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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Table SH3. Total Consumption for Space Heating by Major Fuels Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas (billion cf) Major Fuels Used 4 (physical units) Table SH3. Total Consumption for Space Heating by Major Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units

2

Table WH3. Total Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table WH3. Total Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units Electricity (billion kWh) Natural Gas (billion cf) Fuel Oil

3

Table WH5. Total Expenditures for Water Heating by Major Fuels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Table WH5. Total Expenditures for Water Heating by Major Fuels Used, 2005 Billion Dollars Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil LPG U.S. Households

4

Table WH6. Average Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Major Fuels Used 5 (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel as a water heating source) Electricity (kWh) Table WH6. Average Consumption for Water ...

5

Table SH5. Total Expenditures for Space Heating by Major Fuels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Space Heating Fuel 4 (millions) Fuel Oil U.S. Households ... 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Energy Consumption and Expenditures Tables. Natural Gas

6

The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels  

SciTech Connect

In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Heating Fuel Comparision Calculator  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood, Pellet, Corn (kernel), and Coal Heaters Heating Fuel Comparison Calculator Instructions and Guidance Residential Fuel/Energy Price Links Spot Prices, Daily

8

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

9

Table SH1. Total Households Using a Space Heating Fuel, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Households Using a Space Heating Fuel, 2005 Million U.S. Households Using a Non-Major Fuel 5 ... Space Heating (millions) Energy Information Administration

10

RSEs for Table C1A. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Number of Buildings Floorspace Sum of Major Fuels Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil District Heat All Buildings ..... 3.8 1 4.5 4. 5.0 16.4 32

11

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

SciTech Connect

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

12

Balance of heating fuels varies regionally  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... announced a plan to expand natural gas distribution networks Consumers are also supplementing liquid heating fuels with wood and electricity –wood pellet use ...

13

Heating Fuel Comparision Calculator - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

HEAT CONTENT PRICES INSTRUCTIONS CALCULATOR Fuel Heat Content Per Unit (Btu) Fuel Type Electricity Propane Kerosene Gallon Cord Ton AFUE Natural Gas COP Geothermal ...

14

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security June 22, 2012...

15

EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOEEA-1573-S1) EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the...

16

Heated transportable fuel cell cartridges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack protective system is made where a plurality of fuel cells, each containing liquid electrolyte subject to crystallization, is enclosed by a containing vessel, and where at least one electric heater is placed in the containing vessel and is capable of preventing electrolyte crystallization.

Lance, Joseph R. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Ceramic fuel pellets for isotopic heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) will supply power for future space missions. The GPHS fuel pellets are fabricated by hot pressing a blended mixture of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ granules prepared from calcined plutonium oxalate. Results of a test program which led to the development of the production process are described.

Rankin, D.T.; Congdon, J.W.; Livingston, J.T.; Duncan, N.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EIA Outlook for U.S. Heating Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA Outlook for U.S. Heating Fuels State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference North Falmouth, Massachusetts Laurie Falter Industry Economist

22

Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating  

SciTech Connect

Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Total U.S. Main Space Heating Fuel Used U.S. Using Any Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Heating Degree Days by Main Space Heating Fuel Used, ... 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: ... Any Fuel Natural Gas Fuel Oil Age of Main Heating ...

24

Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel  

SciTech Connect

The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security June 22, 2012 - 4:54pm Addthis The combination of the Native Village of Teller’s limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL The combination of the Native Village of Teller's limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security Native Village of Teller fuel storage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL Native Village of Teller fuel storage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL The combination of the Native Village of Teller's limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL

27

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security June 22, 2012 - 4:54pm Addthis The combination of the Native Village of Teller’s limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL The combination of the Native Village of Teller's limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security Native Village of Teller fuel storage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL Native Village of Teller fuel storage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL The combination of the Native Village of Teller's limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL

28

York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Maximum Rebate 2 systems per household Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Dual Fuel Heat Pumps: $400/system Provider York Electric Cooperative, Inc York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $400 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residence and/or commercial and industrial locations. The incentive is for the property owner only, meaning that renters/tenants are not

29

EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, 4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at an existing facility at U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Finding of No Significant Impact Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Final Environmental Assessment Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication

30

EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of...

31

Table SH8. Average Consumption for Space Heating by Main Space ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Fuel Oil Main Space Heating Fuel Used (million Btu of consumption per household using the fuel as a main heating source) Any Major Fuel 4 Table SH8.

32

Evaluation of Fuel Quality Impacts on Heat Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drive to leverage fuel switching to meet more stringent SO2 and NOX emissions requirements has led to both a reduction in power station efficiency and a poorer net plant heat rate (NPHR) in many cases. The root causes include higher fuel moisture content, lower fuel energy content, poorer combustion efficiency, increased station service, and decreased unit capability. This report demonstrates the sensitivity of the key metrics of power station efficiency and heat rate to coal quality parameters, vari...

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

33

Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal) Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal) Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Maximum Rebate $0.20/gallon Program Info Start Date 01/01/2008 (2008 reinstatement) Expiration Date 12/31/2016 State New York Program Type Personal Tax Credit Rebate Amount $0.01/gallon for each percent of biodiesel Provider New York State Department of Taxation and Finance The state of New York began offering a personal income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized for only one year from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007. However, in 2008 the law was amended to reinstate the credit for purchases made between January 1, 2008 and

34

Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate) Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate) Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Maximum Rebate 0.20/gallon Program Info Start Date 01/01/2008 (2008 reinstatement) Expiration Date 12/31/2016 State New York Program Type Corporate Tax Credit Rebate Amount 0.01/gallon for each percent of biodiesel Provider New York State Department of Taxation and Finance The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized for only one year from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007. However, in 2008 the law was amended to reinstate the credit for purchases made between January 1, 2008 and

35

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

With the worst of the heating season (October-March) now behind us, we can be fairly confident that retail heating oil prices have seen their seasonal ...

36

Table WH10. Consumption Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Main Water Heating Fuel Used (physical units/number of household members) Electricity Table WH10. Consumption Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used, 2005

37

Table WH11. Expenditures Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Main Water Heating Fuel Used (Dollars/number of household members) Electricity Table WH11. Expenditures Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used, 2005

38

Combined Heating and Power Using Microturbines in a Major Urban Hotel  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a cooperative effort to install and operate a Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at a major hotel in San Francisco, CA. The packaged CHP System integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller was directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, and could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 Refrigeration Tons (RT) of chilled water at a 59oF (15oC) ambient temperature. For the year, the CHP efficiency was 54 percent. Significant lessons learned from this test and verification project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

Sweetser, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.; Wagner, Timothy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC); Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to Industrial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)

40

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Sales/Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: With the worst of the heating season (October-March) now behind us, we can be fairly confident that retail heating oil prices have seen their seasonal peak. Relatively mild weather and a softening of crude oil prices have helped ease heating oil prices. Spot heating oil prices recently reached their lowest levels in over six months. Because of relatively balmy weather in the Northeast in January and February, heating oil stock levels have stabilized. Furthermore, heating oil production has been unusually robust, running several hundred thousand barrels per day over last year's pace. Currently, EIA expects winter prices to average around $1.41, which is quite high in historical terms. The national average price in December 2000 was 44 cents per gallon above the December 1999 price. For February

42

Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building Equipment Research vineyardea@ornl.gov, 865-576-0576 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: 55% residential building energy use for space conditioning & water heating; highly efficient systems needed to facilitate DOE/BTO goal for 50% reduction in building energy use by 2030 Impact of Project: Cumulative energy savings potential of 0.25 Quads

43

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we ...

44

Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate None Program Info State New York Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption Provider New York State Department of Taxation and Finance New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from local sales taxes. If a city with a population of 1 million or more chooses to grant the local exemption, it must enact a specific resolution that appears in the state law. Local sales tax rates in New York range from 1.5% to more than 4% in

45

WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

Allan Jones

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

How do I compare heating fuels? - FAQ - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How do I compare heating fuels? When choosing a heating system for a new home or replacing an existing system, consumers often want to compare the cost of heating fuels.

47

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we now expect prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to peak at $1.52 per gallon in January. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. This winter's expected peak price would be the highest on record in nominal terms, eclipsing the high set in February 2000. However, in real (constant dollar) terms, both of these prices remain well below the peak reached in March 1981, when the average residential heating oil price was $1.29 per gallon, equivalent to over $2.50 per gallon today.

48

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we now expect prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to peak at about $1.52 per gallon in January. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. This winter's expected peak price would be the highest on record in nominal terms, eclipsing the high set in February 2000. However, in real (constant dollar) terms, both of these prices remain well below the peak reached in March 1981, when the average residential heating oil price was $1.29 per gallon, equivalent to over $2.50 per gallon today.

49

Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital and operating costs for fossil fuel-fired peak heating systems in geothermally (direct use) heated greenhouses. Issues covered include equipment capital costs, fuel requirements, maintenance and operating costs, system control and integration into conventional hot water greenhouse heating systems. Annual costs per square foot of greenhouse floor area are developed for three climates: Helena, MT; Klamath Falls, OR and San Bernardino, CA, for both boiler and individual unit heater peaking systems. In most applications, peaking systems sized for 60% of the peak load are able to satisfy over 95% of the annual heating requirements and cost less than $0.15 per square foot per year to operate. The propane-fired boiler system has the least cost of operation in all but Helena, MT climate.

Rafferty, K.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

None

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

51

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we have raised expected peak prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to $1.55 per gallon (January) compared to $1.43 per gallon in last month's projections. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. Primary distillate inventories in the United States failed to rise significantly in November despite some speculation that previous distributions into secondary and tertiary storage would back up burgeoning production and import volumes into primary storage that month. Average

52

Table SH2. Total Households by Space Heating Fuels Used, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Households by Space Heating Fuels Used, 2005 ... 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: ... Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil Kerosene LPG Other

53

Availability of wood as a heating fuel for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As Colorado homeowners turn to wood as an alternative space-heating fuel, supplies--particularly along the heavily populated Front Range--dwindle. The report reexamines the resource base and presents alternatives to wood in the event of a shortage (for instance, many wood stoves can burn coal as well).

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

Lee, S.Y.

1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

55

How do I compare heating fuels? - FAQ - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, ... What is the outlook for home heating fuel prices this winter? Last updated: June 5, 2013 .

56

Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, combined heat and power, materials handling, and backup power. Power Generation & Electric Grid support· Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat The demand for multi-megawatt (MW) fuel cell systems for power generation and utility grid support applica

57

State energy fuel prices by major economic sector from 1960 through 1977  

SciTech Connect

The state energy fuel prices are described and displayed by major economic sector for 1960 to 1977. These prices support the Regional Energy Demand Model. The 7 major fuel commodities in the Price Data System fall into two groups: petroleum products (distillate, residual, kerosene, gasoline, and liquid petroleum gas) and non-petroleum product fuels (electric power and natural gas). The methodology for calculating each commodity is shown. A detailed description of the wholesale and retail price methodology is presented. Appendices A and B display the price series in calorific and physical units, respectively. Some data-supporting tables are presented in Appendix C and Appendix D describes the fuel identifiers for decoding information in Appendices A and B.

Galliker, J.P.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

South Dakota No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota No 2 Fuel Oil / Heating Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)

59

Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Function Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities

60

High Performance Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems - FuelCell Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Heat Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems-FuelCell Energy Background In a typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation system, hot (~900 °C) effluent gas from a catalytic combustor serves as the heat source within a high-temperature heat exchanger, preheating incoming fresh air for the SOFC's cathode. The catalytic combustor and the cathode air heat exchanger together represent the largest opportunity for cost

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located in the ATR Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. The ATR is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) matrix (UAlx) in an aluminum sandwich plate cladding. The National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) strategic mission includes efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at civilian sites around the world. Converting research reactors from using HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) was originally started in 1978 as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Within this strategic mission, GTRI has three goals that provide a comprehensive approach to achieving this mission: The first goal, the driver for the modification that is the subject of this determination, is to convert research reactors from using HEU to LEU. Thus the mission of the ATR LEU Fuel Conversion Project is to convert the ATR and Advanced Test Reactor Critical facility (ATRC) (two of the six U.S. High-Performance Research Reactors [HPRR]) to LEU fuel by 2017. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification.

Boyd D. Christensen; Michael A. Lehto; Noel R. Duckwitz

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Table WH2. Total Households by Water Heating Fuels Used, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Households by Water Heating Fuels Used, 2005 ... 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Energy Consumption and Expenditures Tables. Table WH2.

63

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application, the coolant is pumped to a heat recovery system. A water-to-air heat exchange system or water-to-water heat

Victoria, University of

64

Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Update on Fuel Cell Development: Review of Major and Stealth Fuel Cell Players' Activities: Stealth Player Reviews  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been conducting fuel cell technology assessments and sponsoring research and development of fuel cell technologies for distributed power market applications for the past 20 years. Over the past several years, four fuel cell technologies have emerged for stationary power generation applications: • Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) • Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) • Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) • Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) There are dozens of companies...

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

66

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ... State Energy Data System ...

67

Maintenance and storage of fuel oil for residential heating systems: A guide for residential heating system maintenance personnel  

SciTech Connect

The quality of No. 2 fuel affects the performance of the heating system and is an important parameter in the proper and efficient operation of an oil-burning system. The physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel can affect the flow, atomization and combustion processes, all of which help to define and limit the overall performance of the heating system. The use of chemical additives by fuel oil marketershas become more common as a method of improving the quality of the fuel, especially for handling and storage. Numerous types of additives are available, but reliable information on their effectiveness and proper use is limited. This makes selecting an additive difficult in many situations. Common types of problems that contribute to poor fuel quality and how they affect residential heating equipment are identified inof this booklet. It covers the key items that are needed in an effective fuel quality monitoring program, such as what to look for when evaluating the quality of fuel as it is received from a supplier, or how to assess fuel problems associated with poor storage conditions. References to standard procedures and brief descriptions of the procedures also are given. Approaches for correcting a fuel-related problem, including the potential uses of chemical additives are discussed. Different types of additives are described to help users understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Tips on how to select andeffectively use additives also are included. Finally, the importance of preventative maintenance in any fuel monitoring program is emphasized.

Litzke, Wai-Lin

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the 573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO DOE's Golden Field Office has prepared a draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) for proposed improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant (RFHP) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's South Table Mountain site. The SEA analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed improvements tot he RFHP consisting of construction and operation of an onsite woodchip fuel storage silo and an expansion of woodchip fuel sources to a regional scale.

70

Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for CHP systems include Proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) and solid oxide (SOFC), however both require which operate at high temperatures, such as the MCFC and SOFC, reforming can take place within the fuel applications. PAFC Phospheric acid fuel cell MCFC Molten carbonate fuel cell SOFC Solid oxide fuel cell PEMFC

Watson, Andrew

71

Table E1. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non-Mall ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat-ing Cool-ing Venti-lation Water Heat-ing Light-ing Cook-ing Refrig-eration Office Equip-ment Com-puters Other

72

Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight 5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight May 20, 2011 - 5:53pm Addthis Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat. Scientists have developed a high-efficiency thermal waste heat energy converter that actively cools electronic devices, photovoltaic cells, computers and other large industrial systems while generating electricity. Scientists have linked platinum nanoparticles with algae proteins, commandeering photosynthesis to produce hydrogen -- research that will help scientists harvest light with solar fuels. Thanks to scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the billions

73

Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 1/22 National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 1/22 High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H 2 from Biogas Jack Brouwer, Ph.D. June 19, 2012 DOE/ NREL Biogas Workshop - Golden, CO © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 2/22 Outline * Introduction and Background * Tri-Generation/Poly-Generation Analyses * OCSD Project Introduction © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 3/22 Introduction and Background * Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle performance is outstanding * Energy density of H 2 is much greater than batteries * Rapid fueling, long range ZEV * H 2 must be produced * energy intensive, may have emissions, fossil fuels, economies of scale * Low volumetric energy density of H 2 compared to current infrastructure fuels (@ STP)

75

Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to assist research reactor operators possessing spent fuel containing enriched uranium of United States origin to prepare part of the documentation necessary to ship this fuel to the United States. Data are included on the nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate, and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies. Isotopic masses of U, Np, Pu and Am that are present in spent research reactor fuel are estimated for MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assembly types. The isotopic masses of each fuel assembly type are given as functions of U-235 burnup in the spent fuel, and of initial U-235 enrichment and U-235 mass in the fuel assembly. Photon dose rates of spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are estimated for fuel assemblies with up to 80% U-235 burnup and specific power densities between 0.089 and 2.857 MW/kg[sup 235]U, and for fission product decay times of up to 20 years. Thermal decay heat loads are estimated for spent fuel based upon the fuel assembly irradiation history (average assembly power vs. elapsed time) and the spent fuel cooling time.

Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming, autothermal reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming are the three major fuel of an activated carbon bed. Prior to enter the SOFC stack, the fuel is pre-reformed (methane is partially

Liso, Vincenzo

77

The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options  

SciTech Connect

In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

None

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1) EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1) Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources. DOE/EA-1887 supplements a prior EA (DOE/EA-1573, July 2007) and is also referred to as DOE/EA-1573-S1. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download April 9, 2012 EA-1887: Finding of No Significant Impact

80

Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burning Effect on Climate—Heating or Cooling?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate chaw. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser; Robert L. Mahoney

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

What is the outlook for home heating fuel prices this winter ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

What is the outlook for home heating fuel prices this winter? According to EIA's Short Term Energy Outlook released on August 6, 2013, the projections for U.S ...

82

Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

Nakos, James Thomas

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Computational analysis of heat and water transfer in a PEM fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising power-generation sources for mobile and stationary applications. In this paper a non-isothermal, single-domain and two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is presented to investigate ... Keywords: CFD, PEM fuel cell, heat, non-isothermal, single-domain

Ebrahim Afshari; Seyed Ali Jazayeri

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Small oil-fired heating equipment: The effects of fuel quality  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical characteristics of fuel can affect its flow, atomization, and combustion, all of which help to define the overall performance of a heating system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of some important parameters of fuel quality on the operation of oil-fired residential heating equipment. The primary focus was on evaluating the effects of the fuel`s sulfur content, aromatics content, and viscosity. Since the characteristics of heating fuel are generally defined in terms of standards (such as ASTM, or state and local fuel-quality requirements), the adequacy and limitations of such specifications also are discussed. Liquid fuels are complex and their properties cannot generally be varied without affecting other properties. To the extent possible, test fuels were specially blended to meet the requirements of the ASTM limits but, at the same time, significant changes were made to the fuels to isolate and vary the selected parameters over broad ranges. A series of combustion tests were conducted using three different types of burners -- a flame-retention head burner, a high static-pressure-retention head burner, and an air-atomized burner. With some adjustments, such modern equipment generally can operate acceptably within a wide range of fuel properties. From the experimental data, the limits of some of the properties could be estimated. The property which most significantly affects the equipment`s performance is viscosity. Highly viscous fuels are poorly atomizated and incompletely burnt, resulting in higher flue gas emissions. Although the sulfur content of the fuel did not significantly affect performance during these short-term studies, other work done at BNL demonstrated that long-term effects due to sulfur can be detrimental in terms of fouling and scale formation on boiler heat exchanger tubes.

Litzke, W.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of biomass (lignin) and biogas for process heat. TheyBTU-lignin/BTU-fuel) and emission factors for biogas (g/BTU-gas) by biogas-use factors (BTU-gas/BTU-fuel). The emission

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In response to the President's request, this study examineshow the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential,commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sectorconsumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

Joan Heinkel

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Spent Nuclear Fuel project photon heat deposition calculation for hygrogen generation within MCO  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three types of water conditions are analyzed for nuclear heat deposition in a MCO: fully flooded, thick film, and thin film. These heat deposition rates within water can be used to determine gas generation during the different phases of Spent Fuel removal and processing for storage.

Lan, J.S.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

89

Heating Fuels and Diesel Update - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

90

EIA-877 WINTER HEATING FUELS TELEPHONE SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during ... New Jersey NY - New York NC - North Carolina

91

Household heating fuels vary across the country - Today in Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

92

Heating fuel choice shows electricity and natural gas roughly ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

93

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

For decades, space heating and cooling (space conditioning) accounted for more than half of all residential energy consumption. Estimates from the ...

94

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Tools; Glossary › All Reports ... Non-weather related energy use for appliances, electronics, water heating, and lighting now accounts for 52% of total consumption, ...

95

The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying, and volatile matter analysis can only be performed after drying, and since many fuel suppliers are paid on a heating value basis of the fuel, there has been some controversy in this matter. Furthermore, it is known that if manure is left out at ambient temperatures over long periods of time, the heating value decreases as well. It is therefore the objective of this work to ascertain if in fact volatile matter is lost during the drying or aging process and, if so, to find an optimum aging and /or drying time and to model the loss of volatile matter. It has been found that, if indeed there is volatile matter loss over the drying process, then it is so small as to be negligible. Furthermore, no appreciable amount of volatile loss occurs even if the fuel is dried for extensive amounts of time as are generally needed to obtain constant weight in the fuel sample. It has also been found that heating value decreases with aging time (falling even after only one to two days at atmospheric conditions), yet the heating value of an initial (undried) fuel sample increases with aging time. This is because moisture is lost as well as combustibles so the heat produced by the fuel will increase with a decrease in moisture even though volatiles are lost.

Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Division requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to help design and conduct an up-to-date assessment of the Program. The evaluation includes five separate studies; the fuel oil study is the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the fuel-oil study was to provide a region-wide estimate of the space-heating fuel oil saved by the Program in the Northeast during the 1991 and 1992 program years. Other goals include assessing the cost effectiveness of the Program within the fuel-oil submarket, and identifying factors which caused fuel-oil savings to vary. This paper reports only the highlights from the fuel-oil study`s final report.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

EIA Outlook for U.S. Heating Fuels  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This presentation at the 2006 State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference in North Falmouth, Massachusetts, outlined EIA's current forecast for U.S. crude oil, distillate, propane and gasoline supply, demand, and markets over the coming winter season.

Information Center

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

98

Precipitation and Latent Heating Characteristics of the Major Tropical Western Pacific Cloud Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective tropical cloud regime classification based on daytime averaged cloud-top pressure and optical thickness information from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) is combined with precipitation and latent heating ...

Christian Jakob; Courtney Schumacher

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Financial market analysis and financial data for major ... collected in 2010 and 2011 and released in 2011 ... The average U.S. household consumed 11,320 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Case Study: Fuel Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Com- bined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office With more than 67 million customers nationwide, Verizon Communications is one of the largest telecommunica- tions providers in the U.S. Power inter- ruptions can severely impact network operations and could result in losses in excess of $1 million/minute. 1 In 2005, Verizon Communications installed a 1.4 MW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system, consisting of seven 200 kW units, at its Central Office in Garden City, New York. This fuel cell power plant, the largest in the United States at the time, is reaping environmental benefits and demonstrating the viabil- ity of fuel cells in a commercial, critical telecommunications setting. Background Verizon's Central Office in Garden City,

102

Recycle of Zirconium from Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding: A Major Element of Waste Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility tests were initiated to determine if the zirconium in commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding can be recovered in sufficient purity to permit re-use, and if the recovery process can be operated economically. Initial tests are being performed with unirradiated, non-radioactive samples of various types of Zircaloy materials that are used in UNF cladding to develop the recovery process and determine the degree of purification that can be obtained. Early results indicate that quantitative recovery can be accomplished and product contamination with alloy constituents can be controlled sufficiently to meet purification requirements. Future tests with actual radioactive UNF cladding are planned. The objective of current research is to determine the feasibility of recovery and recycle of zirconium from used fuel cladding wastes. Zircaloy cladding, which contains 98+% of hafnium-free zirconium, is the second largest mass, on average {approx}25 wt %, of the components in used U.S. light-water-reactor fuel assemblies. Therefore, recovery and recycle of the zirconium would enable a large reduction in geologic waste disposal for advanced fuel cycles. Current practice is to compact or grout the cladding waste and store it for subsequent disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes results of initial tests being performed with unirradiated, non-radioactive samples of various types of Zircaloy materials that are used in UNF cladding to develop the recovery process and determine the degree of purification that can be obtained. Future tests with actual radioactive UNF cladding are planned.

Collins, Emory D [ORNL; DelCul, Guillermo D [ORNL; Terekhov, Dmitri [ORNL; Emmanuel, N. V. [Chemical Vapor Metal Refining, Inc.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Development program for heat balance analysis fuel to steam efficiency boiler and data wireless transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research aim to improve a combustion system of boiler within increase combustion efficiency and use all out of the energy. The large boilers were used in the industrial factories which consume a lot of energy for production. By oil and gas fuel ... Keywords: boiler, cogeneration energy, heat balance, steam efficiency, wireless data transfer

Nattapong Phanthuna; Warunee Srisongkram; Sunya Pasuk; Thaweesak Trongtirakul

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen ...

Sprinkle Danny R.; Chaturvedi Sushil K.; Kheireddine Ali

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Low Mode Control of Cryogenic ICF Fuel Layers Using Infrared Heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Infrared heating has been demonstrated as an effective technique to smooth solid hydrogen layers inside transparent cryogenic inertial confinement fusion capsules. Control of the first two Legendre modes of the fuel thickness perturbations using two infrared beams injected into a hohlraum was predicted by modeling and experimentally demonstrated. In the current work, we use coupled ray tracing and heat transfer simulations to explore a wider range of control of long scale length asymmetries. We demonstrate several scenarios to control the first four Legendre modes in the fuel layer using four beams. With such a system, it appears possible to smooth both short and long scale length fuel thickness variations in transparent indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets.

London, R A; Kozioziemski, B J; Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Bittner, D N

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Annual fuel usage charts for oil-fired boilers. [Building space heating and hot water supplies  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of laboratory-determined boiler efficiency data, one may calculate the annual fuel usage (AFU) for any oil-fired boiler, serving a structure of a given design heat load, for any specified hourly weather pattern. Further, where data are available regarding the energy recapture rates of the strucutre due to direct gain solar energy (windows), lighting, cooking, electrical appliances, metabolic processes, etc., the annual fuel usage savings due to such (re) capture are straightforwardly determinable. Employing the Brookhaven National Laboratory annual fuel usage formulation, along with efficiency data determined in the BNL Boiler Laboratory, computer-drawn annual fuel usage charts can be generated for any selected boiler for a wide range of operating conditions. For two selected boilers operating in any one of the hour-by-hour weather patterns which characterize each of six cities over a wide range of firing rates, domestic hot water consumption rates, design heat loads, and energy (re) capture rates, annual fuel usages are determined and graphically presented. Figures 1 to 98, inclusive, relate to installations for which energy recapture rates are taken to be zero. Figures 97 to 130, inclusive, apply to a range of cases for which energy recapture rates are nonzero and determinable. In all cases, simple, direct and reliable annual fuel usage values can be determined by use of charts and methods such as those illustrated.

Berlad, A.L.; Yeh, Y.J.; Salzano, F.J.; Hoppe, R.J.; Batey, J.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Process evaluation, fuel pellet GF-47  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions has documented the response of the GPHS heat source to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and Earth-impact conditions. Although heat sources for previous missions were fabricated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), GPHS fueled-clads required for the Cassini mission to Saturn will be fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This evaluation is part of an ongoing program to determine the similarity of GPHS fueled clads and fuel pellets fabricated at LANL to those fabricated at WSRC. Pellet GF-47, which was fabricated at LANL in late 1994, was submitted for chemical and ceramographic analysis. The results indicated that the pellet had a chemical makeup and microstructure within the range of material fabricated at WSRC in the early 1980s.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

Nakos, James Thomas

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Specific Heat Measurements and Post-Test Characterization of Irradiated and Unirradiated Urania and Gadolinia Doped Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In pursuit of higher burnups at nuclear plants, fuel designers have introduced the use of 'advanced' fuel types, including doped fuels. Completing a systematic program to acquire data on the basic properties of these fuels, this project measured the specific heat and density of high burn-up UO2 and (U, Gd)O2 using irradiated materials of the same origin as those on which thermal diffusivity measurements had previously been made and thermal recovery phenomena investigated.

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Towards CFD Modelling of Critical Heat Flux in Fuel Rod Bundles  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes actual CFD approaches to subcooled boiling and investigates their capability to contribute to fuel assembly design. In a prototype version of the CFD code CFX a wall boiling model is implemented based on a wall heat flux partition algorithm. It can be shown, that the wall boiling model is able, to calculate the cross sectional averaged vapour volume fraction with good agreement to published measurements. The most sensitive parameters of the model are identified. Needs for more detailed experiments are established which are necessary to support further model development. Nevertheless in the paper the model is applied for the investigation of the phenomena inside a hot channel in a fuel assembly. Here the essential parameter is the critical heat flux. Although subcooled boiling represents only a preliminary state toward critical heat flux essential parameters like the swirl, the cross flow between adjacent channels and concentration regions of bubbles can be determined. By calculating the temperature at the rod surface the critical regions can be identified which might later on lead to departure from nucleate boiling and possible damage of the fuel pin. The application of up-to-date CFD with a subcooled boiling model for the simulation of a hot channel enables the comparison and the evaluation of different geometrical designs of the spacer grids of a fuel rod bundle. (authors)

Krepper, Eckhard [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden, POB 510119 (Germany); Egorov, Yury [ANSYS Germany GmbH Staudenfeldweg 12, D-83624 Otterfing (Germany); Koncar, Bostjan ['Jozef Stefan' Institute Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

HEAT-TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS ON A PROPOSED FUEL ASSEMBLY FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL GAS COOLED REACTOR. SECTION II FO FUEL-ASSEMBLY HEAT-TRANSFER AND CHANNEL PRESSURE-DROP EXPERIMENT FOR THE EGCR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Heat-transfer data are presented for the Experimental Gas Cooled Reactor Title I seven-rod fuel-assembly design. The effect on heat transfer of (1) the radial location of the outer six rods of the seven-fuel-rod cluster and of (2) the addition of helical-finned spacers at the midpoint of each of the seven fuel rods is discussed. The heattransfer data were obtained to verify preliminary general assumptions pertaining to the heat-transfer characteristics of the seven- rod fuel-assembly design and to obtain local heat-transfer correlations. The heat-transfer tests were performed at near-atmospheric pressure using air as the coolant medium. Plots and equations of heattransfer correlations over a Reynolds Number range from 12,000 to 80,000 are included. The test set-up and test procedure are also described. (auth)

Beaudoin, C.L.; Higgins, R.M.

1960-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Major Government-Supported Fuel Cell Vehicle Projects Government support for fuel cell projects is critical to the development of fuel cell technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provide most of its power. In the future, there are plans to use fuel cells, a solar-thermal system. The Centre also will house a "National Research Flagship," entitled "Energy Transformed," that will focus sustainable energy technologies, including solar, gas micro-turbines, and wind generators that will initially

116

Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. This analysis showed that the cost of replacing natural gas with crude glycerol requires a strong function of the market price per unit of energy for the traditional fuel. However, the economics can be improved through the inclusion of a federal tax credit for the use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in remote regions, where the cost of energy is higher and the cost of crude glycerol is lowest. Lastly, the commercialization strategy analyzed competing technologies, namely traditional natural gas and electric heaters, as well as competing glycerol burners, and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for a pilot demonstration.

William L. ROberts

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Market share elasticities for fuel and technology choice in home heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for estimating own- and cross-elasticities of market share for fuel and technology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We simulate changes in economic conditions and estimate elasticities by calculating predicted changes in fuel and technology market shares. Elasticities are found with respect to household income, equipment capital cost, and equipment capital cost, and equipment operating cost (including fuel price). The method is applied to a revised and extended version of a study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Data for that study are drawn primarily from the 1975--1979 Annual Housing Surveys. Results are generally similar to previous studies, although our estimates of elasticities are somewhat lower. We feel the superior formulation of consumer choice and the currency of data in EPRI's work produce reliable estimates of market share elasticities. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H.; McMahon, J.E.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The escalating energy prices and the increasing environmental impact posed by the industrial usage of energy have spurred industry to adopt various approaches to conserving energy and mitigating negative environmental impact. This work aims at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels, process waste heat) to guarantee providing a stable energy supply, as industrial process energy sources must be a stable and reliable system. The thermal energy transform systems (turbines, refrigerators, heat exchangers) must be selected and designed carefully to provide the energy demand at the different forms (heat, cool, power). This dissertation introduces optimization-based approaches to address the following problems: • Design of cogeneration systems with solar and fossil systems • Design and integration of solar-biofuel-fossil cogeneration systems • Design of solar-assisted absorption refrigeration systems and integration with the processing facility • Development of thermally-coupled dual absorption refrigeration systems, and • Design of solar-assisted trigeneration systems Several optimization formulations are introduced to provide methodical and systematic techniques to solve the aforementioned problems. The approach is also sequenced into interacting steps. First, heat integration is carried out to minimize industrial heating and cooling utilities. Different forms of external-energy sources (e.g., solar, biofuel, fossil fuel) are screened and selected. To optimize the cost and to overcome the dynamic fluctuation of the solar energy and biofuel production systems, fossil fuel is used to supplement the renewable forms of energy. An optimization approach is adopted to determine the optimal mix of energy forms (fossil, bio fuels, and solar) to be supplied to the process, the system specifications, and the scheduling of the system operation. Several case studies are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the devised procedure. The results show that solar trigeneration systems have higher overall performance than the solar thermal power plants. Integrating the absorption refrigerators improves the energy usage and it provides the process by its cooling demand. Thermal coupling of the dual absorption refrigerators increases the coefficient of performance up to 33 percent. Moreover, the process is provided by two cooling levels.

Tora, Eman

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} scrap for heat source fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

Schulte, L.D.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ramsey, K.; Silver, G.L.; Espinoza, J.; Rinehart, G.H.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

1985 primary heating fuel use and switching: Assessment of the market for conservation in the Northwest: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on the types of primary heating fuels used in residences in the Pacific Northwest region and how the heating fuels affect the level of investment in energy conservation measures (ECMs) by occupants of the residences. The types of heating fuel switching that occurred during the past two years (1983-1985) is also presented. The information was collected from random telephone surveys of households in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and western Montana. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted analyses of the survey results for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to obtain a better understanding of consumer attitudes and behaviors and to facilitate conservation program planning, design, and marketing. This report covers the following hypotheses: (1) there is no relationship between investing in ECMs and the type of primary heating fuel used in a residence; and (2) there is no relationship between the decision to switch to a new primary heating fuel during 1983-1985 and the original type of primary heating fuel used in the residence.

Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Ivey, D.L.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Proceedings of the eighth annual coal-fueled heat engines and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Heat Engines and Gas Stream Cleanup Programs at Morgantown Energy Technology Center is to develop essential technologies so the private sector can commercialize power plants burning coal-derived fuels. The purpose of this annual meeting is to provide a forum for scientists and engineers to present their results, exchange ideas and talk about their plans. Topics discussed were: Heat Engines Commercialization and Proof of Concepts Projects; Components and Testing of Coal-Fueled Gas Turbines; Advances in Barrier Filters; Pulse Combustion/Agglomeration; Advances in Coal-Fueled Diesels; Gas Stream Cleanup; Turbine and Diesel Emissions; and Poster Presentations.

Webb, H.A.; Bedick, R.C.; Geiling, D.W.; Cicero, D.C. (eds.)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Oxygen reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond J. P. Dodelet INRS-Énergie et Matériaux C. P. 1020, Varennes, Québec, Canada, J3X 1S2 dodelet@inrs-ener.uquebec.ca Collaborators Michel Lefèvre (INRS) Sébastien Marcotte (INRS) Frédéric Jaouen (Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden) Prof. Patrick Bertrand (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium) Prof. Göran Lindbergh (Royal Inst. Of Technology, Sweden) New Orleans workshop March 21 03. DODELET, J. P. ; New Orleans, March 21, 03 1 PEM Fuel Cells Anode : 2 H 2 → 4 H + + 4 e - Electrolyte : Perfluorinated polymer - SO 3 H Cathode : O 2 + 4 H + + 4 e - → 2 H 2 O Acidic Medium ( pH ~ 1 ) Low Temperature Fuel Cell (80°C) ↓ Pt- based Anode and Cathode Catalysts Pt is not abundant and expensive

123

Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

Koutsoukos, Elias P. (Los Angeles, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heavy-water-moderated, light-water-moderated and liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors fueled with natural or low-enriched uranium and containing thorium mixed with the uranium or in separate target channels. U-232 decays with a 69-year half-life through 1.9-year half-life Th-228 to Tl-208, which emits a 2.6 MeV gamma ray upon decay. We find that pressurized light-water-reactors fueled with LEU-thorium fuel at high burnup (70 MWd/kg) produce U-233 with U-232 contamination levels of about 0.4 percent. At this contamination level, a 5 kg sphere of U-233 would produce a gammaray dose rate of 13 and 38 rem/hr at 1 meter one and ten years after chemical purification respectively. The associated plutonium contains 7.5 percent of the undesirable heat-generating 88-year half-life isotope Pu-238. However, just as it is possible to produce weapon-grade plutonium in low-burnup fuel, it is also practical to use heavy-water reactors to produce U-233 containing only a few ppm of U-232 if the thorium is segregated in “target ” channels and discharged a few times more frequently than the natural-uranium “driver ” fuel. The dose rate from a 5-kg solid sphere of U-233 containing 5 ppm U-232 could be reduced by a further factor of 30, to about 2 mrem/hr, with a close-fitting lead sphere weighing about 100 kg. Thus the proliferation resistance of thorium fuel cycles depends very much upon how they are implemented. The original version of this manuscript was received by Science & Global Security on

Jungmin Kang A

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation for the Missouri Division of Energy, identifies and evaluates technological options and describes the current status of various energy resource conservation technologies applicable industry and the economic, institutional and regulatory factors which could affect the implementation and use of these energy technologies. An industrial energy manual has been prepared, identifying technologies with significant potential for application in a specific company or plant. Six site-specific industrial case studies have been performed for industries considered suitable for cogeneration, waste heat recovery or alternative fuel use. These case studies, selected after a formal screening process, evaluate actual plant conditions and economics for Missouri industrial establishments. It is hoped that these case studies will show, by example, some of the elements that make energy resource conservation technologies economically a technically feasible in the real world.

Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

Moyer, M.W.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS – A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

130

Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model  

SciTech Connect

This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Heat and water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode  

SciTech Connect

In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion{reg_sign} impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rod L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ranjan, Devesh [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Moyer, M.W. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Placr, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Price Cap Cost Gas Heat Cap Cost Oil Heat Electric Share GasPrice Cap Cost Gas Heat Cap Cost Oil Heat 3. Summary of WorkEPRI [this study] Cap Cost Elec Heat Oil Price Income Gas

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to determine the best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program. TRACE is an energy and economic analysis program that has been developed by The Trane Company. Results are detailed. (WHK)

Mougin, L.J.

1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor of the over all system, COPs of the double effect cooling and heating system, and power and heat output of the PEM fuel cell. It is found that the efficiency of the cell decreases, ranging from 46.2% to 24.4% with increase in membrane thickness and current density, and at the same time the COP increases ranging from 0.65 to 1.52. The heat and power output of the fuel cell decreases from 10.54 kW to 5.12 kW, and 9.12 kW to 6.99 kW, respectively for the increase in membrane thickness. However, when the temperature of the cell is increased the heat and power output increases from 5.12 kW to 10.54 kW, and 6.9 kW to 7.02 kW, respectively. The COP is found to be decreasing ranging from 1.53 to 0.33 with the increase in temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. As for the utilization factor, it increases ranging from 17% to 87% with increase in the temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. This study reveals that an integrated PEM fuel cell with a double effect absorption cooling systems has a very high potential to be an economical and environmental solution as compared with conventional systems of high electricity and natural gas prices which emit lots of harmful gasses and are not that efficient.

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

Louay Chamra

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

Experiments in the ISX-B tokamak electron cyclotron heating, ripple studies, pellet fueling, impurity flow reversal and surface physics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The wide variety of experiments on the ISX-B tokamak includes electron cyclotron heating, ripple effects, hydrogen pellet fueling, impurity flow reversal mechanisms, plasma edge studies, and testing of limiter coatings. The most significant results in each of these areas are discussed.

Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Near-field heat transfer at the spent fuel test-climax: a comparison of measurements and calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Spent Fuel Test in the Climax granitic stock at the DOE Nevada Test Site is a test of the feasibility of storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel in a deep geologic environment. Eleven spent fuel elements, together with six thermally identical electrical resistance heaters and 20 peripheral guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below surface in a three-drift test array. This array was designed to simulate the near-field effects of thousands of canisters of nuclear waste and to evaluate the effects of heat alone, and heat plus ionizing radiation on the rock. Thermal calculations and measurements are conducted to determine thermal transport from the spent fuel and electrical resistance heaters. Calculations associated with the as-built Spent Fuel Test geometry and thermal source histories are presented and compared with thermocouple measurements made throughout the test array. Comparisons in space begin at the spent fuel canister and include the first few metres outside the test array. Comparisons in time begin at emplacement and progress through the first year of thermal loading in this multi-year test.

Patrick, W.C.; Montan, D.N.; Ballou, L.B.

1981-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

143

Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

Not Available

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

145

Why don't fuel prices change as quickly as crude oil prices? - FAQ ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Why don't fuel prices change as quickly as crude oil prices? The cost of crude oil is a major component in the price of diesel fuel, gasoline, and heating oil.

146

Why don't fuel prices change as quickly as crude oil prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Why don't fuel prices change as quickly as crude oil prices? The cost of crude oil is a major component in the price of diesel fuel, gasoline, and heating oil.

147

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Choice in Home Heating and Cooling D.J. Wood, H. Ruderman,IN HOME HEATING AND COOLING* David J. Wood, Henry RudermanIN HOME HEATING AND COOLING David J. Wood, Henry Ruderman,

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Own-Elasticities for Space Conditioning Equipment Equipmentthe choice of a space heat/air conditioning combination. Theutility from air conditioning and space heating alternative

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Fuel Cell Technologies Program - Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential.

150

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 * November 2010 3 * November 2010 Electricity Natural Gas Power Heat Natural Gas or Biogas Tri-Generation Fuel Cell Hydrogen Natural Gas Converted to hydrogen on site via steam-methane reforming electrolyzer peak burner heat sink FC SYSTEM + H 2 Renewables H 2 -FC H 2 -storage 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) * Grid electricity (hourly) * Fuel prices * Water price 0 2 4

151

Reducing home heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

STEO October 2012 - home heating supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural gas, propane, and electricity supplies seen plentiful Natural gas, propane, and electricity supplies seen plentiful this winter for U.S. home heating Supplies of the major heating fuels used by most U.S. households are expected to be plentiful this winter, with the possible exception of heating oil, which is consumed mostly by households in the Northeast. Heating oil stocks are expected to be low in the East Coast and Gulf Coast states. And with New York state requiring heating oil with lower sulfur levels for the first time, the heating oil market is expected to be tighter this winter, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. However, U.S. inventories of natural gas, the most common primary heating fuel used by households and a key fuel for electricity generation, is expected to reach 3.9 trillion cubic feet by

153

Computational fluid dynamics analyses of lateral heat conduction, coolant azimuthal mixing and heat transfer predictions in a BR2 fuel assembly geometry.  

SciTech Connect

To support the analyses related to the conversion of the BR2 core from highly-enriched (HEU) to low-enriched (LEU) fuel, the thermal-hydraulics codes PLTEMP and RELAP-3D are used to evaluate the safety margins during steady-state operation (PLTEMP), as well as after a loss-of-flow, loss-of-pressure, or a loss of coolant event (RELAP). In the 1-D PLTEMP and RELAP simulations, conduction in the azimuthal and axial directions is not accounted. The very good thermal conductivity of the cladding and the fuel meat and significant temperature gradients in the lateral directions (axial and azimuthal directions) could lead to a heat flux distribution that is significantly different than the power distribution. To evaluate the significance of the lateral heat conduction, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, using the CFD code STAR-CD, were performed. Safety margin calculations are typically performed for a hot stripe, i.e., an azimuthal region of the fuel plates/coolant channel containing the power peak. In a RELAP model, for example, a channel between two plates could be divided into a number of RELAP channels (stripes) in the azimuthal direction. In a PLTEMP model, the effect of azimuthal power peaking could be taken into account by using engineering factors. However, if the thermal mixing in the azimuthal direction of a coolant channel is significant, a stripping approach could be overly conservative by not taking into account this mixing. STAR-CD simulations were also performed to study the thermal mixing in the coolant. Section II of this document presents the results of the analyses of the lateral heat conduction and azimuthal thermal mixing in a coolant channel. Finally, PLTEMP and RELAP simulations rely on the use of correlations to determine heat transfer coefficients. Previous analyses showed that the Dittus-Boelter correlation gives significantly more conservative (lower) predictions than the correlations of Sieder-Tate and Petukhov. STAR-CD 3-D simulations were performed to compare heat transfer predictions from CFD and the correlations. Section III of this document presents the results of this analysis.

Tzanos, C. P.; Dionne, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

154

Fuel cells for domestic heat and power: are they worth it?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuel cells could substantially decarbonise domestic energy production, but at what cost? It is known that these micro-CHP systems are expensive but actual price data… (more)

Staffell, Iain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

157

Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Industrial Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Kriston P. Brooks (Primary Contact), Siva P. Pilli, Dale A. King Pacific Northwest National Laboratory P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 Phone: (509) 372-4343 Email: kriston.brooks@pnnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Peter Devlin Phone: (202) 586-4905 Email: Peter.Devlin@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-AC05-76RL01830 Subcontractor: ClearEdge Power, Portland, OR Project Start Date: May 2010 Project End Date: September 2012

158

Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel acceptance criteria, the mass of uranium and transuranic elements in spent research reactor fuel must be specified. These data are, however, not always known or readily determined. It is the purpose of this report to provide estimates of these data for some of the more common research reactor fuel assembly types. The specific types considered here are MTR, TRIGA and DIDO fuel assemblies. The degree of physical protection given to spent fuel assemblies is largely dependent upon the photon dose rate of the spent fuel material. These data also, are not always known or readily determined. Because of a self-protecting dose rate level of radiation (dose rate greater than 100 ren-x/h at I m in air), it is important to know the dose rate of spent fuel assemblies at all time. Estimates of the photon dose rate for spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are given in this report.

Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E STIMATES OF EMISSIONS FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL FUEL PRODUCTIONOF EMISSIONS FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL FUEL PRODUCTION PLANTS A.

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Heating oil futures contract now uses ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

162

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of space heating to air conditioning choice; 3) explicitthe presence of central air conditioning, it seems unwise tonot to have central air conditioning. Statistical evidence

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

What is the outlook for home heating fuel prices this winter ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

164

Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the

165

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by using the heat in furnace flue gases to preheat material coming into the furnace to improve combustion.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

level, the choice alternatives are cooling and no cooling.to zero in central cooling alternative Income ($1000) in airalternatives are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given the cooling

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] (

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

treatment emissions from corn/ethanol and wood bio- fuelMulti-modal emissions Corn-ethanol production, energy use:biodiesel fuel cycles, and corn/ ethanol fuel cycles. GHGCH

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices.

171

Number 158 June 1, 2002 Development of technically and economically viable processes for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ODS Alloy Heat Exchangers for Solid-Fuel Thermal Systems A high-efficiency coal-fired power plant and liquefaction, improved power generation and advanced combustion. As these processes evolve to the pilot plant. The power plant was commissioned during the springof1998andhasbeeninoperationsincethen.Allthree headers were

172

Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000şC in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

Dawn Scates

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

174

Status of the US Fuel Cell Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring major programs to develop high efficiency fuel cell technologies to produce electric power from natural gas and other hydrogen sources. Fuel cell systems offer attractive potential for future electric power generation and are expected to have worldwide markets. They offer ultra-high energy conversion efficiency and extremely low environmental emissions. As modular units for distributed power generation, fuel cells are expected to be particularly beneficial where their by-product, heat, can be effectively used in cogeneration applications. Advanced fuel cell power systems fueled with natural gas are expected to be commercially available after the turn of the century.

Williams, M.C.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Heat and mass transfer design issues in PEM fuel cell hardware  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dynamic moisture transport within polymeric electrolytes influences PEM fuel cell performance. Lowering electrolyte moisture content leads to decreased ionic transport rates, and other long term effects including polymer degradation. Results illustrate anode dehydration, the effect of water transport concurrent with the proton flux, is significant in single cells at current densities exceeding 500 ma/cm{sup 2}, and at higher temperatures. Evaporation and condensation to and from the gas phase contribute significantly to the cell thermal flows. Several strategies for successful high current density operation of these devices are presented. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Nguyen, Trung; Hedstrom, J.C.; Vanderborgh, N.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference  

SciTech Connect

The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Geiling, D.W. [ed.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel or power generation (coal, natural gas, fuel oil,generation mix for power used to compress fossil natural gas.power (% of electricity generation [EVs, hydrogen vehicles]) NGL = natural gas

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produced, is estimated as: DCW = AF ? AW ? ( 1+ FGD ) ? ( 1BTU / TM eq. 98 where: DCW = diesel fuel consumed to

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Energy Basics: Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of energy sources, including electricity, boilers, solar energy, and wood and pellet-fuel heating. Small Space Heaters Used when the main heating system is inadequate or when...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A bimodal power and propulsion system based on cermet fuel and heat pipe energy transport  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bimodal space reactor systems provide both thermal propulsion for the spacecraft orbital transfer and electrical power to the spacecraft bus once it is on station. These systems have the potential to increase both the available payload in high energy orbits and the available power to that payload. These increased mass and power capabilities can be used to either reduce mission cost by permitting the use of smaller launch vehicles or to provide increased mission performance from the current launch vehicle. A major barrier to the deployment of these bimodal systems has been the cost associated with their development. This paper describes a bimodal reactor system with performance potential to permit more than 70% of the instrumented payload of the Titan IV/Centaur to be launched from the Atlas IIAS. The development cost is minimized by basing the design on existing component technologies.

Polansky, G.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gunther, N.A. [Gunther (Norman A.), San Jose, CA (United States); Rochow, R.F. [Novatech, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Bixler, C.H. [Bixler (Charles H.), Mannford, OK (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. High-siliocon fuel characterization study: Half module impact tests 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and earth-impact conditions. The evaluations documented in this report are part of an ongoing program to determine the effect of fuel impurities on the response of the heat source to conditions baselined during the Galileo/Ulysses test program. In the first two tests in this series, encapsulated GPHS fuel pellets containing high levels of silicon were aged, loaded into GPHS module halves, and impacted against steel plates. The results show no significant differences between the response of these capsules and the behavior of relatively low-silicon fuel pellets tested previously.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.  

SciTech Connect

Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

Colella, Whitney G.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.  

SciTech Connect

Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

Colella, Whitney G.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Fuel Cells Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for...

186

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provide the world’s uranium enrichment services. With theseenergy efficiency of uranium enrichment, in mWh-enrichment-gas Motor-vehicle flows Uranium enrichment Agriculture Fuel

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maximum, and restricts regenerative energy to be less thanthe extra energy made available by regenerative braking. Theregenerative braking (for fuel-cell vehicles without electro-chemical energy

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

change to “Ethanol, E85 corn, C0/NG50/B50”, where the “B50”on five fuels: RFG, M85, E85, LPG, and CNG. The vehicle wasPM E85 CNG LPG “Off-cycle” emissions,

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of charcoal from biomass combustion (g-CO 2 /bu-crop) WB,Aerosols from biomass combustion have constituents otheris about 0.06) Coke combustion Biomass fuel combustion

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the building below The sun's heat hits the roof surface A non-residential cool roof Coating for a low. These requirements apply only to buildings that are mechanically heated or cooled. What are the minimum requirementswhat is a cool roof? what is the solar reflectance index (sri)? SRI combines SR and TE

Choate, Paul M.

193

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A Review of Recent Energy Price Projections for Traditional Space Heating Fuel 1985-2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to develop an initial estimate of the potential competitiveness of low temperature (45 degrees C to 100 degrees C) geothermal resources on the Eastern Coastal Plain, the Center for Metropolitant Planning and Research of The Johns Hopkins University reviewed and compared available energy price projections. Series of projections covering the post-1985 period have been made by the Energy Information Administration, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and by private research firms. Since low temperature geothermal energy will compete primarily for the space and process heating markets currently held by petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, projected trends in the real prices for these fuels were examined. The spread in the current and in projected future prices for these fuels, which often serve identical end uses, underscores the influence of specific attributes for each type of fuel, such as cleanliness, security of supply, and governmental regulation. Geothermal energy possesses several important attributes in common with electricity (e.g., ease of maintenance and perceived security of supply), and thus the price of electric space heating is likely to be an upper bound on a competitive price for geothermal energy. Competitiveness would, of course, be increased if geothermal heat could be delivered for prices closer to those for oil and natural gas. The projections reviewed suggest that oil and gas prices will rise significantly in real terms over the next few decades, while electricity prices are projected to be more stable. Electricity prices will, however, remain above those for the other two fuels. The significance of this work rests on the fact that, in market economies, prices provide the fundamental signals needed for efficient resource allocation. Although market prices often fail to fully account for factors such as environmental impacts and long-term scarcity value, they nevertheless embody a considerable amount of information and are the primary guideposts for suppliers and consumers.

Weissbrod, Richard; Barron, William

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIKE FUELS DERIVED FROM BIOMASS An Appendix to the Report, “LIKE FUELS DERIVED FROM BIOMASS An Appendix to the Report “AFUEL Transesterified, biomass-derived oil or biodiesel can

Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and residual fuel oils. Distillate fuel oil, the lighter product, is also used for heating of homes and commercial buildings. Residual oil is a much denser, heavier product...

196

Comparison of bounce-averaged quasilinear theory with charge exchange measurements during minority fundamental and majority second harmonic ICRF heating in PLT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous studies in PLT using charge-exchange, edge probe, and fusion product diagnostics all indicate that ICRF tends to produce energetic trapped particles whose banana tips are near the resonance layer. A bounce-averaged quasilinear operator which predicts this ''resonance localization'' has been implemented in a Fokker-Planck code in order to make detailed comparisons with measurements. Good agreement is found with data from the horizontally-scanning, mass-resolving, charge-exchange analyzer, although the RF power profile seems to be broader than expected. We have recently observed a deuterium tail during hydrogen minority heating. The shape of this tail and its scaling with RF power agree well with the quasilinear theory. These measurements indicate that as much as 30% of the central RF power goes into direct second harmonic deuterium heating.

Hammett, G.W.; Colestock, P.L.; Gammel, G.; Goldston, R.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Hwang, D.Q.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Roquemore, L.; Wilson, J.R.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Advanced thermally stable jet fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

Schobert, H.H.

1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Thermally activated heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

This article describes research to develop efficient gas-fired heat pumps heat and cool buildings without CFCs. Space heating and cooling use 46% of all energy consumed in US buildings. Air-conditioning is the single leading cause of peak demand for electricity and is a major user of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Advanced energy conversion technology can save 50% of this energy and eliminate CFCs completely. Besides saving energy, advanced systems substantially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to smog and acid rain. These emissions result from the burning of fossil fuels used to generate electricity. The Office of Building Technologies (OBT) of the US Department of Energy supports private industry`s efforts to improve energy efficiency and increase the use of renewable energy in buildings. To help industry, OBT, through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is currently working on thermally activated heat pumps. OBT has selected the following absorption heat pump systems to develop: generator-absorber heat-exchange (GAX) cycle for heating-dominated applications in residential and light commercial buildings; double-condenser-coupled (DCC) cycle for commercial buildings. In addition, OBT is developing computer-aided design software for investigating the absorption cycle.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilled—making the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms don’t require light, so they can be grown anywhere—inside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Ontario Power Generation's 250 kWe Class Atmospheric Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC): Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study documents the demonstration experiences and lessons learned from a 250 kW solid oxide fuel cell system in a combined heat and power demonstration operating on natural gas. The project was a collaboration initiative between Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) and Ontario Power Generation (OPG) to install and test a first-of-a-kind SOFC system at OPG site in Toronto, Canada. This test and evaluation case study is one of several distributed generation project case studies under res...

2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

203

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

205

Microsoft Word - spent_fuel_nutt.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Decay Heat Decay Heat When a nuclear reactor has been shut down, and nuclear fission is not occurring at a large scale, the major source of heat production will be due to the beta decay of fission fragments. At the moment of reactor shutdown the decay heat is about 6.5% of the previous core power if the reactor has had a long and steady power history. About 1 hour after shutdown, the decay heat will be about 1.5% of the previous core power. After a day, the decay heat falls to 0.4%, and after a week it falls to 0.2%. While there is a large decrease in decay heat after a reactor is shut down, the used nuclear fuel in a reactor core must be continually cooled. This is why all reactors

206

The calculation method of heating and cooling energy saving potential in urban district  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We used to be focus in concerns by taking particulate matters, NOx, VOCs and CO2 emission by combustion of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, crude oil and natural gas. The combustion of these fuels has been a major source of environmental pollution ... Keywords: cooling, electricity, energy, gas, heating, potential, saving

Shin Do Kim; Im Hack Lee; Sung Moon Cheon

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Table SH7. Average Consumption for Space Heating by Main Space ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Fuel Oil (gallons) Main Space Heating Fuel Used (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel as a main heating source) Table SH7.

208

Why don't fuel prices change as quickly as crude oil prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Fuel demand is affected mainly by economic conditions, and for heating oil, the weather. ... How do I calculate diesel fuel surcharges? How do I compare heating fuels?

209

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

FUEL ROD CLUSTERS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

Schultz, A.B.

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 192 Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 192) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Advanced Energy Fund (Ohio) Public Benefits Fund Ohio Commercial Industrial Institutional Residential Utility Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes AlabamaSAVES Revolving Loan Program (Alabama) State Loan Program Alabama Commercial Industrial Institutional Building Insulation Doors Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls

212

Fuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Safety and Grid Interface Direct Fuel Cell Module: FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct Fuel generation of combined heat andcombined heat and power ­Clean Power with natural gas f lfuel ­Renewable Power with biofuels ·Grid connected power generationgeneration ­High Efficiency Grid support

213

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- tions, distributed power generation, and cogeneration (in which excess heat released during electricity the imported petroleum we currently use in our cars and trucks. Why Fuel Cells? Fuel cells directly convert the chemical energy in hydrogen to electricity, with pure water and potentially useful heat as the only

214

Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam reforming processes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) micro combined heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam reforming processes for solid recirculation are used along with steam methane reforming. Further Steam Methane Reforming process produces Cell fueled by natural gas with two different types of pre-reforming systems, namely Steam Reforming

Liso, Vincenzo

215

Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.  

SciTech Connect

Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

Colella, Whitney G.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fuel cell systems multi-year program plan, fiscal years 1995 to 2000  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell power systems are emerging power generation technologies for the efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable production of electricity. In some applications the by-product heat can also be efficiently used in cogeneration. Fuel cells produce electricity through the electrochemical oxidation of a fuel. They can be operated on a variety of fuels, including natural gas, coal gas, land fill gas and renewable fuels. First market entry units are fueled by natural gas. Fuel cells offer the opportunity for a major new manufacturing industry. System studies have shown that fuel cell power plants can be designed with overall system efficiencies in the 50 to 60 percent range (higher heating value basis) (55 to 65 percent on lower heating value basis). Fuel cell power plants are unique in that they offer high efficiency and low emissions even at part-load and in small sizes. Because of their efficiency, fuel cells will help in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Additional benefits are the environmentally desirable operating characteristics offered by fuel cells. Because electricity is produced through an electrochemical reaction rather than by combustion, fuel cells generate very little NO{sub x} and are extremely quiet. This combination of operating characteristics and high efficiency make fuel cells attractive for future electric utility applications. On-site industrial and commercial applications where the by-product heat can be utilized are also attractive. The DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are cooperatively sponsoring the development of fuel cell systems for applications in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Funding of development and demonstration is also provided by fuel cell developers and potential users. This document describes the fuel cell program of the DOE Office of Fossil Energy and its coordination with other fuel cell activities.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weekly residential, wholesale, and spot prices; and production, demand, and stocks of heating fuels. (Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season which extends from October through March. )

Information Center

219

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Fuel ..to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle (Wu et al. Renewableby the heat content of nuclear fuel. In this analysis we use

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

224

SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

Eugene A. Fritzler

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means for containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchange means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchange means; a heat source for heating the primary heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means for releasing heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means including the expansion chamber in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; fuel injection means in fluid communication with the converter means for injecting vaporized alcohol into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine for mixing with air within the cylinders for proper combustion; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the 23 fuel storage means to the primary heat exchanger means, converter means, fuel injector means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

226

Air emissions from residential heating: The wood heating option put into environmental perspective. Report for June 1997--July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contributions of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid precipitation impacts. The major space heating energy options are natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electricity, coal, and wood. Residential wood combustion (RWC) meets 9% of the Nation`s space heating energy needs and utilizes a renewable resource. Wood is burned regularly in about 30 million homes. Residential wood combustion is often perceived as environmentally dirty due to emissions from older wood burners.

Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.; McCrillis, R.C.; Keithley, C.; Crouch, J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thermochemical Fuel Reformer Development Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermochemical Fuel Reforming (TCFR) is the recovery of internal combustion engine exhaust heat to chemically convert natural gas into a higher calorific flow fuel stream containing a significant concentration of hydrogen. This technique of recycling the engine exhaust heat can reduce fuel use (heat rate). In addition, the hydrogen enhanced combustion also allows stable engine operation at a higher air-fuel ratio (leaner combustion) which results in very low NOx production. This interim report covers two...

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

228

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified to recover this heat and convert it to power. The system will then reduce the amount of purchased power by approximately 25% without any additional use of fuel. The cost of this power is virtually unchanged over the life of the project because of the use of capital to displace fuel consumed from the purchased power source.

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood-...

230

California Fuel Cell Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Speaker(s): Bob Knight Date: October 19, 2000 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The California Fuel Cell Partnership is a current collaboration among major automakers, fuel cell...

231

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Investigation of Fuel Cell System Performance and Operation: A Fuel Cell as a Practical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-grade heat from the fuel cell is utilized at the domestic hot water storage tank with a double The low-grade fuel cell heat feeds a heat exchanger to supply domestic hot water requirementsInvestigation of Fuel Cell System Performance and Operation: A Fuel Cell as a Practical Distributed

234

First university owned district heating system using biomass heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

Northern British Columbia, University of

235

EIA/NASEO Winter Fuels Conference - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Heating Fuel Stock Cycles. ... Retail Heating Oil Prices Should Be Lower This Year. Heating Degree-Days. Normal Weather Will Bring Higher Demand. Distillate Production.

236

Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has severely impacted diesel fuel prices, especially in the Northeast. Diesel fuel is bascially the same product as home heating oil. The primary difference is that diesel has a lower sulfur content. When heating oil is in short supply, low sulfur diesel fuel can be diverted to heating oil supply. Thus, diesel fuel prices rise with heating heating oil prices. Retail diesel fuel prices nationally, along with those of most other petroleum prices, increased steadily through most of 1999. But prices in the Northeast jumped dramatically in the third week of January. Diesel fuel prices in New England rose nearly 68 cents per gallon, or 47 percent, between January 17 and February 7. While EIA does not have

237

What's changing in East Coast fuels markets?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. East Coast petroleum product market is undergoing fundamental changes from the standpoint of supply and demand. In addition to the announced idling and potential closure of several major refineries, a number of Northeastern states plan a transition to ultra-low sulfur diesel for heating oil use beginning with New York in the summer of 2012. This article provides an overview of EIA's recent analyses related to East Coast fuels markets.

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

238

HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heptane extract of Euphorbia lathyris has a low oxygen content and a heat valve of 42 MJ/kg which is comparable to that of crude oil (44 MJ/kg). These qualities indicate a potential for use as fuel or chemical feedstock material. Therefore we have investigated the chemical composition of this fraction in some detail. Since the amoun of the methanol fraction is quite substantial we have also identified the major components of this fraction.

Nemethy, E. K.; Otvos, J. W.; Calvin, M.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Fuel Cell 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell 101 Fuel Cell 101 Don Hoffman Don Hoffman Ship Systems & Engineering Research Division March 2011 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fuel Cell Operation * A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical power source * It supplies electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically without combustion. * It is configured like a battery with anode and cathode. * Unlike a battery, it does not run down or require recharging and will produce electricity and will produce electricity, heat and water as long as fuel is supplied. 2H + + 2e - O 2 + 2H + + 2e - 2H 2 O H 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 FUEL FUEL CONTROLS Fuel Cell System HEAT & WATER CLEAN CLEAN EXHAUST EXHAUST

240

HEAT TRANSFER MEANS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Miniature ceramic fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

Heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for reclaiming heat from the discharge gas from a combustion fuel heating unit, which has: inlet and outlet sections; an expansion section whose circumference gradually increases in the direction of flow, thereby providing an increased area for heat transfer; flow splitter plates which lie within and act in conjunction with the expansion section wall to form flow compartments, which flow splitter plates and expansion section wall have a slope, with respect to the centroidal axis of the flow compartment not exceeding 0.1228, which geometry prevents a separation of the flow from the enclosing walls, thereby increasing heat transfer and maintaining the drafting function; and a reduction section which converges the flow to the outlet section.

Horkey, E.J.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

243

High heating oil prices discourage heating oil supply contracts ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA's Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook expects the U.S. home heating oil price will average $3.71 per gallon for the season, ...

244

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: a review of recent energy price projections for traditional space and process heating fuels in the post-1985 period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most recent price projections that have been published for distillate heating fuels, natural gas, and electricity are reviewed. The projections include those made by EIA, DOE, BNL, Foster Associates, and SRI International. Projected distillate prices for 1990 range from Brookhaven's worst case real price of $8.80 per million Btu's to EIA's most optimistic case of $4.10 for that year compared to $6.10 prevailing in September 1979. Natural gas prices projected for 1990 fall within a more narrow band ranging up to $4.50 (Brookhaven's basecase) compared to $4.20 in September 1979. Electricity prices projected for 1990 range to $17.00 per million Btu's compared to the September 1979 average price of $15.50. Regional price differentials show the Northeast paying above national average prices for oil, natural gas, and electricity. The West enjoys the lowest energy price levels overall. Oil prices are relatively uniform across the country, while natural gas and electricity prices may vary by more than 50% from one region to another.

Barron, W.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

2009 Fuel Cell Market Report  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

246

PreHeat: controlling home heating using occupancy prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more efficiently heat homes by using occupancy sensing and occupancy prediction to automatically control home heating. We deployed PreHeat in five homes, three in the ... Keywords: energy, environment, home heating, prediction, sensing

James Scott; A.J. Bernheim Brush; John Krumm; Brian Meyers; Michael Hazas; Stephen Hodges; Nicolas Villar

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Willamina Project Report : Indirect-Fired, Biomass-Fueled, Combined-Cycle, Gas Turbine Power Plant Using a Ceramic Heat Exchanger. Volume 1. Conceptual Plant Design and Analysis. Final report. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

A new technology for a wood-fueled electrical generation plant was evaluated. The proposed plant utilizes an indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT) using a ceramic heat exchanger for high efficiency, due to its high temperature capability. The proposed plant utilizes a wood-fueled furnace with a ceramic heat exchanger to heat compressed air for a gas turbine. The configuration proposed is a combined cycle power plant that can produce 6 to 12 MW, depending upon the amount of wood used to supplementally fire a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which in turn powers a steam turbine. Drawings, specifications, and cost estimates based on a combined cycle analysis and wood-fired HRSG were developed. The total plant capital cost was estimated to be $13.1 million ($1640/kW). The heat rate for a 8-MW plant was calculated to be 10,965 Btu/kW when using wood residues with a 42% moisture content. Levelized electric energy costs were estimated to be 6.9 cents/kWh.

F.W. Braun Engineers.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

249

Integrated fuel processor development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed.

Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

250

Spent Fuel Pool Accident Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent fuel pools (SFPs) at nuclear reactor sites contain used fuel assemblies, control rods, used radioactive sources, and used instrumentation. Cooling of the used fuel is required to remove the decay heat generated by radioactive decay.BackgroundThe SFPs include heat removal systems to provide methods to cool the used fuel and inventory makeup systems as backup methods to preserve water inventory if the SFP cooling system is ineffective. These two methods ...

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

251

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ago to 3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil...

252

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

253

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

2009 Winter Fuels Outlook Conference  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Billion cubic feet Normal range Propane fuel bills expected to fall in all regions ... U.S. heating oil retail price forecast to average about the ...

256

Heat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Bottom-up R&D study financed by the district heating consumers · Prepared by an independent team increase of district heating · optimal zoning of district heating and natural gas networks based on overall · district heating shifts from fossil fuel boilers to CHP and renewable energy · This legislation ensures

257

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Fossil Fuels 6,7: ... 7 The fossil-fuels heat rate is used as the thermal conversion factor for ... approximate the quantity of fossil fuels replaced by these ...

258

Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell , Numerical Heat Transferof Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Using a Two-EquationExchange Membrane Fuel Cells 2. Absolute Permeability ,

Weber, Adam Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

Howell, Thomas Russell

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

260

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The active microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

BWR Fuel Crud Characteristics and Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excessive crud deposition on fuel rods can degrade heat transfer, and therefore fuel performance in light water reactors. Utilities have reported heavy crud deposition and crud-induced fuel failures in some BWRs. The EPRI Fuel Reliability Program (FRP) has funded several inspection campaigns to evaluate how changes in water chemistry, fuel design, and operational conditions impact fuel crud characteristics and performance. The extent of buildup and characteristics of crud on fuel rod surfaces correlates,...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

262

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

265

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the cost and increasing the performance of fuel cell propulsion systems, and most major vehicle manufacturers are geared to launch fuel cell electric vehicles in the U.S. market...

266

Use advisability of heat pumps for building heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the actual economic and energetic juncture, the reduction of thermal energy consumption in buildings became a major, necessary and opportune problem, general significance. The heat pumps are alternative heating installations more energy efficiency ... Keywords: "Geoterm" system, building heating/cooling, energy and economic analysis, heat pump performances, heat pumps, renewable energy sources

Ioan Sârbu; C?lin Sebarchievici

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC products development has been carried out under a joint public-private effort with DOE being the major contributor. Current funding is primarily under a Cooperative Agreement with DOE.

H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

268

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

system-efficiency Go system-efficiency Go Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1ox6tpc Average Annual Fuel Use of Major Vehicle Categories Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1ox6tpc Comparison of fuel use, miles traveled, and fuel economy among vehicle types Last update April 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1fnxsdr Average Per-Passenger Fuel Economy of Various Travel Modes Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1fnxsdr Comparison of per-passenger fuel economy for various modes of transportation. Last update April 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Average Annual Fuel Use of Major Vehicle Categories Class 8 Truck Transit Bus Refuse Truck Para. Shuttle Taxi Delivery Truck School Bus Police Light Truck Light-Duty Vehicle Car Motorcycle Annual Fuel Use (GGE) 11500 10063 9876.738 2695 3392 1814 1896.33375 1423.474 853.56725 528.8785 459.4805 33

269

Laser ablation based fuel ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cold start characteristics of ethanol as an automobile fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alcohol fuel burner and decomposer in which one stream of fuel is preheated by passing it through an electrically heated conduit to vaporize the fuel, the fuel vapor is mixed with air, the air-fuel mixture is ignited and combusted, and the combustion gases are passed in heat exchange relationship with a conduit carrying a stream of fuel to decompose the fuel forming a fuel stream containing hydrogen gas for starting internal combustion engines, the mass flow of the combustion gas being increased as it flows in heat exchange relationship with the fuel carrying conduit, is disclosed.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom, Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Development of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 250 kW External Fuel Processor was developed and tested that will supply the gases needed by a pipeline natural gas fueled, solid oxide fuel cell during all modes of operation. The fuel processor consists of three major subsystems--a desulfurizer to remove fuel sulfur to an acceptable level, a synthesis gas generator to support plant heat-up and low load fuel cell operations, and a start gas generator to supply a non-flammable, reducing gas to the fuel cell during startup and shutdown operations. The desulfurization subsystem uses a selective catalytic sulfur oxidation process that was developed for operation at elevated pressure and removes the fuel sulfur to a total sulfur content of less than 80 ppbv. The synthesis gas generation subsystem uses a waterless, catalytic partial oxidation reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich mixture from the natural gas and air. An operating window was defined that allows carbon-free operation while maintaining catalyst temperatures that will ensure long-life of the reactor. The start gas subsystem generates an oxygen-free, reducing gas from the pipeline natural gas using a low-temperature combustion technique. These physically and thermally integrated subsystems comprise the 250 kW External Fuel Processor. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was tested at the Rolls-Royce facility in North Canton, Ohio to verify process performance and for comparison with design specifications. A step wise operation of the automatic controls through the startup, normal operation and shutdown sequences allowed the control system to be tuned and verified. A fully automated system was achieved that brings the fuel processor through its startup procedure, and then await commands from the fuel cell generator module for fuel supply and shutdown. The fuel processor performance met all design specifications. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was shipped to an American Electric Power site where it will be tested with a Rolls-Royce solid oxide fuel cell generator module.

Daniel Birmingham; Crispin Debellis; Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

272

State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

Elder, Betsy

2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

273

Equilibrium Modeling of Combined Heat and Power deployment in Philadelphia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combined heat and power (CHP) generates electricity and heat from the same fuel source and can provide these services at higher equivalent conversion efficiency relative… (more)

Govindarajan, Anand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fuel cell gas management system  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

275

Traditional vs. alternative energy house heating source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article discusses the economic analysis of two different heating systems. The first uses fossil fuel (Liquidized naphtha gas- LNG) to heat the building and domestic hot water. The second uses geothermal energy to do the same job. In both systems ... Keywords: borehole heat exchanger, economic analysis, geothermal energy, heat pump, heating system, net present value

S. Poberžnik; D. Goricanec; J. Krope

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the following heat transfer processes: conduction throughtudes of the major heat transfer processes in a typical room

Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Diesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power units for heavy-duty vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper explores the potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) as 3--10 kW auxiliary power units for trucks and military vehicles operating on diesel fuel. It discusses the requirements and specifications for such units, and the advantages, challenges, and development issues for SOFCS used in this application. Based on system design and analysis, such systems should achieve efficiencies approaching 40% (lower heating value), with a relatively simple system configuration. The major components of such a system are the fuel cell stack, a catalytic autothermal reformer, and a spent gas burner/air preheater. Building an SOFC-based auxiliary power unit is not straightforward, however, and the tasks needed to develop a 3--10 kW brassboard demonstration unit are outlined.

Krause, T.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 8. Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings Using Any Energy Source","Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,65753,65716,45525,13285,5891,2750,6290,2322 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,6309,6280,3566,620,"Q","Q",635,292 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7721,7721,5088,583,"Q","Q",986,"Q"

279

A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

LITZKE,W.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transportation Fuels Incentives Transportation Fuels Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 30 Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 30) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alternative Energy Bond Fund Program (Illinois) State Grant Program Illinois Commercial Industrial Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Photovoltaics Landfill Gas Wind energy Biomass Hydroelectric energy Renewable Transportation Fuels Geothermal Electric No Alternative Fuel Transportation Grant Program (Indiana) State Grant Program Indiana Commercial Nonprofit Local Government Renewable Transportation Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Fuel Cells No Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversion Rebate Program (Arkansas) State Rebate Program Arkansas Transportation Renewable Transportation Fuels No

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

Shackleford, M.H.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

282

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts  

SciTech Connect

Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850şC at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05).

K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Haptic Seat for Fuel Ecomony  

and fuel consumption.  The majority of the current systems are visual providing data on an already crowded instrument cluster.  In order to realize ...

284

The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using the regression analysis method. It also calculated the economization of the fuel, introduced the methods of economizing fuel and, made an assessment on it.

Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Number 157 April 1, 2002 Development of technically and economically viable processes for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and refurbishment also can require extended periods, both of which are commercially unacceptable for cyclic (two large volumes of condensate form in superheater elements while the plant is being gas purged or is shut as they develop, and to allow preventive maintenance. One cause of the formation of condensate is the loss of heat

286

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.  

SciTech Connect

This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2003-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

287

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.  

SciTech Connect

This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2003-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

289

Fuel Cells publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells » Fuel Cells Publications Fuel Cells publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Chemistry Communications Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

290

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

291

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Heat transfer dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and mass transfer are reviewed with emphasis on the basics, so a practical understanding of each is gained. Finally, the principles and benefits of generating infrared energy by combusting a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel are explained.

Smith, T.M. (Marsden, Inc., Pennsauken, NJ (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

294

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Fuel Cells Energy Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen DOE Hydrogen and and Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting Fuel Cell Coordination Meeting June 2-3, 2003 Electricity Users Kathi Epping Kathi Epping Objectives & Barriers Distributed Energy OBJECTIVES * Develop a distributed generation PEM fuel cell system operating on natural gas or propane that achieves 40% electrical efficiency and 40,000 hours durability at $400-750/kW by 2010. BARRIERS * Durability * Heat Utilization * Power Electronics * Start-Up Time Targets and Status Integrated Stationary PEMFC Power Systems Operating on Natural Gas or Propane Containing 6 ppm Sulfur 40,000 30,000 15,000 Hours Durability 750 1,250 2,500 $/kWe Cost 40 32 30 % Electrical Efficiency Large (50-250 kW) Systems 40,000 30,000 >6,000 Hours Durability 1,000 1,500 3,000

295

Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSE Inc. recently completed the design, construction and start-up of a cogeneration plant in which waste heat in the high temperature flue gases of three existing coke calcining kilns is recovered to produce process steam and electrical energy. The heat previously exhausted to the atmosphere is now converted to steam by waste heat recovery boilers. Eighty percent of the steam produced is metered for sale to a major oil refinery, while the remainder passes through a steam turbine generator and is used for deaeration and feedwater heating. The electricity produced is used for the plant auxiliaries and sold to the local utility. Many design concepts were incorporated into the plant which provided for high plant availability, reliability and energy efficiency. This paper will show how these concepts were implemented and incorporated into the detailed design of the plant while making cogeneration a cost effective way to save conventional fuels. Operating data since plant start-up will also be presented.

Coles, R. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While conventional heat pump water heater designs are limited to using toxic ammonia water ...

297

Phantom Power: The Status of Fuel Cell Technology Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cells have been touted as one of the most reliable and environmentally sound methods of producing high-quality electricity for use in the industrial sector. Fuel cell developers are racing to produce larger quantities of fuel cells at lower prices. While the power densities of fuel-cell stacks have been increasing, fuel cell technologies have unfortunately remained uneconomical for the majority of industrial customers. The growth of the fuel cell market has not increased at the rate at which developers and marketers would like us to believe. With stricter federal air regulations coming into effect in 2007 and more urban/industrial areas falling into non-attainment for pollutants such as NOx operators of distributed generation systems may begin to consider fuel cells a more viable option. In this paper we will explore the potential of various fuel cell technologies for providing on-site generation at industrial facilities. Our analysis will include brief technical descriptions of the various fuel cell technologies as well as a description of applicable end-use applications for the various technologies. We will determine which technologies hold the most potential for providing reliable power and heat for processes as well as estimates of technically and economically feasible industrial fuel cell capacity between now and 2020. The manufacturing service infrastructure, technical and market barriers to increased demand, and regulatory, permitting, and siting issues will be explored. We will outline the various factors that play in the technical and economic diffusion and offer sample diffusion curves for the various fuel cell technologies.

Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Heating and cooling your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home -- typically making up about 54% of your

299

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

to 3.95 per gallon. That's down 8-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil...

300

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Secondary fuel delivery system  

SciTech Connect

A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

302

Handbook of fuel cell performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Alternative Fuels Data Center - Fuel Properties Comparison  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuels Data Center - Fuel Properties Comparison Fuels Data Center - Fuel Properties Comparison www.afdc.energy.gov 1 2/27/2013 Gasoline Diesel (No. 2) Biodiesel Propane (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Ethanol Methanol Hydrogen Electricity Chemical Structure C 4 to C 12 C 8 to C 25 Methyl esters of C 12 to C 22 fatty acids C 3 H 8 (majority) and C 4 H 10 (minority) CH 4 (83-99%), C 2 H 6 (1-13%) CH 4 CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 OH H 2 N/A Fuel Material (feedstocks) Crude Oil Crude Oil Fats and oils from sources such as soy beans, waste cooking oil, animal fats, and rapeseed A by-product of petroleum refining or natural gas processing Underground reserves Underground reserves Corn, grains, or

304

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

than 50 kW; do not restrict fuel choice o Combined heat and power applications maximize SOFC benefit of high grade waste heat o Critical and remote power are good early market...

305

1999-2000 Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

supplies of space-heating fuels are expected to be more than adequate to meet winter demand. ... Residential Heating Oil Prices: Weather Scenarios $0.00 $0.20 $0.40 $ ...

306

New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

307

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Fouling reduction characteristics of a no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger for flue gas heat recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conventional flue gas heat recovery systems, the fouling by fly ashes and the related problems such as corrosion and cleaning are known to be major drawbacks. To overcome these problems, a single-riser no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger is devised and studied. Fouling and cleaning tests are performed for a uniquely designed fluidized bed-type heat exchanger to demonstrate the effect of particles on the fouling reduction and heat transfer enhancement. The tested heat exchanger model (1 m high and 54 mm internal diameter) is a gas-to-water type and composed of a main vertical tube and four auxiliary tubes through which particles circulate and transfer heat. Through the present study, the fouling on the heat transfer surface could successfully be simulated by controlling air-to-fuel ratios rather than introducing particles through an external feeder, which produced soft deposit layers with 1 to 1.5 mm thickness on the inside pipe wall. Flue gas temperature at the inlet of heat exchanger was maintained at 450{sup o}C at the gas volume rate of 0.738 to 0.768 CMM (0.0123 to 0.0128 m{sup 3}/sec). From the analyses of the measured data, heat transfer performances of the heat exchanger before and after fouling and with and without particles were evaluated. Results showed that soft deposits were easily removed by introducing glass bead particles, and also heat transfer performance increased two times by the particle circulation. In addition, it was found that this type of heat exchanger had high potential to recover heat of waste gases from furnaces, boilers, and incinerators effectively and to reduce fouling related problems.

Jun, Y.D.; Lee, K.B.; Islam, S.Z.; Ko, S.B. [Kongju National University, Kong Ju (Republic of Korea). Dept. for Mechanical Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fuel cell system combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nuclear fuel element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross (Deep River, CA); Bain, Alastair Stewart (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

last week to 3.92 per gallon. That's down 11 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for...

313

Residential heating oil prices increase  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

last week to 3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for...

314

Home Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

by automatically setting back your thermostat when you are asleep or away. Read more Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and...

315

national average for heating oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane Missouri North Dakota X South Dakota TOTAL List of States included on Winter Heating Fuels Survey (SHOPP) Release date: January 2012 22.00 24.00. Author: MRO

316

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

317

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

318

Heating oils, 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Properties of 195 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The fuels were manufactured by 25 petroleum refining companies in 83 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuels are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1983 are compared with data for 1982. 7 figures, 12 tables.

Shelton, E.M.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

HTR Fuel Development in Europe  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

Languille, Alain [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance BP1 (France); Conrad, R. [CEC/JRC/IE Petten (Netherlands); Guillermier, P. [Framatome-ANP/ Lyon (France); Nabielek, H. [FZJ/Juelich (Germany); Bakker, K. [NRG/Petten (Netherlands); Abram, T. [BNFL UK (United Kingdom); Haas, D. [JRC/ITU/Karlsruhe (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Internships for Physics Majors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fermilab's IPM program offers ten-week summer internships to outstanding undergraduate physics majors. This program has been developed to familiarize students with opportunities at the frontiers of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity and volumetric heat capacity . 3.1.1.2 HydrogenBottom: volumetric heat capacity of the U 0.31 ZrH x fuel asThe volumetric heat capacity has the same dependencies;

Terrani, Kurt Amir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel cells also produce high quality heat. This is often captured and used for cogeneration (also called combined heat and power, or CHP), where the heat is used for facility...

323

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

324

Definition: District heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District heat District heat Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png District heat A heating system that uses steam or hot water produced outside of a building (usually in a central plant) and piped into the building as an energy source for space heating, hot water or another end use.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating. The heat is often obtained from a cogeneration plant burning fossil fuels but increasingly biomass, although heat-only boiler stations, geothermal heating and central solar heating are also used, as well as nuclear power. District heating plants can provide higher efficiencies and better

325

Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

327

Home heating system  

SciTech Connect

A home heating system is disclosed that has a furnace with a combustion chamber for burning fuel and creating heat, and a chimney with a draft therein. An improvement is described that has an exhaust flue connected between the combustion chamber and the chimney for venting heated exhaust products from the furnace, a heat reclaimer connected into the exhaust flue between the combustion chamber and the chimney for reclaiming heat from the heated exhaust product, and an outside air line for supplying air from the outside of the house to the combustion chamber. A first flue portion of the exhaust flue is connected between the combustion chamber and the heat reclaimer, and a second insulated flue portion of the exhaust flue is connected between the heat reclaimer and the chimney. An outside air by-pass or balancing line is connected between the outside air line and the chimney for satisfying the chimney suction at flame-out. A flow sensing and regulating device may be connected into the outside air line for regulating the flow or air so that outside air is supplied to the furnace only when fuel is burned therein.

Bellaff, L.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop  

SciTech Connect

The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" 7. Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings Using Any Energy Source","Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",4657,4403,4395,2670,434,117,50,451,153 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,2193,2186,1193,220,"Q","Q",215,93 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,1036,1036,684,74,"Q","Q",124,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,689,688,448,65,24,"Q",74,19

330

Fuel heater thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermostat is described for fuel heaters wherein the fuel is heated by engine coolant and the thermostat comprises: a temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of fuel in the fuel heater, the temperature sensing means in contacting relation with the first end of a coolant flow restricting piston, the piston having a second end in contacting relation with a pressure means wherein the temperature sensing means and the pressure means assert opposing forces against the piston and the piston in response to an increase in force from the temperature sensing means will restrict the flow of coolant through the fuel heater, and the piston further having a bleed port therein to allow coolant to flow to the first and second ends of the piston.

Ray, D.A.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

331

Integrated fuel processor development challenges.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the absence of a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, the success of the fuel cell system in the market will depend on fuel processors to enable the use of available fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, etc. The fuel processor includes several catalytic reactors, scrubbers to remove chemical species that can poison downstream catalysts or the fuel cell electrocatalyst, and heat exchangers. Most fuel cell power applications seek compact, lightweight hardware with rapid-start and load- following capabilities. Although packaging can partially address the size and volume, balancing the performance parameters while maintaining the fuel conversion (to hydrogen) efficiency requires careful integration of the unit operations and processes. Argonne National Laboratory has developed integrated fuel processors that are compact and light, and that operate efficiently. This paper discusses some of the difficulties encountered in the development process, focusing on the factors/components that constrain performance, and areas that need further research and development.

Ahmed, S.; Pereira, Lee, S. H. D.; Kaun, T.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

332

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biogas to someone by Biogas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biogas on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Renewable Natural Gas (Biogas) Biogas-also known as biomethane, swamp gas, landfill gas, or digester gas-is the gaseous product of anaerobic digestion (decomposition without oxygen) of organic matter. In addition to providing electricity and heat, biogas is useful as a vehicle fuel. When processed to purity standards,

333

Section 5.3.1 Heat-Recovery Water Heating: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat pumps, chillers, steam condensate lines, hot air associated with kitchen and laundry facilities, power-generation equipment (such as microturbines or fuel cells), and...

334

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity (e.g. , fuel oil for home heating; gasoline forthan does oil used for home heating (different commodity,derived from crude oil, such as home heating fuel. a) to f)

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity (e.g. , fuel oil for home heating; gasoline forthan does oil used for home heating (different commodity,derived from crude oil, such as home heating fuel. a) to f)

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Heat pipe heat amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In a heat pipe combination consisting of a common condenser section with evaporator sections at either end, two working fluids of different vapor pressures are employed to effectively form two heat pipe sections within the same cavity to support an amplifier mode of operation.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels OutlookWinter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home heating oil retail price includes taxes. 16 Source: EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2012 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 10, 2012.

338

What are projected diesel fuel prices for 2013 and for 2014? - FAQ ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, ... Why don't fuel prices change as quickly as crude oil prices? Why has diesel fuel been more expensive than gasoline?

339

Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives were to establish the engine model for simulation and then apply the model to study the biodiesel fueled engine and compare it to a petroleum-fueled engine. The engine model was developed corresponding to a 4.5 liter, John Deere 4045 four-cylinder diesel engine. Submodels for flow in intake/exhaust system, fuel injection, fuel vaporization and combustion, cylinder heat transfer, and energy transfer in a turbocharging system were combined with a thermodynamic analysis of the engine to yield instantaneous in-cylinder parameters and overall engine performance and emission characteristics. At selected engine operating conditions, sensitivities of engine performance and emission on engine load/speed, injection timing, injection pressure, EGR level, and compression ratio were investigated. Variations in cylinder pressure, ignition delay, bsfc, and indicated specific nitrogen dioxide were determined for both a biodiesel fueled engine and a conventional diesel fueled engine. Cylinder pressure and indicated specific nitrogen dioxide for a diesel fueled engine were consistently higher than those for a biodiesel fueled engine, while ignition delay and bsfc had opposite trends. In addition, numerical study focusing on NOx emission were also investigated by using 5 different NO kinetics. Differences in NOx prediction between kinetics ranged from 10% to 65%.

Zheng, Junnian

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Use Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

342

Field Performance of Heat Recovery Chillers and Heat Recovery Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat recovery chillers and heat recovery heat pumps operate at high efficiency and excellent economy by simultaneously providing both heating and cooling. Although this technology has been in use for more than thirty years and all major chiller manufacturers offer heat recovery models, applications are not yet widespread. One of the barriers to using this technology is the lack of measured performance information on the devices. This project was undertaken to identify and summarize existing sources of pe...

1994-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

343

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Abdellatif M. Yacout Argonne National Laboratory Nuclear Engineering Division The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex system with multiple components and activities that are combined to provide nuclear energy to a variety of end users. The end uses of nuclear energy are diverse and include electricity, process heat, water desalination, district heating, and possibly future hydrogen production for transportation and energy storage uses. Components of the nuclear fuel cycle include front end components such as uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, and the reactor component. Back end of the fuel cycle include used fuel coming out the reactor, used fuel temporary and permanent storage, and fuel reprocessing. Combined with those components there

344

EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels OutlookWinter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

heating oil electricity South U.S. total wood kerosene/other/no heating 116 million homes 4 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 8, 2013

345

Radiant Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat...

346

STEO October 2012 - home heating use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Last year's warm U.S. winter temperatures to give way to Last year's warm U.S. winter temperatures to give way to normal, increasing household heating fuel use U.S. households will likely burn more heating fuels to stay warm this winter compared with last year Average household demand for natural gas, the most common primary heating fuel, is expected to be up 14 percent this winter, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. Demand for electricity will be up 8 percent. And demand for heating oil, used mainly in the Northeast, is expected to be 17 percent higher with propane, used mostly in rural areas, also up 17 percent. The primary reason for the boost in heating fuel demand is weather, which is expected to be 20 to 27 percent colder than last winter's unusually warm temperatures in regions of the country

347

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

348

Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Heat pipe reactors for space power applications  

SciTech Connect

A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kW(e) and operate in the temperature range 1200 to 1700/sup 0/K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO/sub 2/. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor.

Koenig, D.R.; Ranken, W.A.; Salmi, E.W.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Kevin Drost (Primary Contact), Goran Jovanovic, Vinod Narayanan, Brian Paul School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Rogers Hall Oregon State University (OSU) Corvallis, OR 97331 Phone: (541) 713-1344 Email: Kevin.Drost@oregonstate.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-09GO19005 Project Start Date: February 1, 2009 Project End Date: June 30, 2014 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Use microchannel processing techniques to: Demonstrate reduction in size and weight of hydrogen * storage systems. Improve charge/and discharge rates of hydrogen storage *

355

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This specification establishes the requirements for a /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source. (LCL)

Not Available

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Development program for the high-temperature nuclear process heat system  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive development program plan for a high-temperature nuclear process heat system with a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor heat source is presented. The system would provide an interim substitute for fossil-fired sources and ultimately the vehicle for the production of substitute and synthetic fuels to replace petroleum and natural gas. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system has significant potential in a unique combination of the two sources that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound: the production of synthetic fuels from coal. In the longer term, it could be the key component in hydrogen production from water processes that offer a substitute fuel and chemical feedstock free of dependence on fossil-fuel reserves. The proposed development program is threefold: a process studies program, a demonstration plant program, and a supportive research and development program. Optional development scenarios are presented and evaluated, and a selection is proposed and qualified. The interdependence of the three major program elements is examined, but particular emphasis is placed on the supportive research and development activities. A detailed description of proposed activities in the supportive research and development program with tentative costs and schedules is presented as an appendix with an assessment of current status and planning. (auth)

Jiacoletti, R.J.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

Heckman, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Moss, Marvin (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Low Level Heat Recovery Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With today's high fuel prices, energy conservation projects to utilize low level waste heat have become more attractive. Exxon Chemical Company Central Engineering has been developing guidelines and assessing the potential for application of low level heat recovery technology. This paper discusses heat distribution systems, latest developments in absorption refrigeration and organic Rankine cycles, and pressure, minimization possibilities. The relative merits and economics of the various possibilities and some guidelines on when they should be considered will be presented.

O'Brien, W. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

2011 Heat Rate Improvement Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rising cost of fuel and the strong possibility of CO2 emissions regulations and limitations in the near future, utilities and power generation companies are focusing on power plant heat rate and performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 17th Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist attendees in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and sustaining heat rate improve...

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Table CE2-3c. Space-Heating Energy Consumption in U.S. Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Physical Units (PU) per Household4,a Physical Units of Space-Heating Consumption per Household,3 Where the Main Space-Heating Fuel Is:

362

Table CE2-7c. Space-Heating Energy Consumption in U.S. Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Physical Units (PU) per Household3,a Physical Units of Space-Heating Consumption per Household,2 Where the Main Space-Heating Fuel Is:

363

Table CE2-12c. Space-Heating Energy Consumption in U.S. Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Physical Units (PU) per Household3,a Physical Units of Space-Heating Consumption per Household,2 Where the Main Space-Heating Fuel Is:

364

Table CE2-4c. Space-Heating Energy Consumption in U.S. Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Physical Units (PU) per Household3,a Physical Units of Space-Heating Consumption per Household,2 Where the Main Space-Heating Fuel Is:

365

Table CE2-7c. Space-Heating Energy Consumption in U.S. Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Physical Units (PU) per Household3 Physical Units of Space-Heating Consumption per Household,2 Where the Main Space-Heating Fuel Is:

366

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

368

Winter fuels report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

Not Available

1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

369

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

370

Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

11 Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. 4 Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, and waste oil. 12 Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants.

371

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Digg

372

Efficiency of a hybrid-type plasma-assisted fuel reformation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major advantages of a new plasma-assisted fuel reformation system are its cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. Applied Plasma Technologies has proposed its new highly efficient hybrid-type plasma-assisted system for organic fuel combustion and gasification. The system operates as a multimode multipurpose reactor in a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turndown ratios. This system also has convenient and simultaneous feeding of several reagents in the reaction zone such as liquid fuels, coal, steam, and air. A special methodology has been developed for such a system in terms of heat balance evaluation and optimization. This methodology considers all existing and possible energy streams, which could influence the system's efficiency. The developed hybrid-type plasma system could be suitable for combustion applications, mobile and autonomous small- to mid-size liquid fuel and coal gasification modules, hydrogen-rich gas generators, waste-processing facilities, and plasma chemical reactors.

Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I.; Lux, S.M. [Applied Plasma Technologies, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ... Applied Mathematics Biomedical Sciences Computer Science Undergraduate Research Internships and Cooperative Education (Co-op) (optional) Study Abroad WHY IMAGING SCIENCE Science: BS, MS, PhD Color Science: MS, PhD BS + MS/PhD Combos HUMAN VISION BIO- MEDICAL ASTRO- PHYSICS

Zanibbi, Richard

374

Fuel Reformation: Microchannel Reactor Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel processing is used to extract hydrogen from conventional vehicle fuel and allow fuel cell powered vehicles to use the existing petroleum fuel infrastructure. Kilowatt scale micro-channel steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxida-tion reactors have been developed capable of achieving DOE required system performance metrics. Use of a microchannel design effectively supplies heat to the highly endothermic steam reforming reactor to maintain high conversions, controls the temperature profile for the exothermic water gas shift reactor, which optimizes the overall reaction conversion, and removes heat to prevent the unwanted hydrogen oxidation in the prefer-ential oxidation reactor. The reactors combined with micro-channel heat exchangers, when scaled to a full sized 50 kWe automotive system, will be less than 21 L in volume and 52 kg in weight.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Davis, James M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydrogen as a fuel  

SciTech Connect

A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Climate Change Fuel Cell Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 200 kW, natural gas fired fuel cell was installed at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the financial and operational suitability of retrofit fuel cell technology at a medium sized college. Target audience was design professionals and the wider community, with emphasis on use in higher education. ''Waste'' heat from the fuel cell was utilized to supplement boiler operations and provide domestic hot water. Instrumentation was installed in order to measure the effectiveness of heat utilization. It was determined that 26% of the available heat was captured during the first year of operation. The economics of the fuel cell is highly dependent on the prices of electricity and natural gas. Considering only fuel consumed and energy produced (adjusted for boiler efficiency), the fuel cell saved $54,000 in its first year of operation. However, taking into account the price of maintenance and the cost of financing over the short five-year life span, the fuel cell operated at a loss, despite generous subsidies. As an educational tool and market stimulus, the fuel cell attracted considerable attention, both from design professionals and the general public.

Alice M. Gitchell

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. How Fuel Cells Work Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode (or anode) and a positive electrode (or cathode)-sandwiched around an electrolyte. A fuel, such as hydrogen, is fed to the anode, and air is fed to the cathode. Activated by a catalyst, hydrogen atoms separate into protons and electrons, which take different paths to the cathode. The electrons go through an external circuit, creating a flow of electricity. The protons

379

State heating oil and propane program, 1994--1995 heating season. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Propane prices and No. 2 fuel prices during the 1994-1995 heating season are tabulated for the state of Ohio. Nineteen companies were included in the telephone survey of propane prices, and twenty two companies for the fuel oil prices. A bar graph is also presented for average residential prices of No. 2 heating oil.

NONE

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

380

Retrofits for Improved Heat Rate and Availability: Circulating Water Heat Recovery Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating water heat recovery is a means of directly increasing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. If only fuel savings are considered, the economic benefit is often only marginal. However, when increased megawatt output and heat-rate improvements are included in the economic analysis, such retrofits can be attractive, with break-even fuel costs sometimes approaching $1/million Btu.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effect Of Alternative Fuels On Aftertreatment Device.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON THE AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE. by BUNPREET SINGH Dec 2010 Advisor: Dr. Dinu Taraza Major: Mechanical Engineering Degree: Master of Science… (more)

Singh, Bunpreet

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Clean Energy: Fuel Cells, Batteries, Renewables - Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Major areas of rapid advancement include fuel cells, wind, solar, and geothermal ... Hot Section Corrosion Issues in Microturbines Operating on B100 Bio-Diesel.

383

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption Reduction for New Construction and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings -- Docket No....

384

Fuels Technology - Capabilities - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Capabilities Fuels Technology Advanced petroleum-based fuels Fuel-borne reductants On-board reforming Alternative fuels...

385

An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.

Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. (General Sciences, Inc., Souderton, PA (United States)); Marston, C.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States))

1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

386

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions

387

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Motor Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle

388

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Biogas - future fuel for power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current fuel cells mix natural gas with steam to release hydrogen, which enters the fuel cell and combines with oxygen in the air. This formation of water is a chemical reaction which releases energy and heat. SMUD already has two 200 kw fuel cells in operation. SMUD`s desire to use alternative and renewable fuel sources is prompting research into using biogas as a cogenerator.

NONE

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the cost and increasing the performance of fuel cell propulsion systems, and most major vehicle manufacturers are geared to launch FCEVs in the U.S. market between 2015 and 2020....

391

Heat Management Strategy Trade Study  

SciTech Connect

This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Promotion The Missouri Alternative Fuels Commission (Commission) promotes the continued production and use of alternative transportation fuels in

393

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The definition of an alternative fuel includes natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, hydrogen, fuel mixtures containing not less

394

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fueling Stations Photo of an ethanol fueling station. Thousands of ethanol fueling stations are available in the United States.

395

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Fueling Stations Photo of a hydrogen fueling station. A handful of hydrogen fueling stations are available in the United States

396

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a biodiesel fueling station. Hundreds of biodiesel fueling stations are available in the United States.

397

A Consumer's Guide: Heat Your Water with the Sun (Brochure)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel, a solar water heater can be more economi- cal over the life of the system than heating water with electricity, fuel oil, propane, or even natural gas. That's because the...

398

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation Following the fuel cell funding announcement, DOE funded the fuel cell market transformation projects listed below. These projects focus on fuel cell systems in emergency backup power, material handling, and combined heat and power applications, with the goal of improving the potential of fuel cells to provide power in stationary, portable, and specialty vehicles. The Fuel Cell Technologies Office is collecting and analyzing data from these projects to show potential adopters the benefits and real-world performance of fuel cells. These data are aggregated across industries and sites as composite data products to provide relevant technology status results and fuel cell performance data without revealing proprietary information. These publicly available data products build the business case for fuel cells and help fuel cell developers understand the state of technologies while identifying ways to improve them.

399

DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

1959-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

400

Winters fuels report  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

1995-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquirá Associate Professor Electricity Heat Water #12;Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability April 10th /09 6 PEM Fuel Cells for research 2. Fuel-cell fundamentals 3. Implications of using water from fuel cells in a society

Keller, Arturo A.

402

International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Heating Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...are used in many varied applications--from small household appliances to large industrial process heating systems and furnaces. In appliances or industrial process heating, the heating elements are usually either open

404

Trends of petroleum fuels  

SciTech Connect

Trends in properties of motor gasolines for the years 1942 through 1984; diesel fuels for the years 1950 through 1983; aviation fuels for the years 1947 through 1983; and heating oils for the years 1955 through 1984, have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys prepared and published by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) formerly the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). The surveys for motor gasolines were conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bureau of Mines from 1935 through 1948 and in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948 for all surveys. The motor gasoline surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines throughout the country. Other surveys prepared in cooperation with API and the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Department of Energy, and currently NIPER were aviation gasolines beginning in 1947, diesel fuels in 1950, aviation turbine fuels in 1951, and heating oils, formerly burner fuel oils, in 1955. Various companies throughout the country obtain samples of motor gasolines from retail outlets and refinery samples for the other surveys, and analyze the samples using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures. The analytical data are sent to the Bartlesville Center for survey preparation and distribution. A summary report has been assembled from data in 83 semiannual surveys for motor gasolines that shows trends throughout the entire era from winter 19

Shelton, E.M.; Woodward, P.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Montana Major Facility Siting Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Montana Major Facility Siting Act (Montana) Montana Major Facility Siting Act (Montana) Montana Major Facility Siting Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Wind Solar Program Info State Montana Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Montana Department of Environmental Quality The Montana Major Facility Siting Act aims to protect the environment from

408

Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A variety of heating technologies are available today. In addition to heat pumps, which are discussed separately, many homes and buildings use the following approaches:

409

Commercial Value of Used Nuclear Fuel Reprocessed with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 5 Highly Radioactive Heat Sources Isotopes Amount Half life ... to make fuel from all low enriched fuel for ... 94,95 0.0174 d & long high average ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Energy and Environmental Solutions

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

6 Nuclear Fuel Designs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Message from the Director Message from the Director 2 Nuclear Power & Researrh Reactors 3 Discovery of Promethium 4 Nuclear Isotopes 4 Nuclear Medicine 5 Nuclear Fuel Processes & Software 6 Nuclear Fuel Designs 6 Nuclear Safety 7 Nuclear Desalination 7 Nuclear Nonproliferation 8 Neutron Scattering 9 Semiconductors & Superconductors 10 lon-Implanted Joints 10 Environmental Impact Analyses 11 Environmental Quality 12 Space Exploration 12 Graphite & Carbon Products 13 Advanced Materials: Alloys 14 Advanced Materials: Ceramics 15 Biological Systems 16 Biological Systems 17 Computational Biology 18 Biomedical Technologies 19 Intelligent Machines 20 Health Physics & Radiation Dosimetry 21 Radiation Shielding 21 Information Centers 22 Energy Efficiency: Cooling & Heating

412

Air heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

Dickson, J.J.

1963-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

414

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells...

415

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

416

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

417

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com...

418

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on AddThis.com... More in this section...

419

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on AddThis.com...

420

Study on the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient of High Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat transfer behavior between an AM60B alloy casting and die during .... for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Measuring the Composition of Molten Salt by Using ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Development and Practice of Blast Furnace Physical Heat Index ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Computational Thermodynamics in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ... Heat Index Based on the Hot Metal Silicon Content and Temperature Prediction Model

422

Table WH1. Total Households Using Water Heating Equipment, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table WH1. Total Households Using Water Heating Equipment, 2005 Million U.S. Households Fuels Used (million U.S. households) Number of Water Heaters Used

423

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy ...  

ORNL’s new absorption heat pump and water heater technology offers substantial energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While ...

424

EIA projects record winter household heating oil prices in the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home; Browse by Tag; Most Popular Tags. electricity; oil/petroleum; liquid fuels; natural gas; prices; states; ... Heating oil prices largely reflect crude oil prices.

425

Major Program Offices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

101 101 Major Program Offices Doing Business with... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Environmental Management National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Science Gary G. Lyttek, Business Source Manager FY2010 DOE Procurement Base: $22.9B $1,556 $5,701 $9,523 $3,793 $2,304 $'s - Millions EE EM NNSA SC Other 2 Presentation for the DOE Small Business Conference EERE Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOA) May 2011 3 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 4 * The mission and vision of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is to strengthen America's energy security, environmental quality and economic vitality in public-private partnerships that: * Enhance energy efficiency and productivity

426

Table H5: Major Fuels Usage for Large Hospitals  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

District Chilled Water ..... Propane ..... More than 7,000 HDD ..... 5,500-7,000 HDD ..... 4,000-5,499 HDD ..... Fewer than 4,000 HDD ..... ...

427

Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the status quo that conventional energy sources are more and more reduced and environmental pollution is increasingly serious, this paper presents a new model system of conserving energy and environmental protection, namely, a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar heat collector is solved by latent heat storage. In order to obtain such system running conditions and effects in different heating periods, an experiment has been carried out during the whole heating period in Harbin, China. The experimental results show that this system is much better for heating in initial and late periods than that in middle periods. The average heating coefficient is 6.13 for heating in initial and late periods and 2.94 for heating in middle periods. At the same time, this paper also predicts system running properties in other regions.

Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating November 25, 2013 - 2:24pm Addthis A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie What does this mean for me? Wood or pellets may be an economical and environmentally sound heating fuel choice. If you live in an area where you can cut your own wood for heating, your fuel will be local and inexpensive. Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length. Choosing and Installing Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances

429

Variability of Population-Weighted Seasonal Heating Degree Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional and national heating fuel demand is related to both weather and population density. This study analyzes the variability of population-weighted, seasonal heating degree days for the coterminous 48 states. A risk assessment of unusual ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

431

New Developments in High Velocity Air-fuel Spraying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is possible because of the low temperature of air-fuel combustion. The heating of the spray ... Conditioning of Composite Lubricant Powder for Cold Spray.

432

EIA Short-Term and Winter Fuels Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Washington, DC, October 12, 2011 Source: EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2011 History : Heating Oil Howard Gruenspecht, Winter Fuels Outlook 14

433

EPA issues proposed rule for the 2014 Renewable Fuel Standard ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, ... power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand ... What is shale gas and why is it ...

434

Application of Computational Thermodynamics in Solid Oxide Fuel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heat Index Based on the Hot Metal Silicon Content and Temperature Prediction Model ... Mechanical Stability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Materials: A ...

435

Winter Fuels Outlook: 2002-2003 - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... augmented by generally higher fuel prices, strongly suggests the likelihood that household energy expenses during the 2002-2003 heating season will be up ...

436

Camelina composite pellet fuels feasibility for residential and commercial applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of wood pellet fuels for heating homes and buildings has been a mainstay in Montana since the first energy crisis of the 1970's.… (more)

Taasevigen, Danny Jovin.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Figure 77. Electricity generation capacity additions by fuel type ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 77. Electricity generation capacity additions by fuel type, including combined heat and power, 2012-2040 (gigawatts) Coal

438

Clean Energy Solutions Large Scale CHP and Fuel Cells Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The New Jersey Economic Development Authority (EDA) is offering grants for the installation of combined heat and power (CHP) or fuel cell systems to commercial, industrial, and institutional...

439

Solar heated building structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heated building structure comprises an exterior shell including side walls and a roof section with the major portion of the roof section comprised of light transmitting panels or panes of material to permit passage of sunlight into the attic section of the building structure. The structure is provided with a central vertical hollow support column containing liquid storage tanks for the circulation and collection of heated water from a flexible conduit system located on the floor of the attic compartment. The central column serves as a heating core for the structure and communicates by way of air conduits or ducts with the living areas of the structure. Fan means are provided for continuously or intermittently circulating air over the hot water storage tanks in the core to transfer heat therefrom and distribute the heated air into the living areas.

Rugenstein, R.W.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

440

Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles. It can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines (ICEs). It is an environmentally...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Major Energy Producers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

206(92) 206(92) Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 January 1994 Elk. I nergy Information dministration This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents McPherson Square Bookstore U.S. Government Printing Office 1510 H Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20402 Washington, DC 20005 (202)783-3238 (202)653-2050 FAX (202)512-2233 FAX (202)376-5055 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., eastern time, M-F 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., eastern time, M-F All mail orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Complimentary subscriptions and single issues are available to certain groups of subscribers, such as

443

Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has severely impacted diesel fuel prices, especially in the Northeast. Retail diesel price data are available sooner than residential heating oil data. This graph shows that diesel prices turned the corner sometime after February 7 and are heading down. Retail diesel fuel prices nationally, along with those of most other petroleum prices, increased steadily through most of 1999. Prices jumped dramatically (by over 11 cents per gallon) in the third week of January, and rose 2 or more cents a week through February 7. The increases were much more rapid in the Northeast. From January 17 through February 7, diesel fuel prices in New England rose nearly 68 cents per gallon, or 47 percent. Prices in the Mid-Atlantic region rose about 58

444

U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GAS GRID ELECTRICITY HEAT Baseline System GRID ELECTRICITY Fuel Cell NATURAL GAS or BIOGAS POWER HEAT HYDROGEN CHHP System U.S.DOE is participating in a project to demonstrate a...

445

Transient three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays: general equations and numerical scheme  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model and a numerical solution scheme for thermal- hydraulic analysis of fuel rod arrays are given. The model alleviates the two major deficiencies associated with existing rod array analysis models, that of a correct transverse momentum equation and the capability of handling reversing and circulatory flows. Possible applications of the model include steady state and transient subchannel calculations as well as analysis of flows in heat exchangers, other engineering equipment, and porous media. (auth)

Wnek, W.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Trapp, J.A.; Hughes, E.D.; Solbrig, C.W.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect

Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Consumption and Efficiency Consumption and Efficiency All Categories Vehicles AFVs and HEVs Fuel Consumption and Efficiency Vehicle Market Driving Patterns Fuels & Infrastructure Fuel Trends Emissions Alternative Fueling Stations Idle Reduction Transportation Infrastructure Biofuels Production Laws & Incentives Regulated Fleets Federal Fleets State & Alt Fuel Providers Clean Cities Vehicles Petroleum Use Reduction Program OR Go Sort by: Category Most Recent Most Popular 13 results Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1ox6tpc Average Annual Fuel Use of Major Vehicle Categories Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1ox6tpc Comparison of fuel use, miles traveled, and fuel economy among vehicle types Last update April 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-ufdolp Average Annual Vehicle Miles Traveled of Major Vehicle Categories

448

Wood Pellet Heating Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook of Planning, Design and Installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood Pellet Heating Systems is a comprehensive handbook covering all aspects of wood pellet heating technology. The use of wood pellets as an alternative heating fuel is already well established in several countries and is becoming widespread as fossil ...

Dilwyn Jenkins

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Demonstration of EPRI Heat Rate Guidelines at Southern California Edison Ormond Beach Unit 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using EPRI's heat rate improvement guidelines, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) developed a heat rate improvement program and realized significant fuel cost reduction. Other utilities can follow SCE's example to develop their own effective heat rate improvement programs.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

Analysis Model Donald; Donald Greer

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Technologies in the Media Spotlight Vehicle Technologies in the Media Spotlight August 19, 2013 Automakers have made steady progress reducing the cost and increasing the performance of fuel cell propulsion systems, and most major vehicle manufacturers are geared to launch fuel cell electric vehicles in the U.S. market between 2015 and 2020. A recent Denver Post article highlights the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's contribution to the progress that automakers have made in getting their fuel cell electric vehicles ready for production. "When I started working on fuel cells in the '90s, people said it was a good field because a solution would always be five years away," said Brian Pivovar, who leads NREL's fuel cell research. "Not anymore." The article references a variety of NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell

452

National Fuel - Large Non-Residential Conservation Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Fuel - Large Non-Residential Conservation Program National Fuel - Large Non-Residential Conservation Program National Fuel - Large Non-Residential Conservation Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Commercial Custom Rebates: $200,000 Industrial Custom Rebates: $5,000,000 Program Info State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Rebates: $15/Mcf x the gas savings or 50% of the total project cost Unit Heater: $1000 Hot Air Furnace: $500 Low Intensity Infrared Heating: $500 Programmable Thermostat: $25

453

Value of solar thermal industrial process heat  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Innovative Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Cost  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Cost Savings for Airline Industry Innovative Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Cost Savings for Airline Industry July 17, 2012 - 3:33pm Addthis Erosion-resistant nanocoatings are making gas turbine engines more efficient, reducing cost and saving fuel. Erosion-resistant nanocoatings are making gas turbine engines more efficient, reducing cost and saving fuel. Bob Gemmer Technology Manager, Research and Development for the Advanced Manufacturing Office What does this mean for me? WIth help from DOE, one company has developed a nanocoating that has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of aircrafts and save the airline industry hundreds of millions of dollars in fuel costs annually.

455

Efficient Electric Technologies for Industrial Heating: Emerging Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial process heating is typically accomplished with fossil- and by-product fuels. However, new high-efficiency electric technologies for process heating applications are under development and commercially available, including three efficient electric process heating technologies covered in this Brief: Induction heating and melting Microwave (MW) heating, drying and curing Radio frequency (RF) heating, drying, and curing These technologies were selected for three reasons. First, in each case there a...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fueling Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

458

Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Alcohol fired alcohol fuel still  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The best method for using alcohol as the base for alcohol fuel distillation would be in the conservation of the initial heat input. In other words, the 20 gallon system would, at the end of a load, in effect waste a full gallon of alcohol fuel with each batch. Therefore either a continual feed system needs to be developed which would serve the 20 gallon heater or heat exchangers of some type should be designed to salvage a great portion of the heat. If, on the other hand, large amounts of fuel are not required, a large single batch still fired by alcohol would not be too wasteful. It would be adviseable that some form of alcohol fuel research both small and large scale be continued. While not necessarily an important part of the energy picture now, it may well be in the future. It could also open up overseas markets where fuels in liquid form are scarce, yet raw materials are not. Lastly, this project, while accomplishing muon, needs further study to make the system more efficient in fuel economy.

Johnson, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "major heating fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Animation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on...

463

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emerging Fuels Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels