsesquioxane foams and gels of the formula (RSiO.sub.1.5).sub.n can be produced.

  4. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  5. Investigating online decision-making styles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Young A

    2009-05-15

    As one of the factors influencing consumers purchase behavior, decision-making styles are crucial for understanding consumer shopping behavior and for developing successful marketing strategies. Decision-making styles have ...

  6. Making Education and Training Impact on Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    Making education and training impact on anyone these days seems to be an increasing difficult problem. Perhaps one of the reasons we see this growing problem and our relative failure in attempts to make education and training more effective...

  7. MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, Naomi

    MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES RIDE AND GLIDE Naomi Ehrich Leonard \\Lambda \\Lambda Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 naomi@princeton.edu Abstract: Methods from geometric mechanics and dynamical systems theory make

  8. Interactions between learning and decision making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tulabandhula, Theja

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the effects of learning and decision making on each other in three parts. In the first part, we look at how knowledge about decision making can influence learning. Let the decision cost be the amount spent by ...

  9. Information, decision-making and health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abaluck, Jason T

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays on information, decision-making and health. All three concern the relationship between the choices consumers would make if they were "fully informed" in an appropriate sense and the ...

  10. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  11. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  12. Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Mark

    Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter Name: Registration number: Department: Year of study of your portfolio. #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter2 Contents Timetable Page 3 Introduction 16 #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter3 Timetable Friday 6.00 pm Introduction

  13. Basic Notions Main Theorems Voting Systems Proofs Summary Two Simple Ways to Rig an Election

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponomarenko, Vadim

    Basic Notions Main Theorems Voting Systems Proofs Summary Two Simple Ways to Rig an Election;Basic Notions Main Theorems Voting Systems Proofs Summary Outline Basic Notions Main Theorems Voting Systems Proofs Summary #12;Basic Notions Main Theorems Voting Systems Proofs Summary Basics Candidates, C

  14. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  15. Heat release analysis of oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.; Karvounis, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Sekar, R.; Marr, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A heat release correlation for oxygen-enriched diesel combustion is being developed through heat release analysis of cylinder pressure data from a single-cylinder diesel engine operating under various levels of oxygen enrichment. Results show that standard combustion correlations available in the literature do not accurately describe oxygen-enriched diesel combustion. A novel functional form is therefore proposed, which is shown to reproduce measured heat release profiles closely, under different operating conditions and levels of oxygen enrichment. The mathematical complexity of the associated curve-fitting problem is maintained at the same level of difficulty as for standard correlations. When the novel correlation is incorporated into a computer simulation of diesel engine operation with oxygen enrichment, the latter predicts pressure traces in excellent agreement with measured pressure data. This demonstrates the potential of the proposed combustion simulation to guide the application of oxygen-enriched technology successfully to a variety of multicylinder diesel systems.

  16. A fiber optic probe for oxygen partial pressure sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlain, Leslie Ariel

    1986-01-01

    of the electronic circuitry, and Steve Spar for software development. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Purpose Current Status of Conventional Oxygen Sensors Optical Sensors Technical Obj ect ives 1 5 10 MATERIAL AND METHODS 14 Transducer Design... the partial pressure of oxygen (p02) in solutions. The research effort was specifically aimed at the development of an oxygen sensor suitable for physiological applications. The sensor described in this thesis is an application of a generic fiber optic...

  17. Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped CeO2 nanopillars in nanocomposite films Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  20. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  1. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  2. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  3. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to...

  4. Basic and Equivariant Cohomology in Balanced Topological Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Zucchini

    1998-04-14

    We present a detailed algebraic study of the N=2 cohomological set--up describing the balanced topological field theory of Dijkgraaf and Moore. We emphasize the role of N=2 topological supersymmetry and $sl(2,R)$ internal symmetry by a systematic use of superfield techniques and of an $sl(2,R)$ covariant formalism. We provide a definition of N=2 basic and equivariant cohomology, generalizing Dijkgraaf's and Moore's, and of N=2 connection. For a general manifold with a group action, we show that: $i$) the N=2 basic cohomology is isomorphic to the tensor product of the ordinary N=1 basic cohomology and a universal $sl(2,R)$ group theoretic factor: $ii$) the affine spaces of N=2 and N=1 connections are isomorphic.

  5. Outline History Basic Theory Research Future Accelerators References Brief Overview of Wakefield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    Outline History Basic Theory Research Future Accelerators References Brief Overview of Wakefield Overview of Wakefield Acceleration #12;Outline History Basic Theory Research Future Accelerators References of Wakefield Acceleration #12;Outline History Basic Theory Research Future Accelerators References Wakefield

  6. Process for selection of oxygen-tolerant algal mutants that produce H{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Seibert, M.

    1999-02-16

    A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing algal mutant cells comprises: (a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase; (b) inducing algal cells grown photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas and (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature; (c) treating the cells from step (b) with metronidazole, sodium azide, and added oxygen to controlled concentrations in the presence of white light; (d) washing off metronidazole and sodium azide to obtain final cell suspension; (e) plating said final cell suspension on a minimal medium and incubating in light at a temperature sufficient to enable colonies to appear; (f) counting the number of colonies to determine the percent of mutant survivors; and (g) testing survivors to identify oxygen-tolerant H{sub 2}-producing mutants. 5 figs.

  7. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Spinorbit-torque engineering via oxygen manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Shao Q

    at room temperature, which is desirable in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque memories. When for spintronic memory and logic devices. Magnetization switching using conventional current-induced spin transfer stability, simplicity and scalability of SOT make it attractive for next-generation spintronic devices

  9. In vivo effect of inosine, pyruvate, and phosphate on the oxygen hemoglobin equilibrium curve and tissue oxygenation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Joe Nevill

    1974-01-01

    and Mixed Venous Blood Samples 2, 3-Diphosphoglycerate Determination M asurement of Mean Capillary Oxygen Tersion ( P-0 ) c 2 Measurement of P O Results 10 13 13 16 Discussion 25 Conclusion References Appendix I . Appendix II Appendix III... equilibrium curve pkI The r, egative log o. the hydrogen ion concentratior PO PCO P 02 a 2 P-0 a v 2 Partial pressure oi' oxygen Partial pressure of carbon dioxide Partial pressure of oxygen ir' arteria. l blood The oxygen partial pressure...

  10. On the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions: the problem of the line intensities -- oxygen abundance calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2000-04-04

    The problem of the line intensities -- oxygen abundance calibration has been considered. We confirm the idea of McGaugh (1991) that the strong oxygen lines ([OII] 3727, 3729 and [OIII] 4959, 5007) contain the necessary information for determination of accurate abundances in low-metallicity (and may be also in high-metallicity) HII regions. It has been found that the excitation parameters p3 or p2 (which are defined here as contributions of the radiation in [OIII] 4959, 5007 lines and in [OII] 3727, 3729 lines to the "total" oxygen radiation respectively) allow to take into account the variations in R23 values among HII regions with a given oxygen abundance. Based on this fact a new way of the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions has been constructed and corresponding relations between line intensities and the oxygen abundance have been derived empirically using the available oxygen abundances determined via measurement of temperature-sensitive line ratios. In parallel a new R23 calibration has been derived on the base of recent data and compared to previous calibrations. For oxygen-rich HII regions the present R23 calibration is close to that of Edmunds and Pagel (1984): their calibration has the same slope but is shifted towards higher oxygen abundances by around 0.07 dex as compared to the present calibration.

  11. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  12. Oximeter for reliable clinical determination of blood oxygen saturation in a fetus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Ward, Kenneth J. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    With the crude instrumentation now in use to continuously monitor the status of the fetus at delivery, the obstetrician and labor room staff not only over-recognize the possibility of fetal distress with the resultant rise in operative deliveries, but at times do not identify fetal distress which may result in preventable fetal neurological harm. The invention, which addresses these two basic problems, comprises a method and apparatus for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation in the fetus. The apparatus includes a multiple frequency light source which is coupled to an optical fiber. The output of the fiber is used to illuminate blood containing tissue of the fetus. In the preferred embodiment, the reflected light is transmitted back to the apparatus where the light intensities are simultaneously detected at multiple frequencies. The resulting spectrum is then analyzed for determination of oxygen saturation. The analysis method uses multivariate calibration techniques that compensate for nonlinear spectral response, model interfering spectral responses and detect outlier data with high sensitivity.

  13. Comment about UV regularization of basic commutators in string theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Yu. Kamenshchik; I. M. Khalatnikov; M. Martellini

    1998-06-24

    Recently proposed by Hwang, Marnelius and Saltsidis zeta regularization of basic commutators in string theories is generalized to the string models with non-trivial vacuums. It is shown that implementation of this regularization implies the cancellation of dangerous terms in the commutators between Virasoro generators, which break Jacobi identity.

  14. 10mg Basic v5.4 Refold Master

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    .4 Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction .................................. 2 ­ 3 Kit Contents Basic v 5.4 Page 4 Kit Contents ­ Ready for Use A ­ Denaturation buffer (4.9 ml) 110 mM Tris, 8.8 M Urea collection tubes (x16) D ­ Protein protection agent (blue, 1100 µl) 100X stock of NV10, dissolved in water E

  15. SECURITY BASICS FOR MOBILE DEVICES UNH IT SECURITY, DECEMBER 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SECURITY BASICS FOR MOBILE DEVICES UNH IT SECURITY, DECEMBER 2011 Choose brands and models of mobile devices that have the options referenced below. Use all available security options that your or sensitive university information in un-approved off-campus services, such as public cloud based services

  16. Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Agilent Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials Application Note #12;Contents 2 the dielectric properties of materials. Agilent measure- ment instruments, such as network analyzers, LCR meters......................................................................................32 #12;Introduction Every material has a unique set of electrical characteristics that are dependent

  17. Douglas Guardino Understanding the Basics of Using C18 Compiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    Douglas Guardino Understanding the Basics of Using C18 Compiler The purpose of this project was to understand how to use the C18 compiler with MPLAB. This was achieved by reproducing a simple program from the MPLAB C18 Compiler Getting Started. This was done as a control. The code in the book was assumed

  18. ANALYZER BASICS WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    ANALYZER BASICS 2-1 WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? The SR760 FFT Spectrum Analyzer takes a time on a spectrum analyzer, the harmonic frequencies and amplitudes are displayed with amazing clarity. Another just the total noise amplitude. On a spectrum analyzer, the noise as a function of frequency

  19. Network Analyzer Basics This presentation covers the principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    one-box) testers VSA Vector signal analyzer SA Spectrum analyzer VNA Vector signal analyzer TG/SA Tracking generator/spectrum analyzer SNA Scalar network analyzer NF Mtr. Noise-figure meter Imped. AnAgilent Network Analyzer Basics #12;2 Abstract This presentation covers the principles of measuring

  20. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Approaches to Basic Questions in Biology"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Approaches to Basic Questions in Biology" Prof. Dennis E. Discher, biology is filled with remarkable polymeric structures that motivate mimicry with goals of both clarifying and exploiting biological principles. Filamentous viruses have inspired our development and computations of worm

  1. Export Control Basics Updated on May 15, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Export Control Basics Updated on May 15, 2014 #12;Your Logo What are Export Controls? U.S. laws is the purpose of the Regulations? Your Logo Implement foreign policy goals and objectives Restrict exports of weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological, nuclear) Prevent terrorism Restrict exports of goods

  2. Understanding Data Basics and Ethical Use of Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Data Basics and Ethical Use of Data Summer Undergraduate Research Program June 10, 2015 Natsuko Nicholls, Ph.D. nnatsuko@vt.edu #12;Important Questions about Data 1. What is data? 2. Why is data important for research? 3. What does your data look like? 4. What is research ethics and how does

  3. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics What my students Code ­http://code.google.com/p/net-almanac/ ­Beta release this week #12;Contact Information Jon Dugan

  4. Export Control Basics The Johns Hopkins University Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Ed

    Export Control Basics for The Johns Hopkins University Community Export Controls at JHU address Introduction to Export Controls and to contact JHU's Export Control Officer whenever they expect to be involved with any of these issues: Frank Barker, Export Control Officer Wyman Park Center W-400 410-516-0415 fwb

  5. Scripted Artificially Intelligent Basic Online Tactical Simulation Jesse D. Phillips+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dascalu, Sergiu

    Scripted Artificially Intelligent Basic Online Tactical Simulation Jesse D. Phillips+ Roger V.+ Department of Computer Science and Engineering+ CAVCaM University of Nevada, Reno Desert Research Institute of the concepts. This paper presents details of the idea, specification, design, and functionality of the Scripted

  6. A Roadmap for Bridging Basic and Applied Research in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    A Roadmap for Bridging Basic and Applied Research in Forensic Entomology J.K. Tomberlin,1 R. Mohr,1 sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge

  7. Basic Notation and Background Chi-Kwong Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chi-Kwong

    and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA; Department of Mathematics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan Let Mn be the set (vector space/algebra) of n � n matrices. (a) One can perform A + B, AB and µA for A, B Mn and µ C. (b) One can compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A Mn. Chi-Kwong Li Basic

  8. On the Role of Basic Design Concepts in Behaviour Structuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Sinderen, Marten

    On the Role of Basic Design Concepts in Behaviour Structuring Dick A.C. Quartel1 , Luís Ferreira to repre- sent behaviour structure, the structuring of the design process, and the definition of design concepts facilitate the designer to conceive, structure and refine the essential characteristics

  9. On the Role of Basic Design Concepts in Behaviour Structuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pires, Luís Ferreira

    On the Role of Basic Design Concepts in Behaviour Structuring Dick A.C. Quartel1 , Luís Ferreira to repre- sent behaviour structure, the structuring of the design process, and the definition of design facilitate the designer to conceive, structure and refine the essential characteristics of a system

  10. Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 --Basic principles and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 -- Basic principles and applications Kees Wapenaar1 , Deyan Draganov1 , Roel Snieder2 , Xander Campman3 , and Arie Verdel3 ABSTRACT Seismic interferometry is the retrieval of seismic surface-wave responses from ambient noise and the subsequent tomographic determination

  11. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  12. Oxygen Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelope of the Carbon-Rich Star IRC+10216

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelino Agundez; Jose Cernicharo

    2006-05-25

    In this paper we study the oxygen chemistry in the C-rich circumstellar shells of IRC+10216. The recent discoveries of oxygen bearing species (water, hydroxyl radical and formaldehyde) toward this source challenge our current understanding of the chemistry in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The presence of icy comets surrounding the star or catalysis on iron grain surfaces have been invoked to explain the presence of such unexpected species. This detailed study aims at evaluating the chances of producing O-bearing species in the C-rich circumstellar envelope only by gas phase chemical reactions. For the inner hot envelope, it is shown that although most of the oxygen is locked in CO near the photosphere (as expected for a C/O ratio greater than 1), some stellar radii far away species such as H2O and CO2 have large abundances under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium. It is also shown how non-LTE chemistry makes very difficult the CO-->H2O,CO2 transformation predicted in LTE. Concerning the chemistry in the outer and colder envelope, we show that formaldehyde can be formed through gas phase reactions. However, in order to form water vapor it is necessary to include a radiative association between atomic oxygen and molecular hydrogen with a quite high rate constant. The chemical models explain the presence of HCO+ and predict the existence of SO and H2CS (which has been detected in a 3 mm line survey to be published). We have modeled the line profiles of H2CO, H2O, HCO+, SO and H2CS using a non-local radiative transfer model and the abundance profiles predicted by our chemical model. The results have been compared to the observations and discussed.

  13. Effects of oxygen and catalyst on tetraphenylborate decomposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies indicate that palladium catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Oxygen inhibits the reaction at low temperature (25 C), presumably by preventing activation of the catalyst. The present study investigated oxygen's inhibiting effectiveness at higher temperature (45 C) and catalyst concentrations.

  14. Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single luminescence detection Fibre-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection References Superconducting Detector, is an intermediate in many biological processes. We employ a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD

  15. 14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF LAKE SEDIMENT CELLULOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF LAKE SEDIMENT CELLULOSE: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS BRENT B and Environmental Sciences Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT USA 06459 Keywords: cellulose, lake sediment, oxygen of lake sediment cellulose is a recently developed paleolimnological approach that is gaining increasing

  16. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  17. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  18. E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios isotope stratigraphy, however, is hampered by the lack of unaltered authigenic marine sediments. Chapter.6. Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy 188 10.6.1. Cenozoic 188 10.6.2. Mesozoic 191 10.6.3. Paleozoic 193

  19. The White House's Week of Making

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The White House's Week of Making from June 12-18 will coincide with a National Maker Faire event in Washington, D.C.

  20. Carbon nanohoops and methods of making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasti, Ramesh; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2013-06-11

    The present invention provides cycloparaphenylene compounds, their macrocyclic precursors, and methods for making the compounds. The cycloparaphenylene compounds can be used to prepare armchair carbon nanotubes.

  1. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  2. Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÀ1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  4. Agents on the Web Making Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huhns, Michael N.

    Agents on the Web Making Agents Secure on the Semantic Web A re you one of those people who never shops on the Web for fear of fraud? Does the thought of online banking make you antsy? Do you get -- some of your concerns are indeed well founded. With the rapid development of Web technologies

  5. Spin gauge theory of the first generation ; 2, basic theory of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, J S R

    1984-01-01

    Spin gauge theory of the first generation ; 2, basic theory of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

  6. Chapter 1. Basic Interest Theory. Manual for SOA Exam FM/CAS Exam 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcones, Miguel A.

    1/52 Chapter 1. Basic Interest Theory. Manual for SOA Exam FM/CAS Exam 2. Chapter 1. Basic Interest Exam FM/CAS Exam 2. #12;2/52 Chapter 1. Basic Interest Theory. Section 1.1. Amount and accumulation;3/52 Chapter 1. Basic Interest Theory. Section 1.1. Amount and accumulation functions. Interest When money

  7. EE 204.3 (3L-1.5P) Basic Electronics and Electrical Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    inductor and capacitor transient circuits, basic generator and motor principles, basic transformerEE 204.3 (3L-1.5P) Basic Electronics and Electrical Power Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Fall 2014 Description: This is a basic course on electrical topics for non-electrical engineering

  8. Recombinant transfer in the basic genome of E. coli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixit, Purushottam; Studier, F. William; Pang, Tin Yau; Maslov, Sergei

    2015-07-07

    An approximation to the ~4-Mbp basic genome shared by 32 strains of E. coli representing six evolutionary groups has been derived and analyzed computationally. A multiple-alignment of the 32 complete genome sequences was filtered to remove mobile elements and identify the most reliable ~90% of the aligned length of each of the resulting 496 basic-genome pairs. Patterns of single bp mutations (SNPs) in aligned pairs distinguish clonally inherited regions from regions where either genome has acquired DNA fragments from diverged genomes by homologous recombination since their last common ancestor. Such recombinant transfer is pervasive across the basic genome, mostly betweenmore »genomes in the same evolutionary group, and generates many unique mosaic patterns. The six least-diverged genome-pairs have one or two recombinant transfers of length ~40–115 kbp (and few if any other transfers), each containing one or more gene clusters known to confer strong selective advantage in some environments. Moderately diverged genome pairs (0.4–1% SNPs) show mosaic patterns of interspersed clonal and recombinant regions of varying lengths throughout the basic genome, whereas more highly diverged pairs within an evolutionary group or pairs between evolutionary groups having >1.3% SNPs have few clonal matches longer than a few kbp. Many recombinant transfers appear to incorporate fragments of the entering DNA produced by restriction systems of the recipient cell. A simple computational model can closely fit the data. As a result, most recombinant transfers seem likely to be due to generalized transduction by co-evolving populations of phages, which could efficiently distribute variability throughout bacterial genomes.« less

  9. Basics of turbulence computation for magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bruce D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-05-14

    The ideas of low frequency dynamics driven by pressure gradients in magnetised plasmas are outlined. Fluid, gyrofluid, and gyrokinetic models are defined. Basic computational methods including coordinate representations are reviewed and a list of criteria for well posed cases is given. The consequences of nonlinearity vis-a-vis instabilities are shown. Other topics used as examples are scale separation, the self consistent equilibrium, and interaction with large scale flows.

  10. A basic result on the integral for birthdeath Markov processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in changing the death rate or state n, ¯ n , from n¯ to (n \\Gamma 1)¯. The other approximation consists(t) be a birth­death process on a subset of N = 0; 1;2; :::, with birth and death rates â?? i ; and ¯ iA basic result on the integral for birth­death Markov processes Carlos M. Hern'andez­Su'arez CGIC

  11. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E; Rieken, Joel

    2013-12-10

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with an introduced reactive species than does the alloying element and wherein one or more atomizing parameters is/are modified to controllably reduce the amount of the reactive species, such as oxygen, introduced into the atomized particles so as to reduce anneal times and improve reaction (conversion) to the desired strengthening dispersoids in the matrix. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies are made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  12. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  13. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  14. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  15. Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milne, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    the efficiency of combustion processes. In a conventional ai r-fuel flame, combustion results from the collision of oxygen molecules wi th those 0f the fuel. The use 0f oxygen enrichment to increase the oxygen concentration in the fuel-air mixture... (Figure 3), which leads to improved heat transfer in the combustion zone. This results in a number of potential advantages: i. Fuel Savings At constant output the fuel firing rate may be reduced to compensate for the improved heat utilization...

  16. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  17. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  18. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  19. Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

    2010-07-30

    Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

  20. Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Making the most of Responsive Electricity Customer. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: How do we make the most out of using less energy? Making the most of Responsive...

  1. Making Money from Microbes: Finance and the California Biotechnology Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willoughby, Kelvin W.; Blakely, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    3. 8 Making Money from Microbes: Finance and the California28 Making Money from Microbes: Finance and the California36 Making Money from Microbes: Finance and the California

  2. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continentalin Juan de Fuca Canyon, Washington, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,oxygen ?uxes on the Washington shelf and slope: A comparison

  3. Microfluidic advantage : novel techniques for protein folding and oxygen control in cell cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinkovsky, Mark E.; Polinkovsky, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control inTemperature Jump System to Study Fast Protein FoldingNovel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control in

  4. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  5. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI...

  6. Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal, Venezuelan Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: oxygen isotopes; biogenic opal; hydrologic balance; Holocene; Venezuela

  7. Preferences, Information, and Group Decision Making 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinoza, Alejandro

    2009-05-15

    This study will examine how the structure of preferences of group members in a decision-making group, as well as the information they have, affects the collection and the processing of information by individual members of ...

  8. Politically rational foreign policy decision-making 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, Charles Todd

    2006-10-30

    This dissertation is an analysis of how presidents make foreign policy decisions. Rather than explaining foreign policy decisions by focusing on individuals or institutions, I stress the role of political pressures and ...

  9. Representation, Organization, Classification, and Meaning-Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    1 Representation, Organization, Classification, and Meaning-Making Description Fundamental epistemological and ontological issues in the use of knowledge and information in human activities. Analysis, department store, grocery store, children's library, a menu, a store catalogue) and analyze that organization

  10. Method for making spherical binderless pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Donald K. (Rector, PA); Kochanowski, Andrew T. (Spring Church, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A method for making spherical binderless pellets using a rotating drum mixer whereby at least a portion of the particles comprising the pellets is comprised of coking coal particles.

  11. Make the Most of Your Purchasing Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristow, G.; Clendenin, M.; McClure, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    The expansion and maintenance of building systems on educational campuses require huge financial expenditures. Public schools and colleges must make the most of each available dollar. The combination of effective building systems master planning...

  12. How Bacteria Make Magnets | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Bacteria Make Magnets For a number of animals, including birds, fish and mammals, there is evidence that magnets are used for orientation. However, little is known about how...

  13. Just making faces? : animatronics, children and computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sempere, Andrew, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    Computation is a powerful way of knowing and exploring the world that finds its application in a broad range of human activities, from art making to mathematical modeling. Historically, this way of knowing has been taught ...

  14. Rock Slopes from Mechanics to Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einstein, Herbert H.

    Rock slope instabilities are discussed in the context of decision making for risk assessment and management. Hence, the state of the slope and possible failure mechanism need to be defined first. This is done with geometrical ...

  15. Reactive Oxygen Species Driven Angiogenesis by Inorganic Nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    The exact mechanism of angiogenesis by europium hydroxide nanorods was unclear. In this study we have showed that formation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2·?) is involved in redox signaling pathways during angiogenesis, ...

  16. Deciphering brain oxygenation and its change with age using phosphorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meunier, Michel

    for energy metabolism in every cell in the body. · The functioning of the brain is critically dependent #12;Oxygenation biomarkers · Average tissue pO2 · Spatial heterogeneity in tissue pO2 · pO2 gradient

  17. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  18. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  1. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  2. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR...

  3. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narita, Norio; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium(IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current ...

  4. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Armstrong, M R; Zaug, J M; Grant, C D; Crowhurst, J C; Bastea, S 75...

  5. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  6. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  7. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  8. Strain effects on oxygen transport in tetragonal zirconium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks

    2013-11-01

    Temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the strain effects on oxygen interstitial and vacancy migration in tetragonal zirconium dioxide. At zero external strain, the anisotropic migration mechanisms of oxygen defects are characterized. At non-zero strains, both the crystal structure and defect migration barriers are modified by strain. Under compressive strains, the defect migration barrier increases with the increasing strain for both interstitials and vacancies. The crystal structure transforms from a tetragonal to a nearly cubic fluorite structure. Accordingly, the defect migration becomes nearly isotropic. Under dilative strains, the migration barrier first decreases then increases with increasing strain for both types of defects. The tetragonal phase transforms to a lower symmetry structure that is close to the orthorhombic phase. In turn, the defect migration becomes highly anisotropic. Under both compressive and dilative strains, interstitials respond to strain more strongly than vacancies. At small dilative strains, an oxygen interstitial has comparable diffusivity to a vacancy, suggesting that both types of defects can contribute to oxygen transport, if they are present. Although currently no previous result is available to validate oxygen interstitial diffusion behavior, the trend of strain effects on oxygen vacancy diffusion is in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies in the literature.

  9. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  10. Integral Operators Basic in Random Fields Estimation Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Kozhevnikov; Alexander G. Ramm

    2004-05-03

    The paper deals with the basic integral equation of random field estimation theory by the criterion of minimum of variance of the error estimate. This integral equation is of the first kind. The corresponding integra$ operator over a bounded domain $\\Omega $ in ${\\Bbb R}^{n}$ is weakly singular. This operator is an isomorphism between appropriate Sobolev spaces. This is proved by a reduction of the integral equ$ an elliptic boundary value problem in the domain exterior to $\\Omega .$ Extra difficulties arise due to the fact that the exterior boundary value problem should be solved in the Sobolev spaces of negative order.

  11. Theory of asymptotic operation. A summary of basic principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fyodor V. Tkachov

    1998-11-23

    This summary of several talks given in 1990-1993 discusses the problem of asymptotic expansions of multiloop Feynman diagrams in masses and external momenta - a central problem in perturbative quantum field theory. Basic principles of the theory of asymptotic operation -- the most powerful tool for that purpose -- are discussed. Its connection with the conventional methods is explained (the BPHZ theory, the method of leading logarithmic approximation etc.). The problem of non-euclidean asymptotic regimes is discussed as well as ways of its solution.

  12. Basic devices and techniques for supervisory control and telemetery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, R.M.

    1984-04-01

    The microprocessor is creating extraordinary changes in the basic devices used for supervisory control and telemetry systems. Devices which incorporate microprocessors are providing new capabilities to monitor, to control, and to transmit data. These new capabilities provide the opportunity to utilize new techniques in achieving more efficient operation and control of gas transmission and distribution systems. This paper describes several devices being installed at Transcocontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation and their impact on the planned techniques to be used to collect gas flow data and to implement supervisory control.

  13. Basic Energy Sciences Network Requirements Review Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintock and PrincipalBasicNetwork

  14. EV Everywhere: Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science Network Requirements Report of the FusionPlug-inBasics

  15. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nucleara min [TypeCommittee on theiBasicOn the

  16. Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUS SERVICE SUBSIDIESDepartment of EnergyJulyBasic

  17. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers Announcementand FuelBiomass Basics: The Facts

  18. Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen “breathing,” oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity, and persistent photovoltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurwitz, Ron; Cohen, Rotem; Shalish, Ilan

    2014-01-21

    ZnO surfaces adsorb oxygen in the dark and emit CO{sub 2} when exposed to white light, reminiscent of the lungs of living creatures. We find that this exchange of oxygen with the ambient affects the integrity of the ZnO surface. Thus, it forms a basis for several interesting surface phenomena in ZnO, such as photoconductivity, photovoltage, and gas sensing, and has a role in ZnO electrical conduction. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on ZnO nanowires, we observed a decomposition of ZnO under white light and formation of oxygen-depleted surface, which explains photoconductivity by the electron donation of oxygen vacancies. Our findings suggest that the observed decomposition of the ZnO lattice may only take place due to photon-induced reduction of ZnO by carbon containing molecules (or carbo-photonic reduction), possibly from the ambient gas, accounting in a consistent way for both the reduced demands on the energy required for decomposition and for the observed emission of lattice oxygen in the form of CO{sub 2}. The formation of oxygen-vacancy rich surface is suggested to induce surface delta doping, causing accumulation of electrons at the surface, which accounts for both the increase in conductivity and the flattening of the energy bands. Using surface photovoltage spectroscopy in ultra high vacuum, we monitored changes in the deep level spectrum. We observe a wide optical transition from a deep acceptor to the conduction band, which energy position coincides with the position of the so called “green luminescence” in ZnO. This green transition disappears with the formation of surface oxygen vacancies. Since the oxygen vacancies are donors, while the green transition involves surface acceptors, the results suggest that the initial emission of oxygen originates at the defect sites of the latter, thereby eliminating each other. This suggests that the green transition originates at surface Zn vacancy acceptors. Removing an oxygen atom from a Zn vacancy completes the vacancy to become a full ZnO molecule vacancy, which does not produce deep levels. Our results explain why ZnO finds use as an electrical detector for oxygen and for carbon containing gas molecules. They may also shed new light on photocatalytic uses of ZnO. It is suggested that similar surface phenomena may affect other semiconducting oxides.

  19. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Operational Management History Historical Resources History Publications Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making...

  20. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Domen, Kazunari (University of Tokyo)

    2012-03-14

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  1. Oxygen emission in remnants of thermonuclear supernovae as a probe for their progenitor system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosenko, D; Kromer, M; Blinnikov, S I; Pakmor, R; Kaastra, J S

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in numerical simulations of thermonuclear supernova explosions brings up a unique opportunity in studying the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Coupling state-of-the-art explosion models with detailed hydrodynamical simulations of the supernova remnant evolution and the most up-to-date atomic data for X-ray emission calculations makes it possible to create realistic synthetic X-ray spectra for the supernova remnant phase. Comparing such spectra with high quality observations of supernova remnants could allow to constrain the explosion mechanism and the progenitor of the supernova. The present study focuses in particular on the oxygen emission line properties in young supernova remnants, since different explosion scenarios predict a different amount and distribution of this element. Analysis of the soft X-ray spectra from supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud and confrontation with remnant models for different explosion scenarios suggests that SNR 0509-67.5 could originate from a de...

  2. The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

  3. Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies JT Land and Cattle LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies #12;JT Land and Cattle LLC #12;#12;"Unfavorable;#12;#12;#12;Negligent Management? Resilient Management? #12;Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies #12

  4. Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease: From Clinical Neurology to Basic Neuroscience and Back

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Nir

    Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease: From Clinical Neurology to Basic Neuroscience and Back of the basic research is oriented toward the study of tremor. In this review, we use the PD tremor as our main

  5. Energy Dept. Awards $22.7 Million for Basic Solar Energy Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dept. Awards 22.7 Million for Basic Solar Energy Research Energy Dept. Awards 22.7 Million for Basic Solar Energy Research May 22, 2007 - 1:24pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -...

  6. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  7. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

  8. Criticality Safety Basics for INL FMHs and CSOs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. L. Putman

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear power is a valuable and efficient energy alternative in our energy-intensive society. However, material that can generate nuclear power has properties that require this material be handled with caution. If improperly handled, a criticality accident could result, which could severely harm workers. This document is a modular self-study guide about Criticality Safety Principles. This guide's purpose it to help you work safely in areas where fissionable nuclear materials may be present, avoiding the severe radiological and programmatic impacts of a criticality accident. It is designed to stress the fundamental physical concepts behind criticality controls and the importance of criticality safety when handling fissionable materials outside nuclear reactors. This study guide was developed for fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates to use with related web-based course 00INL189, BEA Criticality Safety Principles, and to help prepare for the course exams. These individuals must understand basic information presented here. This guide may also be useful to other Idaho National Laboratory personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. This guide also includes additional information that will not be included in 00INL189 tests. The additional information is in appendices and paragraphs with headings that begin with 'Did you know,' or with, 'Been there Done that'. Fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates may review additional information at their own discretion. This guide is revised as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Issued in 2006, Revision 0 established the basic text and integrated various programs from former contractors. Revision 1 incorporates operation and program changes implemented since 2006. It also incorporates suggestions, clarifications, and additional information from readers and from personnel who took course 00INL189. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that fissionable material handlers and criticality safety officers must understand. The reorganization is based on and consistent with changes made to course 00INL189 due to a review of course exam results and to discussions with personnel who conduct area-specific training.

  9. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage: Statement of Objectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statement of objectives for the Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage issued in 2003.

  11. Basic Marketing of Texas Cotton: Forward Contracts, Cash Sales, Marketing Pools, and the USDA Loan Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John; Park, John; Smith, Jackie; Anderson, Carl

    2006-10-10

    This publication explains basic marketing alternatives for cotton producers, including forward contracts, cash sales, marketing pools and USDA loan programs....

  12. How to Make an Effective Poster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    poster meets the requirements set by the conference organizers. #12;How to Make an Effective Poster John-Williams paint colors http://www.sherwin-williams.com/homeowners/color/ find-and-explore-colors/paint of organization and helps guide the reader's eye. Capitalize the first word of each item. Use some well

  13. Creating the Future Making a Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    erence #UF Research #12;5 Making A Difference New Nerves At the Walter Reed National Military Medical Florida's $9 billion citrus industry. Deepwater Impacts UF environmental scientists are examining oil residue that remains in the Gulf of Mexico years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to better

  14. Decision-making in autism spectrum conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Lydia R.

    2011-02-08

    at the critical point [and] she was not capable of making a decision’ (Re MB, p427). Similarly, cognitively able patients with anorexia nervosa may lack the capacity to consent to feeding treatment due to their intense fear of weight gain and...

  15. Hands, Tables, and Groups Make Rehabilitation Awesome!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberta, University of

    Hands, Tables, and Groups Make Rehabilitation Awesome! Michelle ANNETT1 , Fraser ANDERSON, Walter F rehabilitation programs by providing patients with engaging alternatives to otherwise monotonous and repetitive patient rehabilitation programs. So far, the focus has mainly been on single-user interaction, largely

  16. The cognitive dynamics underlying decision-making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Jaeseung

    )Temporal dynamics 2)Sequential dynamics #12;How does the brain make effective real-world decisions dependent A B C D 0 25 50 75 100 Choicepercentage(%) Options A B C D 0 25 50 75 100 Choicepercentage(%) Options A B C D 0 25 50 75 100 Choicepercentage(%) Options B-Index 0

  17. Music Composition About 40 years making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Music Composition · About 40 years making · Interdisciplinary - music, acoustics, psychology, math. · Tried to bring nature into music - chaos #12;This is the Outline · Chaotic Sounds · Aesthetics · Computers in Music Algorithmic Composition - & How Not to Do It Relationships vs Mimetic Content · My

  18. Making Programming more Conversational Alexander Repenning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repenning, Alexander

    Making Programming more Conversational Alexander Repenning AgentSheets Inc. Boulder 80301, Colorado.0 culture, end-user programming--programming by end users with limited or even no formal programming programming languages such as Logo have made programming substantially more accessible to end-users. More

  19. 2015 Approved Vehicles CLASS MAKE/MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    2015 Approved Vehicles CLASS MAKE/MODEL ELECTRIC HYBRID FLEXFUEL GAS DIESEL FUEL ECONOMY (Electric) FUEL ECONOMY (GAS) FUEL ECONOMY (E85) FUEL ECONOMY (DIESEL) ENERGY IMPACT SCORE (ELECTRIC) ENERGY IMPACT SCORE (GAS) ENERGY IMPACT SCORE (E85) ENERGY IMPACT SCORE (DIESEL) SMALL CAR Ford Focus Electric

  20. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.A.; Riemath, W.F.

    1984-03-30

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin. 2 figures.

  1. 2007: make or break for emissions trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitelli, A.

    2006-11-15

    With the Kyoto Protocol's first compliance period beginning in 2008, much of 2007 will be focussed on implementing the institutions needed to ensure the Protocol's effectiveness. The big unknown is whether governments and international bodies can make tough decisions in time to let the emissions market function effectively to reduce greenhouse gases.

  2. MAKING JAVA HARD REALTIME Peter Puschner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAKING JAVA HARD REAL­TIME Peter Puschner Institut fË?ur Technische Informatik Technische Universit,andyg@cs.york.ac.uk ABSTRACT Due to its portability and security the Java program­ ming language has become very popular. Standard Java is however not suited for programming hard real­time sys­ tems. To overcome this limitation

  3. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Janet A. (Richland, WA); Riemath, William F. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin.

  4. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-04-12

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Automated Market Making: Theory and Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , market making agents either endeavor to secure a risk-free profit or to facilitate trade that would several classes of market makers that are better at facilitating trade in Internet prediction markets. We then shift our focus to notions of profit, and how a market maker can trade to maximize its own account. We

  6. MAKING INTERACTIVE GUIDES MORE ATTRACTIVE Anton Nijholt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    as animated cartoon characters or animated objects resembling human beings. Sometimes they just consist that should be taken to make 2D and 3D guides on webpages and in (augmented) virtual reality environments more and have to interact with the user or a visitor of an environment. What does the virtual guide know about

  7. DEVELOPMENTOF A DECISION MAKING ALGORITHMFOR AIRBAG CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmud, Syed Masud

    is the energy per unit mass. However, there are several problems in using the change in Car energy and the change in occupant position with respect to the car, other algorithms first filter the signal at a random low cutoff frequency and make different analyses [1],[4]. This paper presents a new algorithm

  8. Making History: New Directions in Computer Historiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    of the Information Machine, Ceruzzi's A History of Modern Computing, and Abbate's Inventing the Internet. UnlikeMaking History: New Directions in Computer Historiography Twenty-two years after the Annals' first librarians place most books on the history of computers, mixed seemingly ran- domly with social commentaries

  9. A predictive analytical friction model from basic theories of interfaces, contacts and dislocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    A predictive analytical friction model from basic theories of interfaces, contacts and dislocations of dislocation drag, contact mechanics, and interface theory. An analytic expression for the friction force still see use in basic discus- sions of the phenomenon [1]. Three basic observations have persisted

  10. On the Progression of Situation Calculus Basic Action Theories: Resolving a 10-year-old Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levesque, Hector

    On the Progression of Situation Calculus Basic Action Theories: Resolving a 10-year-old Conjecture and change (McCarthy & Hayes 1969). A basic action theory is a logical theory in the situation calculus. An example of a basic action theory is one that captures the dynamics of a board game: part of the theory

  11. Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity #3. In this paper we present a construction keeping in mind the basic theory of annihilator immunity the basic theory. Most importantly, the cryptographic properties of our constructions, such as nonlinearity

  12. Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity Deepak present a construction keeping in mind the basic theory of annihilator immunity. This construction immunity that comes from the basic theory. Most importantly, the cryptographic properties of our

  13. CDTL Brief Jan/Feb 2014, Page 19 Back to Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    CDTL Brief Jan/Feb 2014, Page 19 Back to Basics: A Six-step Process to Effective Teaching Willie TAN Dept of Building Recommended Citation Tan, W. (2014). Back to basics: A six-step process to effective teaching. CDTL Brief, 17(1), pp. 19-21. Introduction The term "back to basics" has many meanings

  14. Back to Basics in CS1 and CS2 Stuart Reges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzdial, Mark

    Back to Basics in CS1 and CS2 Stuart Reges University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering courses are still taught in Java, but they represent a return to the basics that were emphasized course emphasizes problem solving, procedural decomposition and mastery of basic skills (e.g., loops

  15. Back-to-Basics Proposal Overview of 2012 Honor System Legislation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Back-to-Basics Proposal Overview of 2012 Honor System Legislation *The viewpoints and observations Subcommittee and do not represent the official stance of the University of Virginia Honor Committee. #12;2Back-to-Basics for investigating and trying Honor offenses? Source: Honor 2012 Survey #12;3Back-to-Basics Proposal11BOS The current

  16. Basic definitions and first examples The main result and its proof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuske, Dietrich

    Basic definitions and first examples The main result and its proof Concluding remarks Finite of November 2011 Lutz H. Strüngmann FAP Groups #12;Basic definitions and first examples The main result and its proof Concluding remarks Contents 1 Basic definitions and first examples 2 The main result and its

  17. The basic CSP reductions revisited Libor Barto, joint with Michael Pinsker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barto, Libor

    The basic CSP reductions revisited Libor Barto, joint with Michael Pinsker Charles University in Prague Banff workshop November 2014 #12;Outline and notation Outline Basic CSP reductions ­ 3 views Questions Basic CSP reductions revisited Notation A . . . finite set of relations on A A . . . the clone

  18. Hadron Physics and QCD: Just the Basic Facts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Craig D

    2015-01-01

    With discovery of the Higgs boson, the Standard Model of Particle Physics became complete. Its formulation is a remarkable story; and the process of verification is continuing, with the most important chapter being the least well understood. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is that part of the Standard Model which is supposed to describe all of nuclear physics and yet, almost fifty years after the discovery of quarks, we are only just beginning to understand how QCD moulds the basic bricks for nuclei: pious, neutrons, protons. QCD is characterized by two emergent phenomena: confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB), whose implications are extraordinary. This contribution describes how DCSB, not the Higgs boson, generates more than 98% of the visible mass in the Universe, explains why confinement guarantees that condensates, those quantities that were commonly viewed as constant mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons, and elucidates a range of observable co...

  19. BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Biomass Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many students haven’t thought much about biomass as an option for generating electricity, transportation fuels, and other products. The Biomass Basics Webinar provides general information about bioenergy, its creation, and its potential uses, and is designed to assist teams competing in the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. This challenge, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), is a competition for high school students to learn about bioenergy, create infographics to present what they have learned, and share their infographics on social media. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by BETO in conjunction with the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge.

  20. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.