National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for maize cell walls

  1. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  2. Redistribution of Xylan in Maize Cell Walls During Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunecky, R.; Vinzant, T. B.; Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Johnson, D. K.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-04-15

    Developing processes for the conversion of biomass for use in transportation fuels production is becoming a critically important economic and engineering challenge. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising technology for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, a deeper understanding of the pretreatability of biomass is needed so that the rate of formation and yields of sugars can be increased. Xylan is an important hemicellulosic component of the plant cell wall and acts as a barrier to cellulose, essentially blocking cellulase action. To better understand xylan hydrolysis in corn stover, we have studied changes in the distribution of xylan caused by dilute acid pretreatment using correlative microscopy. A dramatic loss of xylan antibody signal from the center of the cell wall and an increase or retention of xylan at the plasma membrane interface and middle lamella of the cell were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We also observed a reduction in xylan fluorescence signal by CLSM that is generally consistent with the decrease in xylan content measured experimentally in the bulk sample, however, the compartmentalization of this xylan retention was not anticipated.

  3. Maize variety and method of production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  4. disrupting the plant cell wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dirty bomb About Counterterrorism NNSA provides expertise, practical tools, and technically informed policy recommendations required to advance U.S. nuclear counterterrorism and counterproliferation objectives. It executes a unique program of work focused solely on these missions and builds partnerships with U.S. government

    disrupting the plant cell wall - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy

  5. Degradation of Algal Cell Walls by Enzymes and Dyes - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation of Algal Cell Walls by Enzymes and Dyes National Renewable Energy Laboratory ... for extracting the oils from the cells by first weakening the cell walls using enzymes. ...

  6. Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls Brookhaven National ... methyltransferases to reduce the lignin content and cross-linking in plant cell walls. ...

  7. Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under starvation conditions Title Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under starvation...

  8. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  9. Cell Wall Recipe: A Lesson on Biofuels

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will investigate how changes in the DNA sequence that codes for cell wall formation can have a favorable outcome in producing plants that have higher levels of cellulose than the parent plant. The cellulose yield is most important in the production of ethanol: the greater the amount of cellulose within the cell wall, the greater the amount of ethanol that can be produced. To engage students, the first part of this lesson has students participating in a discovery activity where they will extract DNA from wheat germ.

  10. new chemistry to break down cell walls

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    new chemistry to break down cell walls - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  11. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  12. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berka, Randy; Cherry, Joel

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  13. Microfabricated alkali vapor cell with anti-relaxation wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straessle, R.; Pétremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.

    2014-07-28

    We present a microfabricated alkali vapor cell equipped with an anti-relaxation wall coating. The anti-relaxation coating used is octadecyltrichlorosilane and the cell was sealed by thin-film indium-bonding at a low temperature of 140?°C. The cell body is made of silicon and Pyrex and features a double-chamber design. Depolarizing properties due to liquid Rb droplets are avoided by confining the Rb droplets to one chamber only. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on this wall-coated cell are used to evaluate the cell's relaxation properties and a potential gas contamination. Double-resonance signals obtained from the cell show an intrinsic linewidth that is significantly lower than the linewidth that would be expected in case the cell had no wall coating but only contained a buffer-gas contamination on the level measured by optical spectroscopy. Combined with further experimental evidence this proves the presence of a working anti-relaxation wall coating in the cell. Such cells are of interest for applications in miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and other quantum sensors.

  14. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-02-16

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  15. A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development in Relation to Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Bioinformatic ...

  16. Detecting Cellulase Penetration Into Corn Stover Cell Walls by Immuno-Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohoe, B. S.; Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-06-15

    In general, pretreatments are designed to enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes, allowing for more efficient conversion. In this study, we have detected the penetration of major cellulases present in a commercial enzyme preparation (Spezyme CP) into corn stem cell walls following mild-, moderate- and high-severity dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments. The Trichoderma reesei enzymes, Cel7A (CBH I) and Cel7B (EG I), as well as the cell wall matrix components xylan and lignin were visualized within digested corn stover cell walls by immuno transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using enzyme- and polymer-specific antibodies. Low severity dilute-acid pretreatment (20 min at 100 C) enabled <1% of the thickness of secondary cell walls to be penetrated by enzyme, moderate severity pretreatment at (20 min at 120 C) allowed the enzymes to penetrate {approx}20% of the cell wall, and the high severity (20 min pretreatment at 150 C) allowed 100% penetration of even the thickest cell walls. These data allow direct visualization of the dramatic effect dilute-acid pretreatment has on altering the condensed ultrastructure of biomass cell walls. Loosening of plant cell wall structure due to pretreatment and the subsequently improved access by cellulases has been hypothesized by the biomass conversion community for over two decades, and for the first time, this study provides direct visual evidence to verify this hypothesis. Further, the high-resolution enzyme penetration studies presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of cell wall deconstruction by cellulolytic enzymes.

  17. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berry, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Mai L.; Dimos, Christos S.; Budziszek, Michael J.; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2016-03-08

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into severalmore » different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.« less

  18. Consolidated pretreatment and hydrolysis of plant biomass expressing cell wall degrading enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raab, R. Michael; Zhang, Dongcheng; Bougri, Oleg

    2016-02-02

    Methods for consolidated pretreatment and hydrolysis of genetically engineered plants expressing cell wall degrading enzymes are provided. Expression cassettes and vectors for making transgenic plants are described. Plants engineered to express one or more cell wall degrading enzymes using expression cassettes and vectors of the invention are also provided.

  19. 2012 PLANT CELL WALLS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, AUGUST 4-10, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Jocelyn

    2012-08-10

    The sub-theme of this year’s meeting, ‘Cell Wall Research in a Post-Genome World’, will be a consideration of the dramatic technological changes that have occurred in the three years since the previous cell wall Gordon Conference in the area of DNA sequencing. New technologies are providing additional perspectives of plant cell wall biology across a rapidly growing number of species, highlighting a myriad of architectures, compositions, and functions in both "conventional" and specialized cell walls. This meeting will focus on addressing the knowledge gaps and technical challenges raised by such diversity, as well as our need to understand the underlying processes for critical applications such as crop improvement and bioenergy resource development.

  20. Studying plant cell walls for better biofuels | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Studying plant cell walls for better biofuels Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 27 July, 2010 - 10:49...

  1. In Situ Chemical Imaging of Plant Cell Walls Using CARS/SRS Microscopy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Saar, B. G.; Xie, X. S.; Chen, F.; Dixon, R. A.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding S. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster demonstrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering of plant cell walls. It includes simultaneous chemical imaging of lignin and cellulose (corn stover) during acidic pretreatment.

  2. A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Relation to Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development in Relation to Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development in Relation to Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Authors: Hui,Shen ; Yanbin,Yin ; Fang,Chen ; Ying,Xu ; Richard A.,Dixon ; , Publication Date: 2009-12-01 OSTI Identifier:

  3. 8th Annual Glycoscience Symposium: Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azadi, Paratoo

    2015-09-24

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) of the University of Georgia holds a symposium yearly that highlights a broad range of carbohydrate research topics. The 8th Annual Georgia Glycoscience Symposium entitled “Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly” was held on April 7, 2014 at the CCRC. The focus of symposium was on the role of glycans in plant cell wall structure and synthesis. The goal was to have world leaders in conjunction with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and research scientists to propose the newest plant cell wall models. The symposium program closely followed the DOE’s mission and was specifically designed to highlight chemical and biochemical structures and processes important for the formation and modification of renewable plant cell walls which serve as the basis for biomaterial and biofuels. The symposium was attended by both senior investigators in the field as well as students including a total attendance of 103, which included 80 faculty/research scientists, 11 graduate students and 12 Postdoctoral students.

  4. In situ micro-spectroscopic investigation of lignin in poplar cell walls pretreated by maleic acid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi -You

    2015-08-27

    In higher plant cells, lignin provides necessary physical support for plant growth and resistance to attack by microorganisms. For the same reason, lignin is considered to be a major impediment to the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the in situ variation of lignin in plant cell walls is important for better understanding of the roles lignin play in biomass recalcitrance.

  5. Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

    1989-01-01

    To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

  6. NREL's CelA Catalyzes Plant Cell Walls Faster - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's CelA Catalyzes Plant Cell Walls Faster January 12, 2015 Close-up photo of a scientist in safety glasses examining small items in plastic containers. NREL Senior Scientist Roman Brunecky examines the molecular weight of the enzyme CelA on a gel in the Protein Chemistry Lab in the Field Test Laboratory Building on NREL's Golden, Colorado, campus. Photo by Dennis Schroeder Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed an enzyme that could

  7. Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

  8. The iojap gene in maize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  9. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Guo, Jianjun [ORNL; Difazio, Stephen P. [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Bryan, Anthony C [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ziebell, Angela L [ORNL; Porth, Ilga [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Skyba, Oleksandr [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Unda, Faride [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; El-Kassaby, Yousry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mansfield, Shawn [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Martin, Joel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schackwitz, Wendy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Evans, Luke M [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS), saccharification assay and wet chemistry in two partially overlapping populations of P. trichocarpa genotypes sampled from multiple environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America. All 6 variants co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspot on chromosome XIV for lignin content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, 5- and 6- carbon sugars identified in an interspecific P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides pseudo-backcross mapping pedigree. Genomic intervals containing an amino acid transporter, a MYB transcription factor, an angustifolia CtBP transcription factor, a copper transport protein ATOX1-related, a Ca2+ transporting ATPase and a protein kinase were identified within 5 QTL regions. Each interval contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated to cell-wall phenotypes, with associations exceeding the chromosome-wise Bonferroni-adjusted p-values in at least one environment. cDNA sequencing for allelic variants of 3 of the 6 genes identified polymorphisms leading to premature stop codons in the MYB transcription factor and protein kinase. On the other hand, variants of the Angustifolia CtBP transcription factor exhibited a polyglutamine (PolyQ) length polymorphism. Results from transient protoplast assays suggested that each of the polymorphisms conferred allelic differences in activation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin pathway marker genes, with truncated and short PolyQ alleles exhibiting significantly reduced marker gene activation. Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass.

  10. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington; Guo, Jianjun; Difazio, Stephen P.; Chen, Jay; Ranjan, Priya; Slavov, Gancho; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara; Bryan, Anthony C.; Sykes, Robert; Ziebell, Angela L.; Klapste, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Skyba, Oleksandr; Unda, Faride; El-Kassaby, Yousry; Douglas, Carl; Mansfield, Shawn; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Evans, Luke M.; Czarnecki, Olaf; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2015-01-23

    We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS), saccharification assay and wet chemistry in two partially overlapping populations of P. trichocarpa genotypes sampled from multiple environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America. All 6 variants co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspot on chromosome XIV for lignin content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, 5- and 6- carbon sugars identified in an interspecific P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides pseudo-backcross mapping pedigree. Genomic intervals containing an amino acid transporter, a MYB transcription factor, an angustifolia CtBP transcription factor, a copper transport protein ATOX1-related, a Ca2+ transporting ATPase and a protein kinase were identified within 5 QTL regions. Each interval contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated to cell-wall phenotypes, with associations exceeding the chromosome-wise Bonferroni-adjusted p-values in at least one environment. cDNA sequencing for allelic variants of 3 of the 6 genes identified polymorphisms leading to premature stop codons in the MYB transcription factor and protein kinase. On the other hand, variants of the Angustifolia CtBP transcription factor exhibited a polyglutamine (PolyQ) length polymorphism. Results from transient protoplast assays suggested that each of the polymorphisms conferred allelic differences in activation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin pathway marker genes, with truncated and short PolyQ alleles exhibiting significantly reduced marker gene activation. Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass.

  11. Tether No More: A Revised Model for Plant Cell Walls | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Tether No More: A Revised Model for Plant Cell Walls Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 02.01.12 Tether No More: A

  12. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Shi-You

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  13. Narrowing of the coherent population trapping resonance under zone pumping in cells with different characteristics of the wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that when coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance is excited by a narrow laser beam, the presence of elastic collisions with the cell wall significantly affects the line shape of the CPT-resonance. We have constructed a theoretical model, which is based on averaging over the random Ramsey sequences of the atom dwell time in the beam and dark zones and takes into account the probability of elastic bounce of an atom from the wall.

  14. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; et al

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting ofmore » two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. These results also suggest that new pathways for recycling PG turnover products, such as tracheal cytotoxin, may have evolved in bacteria in the human gut microbiome that involve NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases.« less

  15. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc -André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. These results also suggest that new pathways for recycling PG turnover products, such as tracheal cytotoxin, may have evolved in bacteria in the human gut microbiome that involve NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases.

  16. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  17. Identification of candidate genes in Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network and comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Bisaria, Anjali; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C

    2011-01-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidences supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional genomics in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

  18. Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Xi, X.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

  19. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z.; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays,more » and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.« less

  20. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z.; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays, and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.

  1. New Combined Laser Ablation Platform Determines Cell Wall Chemistry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    NREL has designed and developed a combined laser ablation/pulsed sample introduction/mass spectrometry platform that integrates pyrolysis and/or laser ablation with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Using this apparatus, we can measure the cell wall chemical composition of untreated biomass materials. Understanding the chemical composition of untreated biomass is key to both the biochemical and thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels. In the biochemical conversion process, the new technique provides a better understanding of the chemistry of lignin and will improve accessibility to plant sugars. In thermochemical conversion, the information provided by the new technique may help to reduce the formation of unwanted byproducts during gasification. NREL validated the ability of the system to detect pyrolysis products from plant materials using poplar, a potentially high-impact bioenergy feedstock. In the technique, biomass vapors are produced by laser ablation using the 3rd harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser (355 nm). The resulting vapors are entrained in a free jet expansion of helium, then skimmed and introduced into an ionization region. REMPI is used to ionize the vapors because it is highly sensitive for detecting lignin and aromatic metabolites. The laser ablation method was used to selectively volatilize specific plant tissues and detect lignin-based products from the vapors with enhanced sensitivity. This will allow the determination of lignin distribution in future biomass studies.

  2. Glycosylation Helps Cellulase Enzymes Bind to Plant Cell Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    Computer simulations suggest a new strategy to design enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. Large-scale computer simulations predict that the addition of glycosylation on carbohydrate-binding modules can dramatically improve the binding affinity of these protein domains over amino acid mutations alone. These simulations suggest that glycosylation can be used as a protein engineering tool to enhance the activity of cellulase enzymes, which are a key component in the conversion of cellulose to soluble sugars in the production of biofuels. Glycosylation is the covalent attachment of carbohydrate molecules to protein side chains, and is present in many proteins across all kingdoms of life. Moreover, glycosylation is known to serve a wide variety of functions in biological recognition, cell signaling, and metabolism. Cellulase enzymes, which are responsible for deconstructing cellulose found in plant cell walls to glucose, contain glycosylation that when modified can affect enzymatic activity-often in an unpredictable manner. To gain insight into the role of glycosylation on cellulase activity, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used computer simulation to predict that adding glycosylation on the carbohydrate-binding module of a cellulase enzyme dramatically boosts the binding affinity to cellulose-more than standard protein engineering approaches in which amino acids are mutated. Because it is known that higher binding affinity in cellulases leads to higher activity, this work suggests a new route to designing enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. More generally, this work suggests that tuning glycosylation in cellulase enzymes is a key factor to consider when engineering biochemical conversion processes, and that more work is needed to understand how glycosylation affects cellulase activity at the molecular level.

  3. Comparative study of alkali-vapour cells with alkane-, alkeneand 1-nonadecylbenzene-based antirelaxation wall coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balabas, M V; Tretiak, O Yu

    2013-12-31

    The dependence of both longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of ground-state magnetic polarisation in alkali atoms on the coating temperature is experimentally studied for the first time in a rubidium-vapour cell with 1-nonadecylbenzene antirelaxation coating of inner walls. The comparison of these times with the relaxation times in a caesium-vapour cell with alkane wall coatings is presented. It is found that within the studied temperature range (294 – 340K) the transverse relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature of alkene and 1-nonadecylbenzene coatings. For the alkane coating such a dependence was not explicitly found. The longitudinal relaxation time begins to decrease in all cases when passing a certain critical temperature of the coating material. It is found that the unsaturated radical structure of the coating material molecules strongly affects its antirelaxation properties. (optical pumping)

  4. Revealing the Differences Between Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.

    2014-09-08

    Enzymatic depolymerization of polysaccharides is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, and discovery of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme paradigms will enable improved conversion processes. Historically, revealing insights into enzymatic saccharification mechanisms on plant cell walls has been hindered by uncharacterized substrates and low resolution imaging techniques. Also, translating findings between model substrates to intact biomass is critical for evaluating enzyme performance. Here we employ a fungal free enzyme cocktail, a complexed cellulosomal system, and a combination of the two to investigate saccharification mechanisms on cellulose I, II and III along with corn stover from Clean Fractionation (CF), which is an Organosolv pretreatment. The insoluble Cellulose Enriched Fraction (CEF) from CF contains mainly cellulose with minor amounts of residual hemicellulose and lignin, the amount of which depends on the CF pretreatment severity. Enzymatic digestions at both low and high-solids loadings demonstrate that CF reduces the amount of enzyme required to depolymerize polysaccharides relative to deacetylated, dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of the biomass provides evidence for the different mechanisms of enzymatic deconstruction between free and complexed enzyme systems, and reveals the basis for the synergistic relationship between the two enzyme paradigms on a process-relevant substrate for the first time. These results also demonstrate that the presence of lignin, rather than cellulose morphology, is more detrimental to cellulosome action than to free cellulases. As enzyme costs are a major economic driver for biorefineries, this study provides key inputs for the evaluation of CF as a pretreatment method for biomass conversion.

  5. LiquidMaize LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: LiquidMaize, LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80237 Product: LiquidMaize is an ethanol development and management company that builds, owns, and operates ethanol plants...

  6. Wall Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information on advanced wall framing, including insulating walls, airtight construction, and moisture control.

  7. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  8. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  9. Genome-Scale Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2012-03-22

    Wellington Muchero from Oak Ridge National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  10. Effects of Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharides on Bacterial Cellulose Structure Studied with Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Sunkyu; Cosgrove, Daniel; Kim, Seong H

    2014-07-14

    The crystallinity, allomorph content, and mesoscale ordering of cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultured with different plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides were studied with vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  11. Genome-Scale Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2013-01-22

    Wellington Muchero from Oak Ridge National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  12. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; et al

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed andmore » surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.« less

  13. Light effects in the atomic-motion-induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances in wall-coated cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breschi, E.; Schori, C.; Di Domenico, G.; Mileti, G. [Laboratoire Temps-Frequence-University of Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Kazakov, G.; Litvinov, A.; Matisov, B. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, RU-195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We report on light shift and broadening in the atomic-motion-induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances prepared in alkali-metal vapors contained in wall-coated cells without buffer gas. The atomic-motion-induced Ramsey narrowing is due to the free motion of the polarized atomic spins in and out of the optical interaction region before spin relaxation. As a consequence of this effect, we observe a narrowing of the dark resonance linewidth as well as a reduction of the ground states' light shift when the volume of the interaction region decreases at constant optical intensity. The results can be intuitively interpreted as a dilution of the intensity effect similar to a pulsed interrogation due to the atomic motion. Finally the influence of this effect on the performance of compact atomic clocks is discussed.

  14. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 20–30 nm (CNT20) and 40–70 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 ?g/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-?B (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-?-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ?Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ?MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA lesion associated with inflammatory response. ?MWCNT was internalized into cells via caveolin- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. ?8-Nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression involved these types of endocytosis. ?Internalized MWCNT plays a key role in inflammatory response and DNA damage.

  15. Three Human Cell Types Respond to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Titanium Dioxide Nanobelts with Cell-Specific Transcriptomic and Proteomic Expression Patterns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Karin, Norman J.; Tolic, Ana; Xie, Yumei; Lai, Xianyin; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Waters, Katrina M.; Holian, Andrij; Witzmann, Frank A.; Orr, Galya

    2014-08-01

    The growing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial and medical applications raises the urgent need for tools that can predict NP toxicity. Global transcriptome and proteome analyses were conducted on three human cell types, exposed to two high aspect ratio NP types, to identify patterns of expression that might indicate high versus low NP toxicity. Three cell types representing the most common routes of human exposure to NPs, including macrophage-like (THP-1), small airway epithelial and intestinal (Caco-2/HT29-MTX) cells, were exposed to TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NB; high toxicity) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT; low toxicity) at low (10 µg/mL) and high (100 µg/mL) concentrations for 1 and 24 h. Unique patterns of gene and protein expressions were identified for each cell type, with no differentially expressed (p < 0.05, 1.5-fold change) genes or proteins overlapping across all three cell types. While unique to each cell type, the early response was primarily independent of NP type, showing similar expression patterns in response to both TiO2-NB and MWCNT. The early response might, therefore, indicate a general response to insult. In contrast, the 24 h response was unique to each NP type. The most significantly (p < 0.05) enriched biological processes in THP-1 cells indicated TiO2-NB regulation of pathways associated with inflammation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA replication stress and genomic instability, while MWCNT-regulated pathways indicated increased cell proliferation, DNA repair and anti-apoptosis. These two distinct sets of biological pathways might, therefore, underlie cellular responses to high and low NP toxicity, respectively.

  16. Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, N Louise [UC Berkeley] [UC Berkeley

    2012-03-22

    N. Louise Glass from the University of California, Berkeley, presents a talk titled "Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  17. Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glass, N Louise [UC Berkeley

    2013-01-25

    N. Louise Glass from the University of California, Berkeley, presents a talk titled "Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  18. Real-Time Imaging of Plant Cell Wall Structure at Nanometer Scale, with Respect to Cellulase Accessibility and Degradation Kinetics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2012-05-01

    Presentation on real-time imaging of plant cell wall structure at nanometer scale. Objectives are to develop tools to measure biomass at the nanometer scale; elucidate the molecular bases of biomass deconstruction; and identify factors that affect the conversion efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels.

  19. Maize, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maize, Kansas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 37.7791787, -97.4672674 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  20. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.

  1. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  2. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  3. ROS and NF-{kappa}B are involved in upregulation of IL-8 in A549 cells exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Shefang Wu Yihui; Hou Zhenqing; Zhang Qiqing

    2009-02-06

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential applications in biosensors, tissue engineering, and biomedical devices because of their unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties. However, there is limited literature data available concerning the biological properties and toxicity of CNTs. This study aimed to assess the toxicity exhibited by multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of MWCNTs in A549 cells. Exposing A549 cells to MWCNTs led to cell death, changes in cell size and complexity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activation. Treatment of A549 cells with antioxidants prior to adding MWCNTs decreased ROS production and abrogated expression of IL-8 mRNA. Pretreatment of A549 cells with NF-{kappa}B inhibitors suppressed MWCNTs-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. These results indicate that MWCNTs are able to induce expression of IL-8 in A549 cells, at least in part, mediated by oxidative stress and NF-{kappa}B activation.

  4. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were able to defray lodging and meal costs for 133 graduate and undergraduate students and 66 postdocs

  5. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - 0717 Salishan Maiz.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reliability as a challenge & opportunity to technology scaling Jose Maiz Jose Maiz Fellow, Technology and Manufacturing Group Director of Logic Technology Quality & Reliability 2007 Salishan HPC Conference April 26, 2007 Salishan HPC 2007, J. Maiz 2 Key Messages Key Messages Technology scaling continues according to Moore Technology scaling continues according to Moore ' ' s Law s Law - - 2X increase in functionality every 2 years 2X increase in functionality every 2 years - - In the

  7. Cell Wall Chemistry of Biofuel

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This module focuses on the production of sugar (glucose and maltose) from cornstarch. The first lesson from this module relates glucose production from cornstarch to ethanol fuel production from corn stover.

  8. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Pan, David

    1994-01-01

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

  9. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  10. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  11. Tokamak reactor first wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

  12. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  13. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing University of Colorado National Renewable Energy ...

  14. Dynamic load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2010-02-01

    The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as a means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that dynamically loaded wall segments to compare the performance of walls constructed using the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of four walls were built, two with traditional methods and two with the Arquin method. Two of the walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every third cell filled with grout. The remaining two walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every cell filled with grout. The walls were dynamically loaded with explosive forces. No significant difference was noted between the performance of the walls constructed by the Arquin method when compared to the walls constructed by the traditional method.

  15. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  16. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  17. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions and possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.

  18. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions andmore » possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.« less

  19. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  20. DNA-cell conjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  1. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  2. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  3. NREL: Energy Analysis - Anna Wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anna Wall Photo of Anna Wall Anna Wall is a member of the Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group in the Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Technologies Analyst On staff since April 2014 Phone number: 303-384-6887 E-mail: anna.wall@nrel.gov Areas of expertise Geochemistry (aqueous and hard rock), with applications to geothermal resource characterization and mineral carbon sequestration Ratings methodologies and energy resource reporting standards Sustainable equity finance:

  4. Bumper wall for plasma device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coultas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a plasma device such as a reactor for controlled thermonuclear fusion is facilitated by an improved bumper wall enclosing the plasma to smooth the flow of energy from the plasma as the energy impinges upon the bumper wall. The bumper wall is flexible to withstand unequal and severe thermal shocks and it is readily replaced at less expense than the cost of replacing structural material in the first wall and blanket that surround it.

  5. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells

  6. MAYmw Wall0

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,...-. ~_I : Cd.0 / ., j: ' ! -;:---- /,5l2 MAYmw Wall0 50 l/89 NE-23 NE-23 List of California Sites Hattie Carwell. SAN/NSQA Division Attached for your information is the list of California sites we identified in our search of Manhattdn Engineer District records for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). None of the facilities listed qualified for FUSRAP,'Vhe;:only'site in California that was included in FUSRAP was Gilman Hall on the University of California-Berkeley

  7. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  8. Todd Vander Wall | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vander Wall Research Scientist Todd.Vander.Wall@nrel.gov | 303-384-7783 Research Interests Todd Vander Wall comes to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from the environmental and chemical engineering industry, where he focused on environmental chemistry. He originally designed and implemented methanogenesis systems for the growth and collection of biogenic methane from municipal solid waste. Following that, he performed in-situ investigations on thermogenic methane from subsurface

  9. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  10. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  11. Security_Walls_VPP_Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recognized for Outstanding Safety CARLSBAD, N.M., May 10, 2013 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Security Walls, LLC, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP)...

  12. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  13. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  14. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  15. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  16. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  17. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  18. Wall System Innovations: Familiar Materials, Better Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Wall System Innovations: Familiar Materials, Better Performance Wall System Innovations: Familiar Materials, Better Performance This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon wall_system_innovations_kochkin.pdf More Documents & Publications Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House Building

  19. Promising Technology: Cool Paints for Exterior Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cool Paints increase the solar reflectance of exterior walls. By reflecting more sunlight, the wall surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the walls into the building. During the cooling season, the addition of cool paints can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  20. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 ?m for the commercial configuration down to ~9 ?m for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-?m spatial resolution using an oversampling method. There are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.

  1. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore » are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  2. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  3. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  4. 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs Summary of results of a 2013 survey on Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. PDF icon 2013 Wall ...

  5. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  6. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  7. Sheath oscillation characteristics and effect on near-wall conduction in a krypton Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengkui Kong, Lingyi; Li, Chenliang; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Despite its affordability, the krypton Hall-effect thruster in applications always had problems in regard to performance. The reason for this degradation is studied from the perspective of the near-wall conductivity of electrons. Using the particle-in-cell method, the sheath oscillation characteristics and its effect on near-wall conduction are compared in the krypton and xenon Hall-effect thrusters both with wall material composed of BNSiO{sub 2}. Comparing these two thrusters, the sheath in the krypton-plasma thruster will oscillate at low electron temperatures. The near-wall conduction current is only produced by collisions between electrons and wall, thereby causing a deficiency in the channel current. The sheath displays spatial oscillations only at high electron temperature; electrons are then reflected to produce the non-oscillation conduction current needed for the krypton-plasma thruster. However, it is accompanied with intensified oscillations.

  8. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  9. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  10. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  11. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, Henry S.; Budny, Robert V.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.

    1988-01-01

    Depolarization mechanisms arising from the recycling of the polarized fuel at the limiter and the first-wall of a fusion reactor are greater than those mechanisms in the plasma. Rapid depolarization of the plasma is prevented by providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec.sup.-1.

  12. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  13. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  14. CXD 4606, 9831 Wall Construction Project (4606)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9831 Wall Construction Project (4606) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to upgrade of the existing contamination area associated with an...

  15. Wall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.3936801, -79.7861577 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  16. Multiple moving wall dry coal extrusion pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2013-05-14

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes a passageway defined on each side between an inlet and an outlet by a moving wall.

  17. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  18. Living Walls | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems and the new field of biomimicry. Biomimicry is the science of imitating nature to solve human design problems. The Living Wall concept takes the principles behind...

  19. Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Water Wall Turbine Region: Canada Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.wwturbine.com This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  20. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  1. Liquid Wall Chambers (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid Wall Chambers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Liquid Wall Chambers The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various

  2. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  3. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  4. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  5. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates High performance walls represent a high priority...

  6. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  7. 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report Summary of the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. PDF ...

  8. Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Location Wall Lake IA Coordinates 42.281965, -95.094098 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  9. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized ...

  10. MHK Technologies/Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Water Wall Turbine.png Technology Profile Primary Organization Water Wall Turbine Technology Type Click...

  11. Lanzhou Great Wall Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wall Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lanzhou Great Wall Development Co., Ltd. Place: Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China Zip: 730000 Sector: Hydro Product:...

  12. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a number of promising wall systems with improved thermal control to improve ...

  13. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Case Study Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans Location: Pittsburgh, ...

  14. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency ...

  15. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials ...

  16. Building a barrier wall through boulders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, D.R.; Mann, M.J. ); Tulett, R.C. )

    1994-10-01

    When the Occidental Chemical Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y., set out to remediate and contain wastes and ground water at its upstate New York site, they found that part of the proposed cutoff wall would be located in land reclaimed from the Niagara River. The fill was rock blasted out for a tunnel years ago, and the presence of boulders rule out conventional barrier-wall construction techniques. Occidental's first approach to containment had been a conventional soil-bentonite wall. Because of the area's geography and the location of the wastes, a portion of the wall had to be aligned along the riverbank. The company wanted to separate the plant area from the river, and decided to extend the barrier to the concrete headwall for intakes at the nearby Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant. This meant about 2,000 ft of the barrier wall would run through shot-rock fill placed during construction of the powerplant in the 1960s. Conduits for that plant were constructed by blasting rock to form open-cut tunnels several miles long. Some of the resulting shot rock was placed along the riverbank, extending the shoreline about 200 ft into the river near the now-contaminated site. The Rober Moses Parkway, a four-land highway, was constructed on the reclaimed land about 100 ft from the new shoreline.

  17. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  18. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  19. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Bergren, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  20. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  1. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  2. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  3. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  4. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, Scott D.; Farrington, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  5. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  6. Education Module 2007: Cell Wall Chemistry of Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    discussion, and diagrams demonstrating structural characteristics of the following cellular components . a. Starch: http:en.wikipedia.orgwikiStarch b. Cellulose: 38%-50%...

  7. Complementary mechanisms of plant cell wall deconstruction by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy I nnova5on P ortal's A ccelera5ng I nnova5on W ebinar Dr. M ichael R esch Research S cien5st Biomolecular S ciences 882012 2 Conversion o f B iomass t o F uels 3 Free ...

  8. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    wall chemistry in Populus (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Accepted Manuscript: High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus « Prev Next » Title: High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry

  9. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  10. Multiple cell radiation detector system, and method, and submersible sonde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Larry O. (Island Park, ID); McIsaac, Charles V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lawrence, Robert S. (Shelley, ID); Grafwallner, Ervin G. (Arco, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A multiple cell radiation detector includes a central cell having a first cylindrical wall providing a stopping power less than an upper threshold; an anode wire suspended along a cylindrical axis of the central cell; a second cell having a second cylindrical wall providing a stopping power greater than a lower threshold, the second cylindrical wall being mounted coaxially outside of the first cylindrical wall; a first end cap forming a gas-tight seal at first ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; a second end cap forming a gas-tight seal at second ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; and a first group of anode wires suspended between the first and second cylindrical walls.

  11. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. ...

  12. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OU’s advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the protein’s biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  13. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Caporaso, George J.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  14. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  15. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. ...

  16. 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs Summary briefing on the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward SMRs. PDF icon 2014 New Generation ...

  17. TBU-0061- In the Matter of Misti Wall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Misti Wall (the complainant or Wall), appeals the dismissal of her complaint of retaliation filed under 10 C.F.R. Part 708, the Department of Energy (DOE) Contractor Employee Protection Program. As...

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-R Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research on high-R-value walls showing the difference between rated and whole wall R values and the need for vented cladding to reduce condensation potential with some insulation types.

  19. City of Wall Lake, Iowa (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wall Lake, Iowa (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Wall Lake Place: Iowa Phone Number: (712) 664-2216 Website: walllake.com?pageid40 Outage...

  20. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  1. Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    'k.f' :, , j '"; ,,' DEC 5 1984 Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation suite 4000 955 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Dear Mr. Wallo: The Divisfon of Remedial Action Projects staff has reviewed the authority review documents for Gardinler, Inc., Tampa, Florida; Conserv (formerly Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.), Nichols, Florida; and Blockson Chemical co., Joliet, Illinois. Based on the content therein and in consultation with Mr. Steve Miller, Office of General Counsel

  2. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Wednesday, 29 July 2009 00:00 Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray

  3. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  4. Global climate change and maize production in Spain: Risk assessment and impacts of weather on yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feijoo, M.L.; Mestre, F.; Iglesias, A.; Rosenzweig, C.

    1996-12-31

    The study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on maize production in Spain, combining climate models, a crop productivity model, a decision support system and a yield-response model. The study was carried out for two agricultural regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of grain yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). A yield response model was estimated using simulated data from the crop model. Weather variables are included. Typically, temperature and precipitation are the only weather variables included in these models. However, solar radiation is another important climate factor for plant growth and development and were included in the yield response model.

  5. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  6. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, Paul E.; Mackenzie, Patricia D.; Horney, David P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  7. Cutting assembly including expanding wall segments of auger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, Martin B.; Oser, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  8. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, James T. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  9. Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Xu, Liming; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

  10. Genomic Analysis of Natural Variation for Seed and Plant Size in Maize ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaeppler, Shawn [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-03-21

    Shawn Kaeppler from the University of Wisconsin-Madison on "Genomic Analysis of Biofuel Traits in Maize and Switchgrass" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  11. Genomic Analysis of Natural Variation for Seed and Plant Size in Maize ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kaeppler, Shawn [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2013-01-15

    Shawn Kaeppler from the University of Wisconsin-Madison on "Genomic Analysis of Biofuel Traits in Maize and Switchgrass" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  12. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Akrami, Yashar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R.; Wang, Yi E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  13. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Bruno S.; Fuelling, Stephan

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  14. Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preprint (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Post-deposition hydrogenation by remote plasma significantly improves performance of heteroepitaxial silicon solar cells. Heteroepitaxial deposition of thin crystal silicon on sapphire for photovoltaics (PV) is an excellent model

  15. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  16. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit August 5, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy has released a report on a GATEWAY demonstration, in which maintenance and energy costs were significantly reduced while retaining the quality of light when LED modules replaced 87 halogen lamps in existing wall washers at the University of Maryland's (UMD) Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center. The project

  17. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity

  18. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  19. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  20. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  1. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  2. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  3. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  4. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  5. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  6. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    walls and opens a path to further technological developments in spintronics applications. ... included under the umbrella of "spintronics," a technology based on using the ...

  7. SSL Demonstration: Wall Washers at the University of Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-31

    GATEWAY program report brief summarizing a demonstration of LED wall washers at the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center at the University of Maryland.

  8. COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy Writ Large at Princeton Professor Emily Carter Princeton University Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...

  9. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  10. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  11. Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with Lithium Vapor Shielding. Hall ... This invention addresses these concerns using a lightweight material (liquid lithium) in a ...

  12. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concept called a racetrack memory, for example, the electron spin provides the driving force that moves a domain wall (boundary between regions of different magnetization) down...

  13. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  14. Composites of Doped Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This would also allow for thermoelectrics to be used across more applications, at lower cost. Description In this case, the Seebeck coefficient for these single-walled...

  15. Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.

    1995-12-31

    New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.

  16. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  18. Resistive and ferritic-wall plasma dynamos in a sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalzov, I. V.; Brown, B. P.; Kaplan, E. J.; Katz, N.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rahbarnia, K.; Forest, C. B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Spence, E. J. [Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We numerically study the effects of varying electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of the bounding wall on a kinematic dynamo in a sphere for parameters relevant to Madison plasma dynamo experiment. The dynamo is excited by a laminar, axisymmetric flow of von Karman type. The flow is obtained as a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation for an isothermal fluid with a velocity profile specified at the sphere's boundary. The properties of the wall are taken into account as thin-wall boundary conditions imposed on the magnetic field. It is found that an increase in the permeability of the wall reduces the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub cr}. An increase in the conductivity of the wall leaves Rm{sub cr} unaffected but reduces the dynamo growth rate.

  19. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  20. Thermal effects on transverse domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliaert, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vandermeulen, J.; Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Waeyenberge, B. Van; Laurson, L.; Durin, G.

    2015-05-18

    Magnetic domain walls are proposed as data carriers in future spintronic devices, whose reliability depends on a complete understanding of the domain wall motion. Applications based on an accurate positioning of domain walls are inevitably influenced by thermal fluctuations. In this letter, we present a micromagnetic study of the thermal effects on this motion. As spin-polarized currents are the most used driving mechanism for domain walls, we have included this in our analysis. Our results show that at finite temperatures, the domain wall velocity has a drift and diffusion component, which are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values obtained from a generalized 1D model. The drift and diffusion component are independent of each other in perfect nanowires, and the mean square displacement scales linearly with time and temperature.

  1. Pneumatic wall-locking geophone system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Harland L.; Cumerlato, Calvin L.; Tweeton, Daryl R.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic signal receiving system is provided for use in boreholes to receive seismic waves in carrying out geophysical investigations. The system includes three pairs of opposed plates, each of the pairs of plates including oppositely facing outer surfaces for engagement with opposite sides of a borehole. A seismic receiver is mounted on the inner surface of each of the plates for receiving seismic signals. A double-acting, fluid-operated actuator selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates away from each other to provide expansion thereof so as to enable the plates to engage the walls of a borehole and selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates toward each other to provide retraction thereof so as to enable the system to be removed from a borehole. The pairs of plates each comprise a relatively long plate and a relatively short plate. An expandable linkage interconnects the long plates at the distal ends thereof. The plates are mechanically biassed into the retracted state so that the plates return to this state in the event of a system failure.

  2. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  3. Chest wall invasion by lung cancer: limitations of CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennes, D.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Wimbish, K.J.; Gross, B.H.; Long, R.W.; Orringer, M.B.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-three patients with peripheral pulmonary malignancies contiguous with a pleural surface were evaluated for chest wall invasion by computed tomography (CT). CT criteria included pleural thickening adjacent to the tumor, encroachment on or increased density of the extrapleural fat, asymmetry of the extrapleural soft tissues adjacent to the tumor, apparent mass invading the chest wall, and rib destruction. The CT scans were classified as positive, negative, or equivocal for invasion, and a decision matrix was constructed comparing CT results with pathologic data. CT scanning has low accuracy in assessing chest wall invasion in patients with peripheral lung cancers.

  4. Evaluation of Wall Boundary Condition Parameters for Gas-Solids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Wall Boundary Condition Parameters for Gas-Solids Fluidized-Bed Simulations Tingwen Li 1,2 , Sofiane Benyahia 1 1. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507, U.S.A. 2. URS Corporation, Morgantown, WV 26505, U.S.A. Abstract Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the

  5. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  6. Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters September 11, 2015 - 3:48pm Addthis Federal, state and local Kentucky officials joined Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz (third from left) and Senate Majority Mitch McConnell on September 10, 2015 as they cut the ribbon introducing the new Paducah Site wall display on the Fifth Floor of DOE’s Forrestal Building in Washington, D.C. Pictured (left-right) are: U.S. Rep. Ed Whitfield, Sen.

  7. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  8. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  9. Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities II: fracturing of colliding walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braden, Jonathan; Bond, J. Richard; Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2015-08-26

    We study collisions between nearly planar domain walls including the effects of small initial nonplanar fluctuations. These perturbations represent the small fluctuations that must exist in a quantum treatment of the problem. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that at the linear level a subset of these fluctuations experience parametric amplification as a result of their coupling to the planar symmetric background. Here we study the full three-dimensional nonlinear dynamics using lattice simulations, including both the early time regime when the fluctuations are well described by linear perturbation theory as well as the subsequent stage of fully nonlinear evolution. We find that the nonplanar fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the overall evolution of the system. Specifically, once these fluctuations begin to interact nonlinearly the split into a planar symmetric part of the field and the nonplanar fluctuations loses its utility. At this point the colliding domain walls dissolve, with the endpoint of this being the creation of a population of oscillons in the collision region. The original (nearly) planar symmetry has been completely destroyed at this point and an accurate study of the system requires the full three-dimensional simulation.

  10. Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control A new metal fiber wall-flow DPF with up to 99% efficiency and ...

  11. Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of Building's Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review Cost-Effective Wall ...

  12. High-R Walls - Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R Walls - Building America Top Innovation High-R Walls - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows two framed walls. High-performance homes require walls that cost-effectively control both thermal and moisture flow. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research from Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings and Building Science Corporation on high-R-value walls showing the difference between rated and whole wall R values and the need for vented cladding to reduce

  13. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Stewart, Willis E.; Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  14. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  15. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  16. Ultrasonic probe for inspecting double-wall tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Kenneth V. (Clinton, TN); Cunningham, Jr., Robert A. (Powell, TN); Murrin, Horace T. (Alcoa, TN)

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe for inspecting the interface between the walls of a double-wall tube comprises a cylindrical body member having two cavities axially spaced apart thereon. The probe is placed in the tube and ultrasonic energy is transmitted from a transducer in its body member to a reflector in one of its cavities and thence into the inner wall of the tube. A second transducer in the probe body member communicates with the second cavity through a collimation passage in the body member, and the amount of ultrasonic energy reflected from the interface between the walls of the tube to a second reflector through the collimation passage to the second transducer depends upon the characteristics of said interface.

  17. Ultrasonic probe for inspecting double-wall tube. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Murrin, H.T.

    1981-05-29

    An ultrasonic probe for inspecting the interface between the walls of a double-wall tube comprises a cylindrical body member having two cavities axially spaced apart thereon. The probe is placed in the tube and ultrasonic energy is transmitted from a transducer in its body member to a reflector in one of its cavities and thence into the inner wall of the tube. A second transducer in the probe body member communicates with the second cavity through a collimation passage in the body member, and the amount of ultrasonic energy reflected from the interface between the walls of the tube to a second reflector through the collimation passage to the second transducer depends upon the characteristics of said interface.

  18. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open ... 2012, 58, 2058-2068) is implemented in the open-source CFD code-MFIX. The variable ...

  19. Repairing Walls & Floors: How To's for the Handy Homeowner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-09

    This brochure provides handy homeowners with tips on how to properly repair walls and floors in their homes that sustained damage during a hurricane. This publications is a part of the How To's for the Handy Homeowner Series.

  20. "Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The...

  1. Conserval aka SolarWall | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Conserval (aka SolarWall) Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada Zip: M3J2N5 Sector: Solar Product: Makes solar passive heating and cooling products,...

  2. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from the LANSCE super-thermal ...

  3. Fast Equilibrating 1st Wall -Majeski | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Equilibrating 1st Wall -Majeski The invention is primarily a composition of matter, which combines two pre-existing materials to produce new utility. Specifically, a "fast equilibrating" wall would consist of a 100-200 micron layer of plasma-facing material, backed with a hydrogen diffusion barrier. A candidate hydrogen barrier is a thin layer of densified ceramic. Densified ceramics have been shown to function as effective hydrogen diffusion barriers. By use of this construction,

  4. In situ measurement of increased ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain wall

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    motion in declamped tetragonal lead zirconate titanate thin films (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: In situ measurement of increased ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain wall motion in declamped tetragonal lead zirconate titanate thin films « Prev Next » Title: In situ measurement of increased ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain wall motion in declamped tetragonal lead zirconate titanate thin films Authors: Wallace, M. [1] Search DOE PAGES for author "Wallace,

  5. Nucleon transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions from domain wall

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fermion calculations at 297 MeV pion mass (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Nucleon transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions from domain wall fermion calculations at 297 MeV pion mass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nucleon transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions from domain wall fermion calculations at 297 MeV pion mass Lattice QCD calculations of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) in a nucleon are performed based on a

  6. Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore A novel lithium evaporator for the controlled introduction of lithium into tokamaks for wall conditioning is described. The concept uses a Li granule injector with a heated in-vessel yttrium crucible to evaporate a controlled amount of

  7. Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanotube Bundles with Uniform Diameter (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Uniform Diameter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Uniform Diameter Authors: Han, T Y ; Standermann, M ; Baumann, T F ; Murphy, K E ; Satcher, J H Publication Date: 2011-03-31 OSTI Identifier: 1183517 Report Number(s):

  8. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  9. Electrochemical cell design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arntzen, John D.

    1978-01-01

    An electrochemical cell includes two outer electrodes and a central electrode of opposite polarity, all nested within a housing having two symmetrical halves which together form an offset configuration. The outer electrodes are nested within raised portions within the side walls of each housing half while the central electrode sealingly engages the perimetric margins of the side-wall internal surfaces. Suitable interelectrode separators and electrical insulating material electrically isolate the central electrode from the housing and the outer electrodes. The outer electrodes are electrically connected to the internal surfaces of the cell housing to provide current collection. The nested structure minimizes void volume that would otherwise be filled with gas or heavy electrolyte and also provides perimetric edge surfaces for sealing and supporting at the outer margins of frangible interelectrode separator layers.

  10. Spokane Wall Insulation Project: a field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsongas, G.

    1985-09-01

    Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not the addition of wall insulation without a vapor barrier might increase the risk of moisture damage to the structure. Although it was concluded from a 1979 field study that there is no such risk in mild climates like that of Portland, Oregon (4792 degree-days), it was not clear if a problem might exist in colder climates. Thus, a second major field study was undertaken in Spokane, Washington (6835 degree-days) aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. This report describes that study and its results and conclusions. During the study the exterior walls of 103 homes were opened, of which 79 had retrofitted cellulose, rock wool, or fiberglass, and 24 were uninsulated as a control group. Field and laboratory test results are presented which, contrary to diffusion theory predictions, show the absence of moisture accumulation and consequent moisture damage caused by the addition of retrofitted wall insulation. Infrared thermography results giving the percentage of wall insulation void area for 30 of the test homes are also presented. The study strongly concludes that the addition of wall insulation without a vapor barrier does not cause moisture problems in existing homes in climates similar to that of Spokane. Future research needs are described, and the overall advisability of future retrofitting of wall insulation is discussed. 23 refs., 7 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Magnetoelectric domain wall dynamics and its implications for magnetoelectric memory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tretiakov, O. A.

    2016-03-30

    Domain wall dynamics in a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet is analyzed, and its implications for magnetoelectric memory applications are discussed. Cr2O3 is used in the estimates of the materials parameters. It is found that the domain wall mobility has a maximum as a function of the electric field due to the gyrotropic coupling induced by it. In Cr2O3, the maximal mobility of 0.1 m/(s Oe) is reached at E≈0.06 V/nm. Fields of this order may be too weak to overcome the intrinsic depinning field, which is estimated for B-doped Cr2O3. These major drawbacks for device implementation can be overcome by applying amore » small in-plane shear strain, which blocks the domain wall precession. Domain wall mobility of about 0.7 m/(s Oe) can then be achieved at E = 0.2 V/nm. Furthermore, a split-gate scheme is proposed for the domain-wall controlled bit element; its extension to multiple-gate linear arrays can offer advantages in memory density, programmability, and logic functionality.« less

  12. Single-walled carbon nanotube transparent conductive films fabricated by reductive dissolution and spray coating for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostfeld, Aminy E.; Arias, Ana Claudia; Catheline, Amélie; Ligsay, Kathleen; Kim, Kee-Chan; Fogden, Siân; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio

    2014-12-22

    Solutions of unbundled and unbroken single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared using a reductive dissolution process. Transparent conductive films spray-coated from these solutions show a nearly twofold improvement in the ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorptivity versus those deposited from conventional aqueous dispersions, due to substantial de-aggregation and sizable nanotube lengths. These transparent electrodes have been utilized to fabricate P3HT-PCBM organic solar cells achieving power conversion efficiencies up to 2.3%, comparable to those of solar cells using indium tin oxide transparent electrodes.

  13. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar (Kennewick, WA); Hof, Jr., Peter John (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  14. Studies of Resistive Wall Heating at JLAB FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rui; Benson, Stephen V.

    2013-06-01

    When the JLAB FEL is under CW operation, it had been observed that temperature rises over the wiggler vacuum chamber, presumably as the result of the power deposition on the resistive wall of the wiggler chamber. Previous analyses have been done on the resistive wall impedance for various cases, such as DC, AC, and anomalous skin effects*. Here we report an investigation on the beam kinetic energy losses for each of these cases. This study includes the non-ultrarelativistic effect on resistive wall loss, for both round pipe and parallel plates. We will present the comparison of our results with the measured data obtained during CW operation of the JLAB FEL. Other possible factors contributing to the measured heating will also be discussed.

  15. Domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems in axion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yoshino, Kazuyoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-11-01

    Axion models have two serious cosmological problems, domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems. In order to solve these problems we investigate the Linde's model in which the field value of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) scalar is large during inflation. In this model the fluctuations of the PQ field grow after inflation through the parametric resonance and stable axionic strings may be produced, which results in the domain wall problem. We study formation of axionic strings using lattice simulations. It is found that in chaotic inflation the axion model is free from both the domain wall and the isocurvature perturbation problems if the initial misalignment angle ?{sub a} is smaller than O(10{sup ?2}). Furthermore, axions can also account for the dark matter for the breaking scale v ? 10{sup 12?16} GeV and the Hubble parameter during inflation H{sub inf}?<10{sup 11?12} GeV in general inflation models.

  16. Material options for a commercial fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of various materials for use as first walls in high-power-density commercial fusion reactors. Operating limits for each material were obtained based on a number of criteria, including maximum allowable structural temperatures, critical heat flux, ultimate tensile strength, and design-allowable stress. The results with water as a coolant indicate that a modified alloy similar to HT-9 may be a suitable candidate for low- and medium-power-density reactor first walls with neutron loads of up to 6 MW/m/sup 2/. A vanadium or copper alloy must be used for high-power-density reactors. The neutron wall load limit for vanadium alloys is about 14 MW/sup 2/, provided a suitable coating material is chosen. The extremely limited data base for radiation effects hinders any quantitative assessment of the limits for copper alloys.

  17. Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of Building's

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of Energy Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of Building's Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of Building's Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Amy Wylie, Bayer MaterialScience/Penn State Consortium In order to achieve

  18. Unimpossible Missions: Making a wall listen | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Is it possible to make a wall listen? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Is it possible to make a wall listen? Sara Underwood 2016.02.11 This post is a behind-the-scenes look at one of the Unimpossible Missions experiments that a team of Global Research experts conducted in 2015. Click here to meet the

  19. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials Authors: Dattelbaum, Andrew M [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-06-10 OSTI Identifier: 1072338 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-03375; LA-UR-11-3375 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  20. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.

    2015-03-27

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  1. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  2. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  3. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  4. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  5. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  6. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, Marc; Springer, David; Dakin, Bill; German, Alea

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  7. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  8. Heat exchanger with leak detecting double wall tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieberbach, George; Bongaards, Donald J.; Lohmeier, Alfred; Duke, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A straight shell and tube heat exchanger utilizing double wall tubes and three tubesheets to ensure separation of the primary and secondary fluid and reliable leak detection of a leak in either the primary or the secondary fluids to further ensure that there is no mixing of the two fluids.

  9. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  10. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  11. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  12. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

  13. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  14. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  15. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  16. Thermal Stress in HFEF Hot Cell Windows Due to an In-Cell Metal Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Warmann, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates an accident during the pyrochemical extraction of Uranium and Plutonium from PWR spent fuel in an argon atmosphere hot cell. In the accident, the heavy metals (U and Pu) being extracted are accidentally exposed to air from a leaky instrument penetration which goes through the cell walls. The extracted pin size pieces of U and Pu metal readily burn when exposed to air. Technicians perform the electrochemical extraction using manipulators through a 4 foot thick hot cell concrete wall which protects them from the radioactivity of the spent fuel. Four foot thick windows placed in the wall allow the technicians to visually control the manipulators. These windows would be exposed to the heat of the metal fire. As a result, this analysis determines if the thermal stress caused by the fire would crack the windows and if the heat would degrade the window seals allowing radioactivity to escape from the cell.

  17. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  18. Transcriptomic changes during maize roots development responsive to Cadmium (Cd) pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Hua; He, Xiujing; Gao, Jian; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Zhiming; Shen, Yaou; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-09-04

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd), acts as a widespread environmental contaminant, which has shown to adversely affect human health, food safety and ecosystem safety in recent years. However, research on how plant respond to various kinds of heavy metal stress is scarcely reported, especially for understanding of complex molecular regulatory mechanisms and elucidating the gene networks of plant respond to Cd stress. Here, transcriptomic changes during Mo17 and B73 seedlings development responsive to Cd pollution were investigated and comparative RNAseq-based approach in both genotypes were performed. 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) with significant alteration in expression were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the maize seedling development; of those, most of DGEs were found comprised of stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, as well as transcription factors, such as thaumatin-like protein, ZmOPR2 and ZmOPR5. More interestingly, genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found contributed to the regulatory mechanism of Cd sensitivity in both different genotypes. Moreover, 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M12) were identified by consensus co-expression network. These results will expand our understanding of complex molecular mechanism of response and defense to Cd exposure in maize seedling roots. - Highlights: • Transcriptomic changes responsive to Cd pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach. • 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes. • Most of DGEs belong to stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, transcription factors. • 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways. • Genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; George, Raymond A.; Shockling, Larry A.

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  1. Mesoporous organosilica nanotubes containing a chelating ligand in their walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiao; Goto, Yasutomo; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis of organosilica nanotubes containing 2,2?-bipyridine chelating ligands within their walls, employing a single-micelle-templating method. These nanotubes have an average pore diameter of 7.8 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers. UV-vis absorption spectra and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of immobilized nanotubes with an iridium complex on the bipyridine ligands showed that the 2,2?-bipyridine groups were homogeneously distributed in the benzene-silica walls. The iridium complex, thus, immobilized on the nanotubes exhibited efficient catalytic activity for water oxidation using Ce{sup 4+}, due to the ready access of reactants to the active sites in the nanotubes.

  2. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, Amit H.

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  3. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-28

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ?45?kA and rise time of ?80?ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  4. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  5. Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way ...

  6. Titanium dioxide, single-walled carbon nanotube composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2015-07-14

    The present invention provides titanium dioxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites (TiO.sub.2/SWCNTs), articles of manufacture, and methods of making and using such composites. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides membrane filters and ceramic articles that are coated with TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material. In other embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material to purify a sample, such as a water or air sample.

  7. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  8. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Kehrer, Manfred; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  9. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  10. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  11. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  13. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bed simulations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open

  14. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  15. Method of manufacturing hollow members having uniform wall thickness through use of ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.; Downs, Raymond L.; Henderson, Timothy M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a hollow structure of uniform wall thickness comprising the steps of selecting or forming a precursor having one wall surface of desired geometry, treating a portion of the precursor consisting of the one wall surface and a uniform depth of material beneath the wall surface to increase resistance to ablation, and then removing by ablation and discarding the remaining or untreated portion of the precursor.

  16. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … High-R Walls

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    require walls that cost-effectively control both thermal and moisture flow. Building America research results have provided proven high-R wall options for builders across the country. Building America's research teams have conducted modeling analysis as well as field studies of several different wall assemblies to identify effective "whole- wall" R-values that take into account thermal bridging of framing members. Researchers have also investigated critical moisture potential and

  17. Propagating and reflecting of spin wave in permalloy nanostrip with 360° domain wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Senfu; Mu, Congpu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zheng, Qi; Liu, Xianyin; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2014-01-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the interaction between propagating spin wave (or magnonic) and a 360° domain wall in a nanostrip. It is found that propagating spin wave can drive a 360° domain wall motion, and the velocity and direction are closely related to the transmission coefficient of the spin wave of the domain wall. When the spin wave passes through the domain wall completely, the 360° domain wall moves toward the spin wave source. When the spin wave is reflected by the domain wall, the 360° domain wall moves along the spin wave propagation direction. Moreover, when the frequency of the spin wave is coincident with that of the 360° domain wall normal mode, the 360° domain wall velocity will be resonantly enhanced no matter which direction the 360 DW moves along. On the other hand, when the spin wave is reflected from the moving 360° domain wall, we observed the Doppler effect clearly. After passing through a 360° domain wall, the phase of the spin wave is changed, and the phase shift is related to the frequency. Nevertheless, phase shift could be manipulated by the number of 360° domain walls that spin wave passing through.

  18. Four-wall turbine airfoil with thermal strain control for reduced cycle fatigue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cambell, Christian X

    2013-09-17

    A turbine airfoil (20B) with a thermal expansion control mechanism that increases the airfoil camber (60, 61) under operational heating. The airfoil has four-wall geometry, including pressure side outer and inner walls (26, 28B), and suction side outer and inner walls (32, 34B). It has near-wall cooling channels (31F, 31A, 33F, 33A) between the outer and inner walls. A cooling fluid flow pattern (50C, 50W, 50H) in the airfoil causes the pressure side inner wall (28B) to increase in curvature under operational heating. The pressure side inner wall (28B) is thicker than walls (26, 34B) that oppose it in camber deformation, so it dominates them in collaboration with the suction side outer wall (32), and the airfoil camber increases. This reduces and relocates a maximum stress area (47) from the suction side outer wall (32) to the suction side inner wall (34B, 72) and the pressure side outer wall (26).

  19. Protective interior wall and attaching means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, R.D.; Upham, G.A.; Anderson, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    The wall basically consists of an array of small rectangular plates attached to the existing walls with threaded fasteners. The protective wall effectively conceals and protects all mounting hardware beneath the plate array, while providing a substantial surface area that will absorb plasma energy.

  20. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  1. Enhancement of microarcing at a grounded chamber wall by nonvanishing ion sheath in a radio-frequency capacitive discharged plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwok, Dixon T.K.; Yin Yongbai; Bilek, Marcela M.M.; McKenzie, David

    2005-10-31

    One-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations in cylindrical r coordinate, with particle ions and Boltzmann's distribution of electrons, are used to investigate the arcing effect in radio-frequency (rf) capacitively coupled discharged plasma. The simulation shows that the arcing at the chamber wall is enhanced by the nonvanishing ion sheath at the surface, such that the emission electrons current will last for several tens of rf cycles. On the other hand, at the inner electrode, the electron emission occurs only during certain phases of the rf cycle and does not promote arc growth.

  2. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-06-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing the walls: one involving replacement of the existing cladding, and the other that leaves the existing cladding in place. It discusses the design principles related to the use of various insulation types, and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double stud wall retrofit. It also evaluates important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable, high performance wall.

  3. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  4. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  5. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  6. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  7. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P.; Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D.; Platts, M.

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  8. Active control of the resistive wall mode with power saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li; Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu Yueqiang [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    An analytic model of non-linear feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode is presented. The non-linearity comes from either the current or the voltage saturation of the control coil power supply. For the so-called flux-to-current control, the current saturation of active coils always results in the loss of control. On the contrary, the flux-to-voltage control scheme tolerates certain degree of the voltage saturation. The minimal voltage limit is calculated, below which the control will be lost.

  9. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  10. Characterizing the Plasma of the Resistive Wall Machine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A. Hannum A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Physics) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison 2010 Copyright ©2010 David A. Hannum. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts,

  11. Advanced High Porosity Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Flow Filters | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 07 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_zuberi.pdf More Documents & Publications New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application

  12. SU-E-T-512: Electromagnetic Simulations of the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uselmann, A; Mackie, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize and parametrically study the key components of a dielectric wall accelerator through electromagnetic modeling and particle tracking. Methods: Electromagnetic and particle tracking simulations were performed using a commercial code (CST Microwave Studio, CST Inc.) utilizing the finite integration technique. A dielectric wall accelerator consists of a series of stacked transmission lines sequentially fired in synchrony with an ion pulse. Numerous properties of the stacked transmission lines, including geometric, material, and electronic properties, were analyzed and varied in order to assess their impact on the transverse and axial electric fields. Additionally, stacks of transmission lines were simulated in order to quantify the parasitic effect observed in closely packed lines. Particle tracking simulations using the particle-in-cell method were performed on the various stacks to determine the impact of the above properties on the resultant phase space of the ions. Results: Examination of the simulation results show that novel geometries can shape the accelerating pulse in order to reduce the energy spread and increase the average energy of accelerated ions. Parasitic effects were quantified for various geometries and found to vary with distance from the end of the transmission line and along the beam axis. An optimal arrival time of an ion pulse relative to the triggering of the transmission lines for a given geometry was determined through parametric study. Benchmark simulations of single transmission lines agree well with published experimental results. Conclusion: This work characterized the behavior of the transmission lines used in a dielectric wall accelerator and used this information to improve them in novel ways. Utilizing novel geometries, we were able to improve the accelerating gradient and phase space of the accelerated particle bunch. Through simulation, we were able to discover and optimize design issues with the device at low cost. Funding: Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison WI; Conflict of Interest: Dr. Mackie is an investor and board member at CPAC, a company developing compact accelerator designs similar to those discussed in this work, but designs discussed are not directed by CPAC. Funding: Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison WI; Conflict of Interest: Dr. Mackie is an investor and board member at CPAC, a company developing compact accelerator designs similar to those discussed in this work, but designs discussed are not directed by CPAC.

  13. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100 centimeters squared (cm2) beta/gamma. Removable beta/gamma contamination levels seldom exceeded 1,000 dpm/100 cm2, but, in railroad trenches on the reactor pad containing soil on the concrete pad in front of the shield wall, the beta dose rates ranged up to 120 milli-roentgens per hour from radioactivity entrained in the soil. General area dose rates were less than 100 micro-roentgens per hour. Prior to demolition of the reactor shield wall, removable and fixed contaminated surfaces were decontaminated to the best extent possible, using traditional decontamination methods. Fifth, large sections of the remaining structures were demolished by mechanical and open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). Mechanical demolition methods included the use of conventional demolition equipment for removal of three main buildings, an exhaust stack, and a mobile shed. The 5-foot (ft), 5-inch (in.) thick, neutron-activated reinforced concrete shield was demolished by CED, which had never been performed at the NTS.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of thin layers of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick.

  15. Rivulet Flow In Vertical Parallel-Wall Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. Mc Creery; P. Meakin

    2006-04-01

    In comparison with studies of rivulet flow over external surfaces, rivulet flow confined by two surfaces has received almost no attention. Fully-developed rivulet flow in vertical parallel-wall channels was characterized, both experimentally and analytically for flows intermediate between a lower flow limit of drop flow and an upper limit where the rivulets meander. Although this regime is the most simple rivulet flow regime, it does not appear to have been previously investigated in detail. Experiments were performed that measured rivulet widths for aperture spacing ranging from 0.152 mm to 0.914 mm. The results were compared with a simple steadystate analytical model for laminar flow. The model divides the rivulet cross-section into an inner region, which is dominated by viscous and gravitational forces and where essentially all flow is assumed to occur, and an outer region, dominated by capillary forces, where the geometry is determined by the contact angle between the fluid and the wall. Calculations using the model provided excellent agreement with data for inner rivulet widths and good agreement with measurements of outer rivulet widths.

  16. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanonik, K.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Platen, E.; Van de Weygaert, R.; Van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-05-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an H I survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the H I polar disk. Yet the H I mass in the disk is comparable to the stellar mass in the galaxy. This suggests slow accretion of the H I material at a relatively recent time. There is also a hint of a warp in the outer parts of the H I disk. The central, stellar disk appears relatively blue, with faint near-UV emission, and is oriented (roughly) parallel to the surrounding wall, implying gas accretion from the voids. The considerable gas mass and apparent lack of stars in the polar disk, coupled with the general underdensity of the environment, supports recent theories of cold flow accretion as an alternate formation mechanism for polar disk galaxies.

  17. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  18. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of WallPerform ance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    There are many ways of calculating the dynamic thermal performance of walls and many ways of measuring the performance of walls in the laboratory, relatively few field measurements have been made of the dynamic performance of wall in situ. Measuring the thermal performance of walls in situ poses two separate problems: measuring the heat fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall, and reducing this data set into usable parameters. We have solved the first problem by developing the Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU). ETTU consists of two specially constructed polystyrene blankets, 1.2m square, placed on either side of the test wall that both control and measure the surface fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall. To solve the second problem we have developed a simplified dynamic model that describes the thermal performance of a wall in terms of its steady-state conductance, a time constant, and some storage terms. We have used ETTU in the field to measure the thermal performance of walls, and have applied our simplified analysis to calculate simplified thermal parameters from this data set. In this report, we present the in-situ measurements made to date using ETTU, and the resulting model predictions. The agreement between measured and predicted surface fluxes demonstrates the ability of our test unit and analytic model to describe the dynamic performance of walls in situ.

  19. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  20. Key gene regulating cell wall biosynthesis and recalcitrance in Populus, gene Y

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jay; Engle, Nancy; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2015-12-08

    This disclosure provides methods and transgenic plants for improved production of renewable biofuels and other plant-derived biomaterials by altering the expression and/or activity of Gene Y, an O-acetyltransferase. This disclosure also provides expression vectors containing a nucleic acid (Gene Y) which encodes the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1 and is operably linked to a heterologous promoter.

  1. Complementary mechanisms of plant cell wall deconstruction by free and complexed enzyme systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complementary m echanisms o f plant c ell w all d econstruc5on by f ree a nd complexed e nzyme systems Energy I nnova5on P ortal's A ccelera5ng I nnova5on W ebinar Dr. M ichael R esch Research S cien5st Biomolecular S ciences 8/8/2012 2 Conversion o f B iomass t o F uels 3 Free vs. Complexed Enzymes 4 Cellulosomes are Better at Degrading Cellulose than CTec2 100 80 60 40 20 0 Conversion [%] 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Time [hrs] Cellulosome CTec2 100 80 60 40 20 0 Conversion [%] 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

  2. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOBIFIDA FUSCA GENES INVOLVED IN PLANT CELL WALL DEGRADATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Wilson

    2006-01-23

    Micro-array experiments identified a number of Thermobifida fusca genes which were upregulated by growth on cellulose or plant biomass. Five of these genes were cloned, overexpressed in E. coli and the expressed proteins were purified and characterized. These were a xyloglucanase,a 1-3,beta glucanase, a family 18 hydrolase and twocellulose binding proteins that contained no catalytic domains. The catalyic domain of the family 74 endoxyloglucanase with a C-terminal, cellulose binding module was crystalized and its 3-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray crystallography.

  3. 3D Electron Tomography of Switchgrass Cell Wall Deconstruction by Clostridium cellulolyticum (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, T.; Donohoe, B.; Wei, H.; Yang, Y.; Keller, M.; Himmel, M.; Ding, S.-Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster describes research about biomass-digesting microorganisms that produce structured biomass-degrading enzyme complexes.

  4. Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A.; Manhart, Larry K.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

  5. Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

  6. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  7. Investigation of dominant spin wave modes by domain walls collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramu, M.; Purnama, I.; Goolaup, S.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Lew, W. S.

    2014-06-28

    Spin wave emission due to field-driven domain wall (DW) collision has been investigated numerically and analytically in permalloy nanowires. The spin wave modes generated are diagonally symmetric with respect to the collision point. The non-propagating mode has the highest amplitude along the middle of the width. The frequency of this mode is strongly correlated to the nanowire geometrical dimensions and is independent of the strength of applied field within the range of 0.1?mT to 1?mT. For nanowire with film thickness below 5?nm, a second spin wave harmonic mode is observed. The decay coefficient of the spin wave power suggests that the DWs in a memory device should be at least 300?nm apart for them to be free of interference from the spin waves.

  8. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius andmore » conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.« less

  9. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Gupta, Gautam; Duque, Juan G.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; DeFriend Obrey, Kimberly A.

    2013-03-12

    Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity was observed when the suspension of DOC-wrapped SWNTs were exposed to the TMOS vapors, but about a 50% decrease in the emission signal was observed from the SDS-wrapped SWNTs nanotubes. The decrease in emission was minimal by buffering the SDS/SWNT suspension prior to forming the composite. Fluorescent xerogels were prepared by adding glycerol to the SWNT suspensions prior to TMOS vapor exposure, followed by drying the gels. Fluorescent aerogels were prepared by replacing water in the gels with methanol and then exposing them to supercritical fluid drying conditions. The aerogels can be used for gas sensing.

  10. Parametric study of cantilever walls subjected to seismic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comina, Cesare; Foti, Sebastiano; Lancellotta, Renato; Leuzzi, Francesco; Pettiti, Alberto; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.; Nicosia, Giovanni Li Destri; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.; Paolucci, Roberto; Zanoli, Omar

    2008-07-08

    The design of flexible earth retaining structures under seismic loading is a challenging geotechnical problem, the dynamic soil-structure interaction being of paramount importance for this kind of structures. Pseudo-static approaches are often adopted but do not allow a realistic assessment of the performance of the structure subjected to the seismic motions. The present paper illustrates a numerical parametric study aimed at estimating the influence of the dynamic soil-structure interaction in the design. A series of flexible earth retaining walls have been preliminary designed according to the requirements of Eurocode 7 and Eurocode 8--Part 5; their dynamic behaviour has been then evaluated by means of dynamic numerical simulations in terms of bending moments, accelerations and stress state. The results obtained from dynamic analyses have then been compared with those determined using the pseudo-static approach.

  11. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius and conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.

  12. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review More Documents &

  13. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a number of promising wall systems with improved thermal control to improve plant-wide performance. Unlike previous studies, it considers performance in a more realistic matter, including some true three-dimensional heat flow and the relative risk of moisture damage. PDF icon Building America

  14. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standard | Department of Energy YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard October 11, 2012 - 4:10pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enforcement issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination (Notice) on October 11, 2012, to YMGI Group, LLC (YMGI) regarding through-the-wall split system central air conditioner basic

  15. Monitoring of Double-Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double-stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double-stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double-stud assemblies were compared.

  16. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  17. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  18. The Kelastic variable wall mining machine. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-12

    This machine cuts coal along a longwall face extending up to 500 feet by a rotating auger with bits. The machine also transports the coal that is cut acting as screw conveyor. By virtue of an integral shroud comprising part of the conveyor the machine is also amenable to a separation of the zones where men work from air being contaminated by dust and methane gas by the cutting action. Beginning as single intake air courses, the air separates at the working section where one split provides fresh air to the Occupied Zone (OZ) for human needs and the other split purges and carries away dust and methane from face fragmentation in the Cutting Zone (CZ). The attractiveness of the Variable Wall Mining Machine is that it addresses the limitations of current longwall mining equipment: it can consistently out-produce continuous mining machines and most longwall shearing machines. It also is amenable to configuring an environment, the dual-duct system, where the air for human breathing is separated from dust-laden ventilating air with methane mixtures. The objective of the research was to perform a mathematical and experimental study of the interrelationships of the components of the system so that a computer model could demonstrate the workings of the system in an animation program. The analysis resulted in the compilation of the parameters for three different configurations of a dual aircourse system of ventilating underground mines. In addressing the goal of an inherently safe mining system the dual-duct adaptation to the Variable Wall Mining Machine appears to offer the path to solution. The respirable dust problem is solvable; the explosive dust problem is nearly solvable; and the explosive methane problem can be greatly reduced. If installed in a highly gassy mine, the dual duct models would also be considerably less costly.

  19. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  20. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet), Building America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... DOEGO-102013-4267 * December 2013 BUILDING AMERICA CASE STUDY: TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR NEW AND EXISTING HOMES RESEARCH DETAILS Advanced frame wall with exterior insulation Hybrid ...

  1. Erosion/Corrosion-Induced Pipe Wall Thinning in U.S. Nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... the main feedwater piping system ex- perienced wall ... Code), Section III, Class 2 piping inside contain- ment. ... scope such that a small change in pipe thickness ...

  2. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  3. Building America Expert Meeting: Code Challenges with Multifamily Area Separation Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Expert Meeting was conducted by the IBACOS team on Sept. 29, 2014, and focused on air sealing of area separation wall assemblies in multifamily buildings.

  4. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-06-22

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double-stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing walls—one that involves replacing the existing cladding and the other that leaves the cladding in place. This guideline also covers the design principles related to the use of various insulation types and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double-stud wall retrofit. It also includes an evaluation of important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable high-performance wall.

  5. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, Dave; Wiehagen, Joseph; Kochkin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  6. Go No-Go Decision: Pure, Undoped, Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides information about the go/no-go decision on pure, undoped single walled carbon nanotubes for vehicular hydrogen storage.

  7. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  8. Thermal Stress in HFEF Hot Cell Windows Due to an In-Cell Metal Fire

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Warmann, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates an accident during the pyrochemical extraction of Uranium and Plutonium from PWR spent fuel in an argon atmosphere hot cell. In the accident, the heavy metals (U and Pu) being extracted are accidentally exposed to air from a leaky instrument penetration which goes through the cell walls. The extracted pin size pieces of U and Pu metal readily burn when exposed to air. Technicians perform the electrochemical extraction using manipulators through a 4 foot thick hot cell concrete wall which protects them from the radioactivity of the spent fuel. Four foot thick windows placed in the wallmore » allow the technicians to visually control the manipulators. These windows would be exposed to the heat of the metal fire. As a result, this analysis determines if the thermal stress caused by the fire would crack the windows and if the heat would degrade the window seals allowing radioactivity to escape from the cell.« less

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1985-01-01

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  11. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Joseph A.; Domroese, Michael K.; Lindeman, David D.; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Roger; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  12. Fuel cell separator plate with bellows-type sealing flanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Louis, George A. (West Hartford, CT)

    1986-08-05

    A fuel cell separator includes a rectangular flat plate having two unitary upper sealing flanges respectively comprising opposite marginal edges of the plate folded upwardly and back on themselves and two lower sealing flanges respectively comprising the other two marginal edges of the plate folded downwardly and back on themselves. Each of the sealing flanges includes a flat wall spaced from the plate and substantially parallel thereto and two accordion-pleated side walls, one of which interconnects the flat wall with the plate and the other of which stops just short of the plate, these side walls affording resilient compressibility to the sealing flange in a directiongenerally normal to the plane of the plate. Four corner members close the ends of the sealing flanges. An additional resiliently compressible reinforcing member may be inserted in the passages formed by each of the sealing flanges with the plate.

  13. Photovoltaic device using single wall carbon nanotubes and method of fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Li, Zhongrui

    2012-11-06

    A photovoltaic device and methods for forming the same. In one embodiment, the photovoltaic device has a silicon substrate, and a film comprising a plurality of single wall carbon nanotubes disposed on the silicon substrate, wherein the plurality of single wall carbon nanotubes forms a plurality of heterojunctions with the silicon in the substrate.

  14. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Rioux, Julien; Boyer, Cyril; Nteziyaremye, Valens; Dervishi, Enkeleda; et al

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, whilemore » the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.« less

  15. Method and apparatus for detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowling, Michael Keith (Blackborough Cullompton, GB)

    2000-09-12

    A method of detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel by detecting localized spatial temperature differentials on the wall surface, comprising scanning the vessel surface with a thermal imaging camera and recording the position of the or each region for which the thermal image from the camera is indicative of such a temperature differential across the region. The spatial temperature differential may be formed by bacterial growth on the vessel surface; alternatively, it may be the result of defects in the vessel wall such as thin regions or pin holes or cracks. The detection of leaks through the vessel wall may be enhanced by applying a pressure differential or a temperature differential across the vessel wall; the testing for leaks may be performed with the vessel full or empty, and from the inside or the outside.

  16. Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

  17. Magnetic bead detection using domain wall-based nanosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corte-León, H.; Krzysteczko, P.; Schumacher, H. W.; Manzin, A.; Cox, D.; Antonov, V.; Kazakova, O.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the effect of a single magnetic bead (MB) on the domain wall (DW) pinning/depinning fields of a DW trapped at the corner of an L-shaped magnetic nanodevice. DW propagation across the device is investigated using magnetoresistance measurements. DW pinning/depinning fields are characterized in as-prepared devices and after placement of a 1 μm-sized MB (Dynabeads{sup ®} MyOne{sup ™}) at the corner. The effect of the MB on the DW dynamics is seen as an increase in the depinning field for specific orientations of the device with respect to the external magnetic field. The shift of the depinning field, ΔB{sub dep} = 4.5–27.0 mT, is highly stable and reproducible, being significantly above the stochastic deviation which is about 0.5 mT. The shift in the deppinning field is inversely proportional to the device width and larger for small negative angles between the device and the external magnetic field. Thus, we demonstrate that DW-based devices can be successfully used for detection of single micron size MB.

  18. Menu driven heat treatment control of thin walled bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Booth, Jr., Russell R.; Grimm, Noel P.; Batenburg, Abram; Thomas, Vaughn M.

    1992-01-01

    A process for controlling the heating of a thin-walled body according to a predetermined temperature program by means of electrically controllable heaters, comprising: disposing the heaters adjacent one surface of the body such that each heater is in facing relation with a respective zone of the surface; supplying heat-generating power to each heater and monitoring the temperature at each surface zone; and for each zone: deriving (16,18,20), on the basis of the temperature values obtained in the monitoring step, estimated temperature values of the surface at successive time intervals each having a first selected duration; generating (28), on the basis of the estimated temperature values derived in each time interval, representations of the temperature, THSIFUT, which each surface zone will have, based on the level of power presently supplied to each heater, at a future time which is separated from the present time interval by a second selected duration; determining (30) the difference between THSIFUT and the desired temperature, FUTREFTVZL, at the future time which is separated from the present time interval by the second selected duration; providing (52) a representation indicating the power level which sould be supplied to each heater in order to reduce the difference obtained in the determining step; and adjusting the power level supplied to each heater by the supplying step in response to the value of the representation provided in the providing step.

  19. Power Supply Changes for NSTX Resistive Wall Mode Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, S S.

    2013-06-28

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. Prior to 2004, the NSTX power system was feeding twelve (12) circuits in the machine. In 2004 the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Coils were installed on the machine to correct error fields. There are six of these coils installed around the machine in the mid-plane. Since these coils need fast and accurate controls, a Switching Power Amplifier (SPA) with three sub-units was procured, installed and commissioned along with other power loop components. Two RWM Coils were connected in series and fed from one SPA sub-unit. After the initial RWM campaign, operational requirements evolved such that each of the RWM coils now requires separate power and control. Hence a second SPA with three sub-units has been procured and installed. The second unit is of improved design and has the controls and power components completely isolated. The existing thyristor rectifier is used as DC Link to both of the Switching Power Amplifiers. The controls for the RWM are integrated into the overall computer control of the DC Power systems for NSTX. This paper describes the design changes in the RWM Power system for NSTX.

  20. First wall and limiter surfaces for plasma devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1983-01-01

    For a plasma device, a surface of a first wall or limiter with reduced loss of metal by erosion is provided by forming a monolayer of an alkali or alkaline earth metal on a substrate of a more negative metal. The surface exhibits a reduced loss of metal by erosion and particularly by sputtering and an increased secondary ion/neutral ratio resulting in a greater return of atoms escaping from the surface. In another aspect of the invention, the substrate includes a portion of the second metal and serves to replenish the surface layer with atoms of the second metal. In one process associated with self-generating desired surface, the metals as an alloy are selected to provide a first layer having a high concentration of the second metal in contrast to a very low concentration in the second layer and bulk to result in a surface with a monolayer of the second metal. When the combination of metals results in an intermetallic compound, selective removal of the first metal during an initial bombardment stage provides the surface layer with a predominance of the second metal.

  1. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  2. A time-domain estimation of wall conduction transfer function coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1996-11-01

    The wall and roof transfer function coefficients, b{sub n} and d{sub n}, listed in the 1993 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, have up to now been derived using laplace and Z-transform methods. This paper shows that they can be readily evaluated using straightforward time-domain solutions of the Fourier continuity equation. These include the response of a wall to a ramp increase in temperature and its transient response. The values of d{sub n} can be found from the first few terms in the series of wall decay times in the transient solution. The solutions are combined using a form of Fourier analysis. Appropriate layer transmission matrices enable one to find the wall`s overall characteristics readily. The wall response factors {phi}{sub j} can thus be found. The b{sub n} transfer coefficients are related to the {phi}{sub j} and d{sub n} values. The approach is illustrated using the data for wall group 6. Allowing for conversion from I-P to SI units, the present approach gives results that are almost identical to those listed. It shows, however, that the performance of the coefficients is very specific to the wall from which they were derived. The b{sub n} and d{sub n} values listed in the Handbook permit an estimate to be made of the wall response factors, including the time of peak flow and the first decay time. For heavy walls, however, values beyond d{sub 6} may be needed.

  3. Jet-wall interaction effects on diesel combustion and soot formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Lopez, J. Javier

    2004-09-01

    The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and 'confined' wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  5. Benchmarking kinetic calculations of resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Betti, R.

    2014-05-15

    Validating the calculations of kinetic resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is important for confidently predicting RWM stable operating regions in ITER and other high performance tokamaks for disruption avoidance. Benchmarking the calculations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive Spectrum—Kinetic (MARS-K) [Y. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], Modification to Ideal Stability by Kinetic effects (MISK) [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)], and Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) [N. Logan et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122507 (2013)] codes for two Solov'ev analytical equilibria and a projected ITER equilibrium has demonstrated good agreement between the codes. The important particle frequencies, the frequency resonance energy integral in which they are used, the marginally stable eigenfunctions, perturbed Lagrangians, and fluid growth rates are all generally consistent between the codes. The most important kinetic effect at low rotation is the resonance between the mode rotation and the trapped thermal particle's precession drift, and MARS-K, MISK, and PENT show good agreement in this term. The different ways the rational surface contribution was treated historically in the codes is identified as a source of disagreement in the bounce and transit resonance terms at higher plasma rotation. Calculations from all of the codes support the present understanding that RWM stability can be increased by kinetic effects at low rotation through precession drift resonance and at high rotation by bounce and transit resonances, while intermediate rotation can remain susceptible to instability. The applicability of benchmarked kinetic stability calculations to experimental results is demonstrated by the prediction of MISK calculations of near marginal growth rates for experimental marginal stability points from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)].

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hygrothermal Performance of a Double-Stud Cellulose Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    Moisture problems within the building shell can be caused by a number of factors including excess interior moisture that is transported into the wall through air leakage and vapor drive, bulk water intrusion from leaks and wind-driven rain, capillary action from concrete to wood connections, and through wetted building materials such as siding wetted from rain splash back. With the increasing thickness of walls, moisture issues could increase. Several builders have successfully used “double-wall” systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker framed walls. A double wall typically consists of a load-bearing external frame wall constructed with 2 × 4 framing at 16 in. on center using conventional methods. After the building is enclosed, an additional frame wall is constructed several inches inside the load-bearing wall. Several researchers have used moisture modeling software to conduct extensive analysis of these assemblies; however, little field research has been conducted to validate the results. In this project, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored a double-stud assembly in climate zone 5A to determine the accu¬racy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable and efficient assemblies.

  7. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  8. Installing Windows with Foam Sheathing on a Wood-Frame Wall: January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    In most wall assemblies, connection details around windows have been the source of problems with water penetration into the building. This report describes how to install a window into a wall with insulating sheathing as an integrated drainage plane.

  9. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing; Wang, Xiaoping

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  10. Response to “Comment on ‘Velocity boundary conditions at a tokamak resistive wall’” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 094701 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, H. R.

    2014-09-15

    A response is given to “Comment on ‘Velocity boundary conditions at a tokamak resistive wall’?” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 094701 (2014)].

  11. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring. Final report, November 1986-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szemenyei, B.; Nelson, R.S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-08-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  12. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  13. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  14. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  15. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  16. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print Wednesday, 26 September 2007 00:00 The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray

  17. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  18. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  19. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  20. DYNA3D Finite Element Analysis of Steam Explosion Loads on a Pedestal Wall Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, C R

    2007-01-18

    The objective of this brief report is to document the ESBWR pedestal wall finite element analyses that were performed as a quick turnaround effort in July 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and describe the assumptions and failure criteria used for these analyses [Ref 4]. The analyses described within are for the pedestal wall design that included an internal steel liner. The goal of the finite element analyses was to assist in determining the load carrying capacity of the ESBWR pedestal wall subjected to an impulsive pressure generated by a steam explosion.

  1. Evolution of domain wall networks: The Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sousa, L.; Avelino, P. P.

    2010-04-15

    The Press-Ryden-Spergel (PRS) algorithm is a modification to the field theory equations of motion, parametrized by two parameters ({alpha} and {beta}), implemented in numerical simulations of cosmological domain wall networks, in order to ensure a fixed comoving resolution. In this paper we explicitly demonstrate that the PRS algorithm provides the correct domain wall dynamics in (N+1)-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes if {alpha}+{beta}/2=N, fully validating its use in numerical studies of cosmic domain evolution. We further show that this result is valid for generic thin featureless domain walls, independently of the Lagrangian of the model.

  2. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  3. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Ueno

    2015-10-01

    In this project, the Building Science Corporation team studied a historic brick building in Lawrence, Massachusetts, which is being renovated into 10 condominium units and adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings.

  5. Building America Case Study: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Year Tested: 2013-2014 Applicable Climate Zone: Hot-dry PERFORMANCE Incremental cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor): from 0.13-1.16ft 2 for single-stud wall ...

  6. Analysis of molten debris freezing and wall erosion during a severe RIA test. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Moore, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional physical model was developed to study the transient freezing of the molten debris layer (a mixture of UO/sub 2/ fuel and zircaloy cladding) produced in a severe reactivity initiated accident in-pile test and deposited on the inner surface of the test shroud wall. The wall had a finite thickness and was cooled along its outer surface by coolant bypass flow. Analyzed are the effects of debris temperature, radiation cooling at the debris layer surface, zircaloy volume ratio within the debris, and initial wall temperature on the transient freezing of the debris layer and the potential melting of the wall. The governing equations of this two-component, simultaneous freezing and melting problem in a finite geometry were solved using a one-dimensional finite element code based on the method of weighted residuals.

  7. WSRC-MS-94-0605 Wall Thinning Acceptance Criteria for Degraded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WSRC-MS-94-0605 Wall Thinning Acceptance Criteria for Degraded Carbon Steel Piping Systems Using FAD Methodology (U) by P. S. Lam Westinghouse Savannah River Company Savannah River ...

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-01

    In this project,the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team worked with builders in California to implement wall assemblies meeting a U-value lower than 0.050 Btu/h-ft2-°F. ARBI and its project team members helped builders identify preferred wall designs that met the requirements of their architects, structural engineers, and purchasing agents and that were acceptable to their subcontractors. Construction methods were observed and documented and construction costs obtained from builders were used to inform cost estimates for a range of advanced wall system types and insulation types. Wall framing types of 2 × 6 (16- and 24-in. on center [o.c.]) and double stud were modeled in Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) software with cavity insulation levels ranging from R-19 to R-33 (double stud) and exterior rigid insulation of R-4, R-6, and R-8.

  9. SU-C-BRD-06: Results From a 5 Patient in Vivo Rectal Wall Dosimetry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SU-C-BRD-06: Results From a 5 Patient in Vivo Rectal Wall Dosimetry Study Using Plastic Scintillation Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SU-C-BRD-06: Results From...

  10. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the ...

  11. Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. T

  12. Integral manifolding structure for fuel cell core having parallel gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herceg, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    Disclosed herein are manifolding means for directing the fuel and oxidant gases to parallel flow passageways in a fuel cell core. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte and interconnect wall consists respectively of anode and cathode materials layered on the opposite sides of electrolyte material, or on the opposite sides of interconnect material. A core wall projects beyond the open ends of the defined core passageways and is disposed approximately midway between and parallel to the adjacent overlaying and underlying interconnect walls to define manifold chambers therebetween on opposite sides of the wall. Each electrolyte wall defining the flow passageways is shaped to blend into and be connected to this wall in order to redirect the corresponding fuel and oxidant passageways to the respective manifold chambers either above or below this intermediate wall. Inlet and outlet connections are made to these separate manifold chambers respectively, for carrying the fuel and oxidant gases to the core, and for carrying their reaction products away from the core.

  13. Integral manifolding structure for fuel cell core having parallel gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herceg, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed herein are manifolding means for directing the fuel and oxidant gases to parallel flow passageways in a fuel cell core. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte and interconnect wall consists respectively of anode and cathode materials layered on the opposite sides of electrolyte material, or on the opposite sides of interconnect material. A core wall projects beyond the open ends of the defined core passageways and is disposed approximately midway between and parallel to the adjacent overlaying and underlying interconnect walls to define manifold chambers therebetween on opposite sides of the wall. Each electrolyte wall defining the flow passageways is shaped to blend into and be connected to this wall in order to redirect the corresponding fuel and oxidant passageways to the respective manifold chambers either above or below this intermediate wall. Inlet and outlet connections are made to these separate manifold chambers respectively, for carrying the fuel and oxidant gases to the core, and for carrying their reaction products away from the core.

  14. Passive test cell data for the solar laboratory, Winter 1980-81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    Testing was done during the 1980-81 winter in 400 ft/sup 3/ test cells at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Solar Lab. This testing was done primarily to determine the relative efficiency of various passive solar heating concepts and to obtain data that could be used to validate computer simulation programs. The passive solar systems tested were Trombe wall with and without selective absorber, water wall, phase-change wall, direct gain, a heat-pipe collector, and two sunspace geometries. The heating load coefficient of these cells was roughly 26 Btu/h /sup 0/F and the collector area was 23.4 ft/sup 2/, giving a load collector ratio of approximately 27 Btu//sup 0/F day ft/sup 2/. The test cell configurations and instrumentation are detailed herein, and the resulting data and cell efficiencies are discussed.

  15. Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 24, 2017 Title: Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod Authors: Innocente, P. ; Mansfield, D. K. ; Roquemore, A. L. ; Agostini, M. ; Barison, S. ; Canton, A. ; Carraro, L. ; Cavazzana, R. ; De Masi, G. ; Fassina, A. ; Fiameni, S. ; Grando, L. ; Rais, B. ; Rossetto, F. ;

  16. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    permalloy magnetic nanowires (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Authors: Im, Mi-Young ; Bocklage, Lars ; Meier, Guido ; Fischer, Peter Publication Date: 2011-10-27 OSTI Identifier: 1172969 Report Number(s): LBNL-5866E DOE Contract Number:

  17. COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Writ Large at Princeton | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab February 10, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy Writ Large at Princeton Professor Emily Carter Princeton University Quantum mechanics based computer simulations can help provide insights into the survivability of first wall and divertor materials. I will present results of research aimed at assessing how hydrogen isotopes interact with solid tungsten

  18. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  19. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bottles coated with deuterated polystryene (Conference) | SciTech Connect The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from the LANSCE super-thermal deuterium source were used to fill an acrylic bottle coated with deuterated polystyrene.

  20. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bottles coated with deuterated polystryene (Conference) | SciTech Connect The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  1. A Constructible and Durable High-Performance Walls System: Extended Plate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Beam | Department of Energy A Constructible and Durable High-Performance Walls System: Extended Plate and Beam A Constructible and Durable High-Performance Walls System: Extended Plate and Beam Photo courtesy of Home Innovation Research Labs. Photo courtesy of Home Innovation Research Labs. Lead Performer: Home Innovation Research Labs-Upper Marlboro, MD Partners: American Chemistry Council, Dow Building Solutions, Forest Products Laboratory, Builders DOE Total Funding: $256,818 Cost

  2. Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

  3. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

  4. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  5. Influence of wall impedance and self-fields on the cyclotron maser instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Maraghechi, Behrouz; Chakhmachi, Amir

    2009-09-01

    The compound influence of wall impedance and self-fields on the cyclotron maser instability is investigated for a hollow electron beam. A stability analysis is carried out using the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations, under the assumption that the beam thickness is small compared to the beam radius. A dispersion relation is derived and solved numerically to study the effects of the wall impedance and self-fields on the cyclotron maser instability. These effects lead to the elliptical motion of the equilibrium configuration. The growth rate decreases due to the wall resistivity and self-fields. It has been shown that the interaction between the self-field and impedance effects is in the lower reduction in the growth rate when they are both present compared to their separate effects added together. The instability bandwidth increases due to the wall impedance and decreases due to the self fields. In the presence of self-fields, a very small increase in the wall impedance causes an increase in the instability bandwidth. This shows that the widening effect of the bandwidth due to the wall impedance is dominant and prevails over the narrowing effect of the self-field.

  6. Response of a partial wall to an external perturbation of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanasiu, C. V.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we present the response of a 3D thin multiply connected wall to an external kink mode perturbation in axisymmetric tokamak configurations. To calculate the contribution of the plasma perturbed magnetic field in the vacuum region, we have made use of the concept of surface currents [following C. V. Atanasiu, A. H. Boozer, L. E. Zakharov, and A. A. Subbotin, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2781 (1999)]. The wall response is expressed in terms of a stream function of the wall surface currents, which are obtained by solving a diffusion type equation, taking into account the contribution of the wall currents themselves iteratively. The use of stream function makes the approach applicable for both well-studied earlier Resistive Wall Modes and for Wall Touching Kink Modes, which were discovered recently as a key phenomenon in disruptions [L. E. Zakharov, S. A. Galkin, and S. N. Gerasimov, Phys. Plasmas 19, 055703 (2012)]. New analytical expressions, suitable for numerical calculations of toroidal harmonics of the vacuum magnetic fields from the surface currents on axisymmetric shells, are derived.

  7. A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1989-09-01

    Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Translational Genomics for the Improvement of Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpita, Nicholas; McCann, Maureen

    2014-05-07

    Our objectives were to apply bioinformatics and high throughput sequencing technologies to identify and classify the genes involved in cell wall formation in maize and switchgrass. Targets for genetic modification were to be identified and cell wall materials isolated and assayed for enhanced performance in bioprocessing. We annotated and assembled over 750 maize genes into gene families predicted to function in cell wall biogenesis. Comparative genomics of maize, rice, and Arabidopsis sequences revealed differences in gene family structure. In addition, differences in expression between gene family members of Arabidopsis, maize and rice underscored the need for a grass-specific genetic model for functional analyses. A forward screen of mature leaves of field-grown maize lines by near-infrared spectroscopy yielded several dozen lines with heritable spectroscopic phenotypes, several of which near-infrared (nir) mutants had altered carbohydrate-lignin compositions. Our contributions to the maize genome sequencing effort built on knowledge of copy number variation showing that uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. For example, although about 25% of all duplicated genes remain genome-wide, all of the cellulose synthase (CesA) homologs were retained. We showed that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in lignocellulosic cell-wall materials from stems demonstrate a two-fold natural variation in content across a population of maize Intermated B73 x Mo7 (IBM) recombinant inbred lines, a maize Association Panel of 282 inbreds and landraces, and three populations of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) recombinant inbred lines grown in three years. We then defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stem lignin content measured using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and glucose and xylose yield measured using an enzymatic hydrolysis assay. Among five multi-year QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize Association Panel provided candidate genes in the eleven QTL and showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist in the broader pool of maize genetic diversity. The maize B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited surprisingly large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues, suggesting certain regulatory elements can significantly enhance activity of biomass synthesis pathways. Candidate genes, identified by GWAS or by differential expression, include genes of cell-wall metabolism, transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation, and components of cellular signaling pathways. Our work provides new insights and strategies beyond modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically tailored biomass.

  9. Process for forming a long gas turbine engine blade having a main wall with a thin portion near a tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X; Thomaidis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-13

    A process is provided for forming an airfoil for a gas turbine engine involving: forming a casting of a gas turbine engine airfoil having a main wall and an interior cavity, the main wall having a wall thickness extending from an external surface of the outer wall to the interior cavity, an outer section of the main wall extending from a location between a base and a tip of the airfoil casting to the tip having a wall thickness greater than a final thickness. The process may further involve effecting movement, using a computer system, of a material removal apparatus and the casting relative to one another such that a layer of material is removed from the casting at one or more radial portions along the main wall of the casting.

  10. SIMULATION AND MOCKUP OF SNS JET-FLOW TARGET WITH WALL JET FOR CAVITATION DAMAGE MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Felde, David K

    2014-01-01

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory induce cavitation damage on the stainless steel target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. Severe through-wall cavitation damage on an internal wall near the beam entrance window has been observed in spent-targets. Surprisingly though, there is very little damage on the walls that bound an annular mercury channel that wraps around the front and outside of the target. The mercury flow through this channel is characterized by smooth, attached streamlines. One theory to explain this lack of damage is that the uni-directional flow biases the direction of the collapsing cavitation bubble, reducing the impact pressure and subsequent damage. The theory has been reinforced by in-beam separate effects data. For this reason, a second-generation SNS mercury target has been designed with an internal wall jet configuration intended to protect the concave wall where damage has been observed. The wall jet mimics the annular flow channel streamlines, but since the jet is bounded on only one side, the momentum is gradually diffused by the bulk flow interactions as it progresses around the cicular path of the target nose. Numerical simulations of the flow through this jet-flow target have been completed, and a water loop has been assembled with a transparent test target in order to visualize and measure the flow field. This paper presents the wall jet simulation results, as well as early experimental data from the test loop.

  11. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Kenneth W; Stovall, Therese K

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  12. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  13. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M.; Abbott, R. P.; Havstad, M. A.; Dunne, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80–100 ?m into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 ?m without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

    1990-01-01

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

  15. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  16. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  17. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  18. A wall and edge guarded hot box for thermal transmittance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatland, S.D. II; Miller, R.G.; Goss, W.P.; Baumgardner, R.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    A unique guarded hot box designed for thermal testing of fenestration products incorporates several new design concepts from guarded hot plates, namely wall and edge guards, is described in detail. The wall and edge guarded hot box was built to meet the test methodologies specified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Methods C 236-89, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Guarded Hot Box, C 976-90, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Calibrated Hot Box and C 1199-91, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Transmittance of Fenestration Systems Using Hot Box Methods. Calibration test results for the box wall and specimen frame flanking are presented. Results from calibration transfer standard tests are compared with theoretical calculations and discussed.

  19. Pigments with or without organic binder? A survey of wall painting techniques during Antiquity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, P.

    1996-01-01

    The identification of ancient artistic techniques is based on laboratory studies and, for historical cases, also on literary sources. An analytical approach using the techniques of physical chemistry reveals the technical expertise of the artists, right at the dawn of art. In the case of prehistoric parietal art, we show that the artists prepared their pigments with different ground and mixed minerals. They applied their material onto the wall and the particles remained embedded in the superficial calcite layer. Later, the prehistoric people prepared a real paint with the proper pigment, an extender and an organic binder to fix the paint on the wall. During Antiquity, new techniques appear. The paint is applied to the natural or artificial wall and is executed, either directly or on a previously applied plaster. The aim of this paper is to describe the evolution of the techniques. The underlying chemistry provides some interesting clues on the technical choices. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2008-10-07

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  1. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay A.

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Collie, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 18 AND TANK 19 WALL SAMPLER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Thaxton, D.; Minichan, R.; France, T.; Steeper, T.; Corbett, J.; Martin, B.; Vetsch, B.

    2009-12-19

    A sampling tool was required to evaluate residual activity ({mu}Curies per square foot) on the inner wall surfaces of underground nuclear waste storage tanks. The tool was required to collect a small sample from the 3/8 inch thick tank walls. This paper documents the design, testing, and deployment of the remotely operated sampling device. The sampler provides material from a known surface area to estimate the overall surface contamination in the tank prior to closure. The sampler consisted of a sampler and mast assembly mast assembly, control system, and the sampler, or end effector, which is defined as the operating component of a robotic arm. The mast assembly consisted of a vertical 30 feet long, 3 inch by 3 inch, vertical steel mast and a cantilevered arm hinged at the bottom of the mast and lowered by cable to align the attached sampler to the wall. The sampler and mast assembly were raised and lowered through an opening in the tank tops, called a riser. The sampler is constructed of a mounting plate, a drill, springs to provide a drive force to the drill, a removable sampler head to collect the sample, a vacuum pump to draw the sample from the drill to a filter, and controls to operate the system. Once the sampler was positioned near the wall, electromagnets attached it to the wall, and the control system was operated to turn on the drill and vacuum to remove and collect a sample from the wall. Samples were collected on filters in removable sampler heads, which were readily transported for further laboratory testing.

  5. Method of fabricating a monolithic core for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwick, Stanley A.; Ackerman, John P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a core for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that electrochemically combines fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support consisting instead only of the active anode, cathode, electrolyte and interconnect materials. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte and interconnect walls define a plurality of substantially parallel core passageways alternately having respectively the inside faces thereof with only the anode material or with only the cathode material exposed. In the wall structure, the electrolyte and interconnect materials are only 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and the cathode and anode materials are only 0.002-0.05 cm thick. The method consists of building up the electrolyte and interconnect walls by depositing each material on individually and endwise of the wall itself, where each material deposit is sequentially applied for one cycle; and where the depositing cycle is repeated many times until the material buildup is sufficient to formulate the core. The core is heat cured to become dimensionally and structurally stable.

  6. Method of fabricating a monolithic core for a solid oxide fuela cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwick, S.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1983-10-12

    A method is disclosed for forming a core for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that electrochemically combines fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support consisting instead only of the active anode, cathode, electrolyte and interconnect materials. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte and interconnect walls define a plurality of substantially parallel core passageways alternately having respectively the inside faces thereof with only the anode material or with only the cathode material exposed. In the wall structure, the electrolyte and interconnect materials are only 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and the cathode and anode materials are only 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. The method consists of building up the electrolyte and interconnect walls by depositing each material on individually and endwise of the wall itself, where each material deposit is sequentially applied for one cycle; and where the depositing cycle is repeated many times until the material buildup is sufficient to formulate the core. The core is heat cured to become dimensionally and structurally stable.

  7. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 27 August 2008 00:00 Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core.

  8. Catalytic Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: An {ital Ab Initio} Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.G.; Tomanek, D.; Lee, Y.H.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a catalytic growth mechanism of single-wall carbon nanotubes based on density functional total energy calculations. Our results indicate nanotubes with an {open_quotes}armchair{close_quotes} edge to be energetically favored over {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} nanotubes. We also suggest that highly mobile Ni catalyst atoms adsorb at the growing edge of the nanotube, where they catalyze the continuing assembly of hexagons from carbon feedstock diffusing along the nanotube wall. In a concerted exchange mechanism, Ni atoms anneal carbon pentagons that would initiate a dome closure of the nanotube. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph; Baker, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  10. Joseph S. Wall, 1988 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joseph S. Wall, 1988 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's Joseph S. Wall, 1988 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Life Sciences: For his singular

  11. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph; Baker, Peter

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  12. Single bunch intensity monitoring system using an improved wall current monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, C.D.; Crisp, J.; Howard, D.; Kerns, Q.; Martin, P.; McConnell, D.; Michals, P.; Payne, J.; Tawzer, S.; Webber, R.

    1989-03-01

    Important parameters in collider operations are the length and intensity of individual beam bunches. A system to automatically measure these parameters has been developed using a wall current monitor signal digitized by a 1 GHz sampling oscilloscope under microprocessor control. Bunch length and intensity are computed by the microprocessor and presented to the host computer. To verify the required accuracy, attention has been paid to the calibration and frequency response of the system. Design and performance of a new wall current monitor with improved bandwidth is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Method of fabricating thin-walled articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating thin-walled high-density structures oftungsten-nickel-iron alloys. A powdered blend of the selected alloy constituents is plasma sprayed onto a mandrel having the desired article configuration. The sprayed deposit is removed from the mandrel and subjected to liquid phase sintering to provide the alloyed structure. The formation of the thin-walled structure by plasma spraying significantly reduces shrinkage, and cracking while increasing physical properties of the structure over that obtainable by employing previously known powder metallurgical procedures.

  14. Gravitational waves from domain walls in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadota, Kenji; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken’ichi

    2015-10-16

    The next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model predicts the formation of domain walls due to the spontaneous breaking of the discrete Z{sub 3}-symmetry at the electroweak phase transition, and they collapse before the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis if there exists a small bias term in the potential which explicitly breaks the discrete symmetry. Signatures of gravitational waves produced from these unstable domain walls are estimated and their parameter dependence is investigated. It is shown that the amplitude of gravitational waves becomes generically large in the decoupling limit, and that their frequency is low enough to be probed in future pulsar timing observations.

  15. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems.

  16. Electric field driven magnetic domain wall motion in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Laurson, Lasse; Franke, Kévin J. A.; Dijken, Sebastiaan van

    2014-01-06

    We investigate magnetic domain wall (MDW) dynamics induced by applied electric fields in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric thin-film heterostructures. In contrast to conventional driving mechanisms where MDW motion is induced directly by magnetic fields or electric currents, MDW motion arises here as a result of strong pinning of MDWs onto ferroelectric domain walls (FDWs) via local strain coupling. By performing extensive micromagnetic simulations, we find several dynamical regimes, including instabilities such as spin wave emission and complex transformations of the MDW structure. In all cases, the time-averaged MDW velocity equals that of the FDW, indicating the absence of Walker breakdown.

  17. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  18. Chamber wall interactions with HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Ohashi, Tomohiro; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2015-07-15

    The authors have studied the interaction of HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas with reactor chamber wall deposits, with and without Si etching, using the “spinning wall” technique. The spinning wall is part of the reactor chamber walls, allowing near-real-time analysis of the composition of surface layers via Auger electron spectrometry and determination of species desorbing off the walls by mass spectrometry. In HBr plasmas with no bias voltage on the Si substrate, and hence no Si etching, HBr is ?30% dissociated, and H{sub 2} and Br{sub 2} form in the plasma. Layers deposited on the reactor chamber contained little if any Br under these conditions. Adding O{sub 2} to an HBr plasma leads to formation of H{sub 2}O and increased Br{sub 2} (compared to a pure HBr plasma) products that desorb from the spinning wall. H{sub 2}O has a very long residence time on the surface. With bias voltage applied to the Si substrate in an HBr plasma, mass spectrometer signals are prominent for SiBr and SiBr{sub 3}, and weaker for SiBr{sub 2}, SiBr{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 5}, and Si{sub 2}OBr{sub 5}. Under these conditions, a SiO{sub x}Br{sub y} layer deposits on the spinning wall. Adding 20% O{sub 2} to HBr stops etching and eliminates Br from the surface layer, indicating that Br on the reactor walls is a result of SiBr{sub x} impingement and not from bromination by impinging Br. With HBr/Cl{sub 2} plasmas and no bias on the stage, a SiO{sub x}Cl{sub y} layer deposits, and no Br is detected. HCl, BrCl, and Br{sub 2} were detected in the line-of-sight leak, around the spinning wall, of a HBr/Cl{sub 2} (1:1) gas mixture in the absence of a plasma. Residence time analysis of species in the chamber and a change in the product distribution with a change in the composition of the layer deposited on the chamber wall suggest that reactions forming these products in the absence of a plasma occur on the reactor walls. With a plasma and bias on the Si substrate, both Br and Cl incorporate in the layer, and a rich spectrum with numerous SiCl{sub x}Br{sub y} peaks was observed up to at least 500 amu. The spectrum does not change with the addition of 6% O{sub 2}. Adding 20% O{sub 2} suppresses Br adsorption, but Cl still adsorbs. In 40% O{sub 2}/HBr/Cl{sub 2} plasmas with stage bias, Cl adsorption also ceases and no etching products are observed in the mass spectrum.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DOSE RATES DURING REPLACEMENT OF MANIPULATORS IN THE FFTF INTERIM EXAMINATION & MAINTENANCE (IEM) CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON, J.V.

    2002-01-23

    Replacement of a master-slave manipulator in the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility was carried out in August 2001. This operation created a 178-mm opening in the thick concrete wall of the hot cell. To aid in radiological work planning, dose rates outside the penetration in the wall were predicted using MCNP{trademark} photon transport calculations. The predicted dose rate was 7.7 mrem/h, which was reasonably close to the value of 10.4 mrem/h inferred from measurements.

  20. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, David P.

    1985-01-01

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal.

  1. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  2. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  3. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Hariharan; Klocke, Steve; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  4. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, D.P.

    1985-09-10

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Stud Walls with Continuous Exterior Insulation for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research — stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  6. Three-Dimensional Numerical Evaluation of Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, El Hassan; Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-11-01

    This study describes a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics model that evaluates the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies. It accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation and allows for material property variations with temperature. This research was presented at the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition; Denver, Colorado; November 11-17, 2011

  7. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhilin; Chang Ruiming; Mu Long; Song Guoyang; Wang Heyi; Wu Guanyin; Wei Xiye

    2010-07-15

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of {beta} particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3}.

  8. Current methods to handle wall conduction and room internal heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews methods of handling wall conduction and room internal heat exchange adopted by ASHRAE (1993 Handbook of Fundamentals and later developments), CIBSE (1986 Guide and current proposals), and the CEN/TC89/WG6 proposals to calculate heating and cooling loads and related topics.

  9. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  10. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  11. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of 2012 compared to previous winters. This project achieved its goal of developing a system that is constructible, offers protection to the VIPs, and meets all performance targets established for the project.

  12. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per 1000 hours over a

  13. Temperature dependence of carrier spin polarization determined from current-induced domain wall motion in a Co/Ni nanowire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, K.; Koyama, T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Chiba, D.; Fukami, S.; Tanigawa, H.; Suzuki, T.; Ohshima, N.; Ishiwata, N.; Nakatani, Y.

    2012-05-14

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni nanowire at various temperatures and with various applied currents. The carrier spin polarization was estimated from the measured domain wall velocity. We found that it decreased more with increasing temperature from 100 K to 530 K than the saturation magnetization did.

  14. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  15. LIFE Materials: Topical Assessment Report for LIFE Volume 1 TOPIC: Solid First Wall and Structural Components TASK: Radiation Effects on First Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, A

    2008-11-26

    This report consists of the following chapters: CHAPTER A: LIFE Requirements for Materials. Part 1: The structure of the First Wall--Basic requirements; A qualitative view of the challenge; The candidate materials; and Base-line material's properties. CHAPTER B: Summary of Existing Knowledge--Brief historical introduction; Design window; The temperature window; Evolution of the design window with damage; Damage calculations; He and H production; Swelling resistance; Incubation dose for swelling; Design criterion No. 1, Strength; Design criterion No. 2, Corrosion resistance; Design criterion No. 3, Creep resistance; Design criterion No. 4, Radiation induced embrittlement; and Conclusions. CHAPTER C: Identification of Gaps in Knowledge & Vulnerabilities. CHAPTER D: Strategy and Future Work.

  16. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  17. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  18. fuel cells | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    fuel cells

  19. Los Alamos passive test cell results for the 1981-82 winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Balcomb, J.D.; Moore, S.W.

    1982-10-01

    This report covers Los Alamos test cell operation during the winter of 1981-82 including comparisons with the 1980-81 winter. Extensive data have been taken and computer-analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and discomfort index. The data from different test cells are directly comparable because each has similar heating-load coefficient and collector area. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water wall, phase-change wall, and sunspaces. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two types of improved glazing systems, a heat pipe system, and convection suppression baffles. Significant differences in both auxiliary heat and comfort were observed among the various system types. The results are useful, not only for direct system comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs. Availability of hourly data is described.

  20. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical interpretation of the flow configuration, including the hot-to-cold flow close to the side walls, in the whole range of the Knudsen number is provided.

  1. Wall loss of atomic nitrogen determined by ionization threshold mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sode, M. Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.; Kersten, H.

    2014-11-21

    In the afterglow of an inductively coupled N{sub 2} plasma, relative N atom densities are measured by ionization threshold mass spectrometry as a function of time in order to determine the wall loss time t{sub wN} from the exponential decay curves. The procedure is performed with two mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber. t{sub wN} is determined for various pressures, i.e., for 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10?Pa. For this conditions also the internal plasma parameters electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} are determined with the Langmuir probe and the rotational temperature T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}} of N{sub 2} is determined with the optical emission spectroscopy. For T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}}, a procedure is presented to evaluate the spectrum of the transition ?{sup ?}=0??{sup ?}=2 of the second positive system (C{sup 3}?{sub u}?B{sup 3}?{sub g}) of N{sub 2}. With this method, a gas temperature of 610?K is determined. For both mass spectrometers, an increase of the wall loss times of atomic nitrogen with increasing pressure is observed. The wall loss time measured with the first mass spectrometer in the radial center of the cylindrical plasma vessel increases linearly from 0.31?ms for 3?Pa to 0.82?ms for 10?Pa. The wall loss time measured with the second mass spectrometer (further away from the discharge) is about 4 times higher. A model is applied to describe the measured t{sub wN.} The main loss mechanism of atomic nitrogen for the considered pressure is diffusion to the wall. The surface loss probability ?{sub N} of atomic nitrogen on stainless steel was derived from t{sub wN} and is found to be 1 for the present conditions. The difference in wall loss times measured with the mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber is attributed to the different diffusion lengths.

  2. Effect of dielectric wall temperature on plasma plume in an argon atmospheric pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jian; Huo, Yuxin; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this letter, the effect of the dielectric wall temperature on the length and volume of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated using a single-electrode configuration driven with an AC power supply. To distinguish the APPJ status from the argon flow rate, the three modes, laminar, transition, and turbulent, are separated. When the dielectric wall is heated, the APPJ length and volume are enhanced. Also, the transition regions remarkably expand over a large range of flow rates. The results indicate that different factors contribute to the expansion of the transition region. The increase in the radial and axial velocities is the main cause of the expansion of the transition region to the low-velocity region. The expansion to the high-velocity region is dominantly induced by a change in the viscosity.

  3. Stability of a pinned magnetic domain wall as a function of its internal configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montaigne, F.; Duluard, A.; Briones, J.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Childress, J. R.

    2015-01-14

    It is shown that there are many stable configurations for a domain wall pinned by a notch along a magnetic stripe. The stability of several of these configurations is investigated numerically as a function of the thickness of the magnetic film. The depinning mechanism depends on the structure of the domain wall and on the thickness of the magnetic film. In the case of a spin-valve structure, it appears that the stray fields emerging from the hard layer at the notch location influence the stability of the micromagnetic configuration. Different depinning mechanisms are thus observed for the same film thickness depending on the magnetization orientation of the propagating domain. This conclusion qualitatively explains experimental magnetoresistance measurements.

  4. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0?57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  5. Nonlinear propagation of ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma channel limited by metallic walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sid, A.; Debbache, D.; Bendib, A.

    2006-08-15

    The nonlinear propagation of an ultraintense and ultrashort (UIUS) laser pulse in a metallic capillary is investigated using a classical model which takes into account the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption (IBA) in the formed plasma. The attenuation of the laser pulse due to the IBA in the plasma and to the laser energy dissipation in the metallic walls is shown. The guiding length and the twist of the laser pulse temporal envelope are presented for several values of the parameters of the plasma, the laser pulse and the metal. The numerical treatment shows that the guiding length increases when the pulse duration becomes shorter. This calculus shows also that in the case of moderate electronic densities, n{sub e}<10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, the formed plasma has a negligible effect compared to that of the metallic walls.

  6. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  7. Single walled carbon nanotube network—Tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyer, Ajai Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Johansson, Leena-Sisko

    2015-06-14

    Single walled carbon nanotube network (SWCNTN) was coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) using a pulsed Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc system to form a SWCNTN—ta-C composite film. The effects of SWCNTN areal coverage density and ta-C coating thickness on the composite film properties were investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove the presence of high quality sp{sup 3} bonded ta-C coating on the SWCNTN. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) forming the network survived encapsulation in the ta-C coating. Nano-mechanical testing suggests that the ta-C coated SWCNTN has superior wear performance compared to uncoated SWCNTN.

  8. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  9. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overmier, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurements of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  10. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems. The testing methods presented in this report evaluate structural rim header designs over openings up to 6 ft wide and applicable to one- and two-story homes.

  11. APEX ADVANCED FERRITIC STEEL, FLIBE SELF-COOLED FIRST WALL AND BLANKET DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WONG,CPC; MALANG,S; SAWAN,M; SVIATOSLAVSKY,I; MOGAHED,E; SMOLENTSEV,S; MAJUMDAR,S; MERRILL,B; MATTAS,R; FRIEND,M; BOLIN,J; SHARAFAT,S

    2003-11-01

    OAK-B135 As an element in the US Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) program, they evaluated the design option of using advanced nanocomposite ferritic steel (AFS) as the structural material and Flibe as the tritium breeder and coolant. They selected the recirculating flow configuration as the reference design. Based on the material properties of AFS, they found that the reference design can handle a maximum surface heat flux of 1 MW/m{sup 2}, and a maximum neutron wall loading of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}, with a gross thermal efficiency of 47%, while meeting all the tritium breeding and structural design requirements. This paper covers the results of the following areas of evaluation: materials selection, first wall and blanket design configuration, materials compatibility, components fabrication, neutronics analysis, thermal hydraulics analysis including MHD effects, structural analysis, molten salt and helium closed cycle power conversion system, and safety and waste disposal of the recirculating coolant design.

  12. Development of a Thin-Wall Magnesium side door Inner Panel for Automobiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jekl, J.; Auld, J.; Sweet, C.; Carter, Jon; Resch, Steve; Klarner, A.; Brevick, J.; Luo, A.

    2015-05-17

    Cast magnesium side door inner panels can provide a good combination of weight, functional, manufacturing and economical requirements. However, several challenges exist including casting technology for thin-wall part design, multi-material incompatibility and relatively low strength vs steel. A project has been initiated, supported by the US Department of Energy, to design and develop a lightweight frame-under-glass door having a thin-wall, full die-cast, magnesium inner panel. This development project is the first of its kind within North America. Phase I of the project is now complete and the 2.0mm magnesium design, through casting process enablers, has met or exceeded all stiffness requirements, with significant mass reduction and part consolidation. In addition, a corrosion mitigation strategy has been established using industry-accepted galvanic isolation methods and coating technologies.

  13. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  14. NREL's Cybersecurity Initiative Aims to Wall Off the Smart Grid from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hackers - News Feature | NREL Cybersecurity Initiative Aims to Wall Off the Smart Grid from Hackers January 4, 2016 Photo of a group of people working on computers From left to right, NREL's Brian Miller works with David Cronin of DC Systems, Duane Petersen (then with Scitor Corporation), Brandon Hjella of FireEye, and NREL's Erfan Ibrahim to build the Test Bed for Secure Distributed Grid Management, a hardware system that mimics the communications, power systems, and cybersecurity layers

  15. Wall-associated kinase-like polypeptide mediates nutritional status perception and response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenbiao; Karr, Stephen

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates to methods for modulating plant growth and organogenesis using dominant-negative receptor-like kinases. The disclosure further provides a method for increasing plant yield relative to corresponding wild type plants comprising modulating the expression in a plant of a nucleic acid encoding a Wall-Associated Kinase-like 14 polypeptide or a homolog thereof, and selecting for plants having increased yield or growth on a nutrient deficient substrate.

  16. Effect of residual catalyst on the vibrational modes of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, L.E.; Park, H.; Lu, J.P.; Peters, M.J.

    2004-11-01

    Raman scattering measurements of single-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation with Ni/Co catalyst show that samples that have not been purified have a graphitic mode frequency that is 8 cm{sup -1} lower than that of samples from which most of the catalyst has been removed. The shift is attributed to charge transfer from the catalyst particles to the nanotubes. The charge transfer from the residual catalyst also affects the temperature dependence of the radial breathing mode.

  17. Ordered Mesoporous CMK-5 Carbon with Ultra-Thin Pore Walls and Highly Dispersed Nickel Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pawquale F; Liang, Chengdu; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2009-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous CMK-5 carbons with ultra-thin carbon pore walls and highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by using two different SBA-15 silicas as hard templates and 2, 3-di-hydroxynaphtalene (DHN) as a carbon precursor. The nickel precursor was a concentrated nickel nitrate hexahydrate [Ni(NO3)2.6H2O] solution in isopropanol added to the carbon-silica nanocomposites prior to thermal treatments. The samples studied were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG), nitrogen adsorption at -196 C, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and in situ electron diffraction X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). While TG revealed carbon contents lower than 30 wt%, nitrogen adsorption provided information about homogeneity of carbon thin film deposited onto mesopore walls of ordered silica templates, SBA-15. The templates, carbon-silica nanocomposites and carbon inverse replicas with nickel nanoparticles exhibited uniform pores, high surface areas and large pore volumes. Graphitic carbon was identified by the presence of a characteristic G band on Raman spectra, whereas the diffraction peak attributed to the stacking of graphene planes was not observed by powder XRD.The presence of ordered domains in the carbon materials studied was confirmed by small angle XRD and STEM imaging. In addition, the STEM images revealed that the nickel nanoparticles were uniform in size, ~3nm, and were homogeneously dispersed within ordered tubular carbon walls. A few larger clusters of nickel, ~60nm, present on the external surface, were identified by powder XRD as metallic Ni. The in situ EDX revealed that the small nanoparticles were largely composed of Ni with traces of NiO. Similar nanoparticles dispersions have been reported only for Ni-containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whereas previously reported ordered mesoporous carbons possessed larger Ni/NiO nanoparticles within CMK-3 nanostructure.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility, Cloquet, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the University of Minnesota’s Cloquet Residential Research Facility (CRRF) in northern Minnesota, which features more than 2,500 ft2 of below-grade space for building systems foundation hygrothermal research. Here, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team researches ways to improve the energy efficiency of the building envelope, including wall assemblies, basements, roofs, insulation, and air leakage.

  19. Dispersionless propagation of electron wavepackets in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosati, Roberto; Rossi, Fausto; Dolcini, Fabrizio

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the propagation of electron wavepackets in single-walled carbon nanotubes via a Lindblad-based density-matrix approach that enables us to account for both dissipation and decoherence effects induced by various phonon modes. We show that, while in semiconducting nanotubes the wavepacket experiences the typical dispersion of conventional materials, in metallic nanotubes its shape remains essentially unaltered, even in the presence of the electron-phonon coupling, up to micron distances at room temperature.

  20. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  1. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Márquez, Francisco; López, Vicente; Morant, Carmen; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Domingo, Concepción; Elizalde, Eduardo; Zamora, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Arrmore » ays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800°C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.« less

  2. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  3. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrison, Melton E. (Powell, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  4. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.E.

    1982-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  5. Performance of reduced wall EPR insulated medium voltage power cables. Pat 1: Electrical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquemani, P.L.; Wen, Y.; Kuchta, F.L.; Doench, C.

    1997-04-01

    Paper insulated lead covered cables (PILC) have had a long and successful heritage. After almost 100 years, this design of cable is still in operation and continues to be manufactured. However, utilities are now looking for a reliable replacement for PILC cables. This is due to two primary reasons: (1) difficulty in installing and maintaining this type of cable and (2) increasing pressure to replace these cables due to environmental concerns. To date diameter limitations of conventional extruded dielectric cables has impeded their replacement in existing PILC conduits. This paper describes a study for the evaluation for reliably reducing the insulation thickness to achieve a lower diameter cable to effectively replace PILC cable in existing conduits. Part 1 of the investigation reviews the theory of insulation wall determination and the test program carried out to evaluate electrical performance of reduced wall EPR cables. Additionally, cable design concepts and constructions are discussed. In Part 2 the mechanical performance on conventional and reduced wall EPR insulated cables are evaluated. This is reported in a separate paper.

  6. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Il; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-08-15

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  7. Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Dayton

    2004-04-30

    Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

  8. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  9. Comprehensive kinetic analysis of the plasma-wall transition layer in a strongly tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tskhakaya, D. D.; Kos, L.

    2014-10-15

    The magnetized plasma-wall transition (MPWT) layer at the presence of the obliquity of the magnetic field to the wall consists of three sub-layers: the Debye sheath (DS), the magnetic pre-sheath (MPS), and the collisional pre-sheath (CPS) with characteristic lengths ?{sub D} (electron Debye length), ?{sub i} (ion gyro-radius), and ? (the smallest relevant collision length), respectively. Tokamak plasmas are usually assumed to have the ordering ?{sub D}??{sub i}??, when the above-mentioned sub-layers can be distinctly distinguished. In the limits of ?{sub Dm}(?{sub D}/?{sub i})?0 and ?{sub mc}(?{sub i}/?)?0 (“asymptotic three-scale (A3S) limits”), these sub-layers are precisely defined. Using the smallness of the tilting angle of the magnetic field to the wall, the ion distribution functions are found for three sub-regions in the analytic form. The equations and characteristic length-scales governing the transition (intermediate) regions between the neighboring sub-layers (CPS – MPS and MPS – DS) are derived, allowing to avoid the singularities arising from the ?{sub Dm}?0 and ?{sub mc}?0 approximations. The MPS entrance and the related kinetic form of the Bohm–Chodura condition are successfully defined for the first time. At the DS entrance, the Bohm condition maintains its usual form. The results encourage further study and understanding of physics of the MPWT layers in the modern plasma facilities.

  10. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoedler, Reinhard (Nussloch, DE); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  11. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoedler, R.; Nelson, P.A.; Shimotake, H.; Battles, J.E.

    1983-07-26

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  12. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  14. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  16. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  17. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  18. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  19. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  20. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’énergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)] [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’énergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  1. f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} in full QCD with domain wall valence quarks (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} in full QCD with domain wall valence quarks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} in full QCD with domain wall valence quarks We compute the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} using domain-wall valence quarks and rooted improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks, at a lattice spacing of b{approx}0.125 fm. By employing continuum chiral perturbation theory, we extract the Gasser-Leutwyler low-energy

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  3. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga {sup +} ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burn, D. M. Atkinson, D.

    2014-10-28

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  4. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: High-Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with builders in California to implement wall assemblies meeting a U-value lower than 0.050 Btu/h-ft2-°F. ARBI and its project team members helped builders identify preferred wall designs that met the requirements of their architects, structural engineers, and purchasing agents and that were acceptable to their subcontractors. Construction methods were observed and documented and construction costs obtained from builders were used to inform cost estimates for a range of advanced wall system types and insulation types. Wall framing types of 2 × 6 (16- and 24-in. on center [o.c.]) and double stud were modeled in Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) software with cavity insulation levels ranging from R-19 to R-33 (double stud) and exterior rigid insulation of R-4, R-6, and R-8.

  5. Development of EEM based silicon–water and silica–water wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J.H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; Steenhoven, Anton A. van

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluid–solid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate water–silicon and water–silica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a silicon–water contact angle of 129°, a quartz–water contact angle of 0°, and a cristobalite–water contact angle of 40°, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  6. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Wang, D.; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  8. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  10. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  11. Method Of Making Closed End Ceramic Fuel Cell Tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P.

    2002-04-30

    A method of manufacturing closed end ceramic fuel cell tubes with improved properties and higher manufacturing yield is disclosed. The method involves bonding an unfired cap to a hollow unfired tube to form a compound joint. The assembly is then fired to net shape without subsequent machining. The resultant closed end tube is superior in that it provides a leak-tight seal and its porosity is substantially identical to that of the tube wall. The higher manufacturing yield associated with the present method decreases overall fuel cell cost significantly.

  12. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  13. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  14. Structural behavior and dynamics of an anomalous fluid between attractive and repulsive walls: Templating, molding, and superdiffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, Fabio; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2014-11-07

    Confinement can modify the dynamics, the thermodynamics, and the structural properties of liquid water, the prototypical anomalous liquid. By considering a generic model for anomalous liquids, suitable for describing solutions of globular proteins, colloids, or liquid metals, we study by molecular dynamics simulations the effect that an attractive wall with structure and a repulsive wall without structure have on the phases, the crystal nucleation, and the dynamics of the fluid. We find that at low temperatures the large density of the attractive wall induces a high-density, high-energy structure in the first layer (“templating” effect). In turn, the first layer induces a “molding” effect on the second layer determining a structure with reduced energy and density, closer to the average density of the system. This low-density, low-energy structure propagates further through the layers by templating effect and can involve all the existing layers at the lowest temperatures investigated. Therefore, although the high-density, high-energy structure does not self-reproduce further than the first layer, the structured wall can have a long-range influence thanks to a sequence of templating, molding, and templating effects through the layers. We find that the walls also have an influence on the dynamics of the liquid, with a stronger effect near the attractive wall. In particular, we observe that the dynamics is largely heterogeneous (i) among the layers, as a consequence of the sequence of structures caused by the walls presence, and (ii) within the same layer, due to superdiffusive liquid veins within a frozen matrix of particles near the walls at low temperature and high density. Hence, the partial freezing of the first layer does not correspond necessarily to an effective reduction of the channel's section in terms of transport properties, as suggested by other authors.

  15. Electrochemical cell having cylindrical electrode elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A secondary, high temperature electrochemical cell especially adapted for lithium alloy negative electrodes, transition metal chalcogenide positive electrodes and alkali metal halide or alkaline earth metal halide electrolyte is disclosed. The cell is held within an elongated cylindrical container in which one of the active materials is filled around the outside surfaces of a plurality of perforate tubular current collectors along the length of the container. Each of the current collector tubes contain a concentric tubular layer of electrically insulative ceramic as an interelectrode separator. The active material of opposite polarity in elongated pin shape is positioned longitudinally within the separator layer. A second electrically conductive tube with perforate walls can be swagged or otherwise bonded to the outer surface of the pin as a current collector and the electrically insulative ceramic layer can be coated or otherwise layered onto the outer surface of this second current collector. Alternatively, the central pin electrode can include an axial core as a current collector.

  16. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  17. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  18. Testing of and model development for double-walled thermal tubular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satchwell, R.M.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    Insulated tubular products have become essential for use in steam injection projects. In a steam injection project, steam is created at the surface by either steam boilers or generators. During this process, steam travels from a boiler through surface lines to the wellhead, down the wellbore to the sandface, and into the reservoir. For some projects to be an economic success, cost must be reduced and oil recoveries must be increased by reducing heat losses in the wellbore. With reduced heats losses, steam generation costs are lowered and higher quality steam can be injected into the formation. To address this need, work under this project consisted of the design and construction of a thermal flow loop, testing a double-walled tubular product that was manufactured by Inter-Mountain Pipe Company, and the development and verification of a thermal hydraulic numerical simulator for steam injection. Four different experimental configurations of the double-walled pipe were tested. These configurations included: (1) bare pipe case, (2) bare pipe case with an applied annular vacuum, (3) insulated annular pipe case, and (4) insulated annular pipe case with an applied annular vacuum. Both the pipe body and coupling were tested with each configuration. The results of the experimental tests showed that the Inter-Mountain Pipe Company double-walled pipe body achieved a 98 percent reduction in heat loss when insulation was applied to the annular portion of the pipe. The application of insulation to the annular portion of the coupling reduced the heat losses by only 6 percent. In tests that specified the use of a vacuum in the annular portion of the pipe, leaks were detected and the vacuum could not be held.

  19. Extinction properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes: Two-fluid model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2014-03-15

    The extinction spectra of a single-walled carbon nanotube are investigated, within the framework of the vector wave function method in conjunction with the hydrodynamic model. Both polarizations of the incident plane wave (TE and TM with respect to the x-z plane) are treated. Electronic excitations on the nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a two-dimensional electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the ? and ? electrons. Numerical results show that strong interaction between the fluids gives rise to the splitting of the extinction spectra into two peaks in quantitative agreement with the ? and ? + ? plasmon energies.

  20. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states