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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

2

Development of Synthetic Flux for Basic Oxygen Steel Making Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat Treatment of Black Dross for the Production of a Value Added Material ... Leaching Studies for Metals Recovery from Waste Printed Wiring Boards (PWBs).

3

Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

King, Paul (Golden, CO); Ghirardi, Maria L (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

6

Basic Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 II Basic Research The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) office within the DOE Office of Science supports the DOE Hydrogen Program by providing basic, fundamental research in those technically challenging areas facing the Program, complementing the applied research and demonstration projects conducted by the Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Fossil Energy; and Nuclear Engineering, Science and Technology. In May 2005 Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced the selection of over $64 million in BES research and development projects aimed at making hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and refueling stations available, practical and affordable for American consumers by 2020. A total of 70 hydrogen research projects were selected to focus on fundamental science and enable

7

Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Silicon Cell Basics Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular material for solar cells. Silicon is also the second-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen). However, to be useful as a semiconductor material in solar cells, silicon must be refined to a purity of 99.9999%. In single-crystal silicon, the molecular structure-which is the arrangement of atoms in the material-is uniform because the entire structure is grown from the same crystal. This uniformity is ideal for transferring electrons efficiently through the material. To make an effective PV cell, however, silicon has to be "doped" with other elements to make n-type and p-type layers.

8

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

9

XHTML Basic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The XHTML Basic document type includes the minimal set of modules required to be an XHTML host language document type, and in addition it includes images, forms, basic tables, and object support. It is designed for Web clients that do not support the full set of XHTML features; for example, Web clients such as mobile phones, PDAs, pagers, and settop boxes. The document type is rich enough for content authoring. XHTML Basic is designed as a common base that may be extended. For example, an event module that is more generic than the traditional HTML 4 event system could be added or it could be extended by additional modules from XHTML Modularization such as the Scripting Module. The goal of XHTML Basic is to serve as a common language supported by various kinds of user agents. The document type definition is implemented using XHTML modules as defined in "Modularization of XHTML" [XHTMLMOD [p.9] ]. 19 Dec 2000 08:40 1 XHTML Basic Status of this Document This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. The latest status of this document series is maintained at the W3C. This document has been reviewed by W3C Members and other interested parties and has been endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited as a normative reference from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web. This document has been produced by the W3C HTML Working Group (members only) as part of the W3C HTML Activity. It integrates feedback from the WAP Forum and members of the W3C Mobile Acce...

Mark Baker; Masayasu Ishikawa; Shinichi Matsui; Peter Stark; Sun Microsystems; Masayasu Ishikawa Wc; Shinichi Matsui Panasonic; Peter Stark Ericsson; Ted Wugofski; Openwave Systems

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science  

SciTech Connect

Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

Bodnarczuk, M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Relative basicities of the oxygen sites in [V{sub 10}O{sub 28}]{sup 6-}. An analysis of the ab initio determined distributions of the electrostatic potential and of the Laplacian of charge density  

SciTech Connect

An ab initio SCF wave function has been generated for the ground state of the [V{sub 10}V{sub 28}]{sup 6-} ion, with a basis set of triple-zeta quality for the valence shell of oxygen. This wave function has been the starting point for theoretical studies on the relative basicities of the six external oxygen sites of the title ion in order to interpret the experimental findings concerning the preferred sites of proton fixation. The topology of the distribution of the electrostatic potentials (ESP) around the ion is deduced from the determination of V(r) in some specific planes and on spherical surfaces centered on each of the six oxygen sites. Several ESP minima not equivalent by symmetry have been characterized, most of them, but not all, lying in the vicinity of a specific oxygen atom. The two deepest nonequivalent ESP minima are associated with the two distinct sites, referred to as O{sub B} and O{sub C} undergoing protonation in [H{sub 3}V{sub 10}{sub 28}]{sup 3-}. An analysis of the Laplacian of the charge of density shows that the direction of the maxima in -{triangledown}{sup 2}p which characterize the local charge concentrations around the oxygen atoms, coincides within a few degrees with the direction of the ESP minima when existing, and with that of the protons in [H{sub 3}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}]{sup 3-} in the vicinity of sites O{sub B} and O{sub C}. 32 refs., 16 fig., 5 tab.

Kempf, J.Y.; Rohmer, M.M.; Poblet, J.M.; Bo, C.; Benard, M., [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

1992-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

12

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

13

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

14

Biology basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology basics Name: lamb Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What basic knowledge concerning biology do you think a colleg- bound HS...

15

Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis biomass in beekers Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials, which collectively are called "biomass." Ethanol contains the same chemical compound (C2H5OH) found in alcoholic beverages. Studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. Nearly half of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in E85, an alternative fuel that can be used in flexible fuel vehicles. Several steps are required to make ethanol available as a vehicle fuel. Biomass feedstocks are grown and transported to ethanol production

16

Energy Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The EERE Energy Basics website contains basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes,...

17

Energy Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, vehicles, and industries.

18

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a woman scientist using a machine that is purifying biological catalysts for hydrogen production. Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth. A hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron. It is also the most plentiful element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as a gas on Earth. It is always combined with other elements. Water, for example, is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is also found in many organic compounds, notably the "hydrocarbons" that make up fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane. To generate electricity using hydrogen, pure hydrogen must first be

20

Basic Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Bacteria Basic Bacteria Name: Valerie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I'm doing a science project on bacteria. WHat I'm doing is washing forks with different dishwashing liquids, then wiping any remaining bacteria on to Agar petri dishes. Then incubating it and seeing which soap removed the most. My question is what kind of bacteria would be growing? and also do I just count the colonies to compare? and how long and at what temperature should I incubate this bacteria? Thank you very much for your time. I'll be looking forward to your response. Replies: The temperature is easy: 37 degrees C is optimal for many bacteria. The medium will determine which bacteria grow best. So if you don't see growth on one medium, but you see growth on another, it tells you that there is a difference in nutrients present in those media that is required for that bacteria. Look at your plates after 24 hr, then put them back in the incubator (keep them sterile) and look at them after 48 hrs--do you see the difference? any slow-growing bacteria visible or did the fast-growing take over the complete plate?

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sunspace basics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

NREL: Learning - Biofuels Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biofuels Basics Biofuels Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of NREL research on converting biomass to liquid fuels. Text Version Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels in use today are ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is an alcohol, the same as in beer and wine (although ethanol used as a fuel is modified to make it undrinkable). It is most commonly made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates through a process similar to beer brewing. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but NREL scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose

23

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Google...

24

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

25

Geothermal: Basic Search  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Basic Search Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About...

26

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

27

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

28

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

29

Lesson 1 Energy Basics ENERGY BASICS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Table of Contents Table of Contents Lesson 1 - Energy Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 3 - Atoms and Isotopes Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 5 - Fission, Chain Reactions Lesson 6 - Atom to Electricity Lesson 7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants Lesson 8 - Concerns Lesson 9 - Energy and You 1 Lesson 1 Energy Basics ENERGY BASICS What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. But what does that really mean? You might think of work as cleaning your room, cutting the grass, or studying for a test. And all these require energy. To a scientist, "work" means something more exact. Work is causing a change. It can be a change in position, like standing up or moving clothes from the floor to the laundry basket. It can be a change in temperature, like heating water for a cup

30

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

31

Energy Basics: Geothermal Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

32

Energy Basics: Photovoltaics  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

33

Energy Basics: Hydropower Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Hydropower Resources...

34

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

35

Energy Basics: Microhydropower  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Water Conveyance &...

36

Energy Basics: Hydropower Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Hydropower Resources...

37

Energy Basics: Geothermal Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

38

Make Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and public perceptions and preferences, help improve our understanding of risk, vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. How does USGCRP make observations? USGCRP...

39

Energy Basics: Contacts  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Skip to Content U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Energy Basics Search Search Help Energy...

40

Energy Basics: Biodiesel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Biodiesel Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. What...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy Basics: Wind Turbines  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Wind Turbines Wind Resources Wind Turbines...

42

Energy Basics: Tidal Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

43

Energy Basics: Geothermal Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Geothermal Resources Although geothermal heat pumps can be used almost anywhere, most direct-use and electrical production facilities in the United States are...

44

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Fuel Cells Photo of...

45

Energy Basics: Ocean Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

46

Energy Basics: Geothermal Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Geothermal Technologies Photo of steam pouring out of a geothermal plant. Geothermal technologies use the clean, sustainable heat from the Earth. Geothermal...

47

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen...

48

Energy Basics: Wave Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

49

Energy Basics: Air Conditioning  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to...

50

Basic Energy Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center...

51

NREL: Learning - Energy Storage Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Basics Energy Storage Basics The demand for electricity is seldom constant over time. Excess generating capacity available during periods of low demand can be used to energize an energy storage device. The stored energy can then be used to provide electricity during periods of high demand, helping to reduce power system loads during these times. Energy storage can improve the efficiency and reliability of the electric utility system by reducing the requirements for spinning reserves to meet peak power demands, making better use of efficient baseload generation, and allowing greater use of renewable energy technologies. A "spinning reserve" is a generator that is spinning and synchronized with the grid, ready for immediate power generation - like a car engine running with the gearbox

52

Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System Basics System Basics Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis A photovoltaic (PV), or solar electric system, is made up of several photovoltaic solar cells. An individual PV cell is usually small, typically producing about 1 or 2 watts of power. To boost the power output of PV cells, they are connected together to form larger units called modules. Modules, in turn, can be connected to form even larger units called arrays, which can be interconnected to produce more power, and so on. In this way, PV systems can be built to meet almost any electric power need, small or large. Illustration of solar cells combined to make a module and modules combined to make an array. The basic PV or solar cell produces only a small amount of power. To produce more power, cells can be interconnected to

53

Basic principle of superconductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

Method for making glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is discussed for making better quality molten borosilicate glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen'' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal,...

56

Energy Basics: Biofuels  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The biomass-derived ethyl or methyl esters can be blended with conventional diesel fuel or used as a neat fuel (100% biodiesel). Learn more about biodiesel basics. Biofuel...

57

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Fuel Cells Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for...

58

Evolution strategies: basic introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This tutorial gives a basic introduction to evolution strategies, a class of evolutionary algorithms. Key features such as mutation, recombination and selection operators are explained, and specifically the concept of self-adaptation of strategy parameters ... Keywords: evolution strategies

Thomas Bäck

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Energy Basics Services » Energy Basics Energy Basics The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Biomass Technology Basics Geothermal Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics Solar Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics More HOME & BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Lighting and Daylighting Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics

60

Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles powered by internal combustion engines, which include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and propane vehicles. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A number of factors determine the composition of emissions, including the vehicle's fuel, the engine's technology, the vehicle's exhaust aftertreatment system, and how the vehicle operates. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation during fueling or even when vehicles are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Infrared Basics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Infrared Basics Citation Protherm. Infrared Basics Internet. 2013. cited...

62

Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Biomass Technology Basics Geothermal Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology...

63

What makes blood red?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to air? Replies: The protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood, changes shape when it binds oxygen. When it changes shape, it absorbs different wavelengths of...

64

Making Histograms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Histograms: Construction, Analysis and Understanding Histograms: Construction, Analysis and Understanding Conservation Laws - Data Analysis Using Graphs - Histograms - Units or Vectors in Particle Physics What is a Histogram? A histogram is "a representation of a frequency distribution by means of rectangles whose widths represent class intervals and whose areas are proportional to the corresponding frequencies." Online Webster's Dictionary Sounds complicated . . . but the concept really is pretty simple. We graph groups of numbers according to how often they appear. Thus if we have the set {1,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,4,5,6}, we can graph them like this: This graph is pretty easy to make and gives us some useful data about the set. For example, the graph peaks at 3, which is also the median and the mode of the set. The mean of the set is 3.27— not far from the peak. The shape of the graph gives us an idea of how the numbers in the set are distributed about the mean: the distribution of this graph is wide compared to size of the peak, indicating that values in the set are only loosely bunched round the mean.

65

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

66

Web Editing Basics 1 1. Opening your site .........................................................................1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Web Editing Basics 1 TOPICS 1. Opening your site. Navigate to your Web page ............................................................2 4. Make text edits ..............................................................................2 5. Prepare documents and images for the Web ....................................3 6. Move

Zeng, Yong - Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Missouri

67

Bio-Based Products Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are...

68

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? ­ the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy ­ or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for

69

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use of relatively inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar cell. One measure of the effectiveness of this approach is the concentration ratio-in other words, how much concentration the cell is receiving. Concentrator PV systems have several advantages over flat-plate systems. First, concentrator systems reduce the size or number of cells needed and

71

Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Ductless versions of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. Addthis Related Articles A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

72

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

73

Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cell Basics Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Commonly known as solar cells, individual PV cells are electricity-producing devices made of semiconductor materials. PV cells come in many sizes and shapes, from smaller than a postage stamp to several inches across. They are often connected together to form PV modules that may be up to several feet long and a few feet wide. Modules, in turn, can be combined and connected to form PV arrays of different sizes and power output. The modules of the array make up the major part of a PV system, which can also include electrical connections,

74

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

75

Water Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Water Efficiency Basics October 7, 2013 - 2:38pm Addthis Training Available Graphic of the eTraining logo Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities: Learn how to manage the Water Assessment process in Federal facilities by taking this FEMP eTraining course. Although two-thirds of the Earth's surface is water, less than one-half of one percent of that water is currently available for our use. As the U.S. population increases, so does our water use, making water resources increasingly scarce. Many regions feel the strain. The Federal Government uses an estimated 148 to 165 billion gallons of potable water annually. This is equal to the annual water use of a state the size of New Jersey or almost 8 million people1. This is, in part, because water requires significant energy input for treatment, pumping,

76

Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:11am Addthis Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, have the potential to revolutionize our transportation system. They are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no harmful tailpipe exhaust-their only emission is water. Fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen infrastructure to fuel them are in an early stage of development. The U.S. Department of Energy is leading government and industry efforts to make hydrogen-powered vehicles an affordable, environmentally friendly, and safe transportation option. Visit the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center to learn more

77

Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Basics Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:11am Addthis Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, have the potential to revolutionize our transportation system. They are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no harmful tailpipe exhaust-their only emission is water. Fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen infrastructure to fuel them are in an early stage of development. The U.S. Department of Energy is leading government and industry efforts to make hydrogen-powered vehicles an affordable, environmentally friendly, and safe transportation option. Visit the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center to learn more

78

Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

BASIC Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name BASIC Solar Place Bulgaria Product Project development SPV focused on utility-scale PV projects. References BASIC Solar1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

80

Basic Energy Sciences at NREL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL's Center for Basic Sciences performs fundamental research for DOE's Office of Science. Our mission is to provide fundamental knowledge in the basic sciences and engineering that will underpin new and improved renewable energy technologies.

Moon, S.

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy Basics: Geothermal Electricity Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

82

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Structures  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

83

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Performance  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

84

Energy Basics: Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

85

Energy Basics: Solar Energy Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Solar...

86

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic System Performance  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

87

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

88

Energy Basics: Solar Energy Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Solar...

89

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Materials  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

90

Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

Hite, Larry R. (Dallas, TX); Houston, Ted (Richardson, TX); Matloubian, Mishel (Dallas, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

NREL: Energy Storage - Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Basics Photo of an ultracapacitor. Electrochemical energy storage devices provide the power for many everyday devices-from cars, trains, and laptops to personal digital...

93

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country...

94

Energy Basics: Geothermal Electricity Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Geothermal Electricity Production A photo of steam emanating from geothermal power plants at The Geysers in California. Geothermal energy originates from deep...

95

Energy Basics: Wind Power Animation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Wind Turbines Wind Resources Wind Power...

96

Energy Basics: Renewable Energy Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Renewable Energy Technologies Renewable energy...

97

Energy Basics: Wind Energy Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Wind Turbines Wind Resources Wind Energy...

98

Energy Basics: Wind Energy Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Wind Turbines Wind Resources Wind Energy...

99

NREL: Learning - Geothermal Energy Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About Renewable Energy Search More Search Options Site Map Printable Version Geothermal Energy Basics Photo of a hot spring. The Earth's heat-called geothermal...

100

Energy Basics: Ocean Energy Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCINTILLATION COUNTING  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of scintillation counting are reviewed. The design, performance, and operation of a placed on instruments ior medical uses. (C.H.)

Harris, C.C.; Hamblen, D.P.; Francis, J.E.

1959-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics More Additional Links Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Here you'll find a glossary of energy-related terms. Related...

103

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Fusion Basics | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fusion Basics Fusion Basics What is Plasma? Plasma is a state of matter along with solids, liquids and gases. It consists of a partially-ionized gas, containing ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. So what does that mean? In a plasma, some electrons are freed from their atoms, allowing current and electricity to flow. In fact, one of the few naturally-occurring plasmas found here on Earth is lightning! Can you think of other plasmas? Fluorescent light bulbs contain mercury plasma. Stars, such as the sun are hot balls of plasma. Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis Fusion reactors, like NSTX, use plasma to fuse atoms to make energy. Plasma displays use small cells of plasma to illuminate images. What is Fusion? Light atoms like hydrogen (one proton and one neutron) can fuse together so

105

Federal Energy Management Program: Water Efficiency Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Graphic of the eTraining logo Training Available Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities: Learn how to manage the Water Assessment process in Federal facilities by taking this FEMP eTraining course. Although two-thirds of the Earth's surface is water, less than one-half of one percent of that water is currently available for our use. As the U.S. population increases, so does our water use, making water resources increasingly scarce. Many regions feel the strain. The Federal Government uses an estimated 148 to 165 billion gallons of potable water annually. This is equal to the annual water use of a state the size of New Jersey or almost 8 million people1. This is, in part, because water requires significant energy input for treatment, pumping, heating, and process uses. Water is integral to the cooling of power plants that provide energy to Federal facilities.

106

IndianEnergySummitBasicFactSHEET  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SUMMIT BASIC FACTS SHEET SUMMIT BASIC FACTS SHEET WHAT: DOE TRIBAL LEADERS ROUNDTABLES AND ENERGY SUMMIT WHO: Tribal Leadership and Tribal Policy Makers Secretary Chu and DOE Senior Leadership DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs WHEN: MAY 4 th and 5 th , 2011 WHERE: WASHINGTON, D.C., AREA Summit Location CRYSTAL GATEWAY MARRIOTT www.marriott.com/hotels/.../wasgw-crystal-gateway-marriott/ 1700 Jefferson Davis Highway Arlington, Virginia (703) 920-3230 REGISTRATION: There are NO registration fees to participate. Tribal Leaders will have to make their own arrangements for travel and accomodations. Summit Working Session meals/refreshments (limited) are included by the hotel. Please confirm your attendance by completing the registration form (WEB link to

107

Search by Make  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

You are here: Find a Car - Home > Search by Make Search by Make Search by Make Go Browse New Cars by Make A-D Acura Acura Audi Audi BMW BMW Buick Buick Cadillac Cadillac Chevrolet...

108

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics on...

109

Solid-State Lighting: OLED Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting: OLED Basics on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: OLED Basics on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: OLED Basics on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting:...

110

Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 11:24am Addthis Energy 101: Daylighting Basics This video explains how homeowners and businesses can use highly efficient, strategically placed windows to save money. Text Version Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a higher quality of light but also improves productivity and health. Daylighting in schools has even improved student grades and attendance. Today's highly energy-efficient windows, as well as advances in lighting design, allow efficient use of windows to reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing heating or cooling problems.

112

Basic EETD Web Page Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic EETD Web Page Design Speaker(s): Eve Edelson Date: May 27, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Allan Chen This talk will provide information...

113

Energy Basics: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicles Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (85%...

114

Energy Basics: Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Fuel Cell Vehicles Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by...

115

NREL: Learning - Solar Energy Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Basics Photo of a solar electric system in Colorado with snow-covered mountain peaks in the background. Solar panels installed on a home in Colorado. Solar is the Latin word...

116

Energy Basics: Solar Liquid Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Liquid Heating Solar liquid heating systems use a collector with a heat transfer or "working" fluid such as water, antifreeze (usually non-toxic propylene...

117

Energy Basics: Solar Air Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Air Heating Solar air heating systems use air as the working fluid for absorbing and transferring solar energy. Solar air collectors (devices to heat air...

118

Energy Basics: Wind Power Animation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wind Power Animation This animation discusses the advantages of wind power, the workings of a wind turbine, and wind resources in the United States. It also...

119

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

120

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), or a mixture of both. There are almost 8 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today, but many FFV owners don't know their vehicle is one. Unlike natural gas vehicles and propane bi-fuel vehicles, flexible fuel vehicles contain one fueling system, which is made up of ethanol-compatible components and is set to accommodate the higher oxygen content of E85. E85 should only be used in ethanol-capable FFVs. For more information, read Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable American Fuel. Download Adobe Reader.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Oxygen detection in biological systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

kinetics of flash induced oxygen evolution of algae through measuring ...... (1999) Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses.

123

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

124

Biodiesel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Basics Biodiesel Basics Biodiesel Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis Looking for Biodiesel stations? Checkout the Alternative Fuels Data Center station locator. Biodiesel station locator Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a liquid fuel made up of fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty acid methyl esters, or long-chain mono alkyl esters. It is produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is nontoxic and biodegradable. Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition (diesel) engines. B20, which is 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel, is

125

Biopower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biopower Basics Biopower Basics Biopower Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:35pm Addthis Biopower is the production of electricity or heat from biomass resources. With 10 gigawatts of installed capacity, biopower technologies are proven options in the United States today. Biopower technologies include direct combustion, co-firing, and anaerobic digestion. Direct Combustion Most electricity generated from biomass is produced by direct combustion using conventional boilers. These boilers primarily burn waste wood products from the agriculture and wood-processing industries. When burned, the wood produces steam, which spins a turbine. The spinning turbine then activates a generator that produces electricity. Co-Firing Co-firing involves replacing a portion of the petroleum-based fuel in

126

Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lighting Basics Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights, all of which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting Low-pressure Sodium Lighting. Which type is best depends on the application. See the chart below for a comparison of lighting types. Lighting Comparison Chart Lighting Type Efficacy (lumens/watt) Lifetime (hours) Color Rendition Index (CRI) Color Temperature (K) Indoors/Outdoors Fluorescent Straight Tube 30-110 7000-24,000 50-90 (fair to good) 2700-6500 (warm to cold) Indoors/outdoors Compact Fluorescent 50-70 10,000 65-88 (good) 2700-6500 (warm to cold) Indoors/outdoors

127

Biopower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biopower Basics Biopower Basics Biopower Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:35pm Addthis Biopower is the production of electricity or heat from biomass resources. With 10 gigawatts of installed capacity, biopower technologies are proven options in the United States today. Biopower technologies include direct combustion, co-firing, and anaerobic digestion. Direct Combustion Most electricity generated from biomass is produced by direct combustion using conventional boilers. These boilers primarily burn waste wood products from the agriculture and wood-processing industries. When burned, the wood produces steam, which spins a turbine. The spinning turbine then activates a generator that produces electricity. Co-Firing Co-firing involves replacing a portion of the petroleum-based fuel in

128

Biofuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuel Basics Biofuel Basics Biofuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 11:38am Addthis Text Version Photo of a woman in goggles handling a machine filled with biofuels. Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels produced from biomass. Most biofuels are used for transportation, but some are used as fuels to produce electricity. The expanded use of biofuels offers an array of benefits for our energy security, economic growth, and environment. Current biofuels research focuses on new forms of biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, and on biofuels conversion processes. Ethanol Ethanol-an alcohol-is made primarily from the starch in corn grain. It is most commonly used as an additive to petroleum-based fuels to reduce toxic air emissions and increase octane. Today, roughly half of the gasoline sold in the United States includes 5%-10% ethanol.

129

Probing Oxygen Activation Sites in Two Flavoprotein Oxidases Using Chloride as an Oxygen Surrogate  

SciTech Connect

A single basic residue above the si-face of the flavin ring is the site of oxygen activation in glucose oxidase (GOX) (His516) and monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) (Lys265). Crystal structures of both flavoenzymes exhibit a small pocket at the oxygen activation site that might provide a preorganized binding site for superoxide anion, an obligatory intermediate in the two-electron reduction of oxygen. Chloride binds at these polar oxygen activation sites, as judged by solution and structural studies. First, chloride forms spectrally detectable complexes with GOX and MSOX. The protonated form of His516 is required for tight binding of chloride to oxidized GOX and for rapid reaction of reduced GOX with oxygen. Formation of a binary MSOX-chloride complex requires Lys265 and is not observed with Lys265Met. Binding of chloride to MSOX does not affect the binding of a sarcosine analogue (MTA, methylthioactetate) above the re-face of the flavin ring. Definitive evidence is provided by crystal structures determined for a binary MSOX-chloride complex and a ternary MSOX-chloride-MTA complex. Chloride binds in the small pocket at a position otherwise occupied by a water molecule and forms hydrogen bonds to four ligands that are arranged in approximate tetrahedral geometry: Lys265:NZ, Arg49:NH1, and two water molecules, one of which is hydrogen bonded to FAD:N5. The results show that chloride (i) acts as an oxygen surrogate, (ii) is an effective probe of polar oxygen activation sites, and (iii) provides a valuable complementary tool to the xenon gas method that is used to map nonpolar oxygen-binding cavities.

Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Chen, Zhi-wei; Bruckner, Robert C.; Mathews, F. Scott; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman (Drexel-MED); (St. Louis-MED); (WU-MED)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

130

Electrolysis of Molten Iron Oxide with an Iridium Anode: The Role of Electrolyte Basicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-free, electrochemical technique to decompose a metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas. From an environmental perspective what makes MOE attractive is its ability ...

Kim, Hojong

131

BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training April 4, 2014 7:30AM MDT to April 18, 2014 5:00PM MDT Registration link: EOTA Registration Course Type: Classroom Training (Instructor-Led) Course Location: Phillips Technlogoy Institute (PTi) Kirtland Air Force Base, Building 1900 (Maxwell) Course Description: This course is offered to instructors who provide training to site personnel. The mission is to assure the quality and consistency of training provided to the Department of Energy facilities nationwide. The purpose is to train DOE and DOE contractor instructors in the basic teaching tools needed to provide effecitve and current training techniques, as well as make classroom activities a valuable learning experience.

132

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

133

DIY BASICS CHECKLIST DRIPS AND LEAKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIY BASICS CHECKLIST DRIPS AND LEAKS Watercancauseseriousdamage- oftenunseen. Drillbits. Tapemeasure. Spiritlevel. Start off small. Collect a basic tool kit. There's plenty of DIY info'tdrillintomortarbetweenbricks. #12;DIY BASICS CHECKLIST Location Twopeoplemakethisamuch easierjob. Cutasheetofpapertothesize

Peters, Richard

134

FCT Safety, Codes and Standards: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by E-mail Share FCT Safety, Codes and Standards: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Safety, Codes and Standards: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Safety, Codes and Standards: Basics...

135

Solid-State Lighting: SSL Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SSL Basics Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: SSL Basics to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: SSL Basics on Facebook Tweet about...

136

Solid-State Lighting: LED Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SSL Basics Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: LED Basics to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: LED Basics on Facebook Tweet...

137

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

138

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater...

139

Geothermal Electricity Production Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electricity Production Basics Geothermal Electricity Production Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:49pm Addthis A photo of steam emanating from geothermal power plants at The Geysers in...

140

Federal Energy Management Program: Sustainable Building Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Building Basics to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Sustainable Building Basics on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Renewable Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Technology Basics Renewable Energy Technology Basics Renewable energy technologies produce sustainable, clean energy from sources such as the sun, the wind,...

142

REScheck Basics | Building Energy Codes Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics This training covers the basics of using the REScheck(tm) software, and is geared toward the beginning user. Estimated Length: 1 hour, 8 minutes Presenters: Rosemarie...

143

Basic Research Needs: Catalysis for Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report presents results of a workshop held August 6-8, 2007, by DOE SC Basic Energy Sciences to determine the basic research needs for catalysis research.

Bell, Alexis T.; Gates, Bruce C.; Ray, Douglas; Thompson, Michael R.

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

144

Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Basics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics for Sustainability to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy...

145

Hydropower Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

potential from the EERE Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. Addthis Related Articles Hydropower Technology Basics Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Microhydropower Basics...

146

Geothermal Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Or read more about EERE's geothermal technologies research. Addthis Related Articles Geothermal Direct-Use Basics Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Geothermal Resource Basics...

147

Geospatial Decision Making System  

The INL has developed a geospatial decision making process to assist agricultural producers in optimizing operating conditions of combine harvesters ...

148

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coordinator Basics to Coordinator Basics to someone by E-mail Share Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Facebook Tweet about Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Twitter Bookmark Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Google Bookmark Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Delicious Rank Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Digg Find More places to share Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on AddThis.com... Coordinator Basics Clean Cities Program Structure Reference Materials Technical Support Fundraising Redesignation Outreach Education & Webinars Meetings Reporting Contacts Clean Cities Coordinator Basics Explore these resources for basic information to help you effectively support your Clean Cities coalition. Icon of an organization chart. Program Structure

150

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

NREL: Learning - Distributed Energy Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Basics Distributed Energy Basics Photo of transmission towers and lines extending for miles towards a pink sunset in the distance. Distributed energy technologies can relieve transmission bottlenecks by reducing the amount of electricity that must be sent long distances down high-voltage power lines. Distributed energy refers to a variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with load management and energy storage systems to improve the quality and/or reliability of the electricity supply. They are "distributed" because they are placed at or near the point of energy consumption, unlike traditional "centralized" systems, where electricity is generated at a remotely located, large-scale power plant and then transmitted down power lines to the consumer.

153

Microhydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Microhydropower Basics August 15, 2013 - 3:09pm Addthis Microhydropower systems are small hydroelectric power systems of less than 100 kilowatts (kW) used to produce mechanical energy or electricity for farms, ranches, homes, and villages. How a Microhydropower System Works All hydropower systems use the energy of flowing water to produce electricity or mechanical energy. Although there are several ways to harness moving water to produce energy, "run-of-the-river systems," which do not require large storage reservoirs, are most often used for microhydropower systems. Illustration of an example microhydropower system. A river flows down from some hills. The river first flows through an intake, which is indicated as two white walls on each side of the river. The intake diverts water to a canal. From the canal, the water travels to a forebay, which looks like a white, rectangular, aboveground pool. A pipeline, called a penstock, extends from the forebay to a building, called the powerhouse. You can see inside the powerhouse, which contains a turbine and other electric generation equipment. The water flows in and out of the powerhouse, returning to the river. Power lines also extend from the powerhouse, along and through two electrical towers, to a house that sits near the river's edge.

154

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

The use of high purity oxygen in a fireflood project prevents the introduction of nonreactive nitrogen into the oil reservoir, and thus will significantly increase the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the produced gas. The increased CO/sub 2/ concentration would greatly simplify the recovery and processing required to utilize this CO/sub 2/ in a CO/sub 2/ flooding EOR project. The basic products produced by the reaction of oxygen with hydrocarbon fuel in the in situ combustion process are CO/sub 2/, carbon monoxide, and water. Oxygen fireflooding has technical and economic advantages over conventional fireflooding for EOR. Gas produced in an oxygen fireflood represents a major new source of high concentration CO/sub 2/ for EOR. 12 references.

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Just the Basics to Just the Basics to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Just the Basics Technology Overviews Biodiesel Combustion Diesel Engine Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles Ethanol Fuel Cells Hydrogen Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane)

156

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Basics Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be

157

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Basics to Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Fuel Basics Propane dispenser Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or autogas, propane is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel that's been used for decades to

158

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Basics to Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively

159

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Basics to Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a

160

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Making VRML Accessible  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Paper - Making VRML Accessible for People with Disabilities by Sandy Ressler and Qiming Wang to Appear in Proceeding of ASSETS 98. ...

162

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Fuel cell oxygen electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

167

Basic photovoltaic principles and methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:04am Addthis Ductless, mini-split-system heat pumps (mini splits), as their name implies, do not have ducts. Therefore, they make good retrofit add-ons to houses or buildings with "non-ducted" heating systems, such as hydronic (hot water heat), radiant panels, and space heaters (wood, kerosene, propane). They can also be a good choice for room additions, where extending or installing distribution ductwork is not feasible. How Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps Work Like standard air-source heat pumps, mini splits have two main components: an outdoor compressor/condenser, and an indoor air-handling unit. A conduit, which houses the power cable, refrigerant tubing, suction tubing,

169

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conversion Efficiency Basics Conversion Efficiency Basics Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis The conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, is the percentage of the solar energy shining on a PV device that is converted into electrical energy, or electricity. Improving this conversion efficiency is a key goal of research and helps make PV technologies cost-competitive with more traditional sources of energy. Factors Affecting Conversion Efficiency Much of the energy from sunlight reaching a PV cell is lost before it can be converted into electricity. But certain characteristics of solar cell materials also limit a cell's efficiency to convert the sunlight it receives. Wavelength of Light Light is composed of photons-or packets of energy-that range in

170

EIA - Natural Gas Analysis Basics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

for Natural Gas Basics for Natural Gas Basics Where Our Natural Gas Comes From Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas Statistics Natural Gas Kid's Page (Not Just for Kids) How natural gas was formed, how we get it, how it is stored and delivered, how it is measured, what it is used for, how it affects the environment and more. Natural Gas Residential Choice This site provides an overview of the status of natural gas industry restructuring in each state, focusing on the residential customer class. About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines State Energy Profiles What role does liquefied natural gas (LNG) play as an energy source for the United States? This Energy In Brief discusses aspects of LNG industry in the United States. LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to about minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit for shipment and/or storage as a liquid. Growth in LNG imports to the United States has been uneven in recent years, with substantial changes in year-over-year imports as a result of suppliersÂ’ decisions to either bring spare cargos to the United States or to divert cargos to countries where prices may be higher. Categories: Imports & Exports/Pipelines (Released, 12/11/2009)

171

Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electricity Fuel Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Electricity Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Electricity Fuel Basics Photo of a plug-in hybrid vehicle fueling. Electricity is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act

173

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

Just the Basics: Vehicle Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Are Exhaust Are Exhaust Emissions? In most heavily settled areas of the U.S., the personal automobile is the single greatest producer of harmful vehicle exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are generated by the fuel-air mixture burning in internal combus- tion engines, both gasoline-powered and diesel-powered. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation within the vehicle when it is stopped, and again during fueling. The constituents of car (gasoline and diesel) and truck (diesel) emissions vary depending on fuel type and indi- vidual vehicle operating characteris- tics. The bulk of vehicular emissions are composed of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen (in unconsumed air). There are other pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel, and

175

Basic research needed for the development of geothermal energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Basic research needed to facilitate development of geothermal energy is identified. An attempt has been made to make the report representative of the ideas of productive workers in the field. The present state of knowledge of geothermal energy is presented and then specific recommendations for further research, with status and priorities, are listed. Discussion is limited to a small number of applicable concepts, namely: origin of geothermal flux; transport of geothermal energy; geothermal reservoirs; rock-water interactions, and geophysical and geochemical exploration.

Aamodt, R.L.; Riecker, R.E.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Conversion Vehicle Conversion Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on AddThis.com... Vehicle Conversion Basics Photo of a Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A converted vehicle or engine is one modified to use a different fuel or

178

Wind Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Resource Basics Wind Energy Resource Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Wind energy can be produced anywhere in the world where the wind blows with a strong and...

179

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat...

180

Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Solar Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Energy Technology Basics Solar Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Solar energy technologies produce electricity from the energy of the sun. Small solar...

182

Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use was held May 13-15, 2003 to assess the basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. This report is based on t

183

Essays in decision making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the impact of individual decision making on the functioning of firms and markets. The first chapter examines how deviations from strict rationality by individuals impact the market for consumer goods. ...

Chang, Tom Y., 1976-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Search by Make  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search by Make Select Year... 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985...

185

Energy Basics: Microhydropower Water Conveyance and Filters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Water Conveyance &...

186

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

187

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Quantum Efficiency  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

188

Energy Basics: Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

189

Energy Basics: Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

190

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

191

Energy Basics: Microhydropower Turbines, Pumps, and Waterwheels  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Water Conveyance &...

192

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

193

Energy Basics: Large-Scale Hydropower  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Hydropower Resources...

194

Microsoft VisualBasic.Net Professional Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:Incorporating five hands-on projects, Microsoft Visual Basic .NET Professional Projects is your key to unlocking the power of Visual Basic .NET. Each project focuses on a specific Visual Basic .NET concept and is based on a real-world ...

Kuljit Kaur; Pooja Bembey

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

197

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process for making structure for a MCFC  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of making a porous carbonate-containing structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell, wherein a suitable porous structure is prepared having disposed therein a metal salt selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals or mixtures thereof with at least a portion of the salt being a monobasic organic acid salt. The monobasic acid salt is converted to the carbonate in situ by heating in the presence of oxygen. Both electrode and electrolyte structures can be prepared. Formic acid is preferred.

Pasco, Wayne D. (Scotia, NY); Arendt, Ronald H. (Schenectady, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" #12;Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use SciencesBasic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and UseWorkshop on Hydrogen Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use

200

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting, June Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Frequency Regulation Basics and Trends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electric power system must address two unique requirements: the need to maintain a near real-time balance between generation and load, and the need to adjust generation (or load) to manage power flows through individual transmission facilities. These requirements are not new: vertically integrated utilities have been meeting them for a century as a normal part of conducting business. With restructuring, however, the services needed to meet these requirements, now called ''ancillary services'', are being more clearly defined. Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has defined such services as those ''necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system''. This statement recognizes the importance of ancillary services for both bulk-power reliability and support of commercial transactions. Balancing generation and load instantaneously and continuously is difficult because loads and generators are constantly fluctuating. Minute-to-minute load variability results from the random turning on and off of millions of individual loads. Longer-term variability results from predictable factors such as the daily and seasonal load patterns as well as more random events like shifting weather patterns. Generators also introduce unexpected fluctuations because they do not follow their generation schedules exactly and they trip unexpectedly due to a range of equipment failures. The output from wind generators varies with the wind. Storage technologies should be ideal suppliers of several ancillary services, including regulation, contingency reserves (spinning reserve, supplemental reserve, replacement reserve), and voltage support. These services are not free; in regions with energy markets, generators are paid to supply these services. In vertically integrated utilities (without energy markets) the utility incurs significant costs to supply these services. Supplying these services may be a significant business opportunity for emerging storage technologies. This report briefly explores the various ancillary services that may be of interest to storage. It then focuses on regulation, the most expensive ancillary service. It also examines the impact that increasing amounts of wind generation may have on regulation requirements, decreasing conventional regulation supplies, and the implications for energy storage.

Kirby, BJ

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

202

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

A new fibre optic pulse oximeter probe for monitoring splanchnic organ arterial blood oxygen saturation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new, continuous method of monitoring splanchnic organ oxygen saturation (SpO"2) would make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischaemia, and, ultimately, death. In an attempt to ... Keywords: Fibre optics, Perfusion, Photoplethysmography, Pulse oximetry, Splanchnic organs

M. Hickey; N. Samuels; N. Randive; R. Langford; P. A. Kyriacou

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance.

Lee, Eal H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mansur, Louis K. (Clinton, TN); Heatherly, Jr., Lee (Jacksboro, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

206

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

207

Basic Performance Measures for Technology Projects | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measures for Technology Projects Basic Performance Measures for Technology Projects A white paper to provide guidance for project teams in the identification of performance...

208

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL Active Solar Heating Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

209

Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

Not Available

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Energy Basics: Electricity as a Transportation Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Electricity as a Transportation Fuel Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries....

211

Energy Basics: Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Photo of a woman scientist using a machine that is purifying biological catalysts for hydrogen production. Hydrogen is the...

212

Energy Basics: Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not...

213

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Basics Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies can be a major contributor to our nation's future need for new, clean sources of energy, particularly in the Western...

214

Energy Basics: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

215

Energy Basics: Wind Power Animation (Text Version)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Wind Turbines Wind Resources Wind Power...

216

Energy Basics: Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

217

International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. JCGM/WG 2 Document N318 1/127 International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated ...

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:55pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. However, the amount...

219

The Relationship Between Basic and Improvement Patents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of an improvement, the entire disclosure of the basic patent is reviewed in order ... the patented invention); it does not give the patentee the right to practice the ...

220

Federal Energy Management Program: Institutional Change Basics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics for Sustainability Graphic of the eTraining logo Training Available Sustainable Institutional Change for Federal Facility Managers: Learn strategies to change behavior to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Making IGCC slag valuable  

SciTech Connect

All indications are that integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology will play a major role in tomorrow's generation industry. But before it does, some by-products of the process must be dealt with, for example unburned carbon that can make IGCC slag worthless. Charah Inc.'s processing system, used at Tampa Electric's Polk Station for years, segregates the slag's constituents by size, producing fuel and building materials. 3 figs.

Wicker, K.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Method for making nanomaterials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

223

Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Institutional Change » Institutional Change Program Areas » Institutional Change » Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability October 8, 2013 - 10:55am Addthis Training Available Graphic of the eTraining logo Sustainable Institutional Change for Federal Facility Managers: Learn strategies to change behavior to meet sustainability goals by completing this FEMP eTraining course. Institutional change integrates technology, policy, and behavior to make new sustainability practices and perspectives become a typical part of how an agency operates. For example: Technology provides means to decrease energy and resource use. Policy provides directives to decrease energy and resource use. Institutional and individual behaviors provide avenues to ensure technologies, and policies are used effectively in meeting energy and

224

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative More Documents & Publications...

226

Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts More Documents &...

227

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

228

Beginning Visual Basic 2010, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book is designed to teach you how to write useful programs in Visual Basic 2010 as quickly and easily as possible. There are two kinds of beginners for whom this book is ideal: You're a beginner to programming and you've chosen Visual Basic 2010 ...

Thearon Willis; Bryan Newsome

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Make aromatics from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

Doolan, P.C. (BP Exploration Co. Ltd., London (GB)); Pujado, P.R. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (US))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Wind Turbine Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turbine Basics Turbine Basics Wind Turbine Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis Energy 101: Wind Turbines Basics This video explains the basics of how wind turbines operate to produce clean power from an abundant, renewable resource-the wind. Text Version Wind turbine assembly Although all wind turbines operate on similar principles, several varieties are in use today. These include horizontal axis turbines and vertical axis turbines. Horizontal Axis Turbines Horizontal axis turbines are the most common turbine configuration used today. They consist of a tall tower, atop which sits a fan-like rotor that faces into or away from the wind, a generator, a controller, and other components. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed. Horizontal axis turbines sit high atop towers to take advantage of the

232

Wind Turbine Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Turbine Basics Wind Turbine Basics Wind Turbine Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis Energy 101: Wind Turbines Basics This video explains the basics of how wind turbines operate to produce clean power from an abundant, renewable resource-the wind. Text Version Wind turbine assembly Although all wind turbines operate on similar principles, several varieties are in use today. These include horizontal axis turbines and vertical axis turbines. Horizontal Axis Turbines Horizontal axis turbines are the most common turbine configuration used today. They consist of a tall tower, atop which sits a fan-like rotor that faces into or away from the wind, a generator, a controller, and other components. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed. Horizontal axis turbines sit high atop towers to take advantage of the

233

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

235

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

236

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A REVISED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING OXIDE BASICITY PER THE SMITH SCALE WITH EXAMPLE APPLICATION TO GLASS DURABILITY  

SciTech Connect

Previous researchers have developed correlations between oxide electronegativity and oxide basicity. The present paper revises those correlations using a newer method of calculating electronegativity of the oxygen anion. Basicity is expressed using the Smith {alpha} parameter scale. A linear relation was found between the oxide electronegativity and the Smith {alpha} parameter, with an R{sup 2} of 0.92. An example application of this new correlation to the durability of high-level nuclear waste glass is demonstrated. The durability of waste glass was found to be directly proportional to the quantity and basicity of the oxides of tetrahedrally coordinated network forming ions.

REYNOLDS JG

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

238

Regional imaging with oxygen-14  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic significance of the distribution of labeled oxygen was studied in the dog by inhalation of gas mixtures labeled with oxygen-14 (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 71 seconds) maintained at a constant level of activity. Under steady-state conditions, whole-body images were developed by detection of the positron annihilation emissions with a dual head rectilinear scanner in the coincidence mode. (auth)

Russ, G.A.; Bigler, R.E.; Dahl, J.R.; Kostick, J.; McDonald, J.M.; Tilbury, R.S.; Laughlin, J.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

CCUS Demonstrations Making Progress  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, First Quarter, 2013 9, First Quarter, 2013 www.fossil.energy.gov/news/energytoday.html HigHligHts inside 2 CCUS Demonstrations Making Progress A Column from the Director of Clean Energy Sys- tems, Office of Clean Coal 4 LNG Exports DOE Releases Third Party Study on Impact of Natural Gas Exports 5 Providing Emergency Relief Petroleum Reservers Helps Out with Hurricane Relief Efforts 7 Game-Changing Membranes FE-Funded Project Develops Novel Membranes for CCUS 8 Shale Gas Projects Selected 15 Projects Will Research Technical Challenges of Shale Gas Development A project important to demonstrat- ing the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of inject-

240

COMMENTARY Making sustainability work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today’s economic theory usually neglects the role of nature and environment. To make sustainability work it is, however, essential to (re-)integrate nature into the standard concepts of economics, especially by incorporating natural factors into the production function. It must be acknowledged that economic growth is not (only) the result of technical change but is mainly caused by rising energy-inputs into the economy, and that this is necessarily followed by resource exhaustion and pollution. Therefore, nature must not only be taken into account as a central factor of production but also in the form of environmental quality which is the basis for human quality of life. A numeric example shows that a small, but steady decrease of yearly resource consumption is already apt to redirect the economy on a path of sustainable development. © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sustainable development; Economic theory of production; Economic growth; Technical change; Non-renewable resources

Hans Christoph Binswanger

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Industrial Decision Making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Domestic industrial investment has declined due to unfavorable energy prices, and external markets. Investment behavior has changed over the past few years, and will continue due to high labor costs, tight markets and an unstable U.S. economy although, freight costs, favorable exchange rates and high capacity utilization will encourage future industrial investment. Industry will eventually enter a new period of major investment. Future industrial investment will be an opportunity to influence the energy efficiency of these facilities for generations to come. Program managers must begin engaging industrial customers now, in order to exploit this unprecedented opportunity to change future energy use patterns. This paper reviews recent market trends and industrial investment decision-making. The paper will also address several important questions: • Why has industrial investment declined? • What is the outlook for industrial investment? • How can programs engage industry for future opportunities?

Elliott, R. N.; McKinney, V.; Shipley, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

243

Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Structure Basics Structure Basics Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:50pm Addthis The actual structural design of a photovoltaic (PV), or solar cell, depends on the limitations of the material used in the PV cell. The four basic device designs are: Homojunction Devices Crystalline silicon is the primary example of this kind of cell. A single material-crystalline silicon-is altered so that one side is p-type, dominated by positive holes, and the other side is n-type, dominated by negative electrons. The p/n junction is located so that the maximum light is absorbed near it. The free electrons and holes generated by light deep in the silicon diffuse to the p/n junction and then separate to produce a current if the silicon is of sufficiently high quality. In this homojunction design, these aspects of the cell may be varied to

244

Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior space to the relatively warm outside environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and condenser coils are serpentine tubing surrounded by aluminum fins. This tubing is usually made of copper.

245

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

246

Solar Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics August 21, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Solar radiation, often called the solar resource, is a general term for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. Solar radiation can be captured and turned into useful forms of energy, such as heat and electricity, using a variety of technologies. However, the technical feasibility and economical operation of these technologies at a specific location depends on the available solar resource. Basic Principles Every location on Earth receives sunlight at least part of the year. The amount of solar radiation that reaches any one spot on the Earth's surface varies according to: Geographic location Time of day Season Local landscape Local weather. Because the Earth is round, the sun strikes the surface at different

247

Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Greenhouse Gas Basics Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Greenhouse Gas Basics Greenhouse Gas Basics October 7, 2013 - 10:01am Addthis Federal agencies must understand key terms and management basics to successfully manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked human activities to a rapid increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, contributing to major shifts in the global climate. Graphic of the top half of earth depicting current arctic sea ice. A red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Current arctic sea ice is shown roughly 50% smaller than the 1979 depiction.

248

Basic Instructor Training | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Instructor Training Basic Instructor Training Basic Instructor Training December 5, 2013 - 12:03pm Addthis The Emergency Operations Training Academy, NA 40.2, Readiness and Training, Albuquerque, NM is pleased to announce site certification by the National Training Center for conduct of the Basic Instructor Training class. This one -week, 40 hour course is offered to ensure the quality and consistency of classroom instruction provided at Department of Energy facilities nationwide. The purpose is to equip DOE federal and contractor instructors with best methods and techniques and deliver instruction and practice in classroom activitives that promote student success. The Emergency Operations Training Academy will be offering this class three (3) times per year starting in 2014.

249

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

250

Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism

Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; David Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

NREL: Learning - Energy Delivery and Storage Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Delivery and Storage Basics Helping secure a clean energy future for the nation and the world isn't just about reducing energy usage or producing clean energy. It is about...

252

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

253

Energy Basics: Propane as a Transportation Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Propane as a Transportation Fuel Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum...

254

Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there. But how did it get there? Many steps...

255

NREL: Learning - Concentrating Solar Power Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a...

256

Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 - Electricity Basics 2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there. But how did it get there? Many steps go into providing the reliable electricity we take for granted. This lesson takes a closer look at electricity. It follows the path of electricity from the fuel source to the home, including the power plant and the electric power grid. It also covers the role of electric utilities in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. Topcis addressed include: Basics of electricity Generating electricity Using steam, turbines, generator Similarities of power plants Distributing Electricity Generation Transmission Distribution Power grid

257

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

258

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well

259

1 JUNE 2006 Bact to basics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, forming an electric current. Courtesy Geobacter Project That's only slightly below the level industrial fermenters get while using bacteria to make ethanol for car fuel. But B subtilis has some advantages to make electricity? The ability of bacteria to make an electric current has been known since 1910

Lovley, Derek

260

EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Introduction to 'Make' NERSC Tutorial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

'Make' 'Make' Introduction to 'Make' Introduction The UNIX make utility facilitates the creation and maintenance of executable programs from source code. make keeps track of the commands needed to build the code and when changes are made to a source file, recompiles only the necessary files. make creates and updates programs with a minimum of effort. A small initial investment of time is needed to set up make for a given software project, but afterward, recompiling and linking is done consistently and quickly by typing one command: make, instead of issuing many complicated command lines that invoke the compiler and linker. This tutorial will introduce the simple usage of the make utility with the goal of building an executable program from a series of source code files.

262

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

Method of making L-dopa from L-tyrosine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method of making a L-dopa from L-tyrosine in the presence of an enzyme catalyst and oxygen. By starting with L-tyrosine, no variant of the L-dopa is produced and the L-dopa is stable in the presence of the enzyme catalyst. In other words, the reaction favors the L-dopa and is not reversible.

Xun, Luying (Richland, WA); Lee, Jang Young (Taejon, KR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Fuel cells are being explored as a way to use electricity generated on board the vehicle to power electric motors. Unlike batteries, fuel cells convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity. Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated in the electricity production process at the power plant. Home recharging of electric vehicles is as simple as plugging them into an electric outlet. Electricity fueling costs for electric vehicles are

266

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

267

LED Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LED Lighting Basics LED Lighting Basics LED Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:07am Addthis Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are light sources that differ from more traditional sources of light in that they are semiconductor devices that produce light when an electrical current is applied. Applying electrical current causes electrons to flow from the positive side of a diode to the negative side. Then, at the positive/negative junction of the diode, the electrons slow down to orbit at a lower energy level. The electrons emit the excess energy as photons of light. LEDs are often used as small indicator lights on various electronic devices. Because of their long life, durability, and efficiency, LEDs are becoming more common in residential, commercial, and outdoor area lighting

268

Geothermal Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resource Basics Resource Basics Geothermal Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Although geothermal heat pumps can be used almost anywhere, most direct-use and electrical production facilities in the United States are located in the west, where the geothermal resource base is concentrated. Current drilling technology limits the development of geothermal resources to relatively shallow water- or steam-filled reservoirs, most of which are found in the western part of the United States. But researchers are developing new technologies for capturing the heat in deeper, "dry" rocks, which would support drilling almost anywhere. Geothermal Resources Map This map shows the distribution of geothermal resources across the United States. If you have trouble accessing this information because of a

269

Wind Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics August 15, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis Photo of a hilly field, with six visible wind turbines spinning in the wind. Wind energy technologies use the energy in wind for practical purposes such as generating electricity, charging batteries, pumping water, and grinding grain. Most wind energy technologies can be used as stand-alone applications, connected to a utility power grid, or even combined with a photovoltaic system. For utility-scale sources of wind energy, a large number of turbines are usually built close together to form a wind farm that provides grid power. Several electricity providers use wind farms to supply power to their customers. Stand-alone turbines are typically used for water pumping or

270

Fluorescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics October 17, 2013 - 5:39pm Addthis Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye. The ultraviolet light in turn interacts with special blends of phosphors coating the interior surface of the fluorescent lamp tube that efficiently converts the invisible light into useful white light. Fluorescent lamps require a special power supply called a ballast that is needed to regulate lamp operating current and provide a compatible start-up voltage. Electronic ballasts perform the same function as a magnetic ballast but outperform the outdated magnetic products by operating at a very high frequency that eliminates flicker and noise while

271

Photovoltaic System Performance Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System Performance Basics System Performance Basics Photovoltaic System Performance Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:17pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) systems are usually composed of numerous solar arrays, which in turn, are composed of numerous PV cells. The performance of the system is therefore dependent on the performance of its components. Reliability The reliability of PV arrays is an important factor in the cost of PV systems and in consumer acceptance. However, the building blocks of arrays, PV cells, are considered "solid-state" devices with no moving parts and, therefore, are highly reliable and long-lived. Therefore, reliability measurements of PV systems are usually focused not on cells but on modules and whole systems. Reliability can be improved through fault-tolerant circuit design, which

272

Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. How Fuel Cells Work Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode (or anode) and a positive electrode (or cathode)-sandwiched around an electrolyte. A fuel, such as hydrogen, is fed to the anode, and air is fed to the cathode. Activated by a catalyst, hydrogen atoms separate into protons and electrons, which take different paths to the cathode. The electrons go through an external circuit, creating a flow of electricity. The protons

273

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

274

Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Vehicle Basics Electric Vehicle Basics Electric Vehicle Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Text Version Photo of an electric bus driving up a hill. Electricity can be used as a transportation fuel to power battery electric vehicles (EVs). EVs store electricity in an energy storage device, such as a battery. The electricity powers the vehicle's wheels via an electric motor. EVs have limited energy storage capacity, which must be replenished by plugging into an electrical source. In an electric vehicle, a battery or other energy storage device is used to store the electricity that powers the motor. EV batteries must be replenished by plugging the vehicle to a power source. Some EVs have onboard chargers; others plug into a charger located outside the vehicle. Both types use electricity that comes from the power grid. Although

275

Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007. Biomass technologies break down organic matter to release stored energy from the sun. The process used depends on the type of biomass and its

276

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

277

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:13am Addthis Photo of hands holding a battery pack (grey rectangular box) for a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of high fuel economy and low emissions with the power, range, and convenience of conventional diesel and gasoline fueling. HEV technologies also have potential to be combined with alternative fuels and fuel cells to provide additional benefits. Future offerings might also include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles typically combine the internal combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle. The combination offers low emissions and convenience-HEVs never need to be plugged in.

278

Anaerobic Digestion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat. Methane and Anaerobic Bacteria Methane is a gas that contains molecules of methane with one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen (CH4). It is the major component of the natural gas used in many homes for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000 British thermal units (Btu) [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was created eons ago by the anaerobic

279

Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Concentrating Solar Power Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 suns. This system can be used for large fields connected to the utility grid, hydrogen generation, or water pumping. Credit: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464 Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via a steam turbine or heat engine that drives a generator. Concentrating solar power offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for

280

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:13am Addthis Photo of hands holding a battery pack (grey rectangular box) for a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of high fuel economy and low emissions with the power, range, and convenience of conventional diesel and gasoline fueling. HEV technologies also have potential to be combined with alternative fuels and fuel cells to provide additional benefits. Future offerings might also include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles typically combine the internal combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle. The combination offers low emissions and convenience-HEVs never need to be plugged in.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Wave Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wave Energy Basics Wave Energy Basics Wave Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:30pm Addthis Photo of a large wave. Wave energy technologies extract energy directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Renewable energy analysts believe there is enough energy in ocean waves to provide up to 2 terawatts of electricity. (A terawatt is equal to a trillion watts.) However, wave energy cannot be harnessed everywhere. Wave power-rich areas of the world include the western coasts of Scotland, northern Canada, southern Africa, and Australia as well as the northeastern and northwestern coasts of the United States. In the Pacific Northwest alone, it is feasible that wave energy could produce 40-70 kilowatts (kW) per 3.3 feet (1 meter) of western coastline. Wave Energy Technologies

282

Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007. Biomass technologies break down organic matter to release stored energy from the sun. The process used depends on the type of biomass and its

283

Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps operate simply by heating a metal filament inside a bulb filled with inert gas. Because they operate directly on variety of common power types including common household alternating current or direct current such as batteries or automobiles, they do not require a special power supply or ballast. They turn on up instantly, providing a warm light with excellent color rendition because the light is produced in much the same way as the light from the sun. They can also be easily dimmed using inexpensive controls and are available in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. However, incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options and a short average

284

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

285

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

286

Hydropower Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Text Version Photo of the reservoir in front of a hydropower dam. Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is the most common and least expensive source of renewable electricity in the United States today. According to the Energy Information Administration, more than 6% of the country's electricity was produced from hydropower resources in 2008, and about 70% of all renewable electricity generated in the United States came from hydropower resources. Hydropower technologies have a long history of use because of their many benefits, including high availability and lack of emissions. Hydropower technologies use flowing water to create energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. Both large and small-scale power

287

Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (AEVs). What is a Battery? A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and converts it on demand into electrical energy. It carries out this process through an electrochemical reaction, which is a chemical reaction involving the transfer of electrons. Batteries have three main parts, each of which plays a different role in the electrochemical reaction: the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. The anode is the "fuel" electrode (or "negative" part), which gives up electrons to the external circuit to create a flow of electrons, otherwise

288

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

289

Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant from off-site power plants, gas companies, and fuel distributors. Energy then flows to either a central energy generation utility system or is distributed immediately for direct use. Energy is then processed using a variety of highly energy-intensive systems, including steam, process heating, and

290

Natural Gas Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Vehicle Basics Natural Gas Vehicle Basics Natural Gas Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:15am Addthis Photo of a large truck stopped at a gas station that reads 'Natural Gas for Vehicles.' Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are either fueled exclusively with compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas (dedicated NGVs) or are capable of natural gas and gasoline fueling (bi-fuel NGVs). Dedicated NGVs are designed to run only on natural gas. Bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated natural gas vehicles demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to

291

Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Basics Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:12am Addthis Text Version Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes-from scorching heat in the summer to sub-zero cold in the winter-the ground a few feet below the earth's surface remains at a relatively constant temperature. Depending on the latitude, ground temperatures range from 45°F (7°C) to 75°F (21°C). So, like a cave's, the ground's temperature is warmer than the air above it during winter and cooler than the air above it in summer. Geothermal heat pumps take advantage of this by exchanging heat with the earth through a ground heat exchanger. Geothermal heat pumps are able to heat, cool, and, if so equipped, supply

292

Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the circulation of air in a room), some rely on radiant heating; that is, they emit infrared radiation that directly heats up objects and people that are within their line of sight. Combustion Space Heaters Space heaters are classified as vented and unvented, or "vent free." Unvented combustion units are not recommended for inside use, as they

293

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Federal agencies must understand key terms and management basics to successfully manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Graphic of the top half of earth depicting current arctic sea ice. A red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Current arctic sea ice is shown roughly 50% smaller than the 1979 depiction. Greenhouse gases correlate directly to global warming, which impacts arctic sea ice. This image shows current arctic sea ice formation. The red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked human activities to a rapid increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, contributing to major shifts in the global climate.

294

Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is delivered throughout the home through supply ducts and returned to the furnace through return ducts. Blowers (large fans) in electric furnaces move air over a group of three to seven

295

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

296

Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps operate simply by heating a metal filament inside a bulb filled with inert gas. Because they operate directly on variety of common power types including common household alternating current or direct current such as batteries or automobiles, they do not require a special power supply or ballast. They turn on up instantly, providing a warm light with excellent color rendition because the light is produced in much the same way as the light from the sun. They can also be easily dimmed using inexpensive controls and are available in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. However, incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options and a short average

297

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

298

Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Basics Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in about 1890, "photovoltaic" has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek word for light, and volt, relating to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta. And this is what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert light energy into electrical energy, as French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered as early as 1839. Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material. But it took more than another century to truly

299

Hydropower Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Text Version Photo of the reservoir in front of a hydropower dam. Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is the most common and least expensive source of renewable electricity in the United States today. According to the Energy Information Administration, more than 6% of the country's electricity was produced from hydropower resources in 2008, and about 70% of all renewable electricity generated in the United States came from hydropower resources. Hydropower technologies have a long history of use because of their many benefits, including high availability and lack of emissions. Hydropower technologies use flowing water to create energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. Both large and small-scale power

300

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is connected to a tank called a solar storage/backup water heater by two pipes. One of these pipes runs through a cylindrical pump into the bottom of the tank, where it becomes a coil called a double-wall heat exchanger. This coil runs up through the tank and out again to the flat plate collector. Antifreeze fluid runs only through this collector loop. Two pipes run out the top of the water heater tank; one is a cold water supply into the tank, and the other sends hot water to the house. Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to provide hot water for a home or

302

Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is delivered throughout the home through supply ducts and returned to the furnace through return ducts. Blowers (large fans) in electric furnaces move air over a group of three to seven

303

Geothermal Electricity Production Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity Production Basics Electricity Production Basics Geothermal Electricity Production Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:49pm Addthis A photo of steam emanating from geothermal power plants at The Geysers in California. Geothermal energy originates from deep within the Earth and produces minimal emissions. Photo credit: Pacific Gas & Electric Heat from the earth-geothermal energy-heats water that has seeped into underground reservoirs. These reservoirs can be tapped for a variety of uses, depending on the temperature of the water. The energy from high-temperature reservoirs (225°-600°F) can be used to produce electricity. In the United States, geothermal energy has been used to generate electricity on a large scale since 1960. Through research and development, geothermal power is becoming more cost-effective and competitive with

304

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

305

Tidal Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tidal Energy Basics Tidal Energy Basics Tidal Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:26pm Addthis Photo of the ocean rising along the beach. Some of the oldest ocean energy technologies use tidal power. All coastal areas experience two high tides and two low tides over a period of slightly more than 24 hours. For those tidal differences to be harnessed into electricity, the difference between high and low tides must be more than 16 feet (or at least 5 meters). However, there are only about 40 sites on Earth with tidal ranges of this magnitude. Currently, there are no tidal power plants in the United States, but conditions are good for tidal power generation in the Pacific Northwest and the Atlantic Northeast regions. Tidal Energy Technologies Tidal energy technologies include barrages or dams, tidal fences, and tidal

306

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

307

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

308

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

309

Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived compounds into desirable products. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes break down the carbohydrate fractions of biomass to five- and six-carbon sugars in a process known as hydrolysis. Yeast and bacteria then ferment the sugars into products such as ethanol. Biotechnology advances are expected to lead to dramatic

310

Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces Furnaces are the most common heating systems used in homes in the United States. They can be all electric, gas-fired (including propane or natural gas), or oil-fired. Boilers Boilers consist of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own boilers, while other buildings have steam or hot water piped in from a central plant. Commercial boilers are manufactured for high- or low-pressure applications.

311

Ocean Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis Text Version Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, the gravitational pull of the moon primarily drives tides, and wind powers ocean waves. Learn more about: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Resources Addthis Related Articles Energy Department Releases New Energy 101 Video on Ocean Power A map generated by Georgia Tech's tidal energy resource database shows mean current speed of tidal streams. The East Coast, as shown above, has strong tides that could be tapped to produce energy. | Photo courtesy of Georgia Institute of Technology

312

Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in about 1890, "photovoltaic" has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek word for light, and volt, relating to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta. And this is what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert light energy into electrical energy, as French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered as early as 1839. Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material. But it took more than another century to truly

313

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

314

Interactive educational simulations for promoting the comprehension of basic compiler construction concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluators 2.0 is an educational software system that lets instructors in introductory compiler construction courses generate interactive simulators from batteries of exercises concerning basic concepts in attribute grammars. The system also makes it ... Keywords: analysis tool, attribute grammar, authoring tool, education in compiler construction, interacttive educational simulation

Daniel Rodriguez-Cerezo, Mercedes Gómez-Albarrán, José-Luis Sierra-Rodríguez

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Modeling of Sludge Compost Maturity Degree Based on Radial Basic Function Network for Sewage Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the non-linearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ... Keywords: Compost, Maturity degree, Radial basic function network, Modeling

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yanxia Liu; Shiru Zhou; Fan Zhang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Sustainable Building Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Sustainable Building Basics Sustainable Building Basics October 4, 2013 - 4:21pm Addthis Image of the side of a sustainable building Sustainable building design results in energy savings and environment stewardship. Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising future needs.

317

Federal Energy Management Program: Sustainable Building Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Image of the side of a sustainable building Sustainable building design results in energy savings and environment stewardship. Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency, and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising future needs. Learn more about the: Benefits of sustainable building design

318

Criticality safety basics, a study guide  

SciTech Connect

This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

V. L. Putman

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Criticality safety basics, a study guide  

SciTech Connect

This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

V. L. Putman

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

NPTEL Syllabus Basic Electrical Circuits -Video course  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with an introduction to basic linear elements used in electrical circuits. Mesh and node analysis for systematic and energy in circuits will be discussed. Rudiments of three-phase circuits and their analysis; Energy in a mutual inductor and constraint on mutual inductance 5 Nodal analysis of a network

Krishnapura, Nagendra

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Basics about CIM technology and key  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basics about CIM® technology and key applications Ales Strancar March, 2011 #12;Leaders in Monolith monolithic technology (CIM®). 4 USA patents granted including their foreign equivalents, more pending. #12;Important Milestones · 2002: First Drug Master File (DMF) for CIM® DEAE supports. · 2002: Pass first FDA

Lebendiker, Mario

322

MCSD TestPrep: Visual Basic 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:MCSD TestPrep: Visual Basic 6 provides study questions, in-depth and focused review, and test-taking strategies. Chapters are organized by the objective areas on the exam. Individual objective sections open with an explanation ...

David Panagrosso; Owen Williams; Mary Foote

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

ams2000.com Stepper Motor System Basics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. STEPPING MOTORS TYPES OF STEPPING MOTORS VARIABLE RELUCTANCE PERMANENT MAGNET HYBRID MOTOR WINDINGS motor with the magnetic field electronically switched to rotate the armature magnet around. A Stepping MOTORS There are basically three types of stepping motors; variable reluctance, permanent magnet

Bechtold, Jill

324

Basic Use of the OWL Grade Book  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic Use of the OWL Grade Book #12;Notes Overview The Grade Book tool provides an easy and convenient way for instructors to manage grades and distribute them to students. Using the Grade Book. This handout will show you how to: · Access the Grade Book · Create a column in the Grade Book · Add

Lennard, William N.

325

2011 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining held at the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2011 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course Saturday April 30,

326

2010 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course held at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2010 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course Saturday, M

327

Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

328

EA-1340: Conducting Astrophysics and Other Basic Science Experiments...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

40: Conducting Astrophysics and Other Basic Science Experiments at the WIPP Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico EA-1340: Conducting Astrophysics and Other Basic Science Experiments at the...

329

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On...

330

Federal Energy Management Program: Combined Heat and Power Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combined Heat and Power Basics to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Combined Heat and Power Basics on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management...

331

Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Download presentation slides and a text...

332

Audit Report on "Cost Sharing at Basic Energy Sciences' User...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report on "Cost Sharing at Basic Energy Sciences' User Facilities", DOEIG-0441 Audit Report on "Cost Sharing at Basic Energy Sciences' User Facilities", DOEIG-0441 The Department...

333

Home and Building Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home and Building Technology Basics Home and Building Technology Basics Homes and other buildings use energy every day for space heating and cooling, for lighting and hot water,...

334

Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems. Summarizes current status ...

335

Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at NERSC HPC Requirements Reviews Requirements for Science: Target 2014 Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy...

336

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

337

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

339

Oxygen Sensitivity of Krypton and Lyman-? Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-? hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert–...

Arjan van Dijk; Wim Kohsiek; Henk A. R. de Bruin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Innovative oxygen separation membrane prototype  

SciTech Connect

Improvements are still needed to gas separation processes to gain industry acceptance of coal gasification systems. The Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology, being developed by the US Department of Energy and its partners, offers an opportunity to lower overall plant cost and improve efficiency compared to cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption methods. The technology is based on a novel class of perovskite ceramic oxides which can selectively separate oxygen ions from a stream of air at high temperature and pressure. Those ions are transported across the ITM leaving non-permeate air which can be integrated with a fuel-fired gas system, enabling co-production of power and steam along with the concentrated, high-purity oxygen. The project is at the second phase, to scale up the ITM Oxygen ceramic devices to demonstrate the technology at the 1-5 tpd capability in the Subscale Engineering Prototype. A third phase to demonstrate commercial viability extends to the end of the decade. 2 figs.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Methods of making textured catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method of making monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making particles of either spherical or cylindrical geometry with a characteristic diameter less than 50 nanometers by mixing at least one structure directing agent dissolved in a solvent with at least one amphiphilic block copolymer dissolved in a solvent to make a solution containing particles, where the particles can be subsequently separated and dispersed in a solvent of choice.

Fan, Hongyon; Sun, Zaicheng

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

343

NREL: Learning - Geothermal Heat Pump Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Pump Basics Heat Pump Basics Photo of the West Philadelphia Enterprise Center. The West Philadelphia Enterprise Center uses a geothermal heat pump system for more than 31,000 square feet of space. Geothermal heat pumps take advantage of the nearly constant temperature of the Earth to heat and cool buildings. The shallow ground, or the upper 10 feet of the Earth, maintains a temperature between 50° and 60°F (10°-16°C). This temperature is warmer than the air above it in the winter and cooler in the summer. Geothermal heat pump systems consist of three parts: the ground heat exchanger, the heat pump unit, and the air delivery system (ductwork). The heat exchanger is a system of pipes called a loop, which is buried in the shallow ground near the building. A fluid (usually water or a mixture of

344

NREL: Learning - Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of NREL's research in solar photovoltaic technology. Text Version Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual

345

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Latest update: August 2004 Natural gas-a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon-may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. (Natural gas is also stored in liquid form in above-ground tanks. A discussion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is beyond the scope of this report. For more information about LNG, please see the EIA report, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook.) Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and

346

Sustainable Building Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Sustainable Program Areas » Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Sustainable Building Basics Sustainable Building Basics October 4, 2013 - 4:21pm Addthis Image of the side of a sustainable building Sustainable building design results in energy savings and environment stewardship. Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the

347

NREL: Learning - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of the Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems and its research. Video produced for NREL by Fireside Production. Text Version We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. And we can help to reduce our nation's growing reliance on imported oil by running our vehicles on renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicles and fuels can also put the brakes on air pollution and improve our environment. At least 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States today. They include all kinds of passenger cars, trucks, vans, buses, and large

348

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Institution Project Title Category A: Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials Massachusetts Institute of Technology Theory and Modeling of Materials for Hydrogen Storage Washington University In Situ NMR Studies of Hydrogen Storage Systems University of Pennsylvania Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Ionic Liquid Media Colorado School of Mines Molecular Hydrogen Storage in Novel Binary Clathrate Hydrates at Near-Ambient Temperatures and Pressures Georgia Institute of Technology First-Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides Louisiana Tech University Understanding the Local Atomic-Level Effect of Dopants In Complex Metal Hydrides Using Synchrotron X-ray Absorption

349

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Cover: the Cover: One route to harvesting the energy of the sun involves learning to mimic natural photosynthesis. Here, sunlight falls on a porphyrin, one member of a family of molecules that includes the chlorophylls, which play a central role in capturing light and using its energy for photosynthesis in green plants. Efficient light-harvesting of the solar spectrum by porphyrins and related molecules can be used to power synthetic molecular assemblies and solid- state devices - applying the principles of photosynthesis to the produc- tion of hydrogen, methane, ethanol, and methanol from sunlight, water, and atmospheric carbon dioxide. BASIC RESEARCH NEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION Report on the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization

350

NREL: Advanced Power Electronics - Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Basics Technology Basics Graphic of a small hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicle. Check out the interactive graphic of the power electronic components of a hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicle. If you drive a car, use a computer, cook with a microwave oven, talk on any type of telephone, listen to a stereo, or use a cordless drill, you use power electronics. Thanks to power electronics, the electricity that runs the things we use every day is processed, filtered, and delivered with maximum efficiency and minimum size and weight. Inside a vehicle's electronic power steering system, power electronics control motors and help move the steering rack. This translates into improved steering response and lower energy consumption. In broad terms, power electronics control the flow of electric power via

351

MAKE Consulting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MAKE Consulting MAKE Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Logo: MAKE Consulting Name MAKE Consulting Address 117 N. Jefferson, Suite 400 Place Chicago, Illinois Zip 60661 Sector Wind energy Number of employees 11-50 Phone number 312-382-8440 Website http://www.make-consulting.com Coordinates 41.8838033°, -87.6426963° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8838033,"lon":-87.6426963,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

352

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Analysis > The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Analysis > The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Latest update: August 2004 Printer-Friendly Version Natural gas-a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon-may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. (Natural gas is also stored in liquid form in above-ground tanks. A discussion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is beyond the scope of this report. For more information about LNG, please see the EIA report, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook.) Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and maintenance costs, deliverability rates, and cycling capability), which govern its suitability to particular applications. Two of the most important characteristics of an underground storage reservoir are its capacity to hold natural gas for future use and the rate at which gas inventory can be withdrawn-its deliverability rate (see Storage Measures, below, for key definitions).

353

Evaluation of GaN substrates grown in supercritical basic ammonia  

SciTech Connect

GaN crystals grown by the basic ammonothermal method were investigated for their use as substrates for device regrowth. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the substrates contained multiple grains while secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) revealed a high concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium. Despite these drawbacks, the emission from the light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on both the c-plane and m-plane epitaxial wafers was demonstrated. The SIMS depth profiles showed that the diffusion of the alkali metal from the substrate into the epitaxial film was small, especially in the m-direction.

Saito, Makoto; Yamada, Hisashi; Iso, Kenji; Sato, Hitoshi; Hirasawa, Hirohiko; Kamber, Derrick S.; Hashimoto, Tadao; Baars, Steven P. den; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Codes and Standards Basics Codes and standards ensure processes and products meet uniform safety and performance requirements. Here you will find basic information about definitions, publishing codes and standards, legal enforcement, and

355

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen plant to provide oxygen for industrial combustion applications. PSA oxygen plants utilize a molecular sieve material to separate air into an oxygen rich product stream and a nitrogen rich exhaust stream. These plants typically produce 90-95% purity oxygen and are located in close proximity to the point of use. In contrast, high purity (99.999%) oxygen is produced by the distillation of liquid air at a remote plant and is usually transported to the point of use either as a cryogenic liquid in a tank trailer or as a high pressure gas via pipeline. In this study, experiments were performed to the test PSA system used in conjunction with an A'' burner and comparisons were made with the results of the previous study which utilized high purity liquid oxygen. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Delano, M.A. (Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA)); Kwan, Y. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Quantum Physics Makes Water Different | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design Allaying Structural-Alloy Corrosion Putting the Pressure on MOFs Newly Described "Dragon" Protein Could Be Key to Bird Flu Cure Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Quantum Physics Makes Water Different AUGUST 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share Based on the July 22, 2008, online article in ScienceNews By Davide Castelvecchi Reprinted with permission from ScienceNews, copyright 2008 http://sciencenews.org/ Heavy water, which contains higher-than-normal quantities of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (D), is not just heavier than "ordinary" water.

358

Three essays in decision making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation is composed of three essays about consumer judgment and decision making. In Essay 1, I develop a novel explanation for the well-known endowment effect - the tendency for owners to value goods more than ...

Weaver, Ray, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Audits that Make a Difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents guidance on how to perform internal audits that get management's attention and result in effective corrective action. It assumes that the reader is already familiar with the basic constructs of auditing and knows how to perform them. Instead, it focuses on additional techniques that have proven to be effective in our internal auditing program. Examples using a theoretical audit of a calibration program are included.

Malsbury, Judith

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Navigating without vision: Basic and applied research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: We describe some of the results of our program of basic and applied research on navigating without vision. One basic research topic that we have studied extensively is path integration, a form of navigation in which perceived self-motion is integrated over time to obtain an estimate of current posilion and orientation. In experiments on pathway completion, one test of path integration ability, we have found that subjects who are passively guided over the outbound path without vision exhibit significant errors when attempting to return to the origin but are nevertheless sensitive to turns and segment lengths in the stimulus path. We have also found no major differences in path inlegration ability among blirid and sighted populations. A model we havc developed that attributes errors in path integration to errors in encoding the stimulus path is a good beginning toward understanding path integration performance. In otber research on path integration, in which optic flow information was manipulated in addition to the proprioceptive and vestibular information of nonvisual locomotion, we havc found that optic flow is a weak input to the path integration process. In other basic research, our studies of auditory distance perception in outdoor environments show systematic underestimation oC sound source distance. Our applied research has been concerned with developing and evaluating a navigation system for the visually impaired that uses three recent technologies: the Global Positioning System, Geographic Information Systems, and virtual acouslics. Our work shows that there is considerable promise of these three technologies in allowing visually impaired individuals to navigate and learn about unfamiliar environments without the assistance of human guides. (Optoni Vis Sci 2001;78:282-289)

Jack M. Loomis; Roberta L. Klatzky; Reginald G. Golledge

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Geothermal district heating: basics to success  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

Lunis, B.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

NONE

1990-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

365

Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency. This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel. For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …). INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

Valerie L. Putman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Natural Gas Fuel Basics Photo of a natural gas fuel pump. Natural gas is an odorless, nontoxic, gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons-predominantly methane (CH4). It accounts for about a quarter

367

GNU MakeGNU Make A Program for Directing Recompilation GNU make Version 3.77.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GNU make conforms to section 6.2 of IEEE Standard 1003.2-1992 (POSIX.2). Our examples show C programs, since they are most common, but you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command. Indeed, make is not limited to programs. You can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change. To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in your program and provides commands for updating each file. In a program, typically, the executable file is updated from object files, which are in turn made by compiling source files. Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command: make suffices to perform all necessary recompilations. The make program uses the makefile data base and the last-modification times of the files to decide which of the files need to be updated. For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.

unknown authors

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

First principles calculations of oxygen adsorption on the UN (001) surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication, handling and disposal of nuclear fuel materials require comprehensive knowledge of their surface morphology and reactivity. Due to unavoidable contact with air components (even at low partial pressures), UN samples contain considerable amount of oxygen impurities affecting fuel properties. The basic properties of O atoms adsorbed on the UN(001) surface are simulated here combining the two first principles calculation methods based on the plane wave basis set and that of the localized atomic orbitals.

Zhukovskii, Yuri F; Kotomin, Eugene; Evarestov, Robert; Bandura, Andrey V; 10.1016/j.susc.2008.10.019

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Making Progress | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Making Progress Making Progress Making Progress September 17, 2010 - 10:56pm Addthis Former Under Secretary Koonin Former Under Secretary Koonin Director - NYU's Center for Urban Science & Progress and Former Under Secretary for Science I spoke yesterday to the newly reconstituted Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) -- a group of distinguished science and policy leaders who advise the Secretary and Department leadership. My remarks described efforts to better focus Department of Energy's technical talents on our energy challenges. Since we scientists work best by directly defining and dealing with the problems we tackle, SEAB's advice to us is much more valuable than its praise. I therefore offered a candid assessment of both the progress we've made and the obstacles we are facing. A lively

370

Making Progress | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Making Progress Making Progress Making Progress September 17, 2010 - 10:56pm Addthis Former Under Secretary Koonin Former Under Secretary Koonin Director - NYU's Center for Urban Science & Progress and Former Under Secretary for Science I spoke yesterday to the newly reconstituted Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) -- a group of distinguished science and policy leaders who advise the Secretary and Department leadership. My remarks described efforts to better focus Department of Energy's technical talents on our energy challenges. Since we scientists work best by directly defining and dealing with the problems we tackle, SEAB's advice to us is much more valuable than its praise. I therefore offered a candid assessment of both the progress we've made and the obstacles we are facing. A lively

371

Helping make the holidays happier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helping Make The Holidays Happier Helping Make The Holidays Happier Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Helping make the holidays happier This year's LANL food drive collected enough donations to provide 11,600 meals for those in need. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email The contributions by employees included 164 turkeys that added up to a total of 8,700 pounds of food. This year's LANL food drive collected enough donations to provide 11,600 meals for those in need. The contributions by Lab employees and contractors included 164 turkeys that added up to a total of 8,700 pounds of food. The Laboratory employees' and contractors' food donations were distributed

372

Efficient cooling: Making it happen  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a series of solutions that can help everyone to some basic questions about air conditioning: what`s the best way to size a residential air conditioner? to what extent do air conditioners tend to be oversized? how can energy research and programs help promote optimal sizing of cooling systems? Topics covered include the following: defining the debate over sizing of air conditioners; methods for sizing; evaluating simple {open_quotes}rules of thumb{close_quotes}; working with HVAC contractors; creating consumer demand for proper sizing. 1 fig. 1 tab.

Sherman, C.; Hildebrandt, E. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corporation Place Schiller Park, Illinois Zip 60176 Product Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

374

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber  

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

375

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum ...  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts ...

376

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook ... is a colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas ... oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that ...

377

Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics | U.S. DOE Office  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » February 2013 Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Exploiting the self-organizing nature of atoms to block heat transfer and improve thermal-to-electrical energy conversion. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Ctirad Uher

378

Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Propane Propane Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP-gas), or autogas in Europe, is a high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As pressure is released, the liquid propane vaporizes and turns into gas that is used for combustion. An odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added for leak detection. Propane has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It is nontoxic and presents no threat to soil,

379

Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity Electricity Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Fuel cells are being explored as a way to use electricity generated on board the vehicle to power electric motors. Unlike batteries, fuel cells convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity. Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated in the electricity production process at the power plant. Home recharging of electric vehicles is as simple as plugging them into an electric outlet. Electricity fueling costs for electric vehicles are reasonable compared to gasoline, especially if consumers take advantage of

380

Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Submittal Basics | Scientific and Technical Information Program  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Submittal Basics Print page Print page Email page Email page Reporting Requirements DOE reporting requirements for financial assistance recipients and non-major site/facility management contractors should be clearly outlined in your award document. Contact your DOE Contracting Officer with questions or concerns. STI deliverables generated by major site/facility management contractors are identified at the project level. There are instances when only the Announcement Notice should be submitted to OSTI. STI Product Types STI is found in many forms and format. Review Types of STI for a comprehensive list. For copyrighted materials, only an announcement notice may be submitted, but detailed information regarding where the materials are published is required as part of the announcement notice.

382

Basic mechanisms for the new millennium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

Dressendorfer, P.V.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders  

SciTech Connect

This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

Valerie L. Putman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

385

AOAC-Basic Calculations for Chemical and Biological Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Completely revised, this 2nd Edition contains many more examples and three new chapters. Each chapter includes concise descriptions and definitions for the basic principles; derivation of basic equations or concepts used for calculations; relevant techniqu

386

Unstable Radiative–Dynamical Interactions. Part I. Basic Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction between trace shortwave radiative absorbers and the dynamical circulation is shown to be linearly unstable for horizontally uniform basic states with a vertical gradient in the basic-state absorber mixing ratio. Two types of ...

Steven J. Ghan

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Alternative and Advanced Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Advanced Fuel Basics Alternative and Advanced Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:42pm Addthis Photo of a man in goggles looking at test tubes full of biodiesel. There are a...

388

Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-in Electric Vehicle Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Basics to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-in Electric Vehicle Basics on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-in...

389

Making Global Illumination User Friendly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Making Global Illumination User Friendly Making Global Illumination User Friendly Title Making Global Illumination User Friendly Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-37860 Year of Publication 1995 Authors Ward, Gregory J. Conference Name 6th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Date Published 06/1995 Conference Location Dublin, Ireland Call Number LBL-37860 Abstract Global illumination researchers tend to think in terms of mesh density and sampling frequency, and their software reflects this in its user interface. Advanced rendering systems are rife with long command lines and parameters for tuning the sample densities, thresholds and other algorithm-specific variables, and the novice user is quickly lost in a sea of possibilities. This paper details a successful effort of making one such global illumination system usable by people who understand their problems, even if they do not understand the methods needed to solve them, through an assisted oracle approach. A single program is introduced to map a small set of intuitive control variables to the rendering commands and parameter settings needed to produce the desired output in a reasonable time. This new executive program then serves as the basis for a graphical user interface that is both friendly in its appearance and reliable in its performance. Finally, we conclude with some future directions for improving this interface.

390

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

391

Basic Research for Evaluating Nuclear Waste Form Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Argonne National Laboratory Specialists’ Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Nuclear Waste Management / Radioactive Waste

Don J. Bradley

392

Energy Basics: Power Tower Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

393

Energy Basics: Polycrystalline Thin Film Used in Photovoltaics  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

394

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

395

Energy Basics: Thermal Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

396

Energy Basics: Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

397

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Electrical Contacts and Cell Coatings  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

398

Energy Basics: Single-Crystalline Thin Film Used in Photovoltaics  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

399

Energy Basics: Types of Silicon Used in Photovoltaics  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

400

Energy Basics: Dish/Engine Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Energy Basics: Semiconductors and the Built-In Electric Field...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

402

Computational Materials Science: from Basic Principles to Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 8, 2007... Thermodynamics Software/Codes, Visualization Software/Codes ... Topic Title: Computational Materials Science: from Basic Principles to ...

403

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Software development guidelines for Visual Basic and SQL Server  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development Guidelines are programming directions that focus not on the logic of the program but on its physical structure and appearance. These directions make the code easier to read, understand, and maintain. These guidelines are put in place to create a consistent set of conventions to follow that will standardize the development process. With these guidelines in place the readability and understanding others have when reviewing the code is greatly enhanced. Use these guidelines as a general rule when writing any set of logical statements. Development Guidelines are put into place in an effort to standardize the structure and style of the development process. They are not intended to limit or channel the developer's own creativity and flexibility. These guidelines will cover general development syntax, organization and documentation. The general information covers the high level areas of development, no matter what the environment. This guide will detail specific Visual Basic guidelines, following the same standard naming conventions set by Microsoft, with some minor additions. The guideline will finish with conventions specific to a Database or Microsoft's SQL Server specific environment.

IBSEN, T.G.

2000-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

405

Heat-recovery steam generators: Understand the basics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas turbines with heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) can be found in virtually every chemical process industries (CPI) plant. They can be operated in either the cogeneration mode or the combined-cycle mode. In the cogeneration mode, steam produced from the HRSG is mainly used for process applications, whereas in the combined-cycle mode, power is generated via a steam turbine generator. Recent trends in HRSG design include multiple-pressure units for maximum energy recovery, the use of high-temperature superheaters or reheaters in combined-cycle plants, and auxiliary firing for efficient steam generation. In addition, furnace firing is often employed in small capacity units when the exhaust gas is raised to temperatures of 2,400--3,000 F to maximize steam generation and thus improve fuel utilization. This article highlights some of the basic facts about gas turbine HRSGs. This information can help plant engineers, consultants, and those planning cogeneration projects make important decisions about the system and performance related aspects.

Ganapathy, V.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Oxygen Control in PWR Makeup Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three fixed-bed processes can accelerate hydrazine-oxygen reactions in PWR makeup water and reduce oxygen levels to below 5 ppb. In this comparative-test project, activated carbon based systems offered the best combination of low cost, effectiveness, and commercial availability. A second process, employing palladium-coated anion resin, is also commercially available.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

Corn Replant Decision-Making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crappy stands of corn (aka less than desirable) occur somewhere in Indiana every year. The recent spate of cool, rainy days does not bode well for some corn fields planted during the days immediately preceding the onset of the rainy weather. Stands of corn in river bottoms may be destroyed outright by flood waters. Poorly drained soils where ponding has occurred for four or more days are vulnerable to seedling death. Eventual drying of saturated soils often leads to severe crusting that can restrict corn emergence and result in lower than desirable plant populations. Cool, wet soils are also conducive for seedling infection by certain soil-borne diseases. Unacceptable stand establishment in some of these fields may eventually require growers to make decisions about replanting. Deciding to replant a crappy stand of corn should be based on a number of criteria, but unfortunately the major influencing factor is often the emotion associated with looking out the kitchen window at the damaged field every morning or driving by the field every afternoon taking the kids to baseball practice. Make a wise decision about the merits of replanting a damaged field of corn requires more than emotions. In fact, I would rather that emotions be taken out of the equation entirely. Toward that end, I developed a replant decision-making worksheet that assists growers and farm managers in making that important replant decision. The worksheet allows you to determine the damaged field’s current yield potential (if left untouched), its replant yield potential, and the dollar returns (if any) from replanting the field. The worksheet is included in a larger overall publication on corn replanting titled

R. L. (bob Nielsen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

I.TclBasics Part I introduces the basics of Tcl. Everyone should read Chapter 1, which  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 P A R T I.TclBasics I Tcl Basics Part I introduces the basics of Tcl. Everyone should read Chapter 1, which describes the fundamental properties of the language. Tcl is really quite simple, so misconceptions that come from using other lan- guages. Chapter 2 is a short introduction to running Tcl and Tk

Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

414

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting 6/2/2003 DOE DOE - - BES Sponsored Workshop on BES Sponsored Workshop on Basic Research for Hydrogen Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use Production, Storage and Use Walter J. Stevens Walter J. Stevens Director Director Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Basic Energy Sciences Workshop dates: May 13-15, 2003 A follow-on workshop to BESAC-sponsored workshop on "Basic Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future" Basic Energy Sciences Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

416

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

Dees, D.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

IndianEnergySummitBasicFacts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REGISTRATION: Please confirm your attendance by completing the Registration Form and emailing to registertribalsummit@hq.doe.gov or faxing it to the attention of Mrs. Pilar Thomas at (202) 586- 5497. Note: There are NO registration fees to participate. However, tribal leaders will have to make their own arrangements for travel and accommodations. Given the full schedule of the meetings between tribes and DOE on May 4th and 5th, the hotel is providing some refreshments and some meals as part of the working sessions. HOTEL ROOM BLOCK INFORMATION and RESERVATIONS A limited amount of hotel rooms are being held at the Crystal Gateway Marriott for the nights of May 3rd and 4th at a specially negotiated rate of $209 per night plus taxes.

420

MESA Makes It Real The  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microsystems & Engineering Microsystems & Engineering Sciences Applications (MESA) MESA Makes It Real The Microsystems & Engineering Sciences Applications (MESA) Complex represents the essential facilities and equipment to design, develop, manufacture, integrate, and qualify microsystems for national security needs that cannot or should not be made in industry- either because the low volumes required for these applications are not profitable for the private sector, or because of stringent security requirements for high-consequence systems. Microsystems extend the information processing capabilities of silicon integrated circuits to add functions such as sensing, actuation, and communication-all integrated within a single package. The MESA Complex integrates the scientific,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Simulation of human decision making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Sabina E. (Albuquerque, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program - Making A Difference...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emergency Preparedness Program - Making A Difference Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program - Making A Difference Overview of TEPP presentated by Tom Clawson. Transportation...

424

America's Manufacturing Workforce: Make or Buy?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... has been tremendously successful in terms of preparing ... on the basic skills needed to enter the industry ... the use of headhunters or talent search firms ...

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

426

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

THE PATH OF OXYGEN IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment is described in which an attempt is made to follow the path of oxygen in photosynthesis by the use of O{sup 18} as a tracer.

Dorough, G.D.; Calvin, M.

1950-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

431

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

CRC Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The third edition of the CRC Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis, co-authored by Thomas Bruno of The Thermophysical Properties ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Basic Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program is working to narrow this gap. Photo of NREL researcher in laboratory, evaluating carbon nanotubes for their hydrogen storage capacity. Led by the Office of Basic Energy...

434

Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Systems Supporting Equipment for Heating and Cooling Systems Addthis Related Articles Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Water Heating Basics Heating and Cooling System Support...

435

Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Download presentation slides and a text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on electricity grid basics.

436

METHOD OF MAKING FUEL BODIES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of making a fuel compact having a matrix of carbon or graphite which carries the carbides of fissile material. A nuclear fuel material selected from the group including uranium and thorium carbides, silicides, and oxides is first mixed both with sufficient finely divided carbon to constitute a matrix in the final product and with a diffusional bonding material selected from the class consisting of zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, nickel, chromium, and silicon. The mixture is then heated at a temperature of 1500 to 1800 nif- C while maintaining it under a pressure of over about 2,000 pounds per square inch. Preferably, heating is accomplished by the electrical resistance of the compact itself. (AEC)

Goeddel, W.V.; Simnad, M.T.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

METHOD OF MAKING FUEL BODIES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of making a fuel body containing carbon for reactors is described. Carbides of uranium and thorium having a particle size of from 100 to 500 microns are mixed with carbon having a particle size that will pass a 200 mesh screen but be retained by a 325 mesh screen, and 10 per cent by weight pitch. The mixture is heated to a temperature of about 700 to 900 deg C, at which point bonding is effected while maintaining it under mechanical pressure of over 3,000 pounds per square inch. The entire compact is heated to a uniform temperature during the process, preferably by electrical resistance of the compact itself. (AEC)

Goeddel, W.V.; Simnad, M.T.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

438

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble ...

439

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

440

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Small Wind Guidebook/What are the Basic Parts of a Small Wind Electric  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Small Wind Guidebook/What are the Basic Parts of a Small Wind Electric System < Small Wind Guidebook Jump to: navigation, search Print PDF WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHSmall Wind Guidebook Home WindTurbine-icon.png Small Wind Guidebook * Introduction * First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient? * Is Wind Energy Practical for Me? * What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need? * What Are the Basic Parts of a Small Wind Electric System? * What Do Wind Systems Cost? * Where Can I Find Installation and Maintenance Support? * How Much Energy Will My System Generate? * Is There Enough Wind on My Site? * How Do I Choose the Best Site for My Wind Turbine? * Can I Connect My System to the Utility Grid?

442

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery could mean ingredients for life are abundant on icy space bodies. March 5, 2012 Curiosity rover bears three LANL technologies Inside Titan: This artist's concept shows a possible scenario for the internal structure of Titan, as suggested by data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Scientists have been trying to determine what is under Titan's organic-rich atmosphere and icy crust. Data from the radio science experiment make the strongest case yet for a global subsurface ocean, sitting above a subsurface layer of high-pressure ice and a water-infused silicate core. Image credit: A. Tavani Get Expertise

444

Free Basic Process Algebra Smile Markovski, Ana Sokolova  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free Basic Process Algebra Smile Markovski, Ana Sokolova Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, satisfying the laws (BPA1) ­ (BPA5) as given in the text. We present a description of free basic process algebras by using suitable descriptions of free semigroups and free semilattices. The description of free

Sokolova, Ana

445

METHOD OF MAKING TUNGSTEN FILAMENTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making tungsten filaments is described in which the tungsten is completely free of isotope impurities in the range of masses 234 to 245 for use in mass spectrometers. The filament comprises a tantalum core generally less than 1 mil in diameter having a coating of potassium-free tantalum-diffused tungsten molecularly bonded thereto. In the preferred process of manufacture a short, thin tantalum filament is first mounted between terminal posts mounted in insulated relation through a backing plate. The tungsten is most conveniently vapor plated onto the tantalum by a tungsten carbonyl vapor decomposition method having a critical step because of the tendency of the tantalum to volatilize at the temperature of operntion of the filament. The preferred recipe comprises volatilizing tantalum by resistance henting until the current drops by about 40%, cutting the voltage back to build up the tungsten, and then gradually building the temperature back up to balance the rate of tungsten deposition with the rate of tantalum volatilization. (AEC)

Frazer, J.W.

1962-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! August 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy but a little confused by all the terms? Wondering how the technologies actually work? Maybe you're doing some research or working on a paper and just need a little background info. EERE's new Energy Basics site is the place for you. There you can learn things like how a wind turbine works and all about the different types of fuel cells. If you just need a quick definition of a term you've heard, check out the glossary. Energy Basics is not meant to replace Energy Savers or any of the program sites throughout the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

447

Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Photo of an electric car plugged in and charging. Learn more about exciting technologies and ongoing research in alternative and advanced vehicles-or vehicles that run on fuels other than traditional petroleum. Alternative Vehicles There are a variety of alternative vehicle fuels available. Learn more about: Electric Vehicles Flexible Fuel Vehicles Fuel Cell Vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles Natural Gas Vehicles Propane Vehicles Also learn about: Vehicle Battery Basics Vehicle Emissions Basics Alternative Fuels There are a number of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. Learn more about the following types of vehicles: Biodiesel Electricity Ethanol Hydrogen Natural Gas

448

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Managing Business Customer Satisfaction with an Eye Toward the Bottom Line: Results from the San Antonio City Public Service Oversample of the C/I BASICS™ Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the national commercial/industrial BASICS project is to help electric distribution utilities make resource allocation decisions that optimize business customer satisfaction while minimizing costs. In addition to the national effort, San Antonio City Public Service (CPS) sponsored an oversample in their service territory of the national BASICS study to better understand how CPS commercial and industrial customers differ from national business customers. This report discusses the results of the...

2004-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Glass-ceramic material and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

453

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Date: Tuesday, March 12, 2013 Innovation for Our Energy Future Shyam S. Kocha: NREL Yannick Garsany: EXCET/NRL Deborah Myers: ANL https://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/webinars.html Outline 1) Background 2) Experimental Aspects of RDE Testing 3) Basic Measurement Technique & Analysis 4) Parameters Affecting RDE Activity Measurements 1) Impact of Film Deposition & Drying Techniques 2) Impact of Ink Formulation 3) Impact of Nafion Incorporation 4) Impact of particle size effects 5) Correlation with MEA data 5) Electrocatalyst Durability using RDE Measurements 6) Summary 2 Background PEMFC MEA Thin-film RDE Trends of activity and durability in Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE)

454

Basic Search A basic job search can be conducted to quickly identify the types of jobs you are most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Job Search Basic Search A basic job search can be conducted to quickly identify the types of jobs a specific job. Keywords can be used to view jobs that contain those specific words. This is a literal search so your results may not be accurate. For example, if you search for Accountant but the text

Holland, Jeffrey

455

Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

Cotton, I.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Direct Observation of Oxygen Superstructures in Manganites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of superstructures associated with the oxygen 2p states in two prototypical manganites using x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K edge. In the stripe order system Bi{sub 0.31}Ca{sub 0.69}MnO{sub 3}, hole-doped O states are orbitally ordered, at the same propagation vector as the Mn orbital ordering, but no oxygen charge stripes are found at this periodicity. In La{sub 7/8}Sr{sub 1/8}MnO{sub 3}, we observe a 2p charge ordering described by alternating hole-poor and hole-rich MnO planes that is consistent with some of the recent predictions.

Grenier, S.; Tonnerre, J. M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Thomas, K. J.; Hill, J. P. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Staub, U.; Bodenthin, Y.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Sherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Scagnoli, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, S-W.; Kim, B. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

457

MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES RIDE AND GLIDE Naomi Ehrich Leonard \\Lambda \\Lambda Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 naomi@princeton.edu Abstract: Methods from geometric mechanics and dynamical systems theory make

Leonard, Naomi

458

SMILE Summer Teachers' Workshop 2007 Making Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. - Connect pans using duct tape and calking to make them water tight. - Add sand to one end to make a "beach scissors or tin snips* - Silicon caulking* - Water - Sand and/or small gravel - Stiff piece of plastic

Dever, Edward P.

459

Emergency Management Decision Making during Severe Weather  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emergency managers make time-sensitive decisions in order to protect the public from threats including severe weather. Simulation and questionnaires were used to capture the decision-making process of emergency managers during severe weather ...

Leigh A. Baumgart; Ellen J. Bass; Brenda Philips; Kevin Kloesel

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Method for making polysilsesquioxanes and organohydridosilanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for disproportionation of an oligohydridosiloxane to produce a polysilsesquioxane compound and an organohydridosilane compound when contacted with a basic catalyst. The basic catalyst can be a tetraalkylammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and an alkali earth hydroxide. These basic catalysts are generally dissolved in an organic solvent for delivery. The hydroxide catalysts are attractive because many readily decompose by heating above 150.degree. C., thus being easily removed from the final materials. The oligohydridosiloxane is contacted with the basic catalyst under conditions effective to catalytically convert the oligohydridosiloxane into a polysilsesquioxane compound and an organohydridosilane compound. The reaction can occur in either an inert or oxidative atmosphere and can occur without heating, at room temperature. Both polysilsesquioxane foams and gels of the formula (RSiO.sub.1.5).sub.n can be produced.

Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Making Online Transactions More Secure and Convenient ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... nstic@nist.gov. Making Online Transactions More Secure and Convenient, Animation Transcript. Back to video. A blue simplified ...

462

NIST PHYSICISTS USE LIGHT TO MAKE ULTRASMALL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST PHYSICISTS USE LIGHT TO MAKE ULTRASMALL NANOSTRUCTURES. ... These structures are essentially ``contact prints'' of a light wave. ...

463

Making Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Taken from PL 109-13, MAKING EMERGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 2005 ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fundamentals, development and scaleup of the air=oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1979 the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels, asked the Solar Energy Research Institute to develop a process for manufacturing methanol from biomass. This can be achieved by gasification of the biomass to a ''synthesis gas'' (syn-gas) (composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by catalytic conversion of the gas to methanol. The catalytic conversion of syn-gas is a well developed commercial process. There are a number of gasifiers for wood, but most of them make either a producer gas, high on nitrogen or a pyrolysis gas high in hydrocarbons. None were developed to make syn-gas. Thus the principal technical problem was to develop a gasifier to make synthesis gas from biomass. Work was performed at SERI from 1980--1985 which resulted in the development of a prototype 1 ton/day oxygen-biomass gasifier. In 1985 a program was undertaken for Congress by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build a commercial scale (50--200 tons/day) medium energy gasifier, based on DOE or other research. A new company, Syn-Gas Inc. (SGI), research. A contract was awarded to SGI to modify the air gasifier for oxygen operation for this project. This modification allowed extended tests of the gasifier with oxygen to determine the possibility of scaling up the SERI-SGI gasifier to 50--200 tons/day.

Reed, T.B.; Levie, B.; Graboski, M.S.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program July 2009 A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program This pamphlet is developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an outreach and awareness tool to assist former and current DOE Federal, contractor, and subcontractor employees to become familiar with and utilize the services and benefits authorized under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOIPCA). There are several Federal entities that support implementation of EEOICPA. Each of these entities serves a critical and unique role in this process. Briefly, the Department of Labor's (DOL) Office of Workers'

466

Energy Basics: Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with 15 parts per million or lower sulfur content. The U.S. Environmental Protection...

467

Energy Basics: Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel Only about one tenth of one percent of all of the natural gas in the United States is currently used for transportation...

468

Tribal Renewable Energy Foundational Course: Electricity Grid Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on electricity grid basics by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download the PowerPoint slides...

469

Energy Basics: Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies Hot water near the surface of the Earth can be used for heat for a variety of commercial and industrial uses. Direct-use...

470

Revit Architecture 2010 Basics: From the Ground Up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Revit Architecture 2010 Basics is geared towards beginning architectural students or professional architects who want to get a jump-start into 3D parametric modeling for commercial structures. This book is filled with tutorials, tips and tricks, and ...

Elise Moss

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Rate-Making Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rate-Making Policy Rate-Making Policy Rate-Making Policy < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info Start Date 2005 State Wisconsin Program Type Generating Facility Rate-Making Provider Public Service Commission of Wisconsin WI Act 7 states that, when proposing the purchase or construction of an electric generating facility, a utility may "apply to the [WI Public Service Commission] for an order specifying in advance the rate-making principles" that the Public Service Commission will use for "future rate-making proceedings." The Nuclear Energy Institute highlights that "There is no restriction on

472

Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrolytic cell produces a mixture of highly ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases by a method combining electrolysis and radiolysis of an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte, which may be 25 percent of potassium hydroxide, is introduced into the cell and is simultaneously subjected to an electrolyting current and intense irradiation by electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 10/sup -10/ meters.

Horvath, S.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

2.20 Making Solar Energy More Affordable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 6/1/2011 7 6/1/2011 2.20 Making Solar Energy More Affordable The cost of solar electricity has been reduced 100-fold over the past two decades, but further reductions are needed before solar power is widely used. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory took major steps toward this goal by designing photovoltaic cells (which convert sunlight to electricity) with 30 percent efficiency, much higher than the 10-20 percent levels achieved previously. The new cells consist of thin layers of semiconductors applied to a low-cost backing, such as glass or plastic. The researchers received Office of Science support to develop a basic understanding of the opto- electronic properties of various semiconductors. Calculations of electronic structure provided the knowledge needed to

474

Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Documents: Program Planning and Decision Making  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

documents Program Planning and Decision Making PDF Icon Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride 345 KB details PDF Icon Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

476

Electrochemical device and process of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of making an electrochemical device comprising providing a trilayer structure comprising an electrode/electrolyte/electrode and simultaneously sintering the trilayer structure.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

477

Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure ...  

ORNL 2010-G00384/jcn UT-B ID 200702020 Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure Sensors Possible Technology Summary Carbon nanotubes ...

478

Carbon nanohoops and methods of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides cycloparaphenylene compounds, their macrocyclic precursors, and methods for making the compounds. The cycloparaphenylene compounds can be used to prepare armchair carbon nanotubes.

Jasti, Ramesh; Bertozzi, Carolyn

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

479

Search by Make for 2010 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini...

480

Search by Make for 2011 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "making basic oxygen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Search by Make for 1994 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

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482

Search by Make for 1996 Vehicles  

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483

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484

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485

Search by Make for 2005 Vehicles  

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486

Search by Make for 2002 Vehicles  

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487

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488

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NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bertone BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Environmental Rsch and Devp Corp Evans...

489

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490

Search by Make for 2013 Vehicles  

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491

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1999 Select Make... Acura Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus...

492

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493

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494

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495

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496

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497

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498

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499

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500

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