National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for maize cell walls

  1. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley] [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany] [USDA Albany

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  2. Maize variety and method of production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  3. Transglucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides in equisetum fluviatile. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohler, Kyle Edward

    2012-06-22

    Plant cell walls determine cellular shape and provide structural support for the entire plant. Polysaccharides, comprising the major components of the wall, are actively remodelled throughout development. Xyloglucan ...

  4. Cell Wall Recipe: A Lesson on Biofuels

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will investigate how changes in the DNA sequence that codes for cell wall formation can have a favorable outcome in producing plants that have higher levels of cellulose than the parent plant. The cellulose yield is most important in the production of ethanol: the greater the amount of cellulose within the cell wall, the greater the amount of ethanol that can be produced. To engage students, the first part of this lesson has students participating in a discovery activity where they will extract DNA from wheat germ.

  5. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  6. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  7. Evidence of programmed cell death in maize suspension cultures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu-Shan

    2001-01-01

    in PCD that involves nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation, cellular shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, membrane budding, the formation of apoptotic bodies, and digestion by macrophages. It is distinct from necrosis, the latter being cell death as a response...

  8. Microfabricated alkali vapor cell with anti-relaxation wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straessle, R.; Pétremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.

    2014-07-28

    We present a microfabricated alkali vapor cell equipped with an anti-relaxation wall coating. The anti-relaxation coating used is octadecyltrichlorosilane and the cell was sealed by thin-film indium-bonding at a low temperature of 140?°C. The cell body is made of silicon and Pyrex and features a double-chamber design. Depolarizing properties due to liquid Rb droplets are avoided by confining the Rb droplets to one chamber only. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on this wall-coated cell are used to evaluate the cell's relaxation properties and a potential gas contamination. Double-resonance signals obtained from the cell show an intrinsic linewidth that is significantly lower than the linewidth that would be expected in case the cell had no wall coating but only contained a buffer-gas contamination on the level measured by optical spectroscopy. Combined with further experimental evidence this proves the presence of a working anti-relaxation wall coating in the cell. Such cells are of interest for applications in miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and other quantum sensors.

  9. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng [Mississippi State University; Ronald, Palmela [UC-Davis; Wang, Guo-Liang [The Ohio State University

    2013-04-26

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for each gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell wall synthesis pathway genes are induced by removal of cell wall, some cell wall synthesis apparatus must be shared in both cases. The cell wall re-synthesis mechanism may have broad application because our preliminary assay indicates that the cell wall characteristics are highly different from those produced during cytokinesis. A thorough understanding on the regulation of cell wall re-synthesis may lead to improvement of cell wall characteristics. b) Removal of cell wall results in chromatin decondensation Another interesting observation was that removal of cell wall was associated with substantial chromatin change. Our DNA DAPI stain, chromatin MNase digestion, histone modification proteomics, protein differential expression analysis, and DNA oligo array studies all supported that substantial chromatin change was associated with removal of cell wall treatment. It is still under investigation if the chromatin change is associated with activation of cell wall synthesis genes, in which chromatin remodeling is required. Another possibility is that the cell wall is required for stabilizing the chromatin structure in plant cells. Given that spindle fiber is directly connected with both chromatin structure and cell wall synthesis, it is possible that there is an intrinsic connection between cell wall and chromatin.

  10. Cell Wall Chemistry of Biofuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartment ofCathy ZoiSeparator |Cell Wall

  11. Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films Kehang intensities. The high efficiency and stability demonstrated in this study make SWNT/Si solar cell very front contact KEYWORDS: Single-walled carbon nanotube, solar cell, high efficiency, stability, SWNT

  12. The characterization of cell wall mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with biochemical approaches toward the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Wolf-Dieter

    source of terrestrial biomass and renewable energy. Cell wall material is also of great practical growth, and need to be both mechanically stable and sufficiently extensible to permit cell expansion

  13. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama Department.photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~maruyama/index.html We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro- honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro-honeycomb network consists of vertically aggregated SWNT walls

  14. Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Applications of PyrolysisGas Chromatography / Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Genomics Applications of Pyrolysis­Gas Chromatography / Mass, Umeå 2012 #12;Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Genomics Applications of Pyrolysis.4.1 The Basic Tool-set 27 1.5 Wood Formation and Functional Genomics 31 2 Objectives 33 3 Methodological

  15. Improved germination under osmotic stress of tobacco plants overexpressing a cell wall peroxidase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Improved germination under osmotic stress of tobacco plants overexpressing a cell wall peroxidase or osmotic stress. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that transgenic seeds were able to retain more: Agricultural biotechnology; Osmotic stress; Cell wall; Peroxidase 1. Introduction The cultivation of many plant

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Primary Cell Wall Composition in Arabidopsis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus

    fingerprinting techniques: monosaccharide composition analysis by gas chromatography, xyloglucan oligosaccharideQuantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Primary Cell Wall Composition in Arabidopsis1 Gre´gory Mouille2 trait loci (QTL) analysis was used to identify genes underlying natural variation in primary cell wall

  17. In Situ Chemical Imaging of Plant Cell Walls Using CARS/SRS Microscopy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Saar, B. G.; Xie, X. S.; Chen, F.; Dixon, R. A.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding S. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster demonstrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering of plant cell walls. It includes simultaneous chemical imaging of lignin and cellulose (corn stover) during acidic pretreatment.

  18. 2012 PLANT CELL WALLS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, AUGUST 4-10, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Jocelyn

    2012-08-10

    The sub-theme of this year’s meeting, ‘Cell Wall Research in a Post-Genome World’, will be a consideration of the dramatic technological changes that have occurred in the three years since the previous cell wall Gordon Conference in the area of DNA sequencing. New technologies are providing additional perspectives of plant cell wall biology across a rapidly growing number of species, highlighting a myriad of architectures, compositions, and functions in both "conventional" and specialized cell walls. This meeting will focus on addressing the knowledge gaps and technical challenges raised by such diversity, as well as our need to understand the underlying processes for critical applications such as crop improvement and bioenergy resource development.

  19. Impact of UV light on the plant cell wall, methane emissions and ROS production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, David James

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the first attempt to combine the fields of ultraviolet (UV) photobiology, plant cell wall biochemistry, aerobic methane production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mechanisms to investigate the effect ...

  20. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro-honeycomb network for the application of solar cellsControlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell Shigeo two different SWNT assemblies for SWNT-Si heterojuction solar cells. We proposed a water vapor

  1. CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled microCNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama Department-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro- honeycomb network consists of vertical

  2. CNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE-CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    solar cells. We proposed a water-vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro- honeycombCNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE- CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro-honeycomb network consists of vertical

  3. Self-Assembled Micro-Honeycomb Network of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    ") are most intensively investigated for this kind of solar cells10-16 . Efforts in improving the properties1 Self-Assembled Micro-Honeycomb Network of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Solar Cells Kehang. The pristine -HN SWNT-Si solar cell shows a record-high fill factor of 72% as well as a power conversion

  4. CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama Department solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro- honeycomb network consists of vertical

  5. CVD growth control and solar cell application of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    CVD growth control and solar cell application of single-walled carbon nanotubes ( CVD ) #12;#12; Doctoral Dissertation CVD Growth Control and Solar Cell Application of Single is supposed to be a very promising candidate for next-generation solar cell applications. However, three main

  6. The impact of microfibril orientations on the biomechanics of plant cell walls and tissues: modelling and simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariya Ptashnyk; Brian Seguin

    2015-09-15

    It is known that the orientation of cellulose microfibrils within plant cell walls has an important impact on the morphogenesis of plant cells and tissues. Viewing the shape of a plant cell as a square prism or cylinder with the axis aligning with the primary direction of expansion and growth, the orientation of the microfibrils within the cell wall on the sides of the cell is known. However, not much is known about their orientation at the ends of the cell. Here we investigate the impact of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils within a plant cell wall at the ends of the cell by solving the equations of linear elasticity numerically. Three different scenarios for the orientation of the microfibrils are considered. The macroscopic elastic properties of the cell wall are obtained using homogenization theory from the microscopic description of the elastic properties of the cell wall microfibrils and wall matrix. It is found that the orientation of the microfibrils in the upper and lower parts of cell walls do not affect the expansion of the cell in the direction of its axis but do affect its expansion in the lateral directions. The arrangement of the microfibrils in the upper and lower parts of cell walls is especially important in the case of directed forces acting on plant cell walls and tissues.

  7. 2009 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Research Conference-August 2-7,2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Mohnen

    2009-08-07

    Plant cell walls are a complex cellular compartment essential for plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stress and a major biological resource for meeting our future bioenergy and natural product needs. The goal of the 2009 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Research Conference is to summarize and critically evaluate the current level of understanding of the structure, synthesis and function of the whole plant extracellular matrix, including the polysaccharides, proteins, lignin and waxes that comprise the wall, and the enzymes and regulatory proteins that drive wall synthesis and modification. Innovative techniques to study how both primary and secondary wall polymers are formed and modified throughout plant growth will be emphasized, including rapid advances taking place in the use of anti-wall antibodies and carbohydrate binding proteins, comparative and evolutionary wall genomics, and the use of mutants and natural variants to understand and identify wall structure-function relationships. Discussions of essential research advances needed to push the field forward toward a systems biology approach will be highlighted. The meeting will include a commemorative lecture in honor of the career and accomplishments of the late Emeritus Professor Bruce A. Stone, a pioneer in wall research who contributed over 40 years of outstanding studies on plant cell wall structure, function, synthesis and remodeling including emphasis on plant cell wall beta-glucans and arabinogalactans. The dwindling supply of fossil fuels will not suffice to meet our future energy and industrial product needs. Plant biomass is the renewable resource that will fill a large part of the void left by vanishing fossil fuels. It is therefore critical that basic research scientists interact closely with industrial researchers to critically evaluate the current state of knowledge regarding how plant biomass, which is largely plant cell walls, is synthesized and utilized by the plant. A final goal of the meeting is to bring together academic, research center, and industrial scientists to identify the most crucial and fundamental basic research questions and directions that will supply the information needed to understand, modify and use plant biomass for human industrial and energy needs.

  8. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Application to Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Application to Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama aligned SWNTs using Co-Cu catalyst are also discussed. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro- honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [4]. The micro

  9. Improved efficiency of smooth and aligned single walled carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark

    and versatility of CNTs in energy storage and conversion devices. In fact, CNT has already been used to contactImproved efficiency of smooth and aligned single walled carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid solar cells on silicon (Si) together with post treatments result in SWNT/Si hybrid solar cells with unprecedented high

  10. ISOLATION OF THREE BRUCELLA ABORTUS CELL-WALL ANTIGENS PROTECTIVE IN MURINE EXPERIMENTAL BRUCELLOSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the exponential phase. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and washed in distilled water. B. abortus 544 (S water and lyophilized. The fraction was then delipided twice by chloroform- methanol extraction (2/1, v found in either complex soluble or insoluble fractions extracted from the brucella cell-wall (Roux, 1972

  11. Pattern selection in a biomechanical model for the growth of walled cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Calvez; Laetitia Giraldi

    2015-02-19

    In this paper, we analyse a model for the growth of three-dimensional walled cells. In this model the biomechanical expansion of the cell is coupled with the geometry of its wall. We consider that the density of building material depends on the curvature of the cell wall, thus yield-ing possible anisotropic growth. The dynamics of the axisymmetric cell wall is described by a system of nonlinear PDE including a nonlin-ear convection-diffusion equation coupled with a Poisson equation. We develop the linear stability analysis of the spherical symmetric config-uration in expansion. We identify three critical parameters that play a role in the possible instability of the radially symmetric shape, namely the degree of nonlinearity of the coupling, the effective diffusion of the building material, and the Poisson's ratio of the cell wall. We also investigate numerically pattern selection in the nonlinear regime. All the results are also obtained for a simpler, but similar, two-dimensional model.

  12. The EgMUR3 xyloglucan galactosyltransferase from Eucalyptus grandis complements the mur3 cell wall phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    cloned and characterized a Eucalyptus grandis gene orthologKeywords Cell walls . Eucalyptus grandis . Xyloglucan .of a gene encoding the Eucalyptus camaldulensis HD-Zip class

  13. Lignin biosynthesis perturbations affect secondary cell wall composition and saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Storme, Véronique; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Dupree, Paul; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-04-26

    and composition? To investigate whether perturbations in the lignin bio- synthetic pathway also affected the abundance of the other cell wall polymers, we measured the cellulose con- tent with the spectrophotometric phenol-sulfuric acid assay (adapted from [45... ://www.biotechnologyforbiofuels.com/content/6/1/46A C E B D F Figure 2 Cell wall degradation after saccharification. Stem material after 48 h of saccharification (including acid pretreatment). (A) Wild-type. The structure of stem segments of the mutants c4h-2 (B), ccr1-3 (C), and ccr1-6 (D...

  14. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Hole Transport Layer & Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Hole Transport Layer & Electrode for Solar Cells-Si solar cell [1], dry-deposited SWNTs-Si solar cell [2], graphene-Si solar cells, organic solar cell (OSC) [3] and perovskite-type solar cells [4]. Using millimeter-scale monocrystalline single-layer graphene

  15. Nanoindentation as a Tool for Understanding Nano-mechanical Properties of Wood Cell Wall and Biocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    alternative fibers with conventional fibers, such as glass, carbon or aramid fibers and talc [1-4]. Natural natural fibers and plastic waste, and for preparing water- resistant natural fiber based materials without National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Cellulose fibers, cell wall fragments and cellulose

  16. Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q W.T.Y. Tze a 37831-6116, USA d Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC The objective of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of individual, native wood fibers using

  17. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE9 Serves a Nonredundant Role in Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haughn, George

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE9 Serves a Nonredundant Role in Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Arabidopsis­33076 Bordeaux, France (F.B., Y.L.-B.) Herein, we sought to explore the contribution of cellulose). Consistent with seed preferential expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE9 (CESA9), null mutations in CESA9 caused

  18. Application of monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Application of monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels production Jaclyn D. DeMartini,abe Sivakumar Pattathil,ce Utku Avci,ce Kaitlyn Szekalski,c Koushik Mazumder Lignocellulosic biomass is the only sustainable resource for large-scale production of liquid transportation fuel

  19. Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

    1989-01-01

    To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

  20. Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

  1. Resuscitation-Promoting Factors Are Cell Wall-Lytic Enzymes with Important Roles in the Germination and Growth of Streptomyces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Marie A.

    integrity of the cell wall. Our results suggest that one of the Rpfs, RpfB, is subject to a unique mode the colony surface. Both spore formation and subsequent spore germination are tightly controlled processes

  2. Improved CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with structured single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    -Si heterojuction solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled microImproved CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with structured single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro- honeycomb network consists of vertical

  3. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Guo, Jianjun [ORNL; Difazio, Stephen P. [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Bryan, Anthony C [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ziebell, Angela L [ORNL; Porth, Ilga [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Skyba, Oleksandr [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Unda, Faride [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; El-Kassaby, Yousry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mansfield, Shawn [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Martin, Joel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schackwitz, Wendy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Evans, Luke M [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS), saccharification assay and wet chemistry in two partially overlapping populations of P. trichocarpa genotypes sampled from multiple environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America. All 6 variants co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspot on chromosome XIV for lignin content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, 5- and 6- carbon sugars identified in an interspecific P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides pseudo-backcross mapping pedigree. Genomic intervals containing an amino acid transporter, a MYB transcription factor, an angustifolia CtBP transcription factor, a copper transport protein ATOX1-related, a Ca2+ transporting ATPase and a protein kinase were identified within 5 QTL regions. Each interval contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated to cell-wall phenotypes, with associations exceeding the chromosome-wise Bonferroni-adjusted p-values in at least one environment. cDNA sequencing for allelic variants of 3 of the 6 genes identified polymorphisms leading to premature stop codons in the MYB transcription factor and protein kinase. On the other hand, variants of the Angustifolia CtBP transcription factor exhibited a polyglutamine (PolyQ) length polymorphism. Results from transient protoplast assays suggested that each of the polymorphisms conferred allelic differences in activation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin pathway marker genes, with truncated and short PolyQ alleles exhibiting significantly reduced marker gene activation. Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass.

  4. Effect of acetate and other cell wall components on enzymatic hydrolysis of aspen wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Fanran

    1990-01-01

    OH are much cheaper and safer. Furthermore, the procedure with dilute alkali is simpler and time of treatment is much shorter. Finally, the Klason lignin loss of aspen wood with 0. 1N KOH and with ratio of 12. 5 ml solution to I g wood is undetected...EFFECT OF ACETATE AND OTHER CELL WALL COMPONENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ASPEN WOOD A Thesis by FANRAN KONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  5. Disrupting the wall accumulation of human sperm cells by artificial corrugation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. A. Guidobaldi; Y. Jeyaram; C. A. Condat; M. Oviedo; I. Berdakin; V. V. Moshchalkov; L. C. Giojalas; A. V. Silhanek; V. I. Marconi

    2015-04-29

    Many self-propelled microorganisms are attracted to surfaces. This makes their dynamics in restricted geometries very different from that observed in the bulk. Swimming along walls is beneficial for directing and sorting cells, but may be detrimental if homogeneous populations are desired, such as in counting microchambers. In this work, we characterize the motion of human sperm cells $60 \\mu m$ long, strongly confined to $25 \\mu m$ shallow chambers. We investigate the nature of the cell trajectories between the confining surfaces and their accumulation near the borders. Observed cell trajectories are composed of a succession of quasi-circular and quasi-linear segments. This suggests that the cells follow a path of intermittent trappings near the top and bottom surfaces separated by stretches of quasi-free motion in between the two surfaces, as confirmed by depth resolved confocal microscopy studies. We show that the introduction of artificial petal-shaped corrugation in the lateral boundaries removes the tendency of cells to accumulate near the borders, an effect which we hypothesize may be valuable for microfluidic applications in biomedicine.

  6. Narrowing of the coherent population trapping resonance under zone pumping in cells with different characteristics of the wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that when coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance is excited by a narrow laser beam, the presence of elastic collisions with the cell wall significantly affects the line shape of the CPT-resonance. We have constructed a theoretical model, which is based on averaging over the random Ramsey sequences of the atom dwell time in the beam and dark zones and takes into account the probability of elastic bounce of an atom from the wall.

  7. Unique N-Glycan Moieties of the 66-kDa Cell Wall Glycoprotein from the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unique N-Glycan Moieties of the 66-kDa Cell Wall Glycoprotein from the Red Microalga Porphyridium of the unique sulfated complex cell wall polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphy- ridium sp. Structures were for biotechnological applica- tions, especially in evaluating the use of microalgae as cell fac- tories

  8. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; et al

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have ?-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting ofmore »two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. These results also suggest that new pathways for recycling PG turnover products, such as tracheal cytotoxin, may have evolved in bacteria in the human gut microbiome that involve NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases.« less

  9. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  10. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found the reversible mode predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs

  11. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z.; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the ?-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the ?-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays,more »and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.« less

  12. Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Xi, X.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

  13. New Combined Laser Ablation Platform Determines Cell Wall Chemistry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    NREL has designed and developed a combined laser ablation/pulsed sample introduction/mass spectrometry platform that integrates pyrolysis and/or laser ablation with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Using this apparatus, we can measure the cell wall chemical composition of untreated biomass materials. Understanding the chemical composition of untreated biomass is key to both the biochemical and thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels. In the biochemical conversion process, the new technique provides a better understanding of the chemistry of lignin and will improve accessibility to plant sugars. In thermochemical conversion, the information provided by the new technique may help to reduce the formation of unwanted byproducts during gasification. NREL validated the ability of the system to detect pyrolysis products from plant materials using poplar, a potentially high-impact bioenergy feedstock. In the technique, biomass vapors are produced by laser ablation using the 3rd harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser (355 nm). The resulting vapors are entrained in a free jet expansion of helium, then skimmed and introduced into an ionization region. REMPI is used to ionize the vapors because it is highly sensitive for detecting lignin and aromatic metabolites. The laser ablation method was used to selectively volatilize specific plant tissues and detect lignin-based products from the vapors with enhanced sensitivity. This will allow the determination of lignin distribution in future biomass studies.

  14. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klopffleisch, Karsten [University of Cologne; Phan, Nguyen [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Panstruga, Ralph [Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research; Uhrig, Joachim [University of Cologne; Jones, Alan M [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of G{alpha}, G{beta}, and G{gamma} subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification.

  15. Comparative study of alkali-vapour cells with alkane-, alkeneand 1-nonadecylbenzene-based antirelaxation wall coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balabas, M V; Tretiak, O Yu

    2013-12-31

    The dependence of both longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of ground-state magnetic polarisation in alkali atoms on the coating temperature is experimentally studied for the first time in a rubidium-vapour cell with 1-nonadecylbenzene antirelaxation coating of inner walls. The comparison of these times with the relaxation times in a caesium-vapour cell with alkane wall coatings is presented. It is found that within the studied temperature range (294 – 340K) the transverse relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature of alkene and 1-nonadecylbenzene coatings. For the alkane coating such a dependence was not explicitly found. The longitudinal relaxation time begins to decrease in all cases when passing a certain critical temperature of the coating material. It is found that the unsaturated radical structure of the coating material molecules strongly affects its antirelaxation properties. (optical pumping)

  16. Revealing the Differences Between Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.

    2014-09-08

    Enzymatic depolymerization of polysaccharides is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, and discovery of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme paradigms will enable improved conversion processes. Historically, revealing insights into enzymatic saccharification mechanisms on plant cell walls has been hindered by uncharacterized substrates and low resolution imaging techniques. Also, translating findings between model substrates to intact biomass is critical for evaluating enzyme performance. Here we employ a fungal free enzyme cocktail, a complexed cellulosomal system, and a combination of the two to investigate saccharification mechanisms on cellulose I, II and III along with corn stover from Clean Fractionation (CF), which is an Organosolv pretreatment. The insoluble Cellulose Enriched Fraction (CEF) from CF contains mainly cellulose with minor amounts of residual hemicellulose and lignin, the amount of which depends on the CF pretreatment severity. Enzymatic digestions at both low and high-solids loadings demonstrate that CF reduces the amount of enzyme required to depolymerize polysaccharides relative to deacetylated, dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of the biomass provides evidence for the different mechanisms of enzymatic deconstruction between free and complexed enzyme systems, and reveals the basis for the synergistic relationship between the two enzyme paradigms on a process-relevant substrate for the first time. These results also demonstrate that the presence of lignin, rather than cellulose morphology, is more detrimental to cellulosome action than to free cellulases. As enzyme costs are a major economic driver for biorefineries, this study provides key inputs for the evaluation of CF as a pretreatment method for biomass conversion.

  17. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  18. Tuning of Pectin Methylesterification: Consequences for Cell Wall Biomechanics and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Pelloux, Jerome; Braybrook, Siobhan A.; Müller, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    residue in the arabinogalactan domain of the arabinogalactan protein ARABINOXYLAN PECTIN ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEIN1 (APAP1) was linked to RG-I and HG (Tan et al., 2013). Mutants lacking this protein and the corresponding wall structure showed...

  19. Genome-Scale Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2012-03-22

    Wellington Muchero from Oak Ridge National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  20. Effects of Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharides on Bacterial Cellulose Structure Studied with Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Sunkyu; Cosgrove, Daniel; Kim, Seong H

    2014-07-14

    The crystallinity, allomorph content, and mesoscale ordering of cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultured with different plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides were studied with vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  1. Genome-Scale Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2013-01-22

    Wellington Muchero from Oak Ridge National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  2. Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

  3. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortimer, Jenny; Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Zong; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    complex phenolic network, is deposited (Scheller and Ulvskov 2010). Xylan is an essential component of these secondary cell walls, since Arabidopsis xylan biosynthesis mutants have collapsed xylem vessels and if there is a complete loss of xylan... .ac.uk Nadine Anders: na336@cam.ac.uk Mathias Sorieul: mrs66@cam.ac.uk Andy Ng: yn2231@columbia.edu Xiaolan Yu: xly20@cam.ac.uk Katherine Stott: ks123@cam.ac.uk Paul Dupree: p.dupree@bioc.cam.ac.uk Running title: Primary cell wall xylan biosynthesis...

  4. Three Human Cell Types Respond to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Titanium Dioxide Nanobelts with Cell-Specific Transcriptomic and Proteomic Expression Patterns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Karin, Norman J.; Tolic, Ana; Xie, Yumei; Lai, Xianyin; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Waters, Katrina M.; Holian, Andrij; Witzmann, Frank A.; Orr, Galya

    2014-08-01

    The growing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial and medical applications raises the urgent need for tools that can predict NP toxicity. Global transcriptome and proteome analyses were conducted on three human cell types, exposed to two high aspect ratio NP types, to identify patterns of expression that might indicate high versus low NP toxicity. Three cell types representing the most common routes of human exposure to NPs, including macrophage-like (THP-1), small airway epithelial and intestinal (Caco-2/HT29-MTX) cells, were exposed to TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NB; high toxicity) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT; low toxicity) at low (10 µg/mL) and high (100 µg/mL) concentrations for 1 and 24 h. Unique patterns of gene and protein expressions were identified for each cell type, with no differentially expressed (p < 0.05, 1.5-fold change) genes or proteins overlapping across all three cell types. While unique to each cell type, the early response was primarily independent of NP type, showing similar expression patterns in response to both TiO2-NB and MWCNT. The early response might, therefore, indicate a general response to insult. In contrast, the 24 h response was unique to each NP type. The most significantly (p < 0.05) enriched biological processes in THP-1 cells indicated TiO2-NB regulation of pathways associated with inflammation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA replication stress and genomic instability, while MWCNT-regulated pathways indicated increased cell proliferation, DNA repair and anti-apoptosis. These two distinct sets of biological pathways might, therefore, underlie cellular responses to high and low NP toxicity, respectively.

  5. Light effects in the atomic-motion-induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances in wall-coated cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breschi, E.; Schori, C.; Di Domenico, G.; Mileti, G. [Laboratoire Temps-Frequence-University of Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Kazakov, G.; Litvinov, A.; Matisov, B. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, RU-195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We report on light shift and broadening in the atomic-motion-induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances prepared in alkali-metal vapors contained in wall-coated cells without buffer gas. The atomic-motion-induced Ramsey narrowing is due to the free motion of the polarized atomic spins in and out of the optical interaction region before spin relaxation. As a consequence of this effect, we observe a narrowing of the dark resonance linewidth as well as a reduction of the ground states' light shift when the volume of the interaction region decreases at constant optical intensity. The results can be intuitively interpreted as a dilution of the intensity effect similar to a pulsed interrogation due to the atomic motion. Finally the influence of this effect on the performance of compact atomic clocks is discussed.

  6. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan M.

    Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 13 Unit of Plant Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Botany, RWTH Aachen, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Coker Hall, CB#3280, Chapel Hill, NC

  7. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 20–30 nm (CNT20) and 40–70 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 ?g/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-?B (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-?-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ?Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ?MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA lesion associated with inflammatory response. ?MWCNT was internalized into cells via caveolin- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. ?8-Nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression involved these types of endocytosis. ?Internalized MWCNT plays a key role in inflammatory response and DNA damage.

  8. Kinesin-4 functions in vesicular transport on cortical microtubules and regulates cell wall mechanics during cell elongation in plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Zhaosheng; Ioki, Motohide; Braybrook, Siobhan; Li, Shundai; Ye, Zheng-Hua; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Hotta, Takashi; Chang, Anny; Tian, Juan; Wang, Guangda; Liu, Bo

    2015-01-16

    acid cotton Gh KINESIN-4A protein was identified based on a full length cDNA clone isolated from a cDNA library of young cotton fibers (GenBank accession number, KJ701508). Like At KINESIN-4A/FRA1, it contains the motor domain toward the N... with the severe defect in leaf blade elongation. It suggested the function of the motor there, therefore, we chose to examine these cells. The VisGreen-At KINESIN-4A-GFP signal in cells of the transgenic lines was detected in the cell cortex as particles...

  9. Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glass, N Louise [UC Berkeley

    2013-01-25

    N. Louise Glass from the University of California, Berkeley, presents a talk titled "Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  10. Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, N Louise [UC Berkeley] [UC Berkeley

    2012-03-22

    N. Louise Glass from the University of California, Berkeley, presents a talk titled "Systems Biology Approaches to Dissecting Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Poplus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  11. Controlled CVD Growth and Solar Cell Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama1, Kehang Cui1, Takaaki Chiba1, Hua An1, Rong Xiang1, Shohei Chiashi1, Yutaka Matsuo2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled CVD Growth and Solar Cell Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama for the applications of SWNT/Si solar cells [1, 2], organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite-type solar cells. Highly transparent-conductive SWNT films from controlled bundle

  12. Geometric frequency shift for electric dipole searches with trapped spin-1/2 particles in general fields and measurement cells of arbitrary shape with smooth or rough walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Steyerl; C. Kaufman; G. Müller; R. Golub

    2015-05-13

    The important role of geometric phases in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron, using Ramsey separated oscillatory field nuclear magnetic resonance, was first investigated by Pendlebury $\\textit{et al.}$ [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{70}$, 032102 (2004)]. Their analysis was based on the Bloch equations. In subsequent work using the spin density matrix Lamoreaux and Golub [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{71}$, 032104 (2005)] showed the usual relation between the frequency shifts and the correlation functions of the fields seen by trapped particles in general fields (Redfield theory). More recently we presented a solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for spin-$1/2$ particles in circular cylindrical traps with smooth walls and exposed to arbitrary fields [Steyerl $\\textit{et al.}$, Phys.Rev. A $\\mathbf{89}$, 052129 (2014)]. Here we extend this work to show how the Redfield theory follows directly from the Schr\\"odinger equation solution and include wall roughness, cylindrical trap geometry with arbitrary cross section, and field perturbations that do not, in the frame of the moving particles, average to zero in time and which, therefore, do not satisfy the prerequisites of the statistical approach based on the spin-density matrix. We show by direct, detailed, calculation the agreement of the results from the Schr\\"odinger equation with the Redfield theory for the cases of a rectangular cell with specular walls and of a circular cell with diffuse reflecting walls.

  13. Fluorescent protein marker lines in maize: generation and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, David

    : fluorescent protein, FRET, maize, pOp, LhG4 Introduction Maize, one of the most important crops worldwide, has

  14. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  15. ROS and NF-{kappa}B are involved in upregulation of IL-8 in A549 cells exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Shefang Wu Yihui; Hou Zhenqing; Zhang Qiqing

    2009-02-06

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential applications in biosensors, tissue engineering, and biomedical devices because of their unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties. However, there is limited literature data available concerning the biological properties and toxicity of CNTs. This study aimed to assess the toxicity exhibited by multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of MWCNTs in A549 cells. Exposing A549 cells to MWCNTs led to cell death, changes in cell size and complexity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activation. Treatment of A549 cells with antioxidants prior to adding MWCNTs decreased ROS production and abrogated expression of IL-8 mRNA. Pretreatment of A549 cells with NF-{kappa}B inhibitors suppressed MWCNTs-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. These results indicate that MWCNTs are able to induce expression of IL-8 in A549 cells, at least in part, mediated by oxidative stress and NF-{kappa}B activation.

  16. Morphology control and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    treatment (top view). FTO photo electrode counter electrode FTOSWNT I - /I3 - electrolyte TiO2/Ru-dyeFTO photo electrode counter electrode FTOSWNT I - /I3 - electrolyte TiO2/Ru-dye Fig. 3 Structure of dye Morphology control and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube counter electrodes

  17. Organic solar cells using few-walled carbon nanotubes electrode controlled by the balance between sheet resistance and the transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Technology, Hokuryo-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-0816, Japan Received 6 January 2009; accepted 24 February 2009 to easy solution-processing fabrication and high flexibility. Single-walled CNTs SWNT films on glass or poly ethylene terephthalate PET were investigated.2,3 Theoretically the work function of SWNT 4.8­5.0 e

  18. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Highly Efficient Hole Extraction and Transport Layer for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama, Kehang Cui, Takaaki Chiba, Xiao Chen, Rong Xiang, Shohei Chiashi Department in various kinds of solar cells [1-4]. We found out that three-dimensional honeycomb structured SWNTs was also demonstrated in perovskite solar cells [3] and organic solar cells [4] with high PCE. More

  19. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found the reversible to a self-assembled micro- honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [4]. The micro is very efficient to collect holes from the interface of Si. The heterojunction solar cell was fabricated

  20. Controlled CVD Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo 113 controlled assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found' growth mode predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up

  1. Gene expression and enzyme activity of cell wall degrading enzymes in the latex of opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilatzke, Innes Flora Christina

    1999-01-01

    Maturing laticifer cells of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., have their common wails perforated in order to develop a continuous system of latex vessels throughout the plant. In poppy, this latex is alkaloid-rich ...

  2. The Blue Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The  Blue  Wall   A  Documentary  Film  by     Michael  talking   about,  The  Blue  Wall.   Your  Honor,  as  the  

  3. V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification is required for endocytic recycling of a yeast cell wall stress sensor, Wsc1p

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Kazuma; Saito, Mayu; Nagashima, Makiko; Kojima, Ai; Nishinoaki, Show [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Toshima, Junko Y., E-mail: yama_jun@aoni.waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Wakamatsu-cho 2-2, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Research Center for RNA Science, RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Toshima, Jiro, E-mail: jtosiscb@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan) [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Research Center for RNA Science, RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A targeted genome screen identified 5 gene groups affecting Wsc1p recycling. •V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification is required for Wsc1p recycling. •Activity of V-ATPase might be required for cargo recognition by the retromer complex. -- Abstract: Wsc1p is a major cell wall sensor protein localized at the polarized cell surface. The localization of Wsc1p is maintained by endocytosis and recycling from endosomes back to the cell surface, but changes to the vacuole when cells are subjected to heat stress. Exploiting this unique property of Wsc1p, we screened for yeast single-gene deletion mutants exhibiting defects in Wsc1p trafficking. By expressing 3GFP-tagged Wsc1p in mutants with deleted genes whose function is related to intracellular trafficking, we identified 5 gene groups affecting Wsc1p trafficking, impaired respectively in endocytic internalization, multivesicular body sorting, the GARP complex, endosomal maturation/vacuolar fusion, and V-ATPase. Interestingly, deletion of the VPH1 gene, encoding the V{sub o} subunit of vacuolar-type H{sup +}-ATPase (V-ATPase), led to mis-localization of Wsc1p from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. In addition, disruption of other V-ATPase subunits (vma mutants) also caused defects of Wsc1p trafficking and vacuolar acidification similar to those seen in the vph1? mutant. Moreover, we found that deletion of the VPS26 gene, encoding a subunit of the retromer complex, also caused a defect in Wsc1p recycling and mis-localization of Wsc1p to the vacuole. These findings clarified the previously unidentified Wsc1p recycling pathway and requirement of V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification for Wsc1p recycling.

  4. An in-vivo study of electrical charge distribution on the bacterial cell wall by Atomic Force Microscopy in vibrating force mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Marliere; Samia Dhahri

    2015-04-13

    We report an in-vivo electromechanical Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of charge distribution on the cell wall of Gram plus Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria, naturally adherent to a glass substrate, in physiological conditions. The method presented in this paper relies on a detailed study of AFM approach-retract curves giving the variation of the interaction force versus distance between tip and sample. In addition to classical height and mechanical (as stiffness) data, mapping of local electrical properties, as bacterial surface charge, was proved to be feasible at a spatial resolution better than few tens of nanometers. This innovative method relies on the measurement of the cantilever's surface stress through its deflection far from (higher than 10nm) the repulsive contact zone. The variations of surface stress come from modification of electrical surface charge of the cantilever (as in classical electrocapillary measurements) likely stemming from its charging during contact of both tip and sample electrical double layers. This method offers an important improvement in local electrical and electrochemical measurements at the solid-liquid interface particularly in high-molarity electrolytes when compared to technics focused on the direct use of electrostatic force. It thus opens a new way to directly investigate in-situ biological electrical surface processes involved in numerous practical and fundamental problems as bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cell, etc.

  5. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were able to defray lodging and meal costs for 133 graduate and undergraduate students and 66 postdocs

  6. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  7. Maize, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5Transport Projects | Open EnergyMaize, Kansas:

  8. Emulating maize yields from global gridded crop models using statistical estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanc, E.

    This study estimates statistical models emulating maize yield responses to changes in temperature and

  9. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  10. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  11. Characterization of maize testing locations in eastern and southern Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maideni, Francis W.

    2006-08-16

    The region of eastern and southern Africa is very diverse in environments and agronomic practices. The region has one of the highest per capita consumption of maize (Zea mays. L), which is predominantly produced by smallholder farmers. Some...

  12. Tokamak reactor first wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

  13. Down-regulation of four putative arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes from family PF02458 reduces ester-linked ferulate content in rice cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piston, Fernando; Uauy, Cristobal; Fu, Lianhai; Langston, James; Labavitch, John; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    of four putative arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genescan cross- link different arabinoxylan molecules in the cellPF02458 may act as arabinoxylan feruloyl transferases. We

  14. PEP-carboxylase activity supports organic acid metabolism of maize (Zea mays) under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzig, Sarah Vanessa; Kumar, Ashwani; Neubert, Anja; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    physical basis for improving salt resistance in maize. Inand their expression under salt stress. J. Plant Physiol.may have a function for the salt resistance of maize during

  15. Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    planted with the improved variety. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the strongest drivers of farm, and the maintenance of maize landraces have been well-studied, particularly among subsistence farmers in Mexico, maize

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Little fertilizer response but high N loss risk of maize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of biogas. The production and use of maize for biogas is more cost efficient compared with other crops and the cultivation, harvest and storage of maize is well established with farmers. Consequently, the biogas boom has

  17. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions andmore »possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.« less

  18. Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium (the layer of cells that lines the blood vessel walls) plays a central role in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tees, David F.J.

    Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium (the layer of cells that lines the blood vessel a cascade of adhesive events commonly referred to as initial tethering, rolling, firm adhesion, the other steps of the adhesion cascade involve molecular interactions between the leukocyte

  19. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  20. Covering Walls With Fabrics. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    , grasscloth and many other textures and weaves are available in this type of wall covering. When selecting fabrics to apply to interior walls, consider pattern, color, amount of shrink age and weight. Check to see if the design is printed with the grain... several times over a 12-inch length until fabric is cut through and can be pulled away easily (see Figure 5) . Figure 5 To cover raw edges at top or bottom when . there is no molding, attach an attractive gimp, flat braid or decorative molding...

  1. Remote GPP estimation in maize Proceedings of 10th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitelson, Anatoly

    , as well as on the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the decomposition of organic matter. FieldRemote GPP estimation in maize Proceedings of 10th Int. Conference on Precision Agriculture, July 18-21, 2010, Denver, Colorado, USA www.icpaonline.org 1 REMOTE ESTIMATION OF GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION

  2. QTL mapping of resistance to sorghum downy mildew in maize 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabry, Ahmed Mohamed-Bashir

    2004-09-30

    were mapped using both restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 220 F2 individual maize progeny derived from a cross between two extremes; highly susceptible inbred parent SC-TEP5-19-1-3-1-4-1-1 (white...

  3. Emulating maize yields from global gridded crop models using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emulating maize yields from global gridded crop models using statistical estimates Elodie Blanc and Benjamin Sultan Report No. 279 March 2015 #12;The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global from two established MIT research centers: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center

  4. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  5. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. Evaluation of Argentine maize hybrids and exotic x temperate testcrosses across environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochs, Brett Allen

    2005-11-01

    of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, F. Javier Betr?n Committee Members, William L. Rooney Tom Isakeit Head of Department, C. Wayne Smith...: Dr. F. Javier Betr?n Maize (Zea mays L.) is grown in a wide range of environments and altitudes worldwide. Maize has transitioned from open pollinated varieties to single cross hybrids over the last century. While maize production...

  8. Response to aflatoxin and grain composition of exotic maize germplasm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corn, Rebecca Joann

    2009-06-02

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Javier Betran William Rooney Committee Members, Thomas Isakeit Lloyd Rooney Head of Department, David Baltensperger.... Javier Betran Dr. William L. Rooney Exotic germplasm has potential to provide new alleles for disease and insect resistance. US maize (Zea mays L.) currently lacks genetic resistance to Aspergillus flavus, a fungal pathogen that produces...

  9. Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, Kerry L.

    2009-05-15

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, F. Javier Betr?n Committee Members, William L. Rooney Tom Isakeit Head of Department, C. Wayne Smith December... 2006 Major Subject: Plant Breeding iii ABSTRACT Preharvest Aflatoxin in Maize Genotypes Under Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus. (December 2006). Kerry L. Mayfield, B.S., Texas Tech University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. F. Javier...

  10. AGEE-3068; No of Pages 7 Gene flow from transgenic maize to landraces in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    increases in US maize exports to Mexico, many US maize farmers began shifting to genetically modified (GM; Center of origin; Introgression 1. Introduction The genetic diversity found in landraces (traditional important natural resources for future plant breeding efforts and global food security (Altieri et al., 1987

  11. Domain walls in gapped graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semenoff, G W; Zhou, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of a particular class of domain walls in gapped graphene are investigated. We show that they can support mid-gap states which are localized in the vicinity of the domain wall and propagate along its length. With a finite density of domain walls, these states can alter the electronic properties of gapped graphene significantly. If the mid-gap band is partially filled,the domain wall can behave like a one-dimensional metal embedded in a semi-conductor, and could potentially be used as a single-channel quantum wire.

  12. Domain walls in gapped graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Semenoff; V. Semenoff; Fei Zhou

    2008-05-31

    The electronic properties of a particular class of domain walls in gapped graphene are investigated. We show that they can support mid-gap states which are localized in the vicinity of the domain wall and propagate along its length. With a finite density of domain walls, these states can alter the electronic properties of gapped graphene significantly. If the mid-gap band is partially filled,the domain wall can behave like a one-dimensional metal embedded in a semi-conductor, and could potentially be used as a single-channel quantum wire.

  13. Liquid Walls Innovative Concepts for First Walls and Blankets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    for an attractive fusion energy system 2. Lower the cost and time for R&D · APEX was initiated in November 1997Liquid Walls Innovative Concepts for First Walls and Blankets Mohamed Abdou Professor, Mechanical as part of the US Restructured Fusion Program Strategy to enhance innovation · Natural Questions

  14. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth (20 Avondale Cres., Markham, CA); Whike, Alan S. (R.R. #1, Caledon East, both of Ontario, CA)

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  15. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  16. Thin porridges (atoles) prepared from maize and sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vivas Rodriguez, Nancy Esther

    1985-01-01

    ) Lawrence . Johnson (Memb r) Ronald L. Richter (Member) , ~/j. /('glP 4 g ~ 7. wc ~ Mohamed M. orad ~ . C. A. R e (Member) (Head of epartment) MAY 19B5 ABSTRACT Thin Porridges (Atoles) Prepared From Maize and Sorghum (May 1985) Nancy Esther Yivas... the following equation: PSI= (k. )(wt. ) Total Recovery (g) where wt. represents the weight on each sieve [No. 25, 40, 60, 70, I 80, and pan (80 )] and k- the factors used (2. 5, 4. 0, 6. 0, 7. 0, 8. 0 and 10. 0) for each sieve, respectivelly...

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of high lysine maize 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatnagar, Sandeep

    2006-04-12

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by: Javier F. Betr?n L. W. Rooney (Chair of Committee) (Member) William... Lysine Maize. (December 2004) Sandeep Bhatnagar, B.S., Univeristy of Allahabad, U.P. India; M.S., G.B. Pant University of Ag. and Tech., Pantnagar, U.P. India; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Javier F. Betr...

  18. Multi-Location Evaluation of Agronomic Traits in Maize Hybrids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Michael 1982-

    2012-12-12

    -Chairs of Committee, F. Javier Betr?n William L. Rooney Committee Member, Thomas Isakeit Head of Department, David Baltensperger December 2012 Major Subject: Plant Breeding Copyright 2012 Michael Cody McKee ii ABSTRACT Maize (Zea mays L... steps of this process, and to Dr. Tom Isakeit for all the work done in the lab. I was privileged to work under Dr. Javier Betr?n for my Master?s degree, and I learned a great deal from him. I want to thank him for all of his guidance throughout...

  19. Building wall construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulford, C.E.

    1987-04-21

    A building wall construction is described comprising, in combination: (a) an elongated top plate; (b) an elongated bottom plate extending in spaced, horizontal, parallel relation to the top plate; (c) elongated studs arranged in spaced, vertical, parallel relation and affixed at their upper and lower ends to the top and bottom plates, respectively; (d) each of the studs, top plates and bottom plates comprises a pair of spaced wooden members of equal length having a substantially rectangular groove centrally disposed in one face thereof extending for the entire length of the wooden members, and at least one web member of fire-rated gypsum board having opposite, marginal edge portions secured in the grooves; (e) sheathing layers affixed to both sides of the stud members and extending vertically between the bottom and top plates, and horizontally between the studs to enclose the space therebetween; and (f) at least one panel member of fire-rated gypsum board extending horizontally between each successive pair of studs parallel to and spaced from each of the sheathing layers, thus providing at least two, separated spaces between the sheathing layers.

  20. Quantitative trait loci analysis to identify modifiers genes of the gene opaque2 in maize endosperm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez Rojas, Libardo Andres

    2009-05-15

    The protein quality of maize can be improved by replacing normal Opaque2 alleles with non-functional recessive alleles opaque2 (o2). The allele o2 produces a severe phenotype with soft endosperm enhancing its protein quality ...

  1. Farmers' Subjective Valuation of Subsistence Crops: The Case of Traditional Maize in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Aslihan; Taylor, J. Edward

    2008-01-01

    genetica del maiz en Mexico. Programa de Estudios del Cambioin lowland tropical Mexico. World Development, 34(1):113–Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Human Ecology, 34(2):249–

  2. The effects of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) on different corn hybrids (Zea mays L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lammoglia Villagomez, Agustin

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) on different agronomic and grain quality characteristics of 106 corn hybrids. A randomized split-plot design with 3 replications was used. The virus isolate obtained...

  3. Genetic diversity and performance of maize varieties from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magorokosho, Cosmos

    2007-04-25

    Large scale and planned introduction of maize (Zea mays) in southern Africa was accomplished during the last 100 years. Since then, smallholder farmers and breeders have been selecting varieties best adapted to their ...

  4. Annual carbon dioxide exchange in irrigated and rainfed maize-based agroecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitelson, Anatoly

    , the seasonally integrated NEP (net ecosystem production) in maize was larger by a 4:1 ratio (approximately the same values for the growing season NEP as the rainfed fields. On an annual basis, the NEP of irrigated. In rainfed maize the annual NEP was 510 and 397 g C mÀ2 yearÀ1 in years 1 and 3, respectively. The annual NEP

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of response to aflatoxin and secondary traits in maize 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Melanie Love

    2006-08-16

    Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Javier F. Betr?n Committee Members, J. Tom Cothren... in Maize. (May 2006) Melanie Love Edwards, B.A., East Tennessee State University; M.S., Oregon State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Javier F. Betr?n One major problem facing maize producers in the southern US is contamination...

  6. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  7. Effective Supergravity for Supergravity Domain Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Cvetic; N. D. Lambert

    2002-05-23

    We discuss the low energy effective action for the Bosonic and Fermionic zero-modes of a smooth BPS Randall-Sundrum domain wall, including the induced supergravity on the wall. The result is a pure supergravity in one lower dimension. In particular, and in contrast to non-gravitational domain walls or domain walls in a compact space, the zero-modes representing transverse fluctuations of domain wall have vanishing action.

  8. Green Wall Technologies Objective: Compile a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of green wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Green Wall Technologies Objective: Compile a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of green wall technologies that can be used to jump-start design and engineering proposals for green walls in a variety of urban conditions. Background: Green walls--otherwise referred to as living walls or biowalls

  9. Effect of application of molybdenum in maize-niger cropping System grown on acid soils of high altitude zone of Andhra Pradesh in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhupal, G Raj; Patnaik, M C; Singh, M V; Khadke, K M; Jagannadham, G

    2009-01-01

    cauliflower to molybdenum,lime and their residue on an acidto maize and niger,75% lime Requirement + soil Applicationha -1 to maize and niger,75% lime requirement + foliar Spray

  10. Thermal breaking systems for metal stud walls -- Can metal stud walls perform as well as wood stud walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    Metal stud wall systems for residential buildings are gaining in popularity. Strong thermal bridges caused by highly conductive metal studs degrade the thermal performance of such walls. Several wall configurations have been developed to improve their thermal performance. The authors tried to evaluate some of these wall systems. The thermal performance of metal stud walls is frequently compared with that of wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. In metal stud walls, thermal bridges generated by the metal components reduce their thermal performance by up to 55%. Today, metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar systems made of wood because steel has much higher thermal conductivity than wood. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is now widely recommended as the remedy for weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of promising metal stud wall configurations was analyzed. Some of these walls were designed and tested by the authors, some were tested in other laboratories, and some were developed and forgotten a long time ago. Several types of thermal breaking systems were used in these walls. Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer simulations were used to analyze 20 metal stud wall configurations. Also, a series of hot-box tests were conducted on several of these walls. Test results for 22 additional metal stud walls were analyzed. Most of these walls contained conventional metal studs. Commonly used fiberglass and EPS were used as insulation materials. The most promising metal stud wall configurations have reductions in the center-of-cavity R-values of less than 20%.

  11. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 ?m for the commercial configuration down to ~9 ?m for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-?m spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore »are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  12. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  13. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  14. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, Hank W.

    Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN- domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants Murphy et al. Murphy et al. BMC Plant Biology Access Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence

  15. Analysis of ultra-narrow ferromagnetic domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Catherine; Paul, David

    2012-01-10

    New materials with high magnetic anisotropy will have domains separated by ultra-narrow ferromagnetic walls with widths on the order of a few unit cells, approaching the limit where the elastic continuum approximation often used in micromagnetic simulations is accurate. The limits of this approximation are explored, and the static and dynamic interactions with intrinsic crystalline defects and external driving #12;elds are modeled. The results developed here will be important when considering the stability of ultra-high-density storage media.

  16. Promising Technology: Cool Paints for Exterior Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cool Paints increase the solar reflectance of exterior walls. By reflecting more sunlight, the wall surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the walls into the building. During the cooling season, the addition of cool paints can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  17. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  18. Sheath oscillation characteristics and effect on near-wall conduction in a krypton Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengkui Kong, Lingyi; Li, Chenliang; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Despite its affordability, the krypton Hall-effect thruster in applications always had problems in regard to performance. The reason for this degradation is studied from the perspective of the near-wall conductivity of electrons. Using the particle-in-cell method, the sheath oscillation characteristics and its effect on near-wall conduction are compared in the krypton and xenon Hall-effect thrusters both with wall material composed of BNSiO{sub 2}. Comparing these two thrusters, the sheath in the krypton-plasma thruster will oscillate at low electron temperatures. The near-wall conduction current is only produced by collisions between electrons and wall, thereby causing a deficiency in the channel current. The sheath displays spatial oscillations only at high electron temperature; electrons are then reflected to produce the non-oscillation conduction current needed for the krypton-plasma thruster. However, it is accompanied with intensified oscillations.

  19. Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak Richard Fitzpatrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas Richard.1063/1.2446041 Nonlinear evolution of resistive wall mode in a cylindrical tokamak with poloidal rotation Phys. Plasmas 13); 10.1063/1.1943347 Control of resistive wall modes in a cylindrical tokamak with radial and poloidal

  20. Effects of different treatments on the production of sorghum and yellow maize tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choto, Celina Eugenia

    1983-01-01

    cereal food. In Central America, where tortillas are a staple food (Johnson et al 1980), sorghum is used as a partial or t. otal replacement for ma ize (Zea mays) in tortilla making (Ruano and Sergio 1977). In Mexico, where tortillas... torrillas. However, so ghum is used when maize is in short supply oi sorghum is i uch cheaper than maize ( Ruano and Sergio 1 97 7, Ii uegas et a 1 1981) . Its use in tor- r illa is limired because most sorghum varieties produce off colored, poor quality...

  1. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  2. Perceptual Affordances of Wall-Sized Displays for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Petra

    .g., HCI)]: Miscellaneous. Introduction Wall-sized displays (PowerWalls) engulf viewers in very large high

  3. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  4. Comparative Study of High Triangularity H-mode Plasma Performance in JET with Be/W Wall and CFC Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative Study of High Triangularity H-mode Plasma Performance in JET with Be/W Wall and CFC Wall

  5. NREL: Energy Analysis - Anna Wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:NewsWebmasterWorking With UsAnna Wall Photo of

  6. Dry matter content in silage maize; assessment of the role of growth and water loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomie Dry matter content in silage maize; assessment of the role of growth and water loss JF variations in total dry matter content (MSt) as a function of growth in dry weight and loss of water by plant, as ripening proceeds. Beyond 25% dry matter content the major part of MSt increase was due to loss of water

  7. Gene galaxies in the maize genome Virginia Walbot* and Dmitri A. Petrov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Dmitri

    Commentary Gene galaxies in the maize genome Virginia Walbot* and Dmitri A. Petrov Department of higher eukary- otic genomes yielded the surprise that despite hundreds of millions of years in gene number, eukaryotic genome size varies over 5 orders of magnitude (4), a paradoxical feature

  8. An herbivore elicitor activates the gene for indole emission in maize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    as the entry point to the secondary defense metabolites DIBOA and DIMBOA. Gene- sequence analysis indicates (IGP) to indole, which is further converted to the defense-related secondary metabolite DIMBOA [2 Maize and a variety of other plant species release volatile com- pounds in response to herbivore attack

  9. Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    ; Piva et al., 2006). Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several mem- bers of AspergillusStructure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro, a Institute of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84

  10. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON THE PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN VENEZUELA *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON THE PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN VENEZUELA de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mdrida 5101, Venezuela 21nstitute of Applied Sciences, Venezuela 4Centro de Estudios Avanzados del Clima Tropical (CEACT), Ministerio deI Ambiente y de los

  11. 96 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Genetically Modified Maize (Bt corn) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    doses for long periods. Introduction Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), are or- ganisms that have been genetically modified to increase crop yields and/or crop quality [1]. Varieties of GMO are still controversial. This review will focus on the studied effects of specific GMO strands of maize MON

  12. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  13. Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-07-20

    We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

  14. A new closing method for wall flow diesel particulate filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stobbe, P.; Petersen, H.G.; Sorenson, S.C.; Hoej, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    A new method has been developed to close the ends of a wall flow filter used for removing particulate matter from diesel engine exhaust. In this method, the ends of the honeycomb structure are capped by deforming and closing the ends of the channel walls between the extrusion and firing stages of production. The method increases the amount of filtration area per filter volume for a given cell geometry compared to the traditional plugging method, since the entire length of the honeycomb channels is used for filtration purposes. In addition, use of the capping method has a beneficial effect on the pressure loss characteristics of a filter with a given filtration area. These benefits are illustrated through experimental results.

  15. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Steven J. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  16. NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK

  17. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, Henry S. (Cranbury, NJ); Budny, Robert V. (Princeton, NJ); Post, Jr., Douglass E. (Buttonwood, CT)

    1988-01-01

    Depolarization mechanisms arising from the recycling of the polarized fuel at the limiter and the first-wall of a fusion reactor are greater than those mechanisms in the plasma. Rapid depolarization of the plasma is prevented by providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec.sup.-1.

  18. Charm physics with Moebius Domain Wall Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Jüttner; Francesco Sanfilippo; Justus Tobias Tsang; Peter Boyle; Marina Marinkovic; Shoji Hashimoto; Takashi Kaneko; Yong-Gwi Cho

    2015-01-04

    We present results showing that Domain Wall fermions are a suitable discretisation for the simulation of heavy quarks. This is done by a continuum scaling study of charm quarks in a M\\"obius Domain Wall formalism using a quenched set-up. We find that discretisation effects remain well controlled by the choice of Domain Wall parameters preparing the ground work for the ongoing dynamical $2+1f$ charm program of RBC/UKQCD.

  19. Charm physics with Moebius Domain Wall Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüttner, Andreas; Tsang, Justus Tobias; Boyle, Peter; Marinkovic, Marina; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kaneko, Takashi; Cho, Yong-Gwi

    2015-01-01

    We present results showing that Domain Wall fermions are a suitable discretisation for the simulation of heavy quarks. This is done by a continuum scaling study of charm quarks in a M\\"obius Domain Wall formalism using a quenched set-up. We find that discretisation effects remain well controlled by the choice of Domain Wall parameters preparing the ground work for the ongoing dynamical $2+1f$ charm program of RBC/UKQCD.

  20. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Hashimoto, P.S. (EQE Engineering, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (USA)); Reed, J.W. (Benjamin (J.R.) and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs.

  1. Multiple moving wall dry coal extrusion pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2013-05-14

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes a passageway defined on each side between an inlet and an outlet by a moving wall.

  2. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  3. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  4. Multiple cell radiation detector system, and method, and submersible sonde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Larry O. (Island Park, ID); McIsaac, Charles V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lawrence, Robert S. (Shelley, ID); Grafwallner, Ervin G. (Arco, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A multiple cell radiation detector includes a central cell having a first cylindrical wall providing a stopping power less than an upper threshold; an anode wire suspended along a cylindrical axis of the central cell; a second cell having a second cylindrical wall providing a stopping power greater than a lower threshold, the second cylindrical wall being mounted coaxially outside of the first cylindrical wall; a first end cap forming a gas-tight seal at first ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; a second end cap forming a gas-tight seal at second ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; and a first group of anode wires suspended between the first and second cylindrical walls.

  5. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  6. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of white maize inbreds, hybrids and synthetics under stress and non-stress environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makumbi, Dan

    2006-10-30

    environments ……………………………………………...…….………................... 66 2.13 Biplot of first two principal components for grain yield of 15 maize inbred lines in hybrid combination at 8 environments………………...…………………………….. 71 xv FIGURE Page 2.14 Biplot... of first two principal components for grain yield of 15 maize inbred lines per se at 4 environments……………………………………………………..................... 71 2.15 Distribution of polymorphism information content (PIC) for (1) RFLP and (2) SSR markers...

  8. 7/1/08 14:51Chemical & Engineering News | Reel Science --WALL-E Page 1 of 2http://pubs.acs.org/cen/reelscience/reviews/walle/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    that WALL-E and EVE show are the holy grails for robotics researchers, he adds. Living on Axiom may seem

  9. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amadi, A. (Rivers State Univ. of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)) Ue Bari, Y. (Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  10. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  11. How wood waters down wall insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunde, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Wood framing in walls can lower the actual insulating values, since the R-value of wood is only one per inch of thickness. A chart is presented that shows how wood in the stud space reduces insulating values. Several wall systems and the nominal R-value of insulation for each is presented.

  12. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  13. Metal stud wall systems -- Thermal disaster, or modern wall systems with highly efficient thermal insulation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center

    1997-11-01

    Because steel has higher thermal conductivity than wood and intense heat transfer occurs through the metal wall components, thermal performances of a metal stud wall are significantly lower than for similar wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. That is why metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar made of wood. However, properly designed metal stud walls can be as thermally effective as wood stud walls. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is widely used as a remedy for a weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of the promising metal stud wall configurations is analyzed using results of finite difference computer modeling and guarded hotbox tests. Some of these walls were designed and tested in the ORNL Building Technology Center, some were tested in other laboratories, and some walls were developed and forgotten long time ago. Also, a novel concept of combined foam-metal studs is considered. The main aim of the present paper is to prove that it is possible to build metal stud walls which perform as well as wood stud walls. The key lies in designing; metal stud wall systems have to be treated in a special way with particular consideration to the high thermal conduction of metal components. In the discussed collection of the efficient metal stud wall configurations, reductions of the in-cavity R-value caused by metal studs are between 10 and 20%.

  14. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20?nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  15. Gravitational Effects in Supersymmetric Domain Wall Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Cvetic; S. Griffies

    1992-04-13

    A recent study of supersymmetric domain walls in $N=1$ supergravity theories revealed a new class of domain walls interpolating between supersymmetric vacua with different non-positive cosmological constants. We classify three classes of domain wall configurations and study the geodesic structure of the induced space-time. Motion of massive test particles in such space-times shows that these walls are always repulsive from the anti-deSitter (AdS) side, while on the Minkowski side test particles feel no force. Freely falling particles far away from a wall in an AdS vacuum experience a constant proper acceleration, \\ie\\ they are Rindler particles. A new coordinate system for discussing AdS space-time is presented which eliminates the use of a periodic time-like coordinate.

  16. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  17. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  18. Final Report for "Stabilization of resistive wall modes using moving metal walls"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Cary B.

    2014-02-05

    The UW experiment used a linear pinch experiment to study the stabilization of MHD by moving metal walls. The methodology of the experiment had three steps. (1) Identify and understand the no-wall MHD instability limits and character, (2) identify and understand the thin-wall MHD instabilities (re- sistive wall mode), and then (3) add the spinning wall and understand its impact on stability properties. During the duration of the grant we accomplished all 3 of these goals, discovered new physics, and completed the experiment as proposed.

  19. Why Walls Don't Work, by Michael Dear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Leo, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    the role of the wall as a power device does not allow for anat that. Walls work by serving as devices of power—devicessense, the wall can be understood as a device of power that

  20. Seismic design, testing and analysis of reinforced concrete wall buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panagiotou, Marios

    2008-01-01

    In Phase II the main load bearing wall was reconfigured as aIn Phase II the main load bearing wall was reconfigured as aa rectangular load bearing wall acting as the main lateral

  1. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01

    walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal...

  2. Training agricultural scientists at the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cote?, Michael E.

    1986-01-01

    agricultural production" (World Food Conference, 1974). At a meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) held at CIMMYT in Mexico during October, 1975, the consensus of those...TRAINING AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MAIZE AND WHEAT A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Michael E. Cote Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  3. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Affinity Biosensors for Small Molecules: Ultrasensitive Glucose Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Affinity Biosensors for Small Molecules such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes as transducer elements in affinity (bio)sensors. Use of nanomaterials yeast,4 DNA/RNA,5 and even mammalian cancer cells.6 The majority of these SWNT-based biosensors

  4. Advanced High Porosity Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Flow Filters |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Porosity Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Flow Filters Advanced High Porosity Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Flow Filters 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007)....

  5. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a...

  6. Breakdown of a Space Charge Limited Regime of a Sheath in a Weakly Collisional Plasma Bounded by Walls with Secondary Electron Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Walls with Secondary Electron Emission D. Sydorenko,1,* I. Kaganovich,2 Y. Raitses,2 and A. Smolyakov1 1 in particle-in-cell simulations of a hot plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission charge limited state even though the secondary electron emission produced by the plasma bulk electrons

  7. A SURVEY OF WALL'S FINITENESS OBSTRUCTION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferry, Steve; Ranicki, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Wall's finiteness obstruction is an algebraic K-theory invariant which decides if a finitely dominated space is homotopy equivalent to a finite CW complex. The invariant was originally formulated in the context of surgery ...

  8. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01

    's ability to dry is not considered during the design or material selection process. No cladding system or installation is perfect, therefore wall systems should be designed with the assumption that some moisture will enter and then consider the effects...

  9. Perforation of domain wall by point mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Gal'tsov; E. Yu. Melkumova; P. A. Spirin

    2013-12-30

    We investigate collision of a point particle and an infinitely thin planar domain wall interacting gravitationally within the linearized gravity in Minkowski space-time of arbitrary dimension. In this setting we are able to describe analytically the perforation of the wall by an impinging particle, showing that it is accompanied by excitation of the spherical shock branon wave propagating outwards with the speed of light. Formally, the shock wave is a free solution of the branon wave equation which has to be added to ensure the validity of the retarded solution at the perforation point. Physically, the domain wall gets excited due to the shake caused by an instantaneous change of sign of the repulsive gravitational force. This effect is shown to hold, in particular, in four space-time dimensions, being applicable to the problem of cosmological domain walls.

  10. Perforation of domain wall by point mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V; Spirin, P A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate collision of a point particle and an infinitely thin planar domain wall interacting gravitationally within the linearized gravity in Minkowski space-time of arbitrary dimension. In this setting we are able to describe analytically the perforation of the wall by an impinging particle, showing that it is accompanied by excitation of the spherical shock branon wave propagating outwards with the speed of light. Formally, the shock wave is a free solution of the branon wave equation which has to be added to ensure the validity of the retarded solution at the perforation point. Physically, the domain wall gets excited due to the shake caused by an instantaneous change of sign of the repulsive gravitational force. This effect is shown to hold, in particular, in four space-time dimensions, being applicable to the problem of cosmological domain walls.

  11. Electric and Magnetic Walls on Dielectric Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbiao Wang

    2010-07-20

    Sufficient conditions of the existence of electric or magnetic walls on dielectric interfaces are given for a multizone uniform dielectric waveguiding system. If one of two adjacent dielectric zones supports a TEM field distribution while the other supports a TM (TE) field distribution, then the common dielectric interface behaves as an electric (magnetic) wall, that is, the electric (magnetic) field line is perpendicular to the interface while the magnetic (electric) field line is parallel to the interface.

  12. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  13. Chaotic Transitions in Wall Following Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harry W. Bullen IV; Priya Ranjan

    2009-08-25

    In this paper we examine how simple agents similar to Braitenberg vehicles can exhibit chaotic movement patterns. The agents are wall following robots as described by Steve Mesburger and Alfred Hubler in their paper "Chaos in Wall Following Robots". These agents uses a simple forward facing distance sensor, with a limited field of view "phi" for navigation. An agent drives forward at a constant velocity and uses the sensor to turn right when it is too close to an object and left when it is too far away. For a flat wall the agent stays a fixed distance from the wall and travels along it, regardless of the sensor's capabilities. But, if the wall represents a periodic function, the agent drives on a periodic path when the sensor has a narrow field of view. The agent's trajectory transitions to chaos when the sensor's field of view is increased. Numerical experiments were performed with square, triangle, and sawtooth waves for the wall, to find this pattern. The bifurcations of the agents were analyzed, finding both border collision and period doubling bifurcations. Detailed experimental results will be reported separately.

  14. The maize tasselseed4 microRNA controls sex determination and meristem cell fate by targeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NaturePublishingGrouphttp://www.nature.com/naturegenetics IM SPM SPM g c asi SPM SPM SM a e f g j k l h i-A inflorescence showing indeterminate branch-like SPM. (j) SEM of ts4-A spikelets showing is seen in developing SPM as in the wild type. (l) ra2 in situ hybridization on older ts4-TP ears. Strong

  15. MESOSCALE THEORY OF GRAINS AND CELLS: POLYCRYSTALS & PLASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethna, James P.

    MESOSCALE THEORY OF GRAINS AND CELLS: POLYCRYSTALS & PLASTICITY A Dissertation Presented RIGHTS RESERVED #12;MESOSCALE THEORY OF GRAINS AND CELLS: POLYCRYSTALS & PLASTICITY Surachate Limkumnerd, continuum explanation for the evolution of dislocations into sharp walls. We present here a mesoscale theory

  16. 2007,KevinSkadron Implications of the Power Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    ©2007,KevinSkadron Implications of the Power Wall in a Manycore Era Sustaining Growth in Computing cost #12;5 ©2007,KevinSkadron Barriers to Performance Growth (2) · Power wall, ILP wall, and slow is a paradigm shift for parallel programming · Power wall will eventually constrain multicore too ­ If power per

  17. A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

  18. Education Module 2007: Cell Wall Chemistry of Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    discussion, and diagrams demonstrating structural characteristics of the following cellular components . a. Starch: http:en.wikipedia.orgwikiStarch b. Cellulose: 38%-50%...

  19. Microfluidic cell culture chambers with nanoporous walls for chemical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Zhifei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals that so far only a tiny fraction of microbial diversity has been cultured in the laboratory. One major reason behind this "unculturability" is ...

  20. Complementary mechanisms of plant cell wall deconstruction by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m echanisms o f plant c ell w all d econstruc5on by f ree a nd complexed e nzyme systems Energy I nnova5on P ortal's A ccelera5ng I nnova5on W ebinar Dr. M ichael R esch Research...

  1. Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission MissionModeling distributed

  2. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Diatom cell division in an environmental context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cytokinesis combined with centrifugal cell wall neosynthesis, and the role of sex in relation to cell size. Notwithstanding, diatoms were one of the most advanced models of cell division in the late 19th century

  3. Transcriptional dynamics during cell wall removal and regeneration reveals key genes involved in cell wall development in rice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rita; Tan, Feng; Jung, Ki-Hong; Sharma, Manoj K; Peng, Zhaohua; Ronald, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    stress Salt stress Heat stress Fig. 4 Bar of pie chartdehydration, salt and heat stress), with 6% genes respondingheat shock to 14-day-old seedlings and, cold, salt and dehydration stress

  4. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  5. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X. (Oviedo, FL); Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  6. Thermodynamics of free Domain Wall fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. V. Gavai; Sayantan Sharma

    2008-11-19

    Studying various thermodynamic quantities for the free domain wall fermions for both finite and infinite fifth dimensional extent N_5, we find that the lattice corrections are minimum for $N_T\\geq10$ for both energy density and susceptibility, for its irrelevant parameter M in the range 1.45-1.50. The correction terms are, however, quite large for small lattice sizes of $N_T\\leq8$. We propose modifications of the domain wall operator, as well as the overlap operator, to reduce the finite cut-off effects to within 10% of the continuum results of the thermodynamic quantities for the currently used N_T=6-8 lattices. Incorporating chemical potential, we show that \\mu^2 divergences are absent for a large class of such domain wall fermion actions although the chiral symmetry is broken for $\\mu\

  7. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  8. The effect of the time of inoculation with Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus on grain sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batte, Robert Dan

    1969-01-01

    the effect of the time of inoculation with Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus on some agronomic charac- teristics of a tolerant and a susceptible grain sorghum hybrid. A completely randomized block design with three replications was util- ized, Mass inoculation... of the plants was accomplished through use of' t' he artist's air'brush procedure. The virus was found to cause reductior: in yield, delay in ma- turity, stunting snd. lowering of test weights of hot'n hybrids. Additional effects on the susceptible hyb. . d...

  9. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  10. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, Scott D. (Broomfield, CO); Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  11. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merab Gogberashvili; Shynaray Myrzakul; Douglas Singleton

    2009-07-19

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of `stiff' matter, i.e. matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact non-linear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  12. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C. (Boulder, CO); Mahan, Archie H. (Golden, CO); Alleman, Jeffrey L. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  13. Single-walled carbon nanotube, SWNT(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Technology Roadmap, Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 1067 (2007). (2 1 c-e 97 % (5) *1 *1 *2 *2 *2 *2 *2 *2 Scattering Process of Transmitted Gas Molecules through process of gas molecules on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (VA-SWNT) films

  14. 2004 11 -2-(Single-Walled Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    ~~ 2004 11 -2- 1. (Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, SWNTs) 13 nm [1] SWNT van Hove [1 SWNT TEM 0.83 nm 2.0 nm SWNT MWNT SWNT 5(a) [11] 5(b) SWNT 1 nm SWNT [12] #12; 2004., Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, Imperial College Press, London, 1998. (2004). [2] S. Maruyama et

  15. Liquid Walls Innovative High Power Density Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    erosion as limiting factors -Results in smaller and lower cost components (chambLiquid Walls Innovative High Power Density Concepts (Based on the APEX Study) http for the Chamber Technology that can: 1. Improve the vision for an attractive fusion energy system 2. Lower

  16. Program Induction: Building a Wall Dan Ashlock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    moving off of the grid are lost. A s a wall out of blocks that impede progress in one direction across a grid of squares. Specifically, two at a time in a fixed location on the grid. The robot must move the currently presented block to enable

  17. Solitons and Domain Walls in Odd Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. D. Lambert; G. W. Gibbons

    2000-07-04

    We discuss the existance of smooth soliton solutions which interpolate between supersymmetric vacua in odd-dimensional theories. In particular we apply this analysis to a wide class of supergravities to argue against the existence of smooth domain walls interpolating between supersymmetric vacua. We find that if the superpotential changes sign then any Goldstino modes will diverge.

  18. CHALLENGE 2015 WALL OF WIND MITIGATION CHALLENGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    with the development of the building model. Is wind mitigation being addressed by your solution? What is wind science, sociology, and urban planning when discussing wind mitigation and your solution. WrittenW W! CHALLENGE 2015 WALL OF WIND MITIGATION CHALLENGE Competition at FIU's Engineering & Computing

  19. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OU’s advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the protein’s biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  20. TRANSFORMATION OF PHB AND PHBV GENES DRIVEN BY MAIZE UBIQUITIN PROMOTER INTO OIL PALM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS 77 Keywords: biodegradable plastics, oil palm, transgenic, biolistics-CoA in bacteria were transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli. For the production of copolymerTRANSFORMATION OF PHB AND PHBV GENES DRIVEN BY MAIZE UBIQUITIN PROMOTER INTO OIL PALM

  1. Remote estimation of gross primary production in maize and support for a new paradigm based on total crop chlorophyll content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rundquist, Donald C.

    distributed carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes is essential for regional and global studies of carbon budgetsRemote estimation of gross primary production in maize and support for a new paradigm based and global studies of carbon budgets. Because of the observed close relationship between GPP and total canopy

  2. Molecular Basis of Heterosis in Maize: Genetic Correlation and 3-Dimensional Network Between Gene Expression and Grain Yield Trait Heterosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi, Hui

    2012-02-14

    biology approach using model organism maize. We profiled the expression of 39 genes that were most differentially expressed (DG) between the mid-parents and their F1 hybrid (Mo17 x B73) in the 13V-satged, developed whole ear shoots of 13 inbred lines...

  3. Impacts of a nuclear war in South Asia on soybean and maize production in the Midwest United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Impacts of a nuclear war in South Asia on soybean and maize production in the Midwest United States and soybeans to cooler, drier, and darker conditions from war-related smoke. We combined observed climate had an important effect. 1 Introduction In the event of nuclear war, targets in cities and industrial

  4. Global climate change and maize production in Spain: Risk assessment and impacts of weather on yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feijoo, M.L.; Mestre, F.; Iglesias, A.; Rosenzweig, C.

    1996-12-31

    The study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on maize production in Spain, combining climate models, a crop productivity model, a decision support system and a yield-response model. The study was carried out for two agricultural regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of grain yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). A yield response model was estimated using simulated data from the crop model. Weather variables are included. Typically, temperature and precipitation are the only weather variables included in these models. However, solar radiation is another important climate factor for plant growth and development and were included in the yield response model.

  5. Interaction between Drilled Shaft and Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Wall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aghahadi Forooshani, Mohammad

    2014-08-28

    Drilled shafts under horizontal loads are being constructed within Mechanically Stabled Earth (MSE) walls in the reinforced zone especially in overpass bridges and traffic signs. The interaction between the drilled shafts and the MSE wall...

  6. Electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube reinforced polyimide composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ounaies, Zoubeida

    Electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube reinforced polyimide composites Z. Ounaiesa of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) reinforced polyimide composites were investigated as a function nanotube; Composites 1. Introduction Polyimides are widely used in applications ranging from

  7. After Exodus : re-occupation of the metropolitan wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Jordan Lloyd Norman

    2012-01-01

    The title "Exodus alludes to a restricted exclave encircled by a forbidding wall -- effect, a prison on the scale of a metropolis, and one in which people sought refuge voluntarily. Over the past forty years, similar walls ...

  8. Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    Hazard volatilization emitted from walls enters into airflow in the room, making the indoor air quality worse. An exterior wall of some thickness is affected on its surface by the outdoor air environment. In this paper, ...

  9. DESIGN OF A TOKAMAK FUSION REACTOR FIRST WALL ARMOR AGAINST NEUTRAL BEAM IMPINGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Richard Allen

    2011-01-01

    exceed that of fusion power reactors for wall loadings up toplasma. The vessel wall temperatures in power reactors isfor· the first wall of fusion power reactors. However, for

  10. Progress on a Cavity with Beryllium Walls for Muon Ionization Cooling Channel R&D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowring, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    ON A CAVITY WITH BERYLLIUM WALLS FOR MUON IONIZATION COOLINGFabricating a cavity with beryllium walls would mitigatepillbox RF cavity with beryllium walls, in order to evaluate

  11. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  12. Genomic Analysis of Natural Variation for Seed and Plant Size in Maize ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kaeppler, Shawn [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2013-01-15

    Shawn Kaeppler from the University of Wisconsin-Madison on "Genomic Analysis of Biofuel Traits in Maize and Switchgrass" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  13. Genomic Analysis of Natural Variation for Seed and Plant Size in Maize ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaeppler, Shawn [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-03-21

    Shawn Kaeppler from the University of Wisconsin-Madison on "Genomic Analysis of Biofuel Traits in Maize and Switchgrass" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  14. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  15. Proposal on Lithium Wall Experiment (LWX) on PBXM 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Proposal on Lithium Wall Experiment (LWX) on PBX­M 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University; OUTLINE 1. Mini­conference on Lithium walls and low recycling regime. 2. PBX­M Capabilities. 3. Motivation "Lithium covered walls and low recycling regimes in toka­ maks". APS meeting, October 23­27, 2000, Quebec

  16. Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapor cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Klein; I. Novikova; D. F. Phillips; R. L. Walsworth

    2006-02-15

    We present preliminary results from an experimental study of slow light in anti-relaxation-coated Rb vapor cells, and describe the construction and testing of such cells. The slow ground state decoherence rate allowed by coated cell walls leads to a dual-structured electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectrum with a very narrow (cell systems.

  17. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fi...

  18. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  19. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  20. Light quark masses using domain wall fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Blum; Amarjit Soni; Matthew Wingate

    1998-09-10

    We compute the one-loop self-energy correction to the massive domain wall quark propagator. Combining this calculation with simulations at several gauge couplings, we estimate the strange quark mass in the continuum limit. The perturbative one-loop mass renormalization is comparable to that for Wilson quarks and considerably smaller than that for Kogut-Susskind quarks. Also, scaling violations appear mild in comparison to other errors at present. Given their good chiral behavior and these features, domain wall quarks are attractive for evaluating the light quark masses. Our preliminary quenched result is m_s(2 GeV) = 82(15) MeV in the ${\\bar{MS}}$ scheme.

  1. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Afonin; I. V. Pusenkov

    2015-06-17

    We apply the soft wall holographic model from hadron physics to a description of the high-$T_c$ superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological. On the other hand, it is much simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-$T_c$ materials. We demonstrate some examples of emerging models and discuss a possible origin of the approach.

  2. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beavers, J.E. [MS Technology, Inc. (United States)

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  3. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afonin, S S

    2015-01-01

    We apply the soft wall holographic model from hadron physics to a description of the high-$T_c$ superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological. On the other hand, it is much simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-$T_c$ materials. We demonstrate some examples of emerging models and discuss a possible origin of the approach.

  4. Anchoring Pd nanoclusters onto pristine and functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes: A combined DFT and experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resasco, Daniel

    in heteroge- neous catalysis [1], fuel cells [2,3] and sensors [4­6]. Both multi- and single-wall carbon- nation on the organic phase. This combination is particularly relevant in the upgrading of bio) or oxygen-functionalized [15]. The functional groups were introduced by treating the SWCNT with HNO3 3 M

  5. Telomere dynamics and telomerase-independent cell survival in Arabidopsis thaliana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, James M.

    2009-05-15

    this process, markers on the end of the chromosome will be lost in this cell lineage. The newly broken end can then fuse again, creating a new dicentric chromosome. This process is termed the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle. Interestingly, her work... showed that while BFB cycles can occur during development of the maize endosperm, it did not appear to occur during development of the embryo. She termed this process ?chromosome healing.? _________ This dissertation follows the style of Molecular...

  6. Cutting assembly including expanding wall segments of auger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, Martin B. (San Antonio, TX); Oser, Michael S. (San Antonio, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study on effects of magnetic field topology on near wall conductivity in a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Daren; Li Hong; Ning Zhongxi; Yan Guojun [Laboratory of Plasma Propulsion, Mail Box 458, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Zhiwen [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-10-15

    An experiment has been made to investigate the effect of curved magnetic field topology on near wall conductivity in the ion acceleration region of Hall thrusters. The experimental results show that the electron current due to near wall conductivity is of the minimum in the case of focused topology and increases in the cases of both less-focus and over-focus topologies. This finding cannot be explained properly by the magnetic mirror effect, which is the one and only reported effect related to the magnetic field curvature so far. Based on the analysis of interaction between the plasma and the wall, a new physical effect is proposed. The difference of magnetic field topology causes different electric potential distribution, leads to different ion flux to the wall, results in the change of sheath property and secondary electron emission, and finally affects the electron current due to near wall conductivity. This effect is further justified by the agreement between the experiment and simulation which is performed with a particle-in-cell model. Therefore, we conclude that the ion flow injection is a significant effect to near wall conductivity in the scope of curved magnetic field topology besides the magnetic mirror effect. Moreover, we find that the focus topology of magnetic field is favorable to obtain a high thruster performance from both the ion acceleration aspect and the electron conduction aspect and so is useful practically for thruster optimization.

  8. Identification of lipid and saccharide constituents of whole microalgal cells by 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Phytoplankton Dynamic filter Cell surface Membrane Organelle Storage Microalgae are unicellular organisms and Nannochloropsis oculata) microalgae with different cell wall charac- teristics. C. reinhardtii is covered rights reserved. 1. Introduction Microalgae are unicellular microorganisms whose diameter typically

  9. Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

  10. Melting Instantons, Domain Walls, and Large N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Thacker

    2008-10-22

    Monte Carlo studies of $CP^{N-1}$ sigma models have shown that the structure of topological charge in these models undergoes a sharp transition at $N=N_c\\approx 4$. For $NN_c$ it is dominated by extended, thin, 1-dimensionally coherent membranes of topological charge, which can be interpreted as domain walls between discrete quasi-stable vacua. These vacua differ by a unit of background electric flux. The transition can be identified as the delocalization of topological charge, or "instanton melting," a phenomenon first suggested by Witten to resolve the conflict between instantons and large $N$ behavior. Implications for $QCD$ are discussed.

  11. Living Walls | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervarLeeds, UnitedLibertyLite On TechnologyCornLiuzhouLiving Walls

  12. Thermal performance of steel-framed walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States); Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-11-21

    In wall construction, highly conductive members spaced along the wall, which allow higher heat transfer than that through less conductive areas, are referred to as thermal bridges. Thermal bridges in walls tend to increase heat loss and, under certain adverse conditions, can cause dust streaking (``ghosting``) on interior walls over studs due to temperature differentials, as well as condensation in and on walls. Although such adverse conditions can be easily avoided by proper thermal design of wall systems, these effects have not been well understood and thermal data has been lacking. Therefore, the present study was initiated to provide (1) a better understanding of the thermal behavior of steel-framed walls, (2) a set of R-values for typical wall constructions, and (3) information that could be used to develop improved methods of predicting R-values. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them to choose the optimum choice for construction. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C9761) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Test results were compared to R-value estimates using the parallel path method, the isothermal planes method and the ASHRAE Zone method. The comparison showed that the known procedures do not fully account for the three-dimensional effects created by steel framing in a wall.

  13. Effect of low po? on growth of bacteria and on loss of soluble carbon from maize roots under hydroponic conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coker, Dennis Lee

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic Conditions. (May 1992) Dennis Lee Coker, B. S. , Tarleton State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. David A. Zuberer In the maize rhizosphere, environmental stress may influence a number of processes mediated by rhizosphere bacteria... of 10 . Upon completion of serial dilutions, 0. 1-mL aliquots of diluted root extract (inoculum) from the three highest dilutions (10 , 10 -8 and 10 ) were transferred to duplicate plates to determine colony forming units (CFU) per gram of root...

  14. OPERATIONAL WINDOWS FOR DRY-WALL AND WETTED-WALL IFE CHAMBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    subsystems was performed parametrically to uncover key physics/technology uncertainties and to iden- tify be necessary that may preclude propagation of the laser driver and require assisted pinch transport issue for wetted-wall concepts. KEYWORDS: inertial fusion, fusion technology, IFE chambers *E

  15. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadra Jazayeri; Yashar Akrami; Hassan Firouzjahi; Adam R. Solomon; Yi Wang

    2014-11-29

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  16. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Bruno S.; Fuelling, Stephan

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  17. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Akrami, Yashar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R.; Wang, Yi E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF THE FUNCTIONALITY OF FRAME WALLS ENHANCED WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS USING A DYNAMIC WALL SIMULATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evers, Angela C.

    2008-07-25

    Frame walls enhanced with phase change materials (paraffin-based, hydrated salt-based, and eutectic) mixed in cellulose insulation were developed and tested. The frame walls were heated and allowed to cool in a dynamic wall simulator that replicated...

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies generated by domain wall networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sousa, L

    2015-01-01

    We develop a numerical tool for the fast computation of the temperature and polarization power spectra generated by domain wall networks, by extending the publicly available CMBACT code --- that calculates the CMB signatures generated by active sources --- to also describe domain wall networks. In order to achieve this, we adapt the Unconnected Segment model for cosmic strings to also describe domain wall networks, and use it to model the energy-momentum of domain wall networks throughout their cosmological history. We use this new tool to compute and study the TT, EE, TE and BB power spectra generated by standard domain wall networks, and derive a conservative constraint on the energy scale of the domain wall-forming phase transition of $\\upeta <0.92\\,\\,{\\rm MeV}$ (which is a slight improvement over the original Zel'dovich bound of $1\\,\\,{\\rm MeV}$).

  20. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  1. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  2. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  3. Perspective Systems in Roman Second Style Wall-painting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinson, Philip T.

    2011-07-01

    Perspective Systems in Roman Second Style Wall Painting PHILIP STINSON Abstract There is still much to be learned about architectural perspective from the study of Roman wall paintings dat- ing to the first century B.C.E. This article... demonstrates that Second Style wall paintings of houses and villas in Rome and Campania hold evidence for different types of perspective: convergence perspective and parallel perspective. A special variation involves multiple systems of convergence...

  4. Collapse of Axionic Domain Wall and Axion Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michiyasu Nagasawa; Masahiro Kawasaki

    1994-05-09

    We examine the collapse of an axion domain wall bounded by an axionic string. It is found that the collapse proceeds quickly and axion domain walls disappear. However axions are emitted in the collapse and its energy density increases during radiation dominated era and contributes significantly to the present mass density of the universe. In particular the axion emitted from the wall can account for the dark matter in the universe for $F_a\\gsim 10^{10}\\GeV$.

  5. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOTHELIAL CELL MECHANICS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohedas, Agustin

    2007-08-22

    Circumferential distension of the arterial wall during the cardiac cycle regulates endothelial cell (EC) morphology and function. We have previously shown that cyclic stretching of ECs leads to activation of signaling events relevant...

  6. Carbon Nanotubes-Based Electrochemical Sensing for Cell Culture Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Carbon Nanotubes-Based Electrochemical Sensing for Cell Culture Monitoring Cristina Boero, Sandro different presented strategies to develop biosensors, carbon nanotubes exhibit great properties, particularly suitable for biosensing. In this work nanostructured electrodes by using multi-walled carbon

  7. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open literature for numerical modeling of...

  8. Fracture of welded aluminum thin-walled structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive methodology was developed in the thesis for damage prediction of welded aluminum thin-walled structures, which includes material modeling, calibration, numerical simulation and experimental verification. ...

  9. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  10. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of magnetic-domain walls and opens a path to further technological developments in spintronics applications. Magnetic Data Storage "Rats My disk drive has crashed. How will I...

  11. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  12. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  13. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The...

  14. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    building science.com 2009 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis...

  15. Seismic design, testing and analysis of reinforced concrete wall buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panagiotou, Marios

    2008-01-01

    combined elements of structural design, testing andcontrol and design of structural and nonstructural response.for Seismic Design of Structural Walls. ACI Structural

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi method for Domain Walls and Cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostas Skenderis; Paul K. Townsend

    2006-12-07

    We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of adS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.

  17. Asymmetric domain walls of small angle in soft ferromagnetic films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukas Döring; Radu Ignat

    2014-12-07

    We focus on a special type of domain walls appearing in the Landau-Lifshitz theory for soft ferromagnetic films. These domain walls are divergence-free $S^2$-valued transition layers that connect two directions in $S^2$ (differing by an angle $2\\theta$) and minimize the Dirichlet energy. Our main result is the rigorous derivation of the asymptotic structure and energy of such "asymmetric" domain walls in the limit $\\theta \\to 0$. As an application, we deduce that a supercritical bifurcation causes the transition from symmetric to asymmetric walls in the full micromagnetic model.

  18. Upgrade of the Power Deposition and Thermal Models for the First Wall Protection of JET with an ITER-like Be Combination of Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upgrade of the Power Deposition and Thermal Models for the First Wall Protection of JET with an ITER-like Be Combination of Wall

  19. Light-shining-through-walls with lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friederike Januschek

    2014-10-07

    Light-shining-through-walls experiments are the search experiments for weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) with the smallest model dependence. They have the advantage that not only the detection, but also the production of the WISPs takes place in the laboratory and can thus be controlled. Using lasers is the preferred option for most of the mass region and has led to the world's most stringent laboratory limits (ALPS I) there. At CERN, OSQAR promises to surpass these and at DESY ALPS II is currently set up, which is planning to probe the axion-like particle to photon coupling down to $|g_{a\\gamma}|\\gtrsim 2\\cdot10^{-11}$ GeV$^{-1}$, which is in a region favored by many astrophysical hints.

  20. The height of watermelons with wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Feierl

    2012-04-11

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalises a famous result of de Bruijn, Knuth and Rice on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek and Katori et al. on the expected value, respectively the higher moments, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi's theta functions, which generalises the well known reciprocity law for Jacobi's theta functions.

  1. The thermal performance of steel-framed walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, C.E. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Building Systems Div.; Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Bedford, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal bridges are areas in constructions that have highly conductive materials, allowing higher heat transfer through less conductive areas. In a wall, thermal bridges can increase heat loss, cause dust to accumulate on the studs (ghosting) due to temperature distribution, and cause condensation to form in and on the walls. The effects of thermal bridges are often misunderstood by engineers, buildings, and manufacturers of construction products. This study attempts to provide a better understanding of the effects of thermal bridges in steel-framed walls, as well as information leading to improved methods of predicting R-value of walls containing thermal bridges. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them the freedom to correctly choose the optimum choice for construction. In order to arrive at an improved method, experimental data on the heat transfer characteristics of steel-framed walls were collected. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C976) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing, and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies of thermal bridging in steel-framed walls have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Also, detailed monitoring of temperature gradients in the test walls combined with numerical analysis provided new insights into heat transfer phenomena concerning thermal bridges.

  2. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  3. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  4. Vectorial Growth of Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joselevich, Ernesto

    obstacles toward nanotube-based electronic technology. Vectorial growth of SWNTs is a new approach wherebyVectorial Growth of Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Ernesto Joselevich growth of single-wall carbon nanotube arrays is presented. The origin of growth is defined by patterning

  5. Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liska, Richard

    Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1 R. LISKA,2 AND F.B. ROSMEJ3,4 1 Institute, France (RECEIVED 30 August 2009; ACCEPTED 21 September 2009) Abstract Jets of laser­generated plasma surfaces (walls). The pilot experiments carried out on the iodine laser system (5­200 J, 0.44 mm, 0

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  7. Doctoral Defense "Feasibility Study of High Performance Cutoff Walls for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    for a candidate ECC mix. Also, revisions to existing levee seismic design guidelines are proposed, basedDoctoral Defense "Feasibility Study of High Performance Cutoff Walls for Levees in Seismic Regions state or length of their cutoff walls, and 2) seismic activity poses serious risks to many existing

  8. Ultrathin Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Framed Graphene Hybrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Ultrathin Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Framed Graphene Hybrids Rui Wang, Tu Hong, and Ya ABSTRACT: Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown superior potential in electronics method is developed to synthesize ultrathin SWNT-graphene films through chemical vapor deposition

  9. technology offer HPC/UHPC double wall elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Anton

    buildings and towers like wind turbines, power plants or cooling towers. Fig. 1: UHPC double wall element to 20-45 mm in an easy and cost efficient way. Background Double wall elements are precast reinforced · Savings in material and weight · Savings in transport and crane costs · Dense structure of the precast

  10. TERMINATION OF THE POROUS WALL CONCEPT To: APEX GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    TERMINATION OF THE POROUS WALL CONCEPT To: APEX GROUP From: Anter El-Azab (anter@seas.ucla.edu) Re with Lithium will can not work and this concept should be terminated. For the case of vanadium alloy on this concept should be terminated. #12;TERMINATION OF THE POROUS WALL CONCEPT Best Regards, Anter #12;

  11. Surface effect on domain wall width in ferroelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-10-26

    Oct 26, 2009 ... the domain wall thickness and gradient coefficients in typical ... phase transitions or u. 0 for the second ... tained from the surface energy in the form12. P3 ? 1 ..... Calculated width solid curves of domain wall at level. 0.76 as a ...

  12. Controlled Multistep Purification of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Controlled Multistep Purification of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Ya-Qiong Xu,,§ Haiqing Peng materials from raw single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) produced in the HiPco (high-pressure CO) process at increasing temperatures. To avoid catalytic oxidation by iron oxide of carbon nanotubes, the exposed

  13. Modeling Left Ventricle Wall Motion Using Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alenezy, Mohammed D.

    2009-04-17

    A two-parameter computational model is proposed for the study of the regional motion of the left ventricle (LV) wall using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI) data. In this model, the LV wall motion is mathematically decomposed into two...

  14. The prospects for highbeta tokamaks with Li walls 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    . Why Li walls ? 2. Magnetic propulsion of liquid Li. 3. Plasma profiles in the non­recycling regime. 4 can be magnetically propulsed along the plasma facing surfaces in the tokamak chamber. This allows the stabilizing wall right at the plasma boundary. 2. Intense (V ' 20 m=sec) magnetic propulsion allows to keep Li

  15. Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments in CDX-U R. Majeski,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments in CDX-U R. Kaita, a R. Majeski, a S. Luckhardt, b R. Doerner, b M ABSTRACT The concept of a flowing lithium first wall for a fusion reactor may lead to a significant advance is intensely heated and well diagnosed, and an extensive liquid lithium plasma-facing surface will be used

  16. October 24, 2001 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    and chamber wall design · Power to chamber wall · Coolant outlet temperature · Cycle efficiency · Thermal-hydraulic parameters · Maximum temperature of chamber wall - Chamber wall power assumed to be spread over the completeOctober 24, 2001 1 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall 2. "Overlap" Design Regions 3

  17. Resistive and ferritic-wall plasma dynamos in a sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalzov, I. V.; Brown, B. P.; Kaplan, E. J.; Katz, N.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rahbarnia, K.; Forest, C. B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Spence, E. J. [Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We numerically study the effects of varying electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of the bounding wall on a kinematic dynamo in a sphere for parameters relevant to Madison plasma dynamo experiment. The dynamo is excited by a laminar, axisymmetric flow of von Karman type. The flow is obtained as a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation for an isothermal fluid with a velocity profile specified at the sphere's boundary. The properties of the wall are taken into account as thin-wall boundary conditions imposed on the magnetic field. It is found that an increase in the permeability of the wall reduces the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub cr}. An increase in the conductivity of the wall leaves Rm{sub cr} unaffected but reduces the dynamo growth rate.

  18. Thermal effects on transverse domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliaert, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vandermeulen, J.; Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Waeyenberge, B. Van; Laurson, L.; Durin, G.

    2015-05-18

    Magnetic domain walls are proposed as data carriers in future spintronic devices, whose reliability depends on a complete understanding of the domain wall motion. Applications based on an accurate positioning of domain walls are inevitably influenced by thermal fluctuations. In this letter, we present a micromagnetic study of the thermal effects on this motion. As spin-polarized currents are the most used driving mechanism for domain walls, we have included this in our analysis. Our results show that at finite temperatures, the domain wall velocity has a drift and diffusion component, which are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values obtained from a generalized 1D model. The drift and diffusion component are independent of each other in perfect nanowires, and the mean square displacement scales linearly with time and temperature.

  19. Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazanu, A; Shellard, E P S

    2015-01-01

    We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy-momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.

  20. A simple method for predicting bulk temperature from tube wall temperature with uniform outside wall heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    in laminar flow condition. When air is considered as the working fluid, natural convection is negligible Available online 5 April 2012 Keywords: Bulk temperature Wall temperature Axial wall conduction Laminar flow on conjugate heat transfer in a tube with internal laminar flow have been performed using analytical

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  3. Transmittance of single wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, W.; Hone, J.; Richards, P.L.; Zettl, A.

    2001-07-31

    The authors have measured the far infrared absorption of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes at 1.5K and SWNT ropes in polyethylene (PE) over the range 1.5 < T < 300 K. A weak peak is observed at 28 cm{sup -1} at 1.5K for free standing SWNT samples. The frequency and temperature dependence of the peak is consistent with absorption by an E{sub 2g} symmetric, ''squash mode'', SWNT phonon, which is infrared active due to an adsorbate or disorder. The peak frequency for SWNT ropes in PE is at 40 cm{sup -1} and temperature dependent. They attribute the increase in the frequency of the peak for SWNT in PE to the effect of {approx} 0.2GPa of hydrostatic pressure exerted on the SWNT ropes due to the thermal contraction of PE when cooled to low temperatures. Using two independent methods, they estimate that the SWNT may radially buckle at this pressure. The buckling distortion may cause the pressure dependence of the peak frequency. They cannot rule out the possibility that the peak is an absorption onset from adsorbate modes extrinsic to the SWNT or from interband transitions at a small electronic band gap. An effective medium calculation of Drude metal grains in polyethylene gives a frequency dependence consistent with their data, but the model underestimates the strength of scattering by orders of magnitude.

  4. Pneumatic wall-locking geophone system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Harland L. (Minneapolis, MN); Cumerlato, Calvin L. (Minneapolis, MN); Tweeton, Daryl R. (Apple Valley, MN)

    1991-01-01

    A seismic signal receiving system is provided for use in boreholes to receive seismic waves in carrying out geophysical investigations. The system includes three pairs of opposed plates, each of the pairs of plates including oppositely facing outer surfaces for engagement with opposite sides of a borehole. A seismic receiver is mounted on the inner surface of each of the plates for receiving seismic signals. A double-acting, fluid-operated actuator selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates away from each other to provide expansion thereof so as to enable the plates to engage the walls of a borehole and selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates toward each other to provide retraction thereof so as to enable the system to be removed from a borehole. The pairs of plates each comprise a relatively long plate and a relatively short plate. An expandable linkage interconnects the long plates at the distal ends thereof. The plates are mechanically biassed into the retracted state so that the plates return to this state in the event of a system failure.

  5. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RBC,; Blum, T; Boyle, P A; Christ, N H; Frison, J; Garron, N; Hudspith, R J; Izubuchi, T; Janowski, T; Jung, C; Juettner, A; Kelly, C; Kenway, R D; Lehner, C; Marinkovic, M; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, G; Murphy, D J; Ohta, S; Portelli, A; Sachrajda, C T; Soni, A

    2014-01-01

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\overline {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, ...

  6. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RBC; UKQCD collaborations; :; T. Blum; P. A. Boyle; N. H. Christ; J. Frison; N. Garron; R. J. Hudspith; T. Izubuchi; T. Janowski; C. Jung; A. Juettner; C. Kelly; R. D. Kenway; C. Lehner; M. Marinkovic; R. D. Mawhinney; G. McGlynn; D. J. Murphy; S. Ohta; A. Portelli; C. T. Sachrajda; A. Soni

    2014-11-25

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\overline {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, $B_K$, in the RGI scheme, 0.750(15) and the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 0.530(11).

  7. Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control A new metal fiber wall-flow DPF with up to 99% efficiency and...

  8. Gapped Domain Walls, Gapped Boundaries and Topological Degeneracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian Lan; Juven Wang; Xiao-Gang Wen

    2014-11-26

    Gapped domain walls, as topological line defects between 2+1D topologically ordered states, are examined. We provide simple criteria to determine the existence of gapped domain walls, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. Our criteria also determine which 2+1D topological orders must have gapless edge modes, namely which 1+1D global gravitational anomalies ensure gaplessness. Furthermore, we introduce a new mathematical object, the tunneling matrix $\\mathcal W$, whose entries are the fusion-space dimensions $\\mathcal W_{ia}$, to label different types of gapped domain walls. By studying many examples, we find evidence that the tunneling matrices are powerful quantities to classify different types of gapped domain walls. Since a gapped boundary is a gapped domain wall between a bulk topological order and the vacuum, regarded as the trivial topological order, our theory of gapped domain walls inclusively contains the theory of gapped boundaries. In addition, we derive a topological ground state degeneracy formula, applied to arbitrary orientable spatial 2-manifolds with gapped domain walls, including closed 2-manifolds and open 2-manifolds with gapped boundaries.

  9. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  10. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  11. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Huang, Yin-Yan (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  12. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  13. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  14. Calculation of the strange quark mass using domain wall fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Blum; Amarjit Soni; Matthew Wingate

    2000-09-18

    We present a first calculation of the strange quark mass using domain wall fermions. This paper contains an overview of the domain wall discretization and a pedagogical presentation of the perturbative calculation necessary for computing the mass renormalization. We combine the latter with numerical simulations to estimate the strange quark mass. Our final result in the quenched approximation is 95(26) MeV in the ${\\bar{MS}}$ scheme at a scale of 2 GeV. We find that domain wall fermions have a small perturbative mass renormalization, similar to Wilson quarks, and exhibit good scaling behavior.

  15. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF ATYPICAL SPECIAL PLATE SHEAR WALLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Russell; Robert E. Spears; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2007-07-01

    The structure of a building undergoing a seismic reevaluation at the Idaho National Laboratory includes a number of steel plate walls and a roof liner which will act as shear diaphragms during an earthquake. Since the facility was designed and built long before such criteria were formulated, it is not surprising that these walls are not configured to meet all of the recently formulated requirements for such structures. To take advantage of this unusual structural feature, nonlinear analysis was used to ensure accurate modeling of the plate walls in a linear elastic seismic analysis of the full superstructure. The modeling was also used to establish the capacity of the plate.

  16. Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Interior Side of Building's Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior...

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as an efficient drug carrier for overcoming multidrug resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Jinping [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Meziani, Mohammed J.; Sun Yaping [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Emerging Materials and Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Cheng, Shuk Han, E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    The acquisition of multidrug resistance poses a serious problem in chemotherapy, and new types of transporters have been actively sought to overcome it. In the present study, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated (PEGylated) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared and explored as drug carrier to overcome multidrug resistance. The prepared PEGylated MWCNTs penetrated into mammalian cells without damage plasma membrane, and its accumulation did not affect cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. More importantly, PEGylated MWCNTs accumulated in the multidrug-resistant cancer cells as efficient as in the sensitive cancer cells. Intracellular translocation of PEGylated MWCNTs was visualized in both multidrug-resistant HepG2-DR cells and sensitive HepG2 cells, as judged by both fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy. PEGylated MWCNTs targeted cancer cells efficiently and multidrug-resistant cells failed to remove the intracellular MWCNTs. However, if used in combination with drugs without conjugation, PEGylated MWCNTs prompted drug efflux in MDR cells by stimulating the ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein. This study suggests that PEGylated MWCNTs can be developed as an efficient drug carrier to conjugate drugs for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities II: Fracturing of colliding walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan Braden; J. Richard Bond; Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2015-06-09

    We study collisions between nearly planar domain walls including the effects of small initial nonplanar fluctuations. These perturbations represent the small fluctuations that must exist in a quantum treatment of the problem. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that at the linear level a subset of these fluctuations experience parametric amplification as a result of their coupling to the planar symmetric background. Here we study the full three-dimensional nonlinear dynamics using lattice simulations, including both the early time regime when the fluctuations are well described by linear perturbation theory as well as the subsequent stage of fully nonlinear evolution. We find that the nonplanar fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the overall evolution of the system. Specifically, once these fluctuations begin to interact nonlinearly the split into a planar symmetric part of the field and the nonplanar fluctuations loses its utility. At this point the colliding domain walls dissolve, with the endpoint of this being the creation of a population of oscillons in the collision region. The original (nearly) planar symmetry has been completely destroyed at this point and an accurate study of the system requires the full three-dimensional simulation.

  19. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  20. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11, 2012, to YMGI Group, LLC (YMGI) regarding through-the-wall split system central air conditioner basic model TTWC-18K-31B. DOE enforcement testing revealed that this model...

  1. Analytical and micromagnetic study of a Neel domain wall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivkin, K.; Romanov, K.; Abanov, Artem; Adamov, Y.; Saslow, W. M.

    2008-01-01

    For ferromagnets with exchange, dipolar interaction, and uniaxial anisotropy, by both analytic methods and micromagnetic simulations we study Neel domain walls in thin ferromagnetic strips of finite width. Comparison of the numerical results...

  2. The Soft Wall Model of the Casimir Effect 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whisler, Colin M.

    2014-08-13

    In this paper, we examine the Casimir interaction between a scalar field and a boundary analogous to a conducting wall with some small but finite skin depth to electromagnetic radiation with the goal of calculating the energy density and pressure...

  3. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  4. Domain wall displacement by remote spin-current injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skirdkov, P. N.

    We demonstrate numerically the ability to displace a magnetic domain wall (DW) by remote spin current injection. We consider a long and narrow magnetic nanostripe with a single DW. The spin-polarized current is injected ...

  5. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  6. Comment on "Single Crystals of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    Comment on "Single Crystals of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Formed by Self-Assembly" Schlittler) by the thermolysis of nano- patterned structures of alternating layers of C60 and nickel. Electron diffraction, high

  7. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Willis E. (W. Richland, WA); Dwyer, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Trombe Wall Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, B.; Zhao, J.; Chen, C.; Zhuang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experiments with a passive solar building with Trombe wall in the north cold climate are carried out and discussed, and the natural convection heat transfer process has been investigated. The relativity of the factors affecting indoor...

  9. Effect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semiarid climate of Tadla (Morocco)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Effect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood Abstract The field study of crops response to water stress is important to reduce agricultural water use in areas where the water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods

  10. Domain Walls and Anchoring Transitions Mimicking Nematic Biaxiality in the Oxadiazole Bent-Core Liquid Crystal C7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-ki Kim; Greta Cukrov; Jie Xiang; Sung-Tae Shin; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2015-03-23

    We investigate the origin of secondary disclinations that were recently described as a new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. With an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in an uniaxial nematic during the surface anchoring transition, in which surface orientation of the director changes from tangential (parallel to the bounding plates) to tilted. Each domain wall separates two regions with the director tilted in opposite azimuthal directions. At the centre of the wall, the director remains parallel to the bonding plates. The domain walls can be easily removed by applying a modest electric field. The anchoring transition is explained by the balance of (a) the intrinsic perpendicular surface anchoring produced by the polyimide aligning layer and (b) tangential alignment caused by ionic impurities forming electric double layers. The model is supported by the fact that the temperature of the tangential-tilted anchoring transition decreases as the cell thickness increases and as the concentration of ionic species (added salt) increases. We also demonstrate that the surface alignment is strongly affected by thermal degradation of the samples. The study shows that C7 exhibits only a uniaxial nematic phase and demonstrate yet another mechanism (formation of secondary disclinations) by which a uniaxial nematic can mimic a biaxial nematic behaviour.

  11. DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM PLACEMENT OF A PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) THERMAL SHIELD INSIDE FRAME WALLS USING A DYNAMIC WALL SIMULATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reshmeen, Silvia

    2009-12-23

    ABSTRACT This thesis presents the results of an experimental study to determine the optimum placement and the thermal performance of a Phase Change Materials (PCMs) thermal shield incorporated into frame wall insulation systems for the purpose...

  12. Heat transfer and friction in a square channel with one-wall or two-wall rib turbulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jie Joy

    1991-01-01

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION IN A SQUARE CHANNEI WITH ONE-WAIL OR TWO-WALL RIB TURBULATORS A Thesis by JIE JOY HUANG Approved as to style snd content by: J. C. Han (Chair.... , Shanghai Institute of Mechanical Engineering Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. C, Han This experimental program studies the effect of the wall heat flux ratio on the local heat transfer distributions and pressure drop in a square channel...

  13. Manuscript accepted for publication in Sexual Plant Reproduction Morphogenesis of complex plant cell shapes: the mechanical role of crystalline cellulose in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    not the main stress-bearing component against turgor pressure induced tensile stress in circumferential.geitmann@umontreal.ca Abstract Cellulose is the principal component of the load-bearing system in primary plant cell walls of cellulose in the cell wall is untypically low. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether the load-bearing

  14. The Plant Cell, Vol. 8, 1793-1807, October 1996O 1996 American Society of Plant Physiologists Death Don`t Have No Mercy: Cell Death Programs in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dangl, Jeff

    ; Schmelzer et al., 1989). Subse- quent biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites and cell wallThe Plant Cell, Vol. 8, 1793-1807, October 1996O 1996 American Society of Plant Physiologists Death Don`t Have No Mercy: Cell Death Programs in Plant-Microbe lnteractions Jeffery L. Dangl,'lbi1 Robert A

  15. Improved Confinement in JET High {beta} Plasmas with an ITER-Like Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Challis, C D; Beurskens, M; Buratti, P; Delabie, E; Drewelow, P; Frassinetti, L; Giroud, C; Hawkes, N; Hobirk, J; Joffrin, E; Keeling, D; King, D B; Maggi, C F; Mailloux, J; Marchetto, C; McDonald, D; Nunes, I; Pucella, G; Saarelma, S; Simpson, J

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of the JET carbon wall (C-wall) by a Be/W ITER-like wall (ILW) has affected the plasma energy confinement. To investigate this, experiments have been performed with both the C-wall and ILW to vary the heating power over a wide range for plasmas with different shapes.

  16. Coating Glass Cells with OTS The glass cells we use to polarize xenon or to store polarized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Coating Glass Cells with OTS The glass cells we use to polarize xenon or to store polarized xenon need to be coated. This is because without coating wall collisions of the xenon can bring with a trichlorosilane at one end. In the coating process that group binds to the silicates in the glass, relinquishing

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of thin layers of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick.

  18. Quantum Fusion of Strings (Flux Tubes) and Domain Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-05-20

    We consider formation of composite strings and domain walls as a result of fusion of two elementary objects (elementary strings in the first case and elementary walls in the second) located at a distance from each other. The tension of the composite object T_2 is assumed to be less than twice the tension of the elementary object T_1, so that bound states are possible. If in the initial state the distance d between the fusing strings or walls is much larger than their thickness and satisfies the conditions T_1 d^2 >> 1 (in the string case) and T_1 d^3 >> 1 (in the wall case), the problem can be fully solved quasiclassically. The fusion probability is determined by the first, "under the barrier" stage of the process. We find the bounce configuration and its extremal action S_B. In the wall problem e^{-S_B} gives the fusion probability per unit time per unit area. In the string case, due to a logarithmic infrared divergence, the problem is well formulated only for finite-length strings. The fusion probability per unit time can be found in the limit in which the string length is much larger than the distance between two merging strings.

  19. Spherical Domain Wall Collapse in a Dust Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norihiro Tanahashi; Chul-Moon Yoo

    2015-05-13

    To clarify observational consequence of bubble nucleations in inflationary era, we analyse dynamics of a spherical domain wall in an expanding universe. We consider a spherical shell of the domain wall with tension $\\sigma$ collapsing in a spherically-symmetric dust universe, which is initially separated into the open Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker universe inside the shell and the Einstein-de Sitter universe outside. The domain wall shell collapses due to the tension, and sweeps the dust fluid. The universe after the collapse becomes inhomogeneous and is described by the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi model. We construct solutions describing this inhomogeneous universe by solving dynamical equations obtained from Israel's junction conditions applied to this system. We find that a black hole forms after the domain wall collapse for any initial condition, and that the black hole mass at the moment of its formation is universally given by $M_{\\rm BH}\\simeq 17 \\sigma/H_{\\rm hc}$, where $H_{\\rm hc}$ is the Hubble parameter at the time when the shell radius becomes equal to the Hubble radius. We also find that the dust fluid is distributed as $\\rho\\propto R^{3/2}$ near the central region after the collapse, where $R$ is the area radius. These features would provide observable signatures of a spherical domain wall generated in the early universe.

  20. Shear wall ultimate drift limits for PRA applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A. [New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas, NM (United States); Farrar, C.R.; Goldman, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Drift limits for reinforced concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the technical literature for appropriate experimental data. Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures (exclusive of containments) and concerns regarding their response during seismic loading, data are obtained from pertinent references where the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which the loading is cyclic. Lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of these statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  1. Domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems in axion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yoshino, Kazuyoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-11-01

    Axion models have two serious cosmological problems, domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems. In order to solve these problems we investigate the Linde's model in which the field value of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) scalar is large during inflation. In this model the fluctuations of the PQ field grow after inflation through the parametric resonance and stable axionic strings may be produced, which results in the domain wall problem. We study formation of axionic strings using lattice simulations. It is found that in chaotic inflation the axion model is free from both the domain wall and the isocurvature perturbation problems if the initial misalignment angle ?{sub a} is smaller than O(10{sup ?2}). Furthermore, axions can also account for the dark matter for the breaking scale v ? 10{sup 12?16} GeV and the Hubble parameter during inflation H{sub inf}?<10{sup 11?12} GeV in general inflation models.

  2. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar (Kennewick, WA); Hof, Jr., Peter John (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  3. Simulations of Alpha Wall Load in ITER. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2010-10-20

    The partially DOE funded International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will produce massive amounts of energetic charged alpha particles, which are imperfectly confined by a strong magnetic field. The wall of the experiment is designed to withstand an estimated wall load from these fusion alpha particles, but the accuracy of this estimate needs to be improved to avoid potentially catastrophic surprises when the experiment becomes operational. We have added a more accurate, gyro-dynamic model of particle motion to the existing drift-dynamic model in the DELTA5D simulation software used for the project. We have also added the ability to load a detailed engineering model of the wall and use it in the simulations.

  4. Wall Adhesion and Constitutive Modelling of Strong Colloidal Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel R. Lester; Richard Buscall; Anthony D. Stickland; Peter J. Scales

    2014-06-24

    Wall adhesion effects during batch sedimentation of strongly flocculated colloidal gels are commonly assumed to be negligible. In this study in-situ measurements of colloidal gel rheology and solids volume fraction distribution suggest the contrary, where significant wall adhesion effects are observed in a 110mm diameter settling column. We develop and validate a mathematical model for the equilibrium stress state in the presence of wall adhesion under both viscoplastic and viscoelastic constitutive models. These formulations highlight fundamental issues regarding the constitutive modeling of colloidal gels, specifically the relative utility and validity of viscoplastic and viscoelastic rheological models under arbitrary tensorial loadings. The developed model is validated against experimental data, which points toward a novel method to estimate the shear and compressive yield strength of strongly flocculated colloidal gels from a series of equilibrium solids volume fraction profiles over various column widths.

  5. Material options for a commercial fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of various materials for use as first walls in high-power-density commercial fusion reactors. Operating limits for each material were obtained based on a number of criteria, including maximum allowable structural temperatures, critical heat flux, ultimate tensile strength, and design-allowable stress. The results with water as a coolant indicate that a modified alloy similar to HT-9 may be a suitable candidate for low- and medium-power-density reactor first walls with neutron loads of up to 6 MW/m/sup 2/. A vanadium or copper alloy must be used for high-power-density reactors. The neutron wall load limit for vanadium alloys is about 14 MW/sup 2/, provided a suitable coating material is chosen. The extremely limited data base for radiation effects hinders any quantitative assessment of the limits for copper alloys.

  6. Resistive wall mode active control physics design for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y. S., E-mail: ypark@pppl.gov; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bialek, J. M.; Berkery, J. W. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York 10027 (United States); Bak, J. G.; Lee, S. G.; Oh, Y. K. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    As KSTAR H-mode operation approaches the region where the resistive wall mode (RWM) can be unstable, an important issue for future long pulse, high beta plasma operation is to evaluate RWM active feedback control performance using a planned active/passive RWM stabilization system on the device. In particular, an optimal design of feedback sensors allows mode stabilization up to the highest achievable ?{sub N} close to the ideal with-wall limit, ?{sub N}{sup wall}, with reduced control power requirements. The computed ideal n?=?1 mode structure from the DCON code has been input to the VALEN-3D code to calculate the projected performance of an active RWM control system in the KSTAR three-dimensional conducting structure device geometry. Control performance with the midplane locked mode detection sensors, off-midplane saddle loops, and magnetic pickup coils is examined. The midplane sensors measuring the radial component of the mode perturbation is found to be strongly affected by the wall eddy current. The off-axis saddle loops with proper compensation of the prompt applied field are computed to provide stabilization at ?{sub N} up to 86% of ?{sub N}{sup wall} but the low RWM amplitude computed in the off-axis regions near the sensors can produce a low signal-to-noise ratio. The required control power and bandwidth are also estimated with varied noise levels in the feedback sensors. Further improvements have been explored by examining a new RWM sensor design motivated by the off-midplane poloidal magnetic field sensors in NSTX. The new sensors mounted off of the copper passive stabilizer plates near the device midplane show a clear advantage in control performance corresponding to achieving 99% of ?{sub N}{sup wall} without the need of compensation of the prompt field. The result shows a significant improvement of RWM feedback stabilization using the new sensor set which motivates a future feedback sensor upgrade.

  7. Stability of winding cosmic wall lattices with X type junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandon Carter

    2009-11-30

    This work confirms the stability of a class of domain wall lattice models that can produce accelerated cosmological expansion, with pressure to density ratio $w=-1/3$ at early times, and with $w=-2/3$ at late times when the lattice scale becomes large compared to the wall thickness. For walls of tension $T_{I}$, the relevant X type junctions could be unstable (for a sufficiently acute intersection angle $\\alpha$) against separation into a pair of Y type junctions joined by a compound wall, only if the tension $T_{II}$ of the latter were less than $2T_{I}$ (and for an approximately right-angled intersection if it were less that $\\sqrt{2} T_{I}$) which can not occur in the class considered here. In an extensive category of multicomponent scalar field models of forced harmonic (linear or non-linear) type it is shown how the relevant tension -- which is the same as the surface energy density $U$ of the wall -- can be calculated as the minimum (geodesic) distance between the relevant vacuum states as measured on the space of field values $\\Phi^i$ using a positive definite (Riemannian) energy metric $dU^2=\\tilde G_{ij} d\\Phi^i d\\Phi^j$ that is obtained from the usual kinetic metric (which is flat for a model with ordinary linear kinetic part) by application of a conformal factor proportional to the relevant potential function $V$. For suitably periodic potential functions there will be corresponding periodic configurations -- with parallel walls characterised by incrementation of a winding number -- in which the condition for stability of large scale bunching modes is shown to be satisfied automatically. It is suggested that such a configuration -- with a lattice lengthscale comparable to intergalactic separation distances -- might have been produced by a late stage of cosmological inflation.

  8. pH-sensitive intracellular photoluminescence of carbon nanotubefluorescein conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    ovarian cancer cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full photoluminescence of carbon nanotube­fluorescein conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells M T Chen1 , L M Gomez2 , F-walled carbon nanotube­fluorescein carbazide (SWCNT­FC) conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells. Light

  9. Avoiding the dangers of a soft-wall singularity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damien P. George; Marieke Postma

    2011-05-17

    We critically analyse the nature of the infrared singularity in Randall-Sundrum soft-wall models, where the extra dimension is dynamically compactified by the formation of a curvature singularity. Due to the Israel junction conditions, this singularity can only be shielded by a time-independent black-hole horizon if there is ghost matter on the UV brane. For this construction the spectrum of 4D states is shown to be similar to the original soft-wall case. We point out, however, that no such shielding is needed, as the singularity satisfies unitary boundary conditions.

  10. Slamming of a breaking wave on a wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to study impact forces of breaking waves on a rigid wall based on a nonlinear potential-flow theory. This is a model problem for some technologically important design issues such as the impact of breaking waves on ships, coastal and offshore structures. We are interested in the short-time successive triggering of nonlinear effects using a small-time expansion. The analytical solutions for the impact force on a rigid wall and the free-surface profile are derived.

  11. Saffron Crocus and Yellow Garments in Aegean Wall-Painting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehak, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Rehak - Colours Conf. Sep 9-11, 2001 - 1 "Saffron Crocus and Yellow Garments in Aegean Wall-Painting" PAUL REHAK DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Abstract: The discovery of well-preserved frescoes at Akrotiri on Thera has vastly... in the Pompe of Ptolemy II). word count: 250 Rehak - Colours Conf. Sep 9-11, 2001 - 2 "Saffron Crocus and Yellow Garments in Aegean Wall-Painting" PAUL REHAK Text: INTRODUCTION In most human societies, both ancient to modern, color in costume serves...

  12. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  13. Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID); Manhart, Larry K. (Pingree, ID)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

  14. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  15. Measuring the mechanical properties of plant cells by combining micro-indentation with osmotic treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Alain; Braybrook, Siobhan; Huflejt, Michal; Mosca, Gabriella; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Smith, Richard S.

    2015-04-07

    walls (or low turgor pressure) and soft cells walls (or high turgor pressure) and two indenter sizes as well as two indentation depths. The small indenter corresponds to our experimental set-up, whereas the large indenter is similar in size... of 13 | Weber et al. Beside the parameters in Eq. 1, we also studied the sensi- tivity of the contact force to the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall. We compared the relative change in force at the four reference states when using the constant...

  16. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  17. Characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes by nonane preadsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes by nonane preadsorption Oleg Byl a , Jie Liu b for nanotube porosity characterization. Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes decades for sorbent characterization. A number of methods have been developed for N2 isotherm analysis

  18. ADVANCED WUFI COMPUTER MODELING WORKSHOP FOR WALL DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    TRANSFER IN BUILDING ENVELOPES) Napa, CA, January 30 - February 1, 2012 WUFI/ORNL1 Program made availableADVANCED WUFI COMPUTER MODELING WORKSHOP FOR WALL DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE (HEAT AND MOISTURE-Institut für Bauphysik (IBP) and co-sponsored by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS)/ Building

  19. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  20. Nonlinear magnetoinductive waves and domain walls in composite metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear magnetoinductive waves and domain walls in composite metamaterials Ilya V. Shadrivov a-handed composite metamaterials. We derive the coupled equations for describing the propagation of magnetoinductive waves, and show that in the nonlinear regime the magnetic response of a metamaterial may become bistable

  1. The height and range of watermelons without wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Feierl

    2009-04-03

    We determine the weak limit of the distribution of the random variables "height" and "range" on the set of p-watermelons without wall restriction as the number of steps tends to infinity. Additionally, we provide asymptotics for the moments of the random variable "height".

  2. Plasma Physics Regimes in Tokamaks with Li Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharo; N.N. Gorelenkov; R.B. White; S.I. Krasheninnikov; G.V. Pereverzev

    2003-08-21

    Low recycling regimes with a plasma limited by a lithium wall surface suggest enhanced stability and energy confinement, both necessary for tokamak reactors. These regimes could make ignition feasible in compact tokamaks. Ignited Spherical Tokamaks (IST), self-sufficient in the bootstrap current, are introduced as a necessary step for development of the physics and technology of power reactors.

  3. A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Piezoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Piezoelectric Materials Ralph C. Smith Center for Research to attain the full potential of the materials as sensors and actuators in high performance applications design. i #12; 1 Introduction Piezoelectric materials provide the capability for designing actuators

  4. Wall slip across the jamming transition of soft thermoresponsive particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thibaut Divoux; Véronique Lapeyre; Valérie Ravaine; Sébastien Manneville

    2015-08-27

    Flows of suspensions are often affected by wall slip, that is the fluid velocity $v_{f}$ in the vicinity of a boundary differs from the wall velocity $v_{w}$ due to the presence of a lubrication layer. While the slip velocity $v_s=\\vert v_{f}-v_{w}\\vert$ robustly scales linearly with the stress $\\sigma$ at the wall in dilute suspensions, there is no consensus regarding denser suspensions that are sheared in the bulk, for which slip velocities have been reported to scale as a $v_s\\propto\\sigma^p$ with exponents $p$ inconsistently ranging between 0 and 2. Here we focus on a suspension of soft thermoresponsive particles and show that $v_s$ actually scales as a power law of the viscous stress $\\sigma-\\sigma_c$, where $\\sigma_c$ denotes the yield stress of the bulk material. By tuning the temperature across the jamming transition, we further demonstrate that this scaling holds true over a large range of packing fractions $\\phi$ on both sides of the jamming point and that the exponent $p$ increases continuously with $\\phi$, from $p=1$ in the case of dilute suspensions to $p=2$ for jammed assemblies. Our results provide a framework to successfully revisit inconsistent data from the literature and pave the way for a unified description of wall slip in suspensions.

  5. Early Recognition of Lung's Air Sacs Wall Collapsing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Early Recognition of Lung's Air Sacs Wall Collapsing M. EMAM, J-F RENAUD de la Faverie, N. GHARBI discusses the possibility of applying a non- liner analysis approach on air density distribution within lung airways tree at any level of branching1. Computed Tomography (CT) 2 source images of the lung

  6. Energy-momentum balance in particle - domain wall perforating collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Gal'tsov; E. Yu. Melkumova; P. A. Spirin

    2015-02-10

    We investigate the energy-momentum balance in the perforating collision of a point particle with an infinitely thin planar domain wall within the linearized gravity in arbitrary dimensions. Since the metric of the wall increases with distance, the wall and the particle are never free, and their energy-momentum balance involves not only the instantaneous kinetic momenta, but also the non-local contribution of gravitational stresses. However, careful analysis shows that the stresses can be unambiguously divided between the colliding objects leading to definition of the gravitationally dressed momenta. These take into account for gravity in the same way as the potential energy does in the non-relativistic theory, but our treatment is fully relativistic. Another unusual feature of our problem is the non-vanishing flux of the total energy-momentum tensor through the lateral surface of the world tube. In this case the zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor does not imply conservation of the total momentum defined as the integral over the space-like section of the tube. But one can still define the conservation low infinitesimally, passing to time derivatives of the momenta. Using this definition we establish the momentum balance in terms of the dressed particle and wall momenta.

  7. Spring Flicks 2008 Winners Audience Award, Winner: THIN WALLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Spring Flicks 2008 Winners Audience Award, Winner: THIN WALLS Audience Award, First Runner-Up: HIStory Audience Award Second Runner-up: PASSENGER SEAT Jury Award, Best Short Winner: PASSENGER SEAT Jury Award, Best Director, Winner: Jerry and Mike Thompson, PASSENGER SEAT Jury Award, Best Director, First

  8. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  9. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (117 Oklahoma Ave., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Thacker, Louis H. (3727 Frostwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37921); Fine, H. Alan (949 Wishbone Cir., Lexington, KY 40502)

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  10. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Composites Ning) shielding effectiveness (SE) of SWNTs. Our results indicate that SWNTs can be used as effective lightweight EMI shielding materials. Composites with greater than 20 dB shielding efficiency were obtained easily

  11. Between Facebook and JPMorgan, Wall St. woes By PALLAVI GOGOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Between Facebook and JPMorgan, Wall St. woes mount By PALLAVI GOGOI The Associated Press Updated: 5 public offering of Facebook stock last week, which was fumbled by the banks that managed the deal against Facebook and Morgan Stanley, the bank that shepherded the IPO, over reports that it withheld

  12. Interactive Weather Simulation and Visualization on a Display Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Phuong H.

    Interactive Weather Simulation and Visualization on a Display Wall with Many-Core Compute Nodes B.hoai.ha,john.markus.bjorndalen,otto.anshus}@uit.no, {tormsh,daniels}@cs.uit.no Abstract. Numerical Weather Prediction models (NWP) used for op- erational weather forecasting are typically run at predetermined times at a predetermined resolution and a fixed

  13. Magnetic Wall Climbing Robot for Thin Surfaces with Specific Obstacles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Magnetic Wall Climbing Robot for Thin Surfaces with Specific Obstacles W. Fischer¹, F. Tâche high magnetic forces The main optimization criterion for this robot was to design it as light@ethz.ch Summary. This paper describes a novel solution to a mobile climbing robot on mag- netic wheels, designed

  14. Analyzing and Simulating Fracture Patterns of Theran Wall Paintings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    10 Analyzing and Simulating Fracture Patterns of Theran Wall Paintings HIJUNG SHIN, Princeton and Akrotiri Excavation TIM WEYRICH, University College London In this article, we analyze the fracture that suggests a hierarchical fracture pattern where fragments break into two pieces recursively along cracks

  15. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  16. Enhancement of microarcing at a grounded chamber wall by nonvanishing ion sheath in a radio-frequency capacitive discharged plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwok, Dixon T.K.; Yin Yongbai; Bilek, Marcela M.M.; McKenzie, David

    2005-10-31

    One-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations in cylindrical r coordinate, with particle ions and Boltzmann's distribution of electrons, are used to investigate the arcing effect in radio-frequency (rf) capacitively coupled discharged plasma. The simulation shows that the arcing at the chamber wall is enhanced by the nonvanishing ion sheath at the surface, such that the emission electrons current will last for several tens of rf cycles. On the other hand, at the inner electrode, the electron emission occurs only during certain phases of the rf cycle and does not promote arc growth.

  17. Domain wall mobility in nanowires: transverse versus vortex walls R. Wieser, U. Nowak and K. D. Usadel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usadel, K. D.

    Arrays of magnetic nanowires are possible candidates for patterned magnetic storage media [1, 2]. For these nanowires and also for other future magneto­electronic devices the understanding of domain wall motion and mobility is important for the controlled switching of the nanostructure. In a recent experiment

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  20. Material Characterization and Design Recommendations for Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dantal, Vishal

    2013-12-04

    Since its appearance in 1970s, mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls have become a majority among all types of retaining walls due to their economics and satisfactory performance. The Texas Department of Transportation has primarily adopted...

  1. Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

    2006-01-01

    With the development of wall reforms, the production scale and engineering applications of energy savings are increasing daily. It is inevitable to aggressively extend production of new energy-saving walls. Based on the thermal instantaneous...

  2. Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics M microscopy, we investigate the thermally activated motion of domain walls (DWs) between two positions properly analyzed, thermally activated processes at tem- peratures even well below the Curie temperature

  3. Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Microwave heating of a metal oxide in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes may result in...

  4. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  5. The Analysis of Dynamic Thermal Performance of Insulated Wall and Building Cooling Energy Consumption in Guangzhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, L.; Li, X.; Li, L.; Gao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ST. The simulation predictions indicate that reductions in the cooling load and maximum cooling demand are obtained when the insulation is added in the wall, but the potential of energy saving is quite limited when the wall only is insulated....

  6. Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate David A. Scrymgeour and Venkatraman Gopalan Department of Materials Science, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. The contributions to the domain- wall energy from polarization

  7. Magnetic behavior of 360° domain walls in patterned magnetic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascaro, Mark Daniel

    2012-01-01

    360° transverse domain walls (360DWs), which form readily from transverse 180° domain walls (180DWs) of opposite sense, demonstrate qualitatively distinct behaviors from their constituent 180DWs and are therefore of interest ...

  8. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  9. Modeling the Impact of Agricultural Terrace Walls on Spatial Patterns of Erosion and Landscape Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaubius, Jennifer

    2014-11-19

    Modeling the Impact of Agricultural Terrace Walls on Spatial Patterns of Erosion and Landscape Evolution Jennifer Glaubius Department of Geography University of Kansas Research Objectives 2 1. Implement terrace walls within a landscape evolution... model 2. Test the impact of human intervention with the terrace walls a. Interval between checking the wall for maintenance b. Time since abandonment of terraced land Model 3 Landscape evolution model from Chen et al. (2014); implemented in Python...

  10. December 6, 2000 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Dry Wall Material Configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    Wall Configuration 1. Impact on Power Cycle Performance of Separately Cooling the Chamber Wall (low in FW/B/S ARIES-IFE SiC/LiPb Chamber 2 4 6 8 0 Total Thermal Power in First Wall From Laila El in FW 30% of total power in FW Nuclear Heating in First Wall #12;December 6, 2000 A. R. Raffray, et al

  11. Spatially resolved observation of domain-wall propagation in a submicron ferromagnetic NOT-gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grütter, Peter

    , one head-to-head or tail-to-tail domain wall propagates in the structure. Magnetic fields above by the polarity of the adjacent wire magnetization directions as either head-to- head or tail-to-tail domain walls-wall propagation. MFM using low magnetic moment tips 30 nm CoPtCr was operated in the constant height mode

  12. Uniform Directional Alignment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Viscous Polymer Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Uniform Directional Alignment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Viscous Polymer Flow Erin flow on the alignment of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes in polymer solutions. Two different-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed using an anionic surfactant and a weakly binding polymer. It was determined

  13. STABILIZATION OF KINK INSTABILITIES BY EDDY CURRENTS IN A SEGMENTED WALL AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    STABILIZATION OF KINK INSTABILITIES BY EDDY CURRENTS IN A SEGMENTED WALL AND COMPARISON WITH IDEAL and measured equi- librium wall eddy currents. The stability analysis of these equilibria predicts patterns of instability induced eddy currents for a model wall that is continuous and perfectly conducting

  14. Lung and alveolar wall elastic and hysteretic behavior in rats: effects of in vivo elastase treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alencar, Adriano Mesquita

    Lung and alveolar wall elastic and hysteretic behavior in rats: effects of in vivo elastase P. Ingenito, and Be´la Suki. Lung and alveolar wall elastic and hysteretic behavior in rats: effects behavior of the alveolar walls and the macroscopic mechanical properties of the whole lung in an in vivo

  15. (When) Will CMPs hit the Power Wall? Cor Meenderinck and Ben Juurlink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (When) Will CMPs hit the Power Wall? Cor Meenderinck and Ben Juurlink Computer Engineering. The power wall is currently one of the major obstacles com- puter architecture is facing. In this paper we analyze the impact of the power wall on CMP design. As a case study we model a CMP consisting of Alpha

  16. (When) Will CMPs hit the Power Wall? Cor Meenderinck and Ben Juurlink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 (When) Will CMPs hit the Power Wall? Cor Meenderinck and Ben Juurlink Computer Engineering-- Currently the power wall is one of the ma- jor obstacles chip industry is facing. At the same time processor. In this paper we analyze the impact of the power wall on CMP design. As a case study we model a CMP consisting

  17. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to reduce climate change as photosynthesis-mediated carbon sequestration and carbonation serve to reduce sequestration and carbonation. Moreover the increase in the wall's thermal resistance with wall thickness atmospheric carbon dioxide. A sensitivity analysis is performed on three criteria: wall thickness, renewal

  18. Separation of Heart Wall in Echocardiograms by Supervised Image Segmentation \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    Separation of Heart Wall in Echocardiograms by Supervised Image Segmentation \\Lambda Shriram to extract heart walls from a sequence of two di­ mensional echocardiograms. Echocardiography is one of the most popular and safest methods of observing the heart. Segmentation of the heart wall

  19. A Comprehensive Study of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Building Walls Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Yuan

    2009-03-09

    paraffin-based PCM, was developed. With the validated model, the performance of the PCM-enhanced wall in several U.S. climate zones was studied. The PCM-enhanced wall could lower the peak cooling load through the walls by about 50%....

  20. Four-wall turbine airfoil with thermal strain control for reduced cycle fatigue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cambell, Christian X

    2013-09-17

    A turbine airfoil (20B) with a thermal expansion control mechanism that increases the airfoil camber (60, 61) under operational heating. The airfoil has four-wall geometry, including pressure side outer and inner walls (26, 28B), and suction side outer and inner walls (32, 34B). It has near-wall cooling channels (31F, 31A, 33F, 33A) between the outer and inner walls. A cooling fluid flow pattern (50C, 50W, 50H) in the airfoil causes the pressure side inner wall (28B) to increase in curvature under operational heating. The pressure side inner wall (28B) is thicker than walls (26, 34B) that oppose it in camber deformation, so it dominates them in collaboration with the suction side outer wall (32), and the airfoil camber increases. This reduces and relocates a maximum stress area (47) from the suction side outer wall (32) to the suction side inner wall (34B, 72) and the pressure side outer wall (26).

  1. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  2. Propagating and reflecting of spin wave in permalloy nanostrip with 360° domain wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Senfu; Mu, Congpu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zheng, Qi; Liu, Xianyin; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2014-01-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the interaction between propagating spin wave (or magnonic) and a 360° domain wall in a nanostrip. It is found that propagating spin wave can drive a 360° domain wall motion, and the velocity and direction are closely related to the transmission coefficient of the spin wave of the domain wall. When the spin wave passes through the domain wall completely, the 360° domain wall moves toward the spin wave source. When the spin wave is reflected by the domain wall, the 360° domain wall moves along the spin wave propagation direction. Moreover, when the frequency of the spin wave is coincident with that of the 360° domain wall normal mode, the 360° domain wall velocity will be resonantly enhanced no matter which direction the 360 DW moves along. On the other hand, when the spin wave is reflected from the moving 360° domain wall, we observed the Doppler effect clearly. After passing through a 360° domain wall, the phase of the spin wave is changed, and the phase shift is related to the frequency. Nevertheless, phase shift could be manipulated by the number of 360° domain walls that spin wave passing through.

  3. Protective interior wall and attaching means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, R.D.; Upham, G.A.; Anderson, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    The wall basically consists of an array of small rectangular plates attached to the existing walls with threaded fasteners. The protective wall effectively conceals and protects all mounting hardware beneath the plate array, while providing a substantial surface area that will absorb plasma energy.

  4. Lennard-Jones systems near solid walls: Computing interfacial free energies from molecular simulation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald Benjamin; Jürgen Horbach

    2013-06-03

    Different computational techniques in combination with molecular dynamics computer simulation are used to to determine the wall-liquid and the wall-crystal interfacial free energies of a modified Lennard-Jones (LJ) system in contact with a solid wall. Two different kinds of solid walls are considered: a flat structureless wall and a structured wall consisting of an ideal crystal with the particles rigidly attached to fcc lattice sites. Interfacial free energies are determined by a thermodynamic integration scheme, the anisotropy of the pressure tensor, the non-equilibrium work method based on Bennett acceptance criteria, and a method using Cahn's adsorption equations based on the interfacial thermodynamics of Gibbs. For the flat wall, interfacial free energies as a function of different densities of the LJ liquid and as a function of temperature along the coexistence curve are calculated. In case of a structured wall, the interaction strength between the wall and the LJ system and the lattice constant of the structured wall are varied. Using the values of the wall-liquid and wall-crystal interfacial energies along with the value for the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy determined previously for the same system by the "cleaving potential method", we obtain the contact angle as a function of various parameters; in particular the conditions are found under which partial wetting occurs.

  5. Mesoporous organosilica nanotubes containing a chelating ligand in their walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiao; Goto, Yasutomo; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis of organosilica nanotubes containing 2,2?-bipyridine chelating ligands within their walls, employing a single-micelle-templating method. These nanotubes have an average pore diameter of 7.8 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers. UV-vis absorption spectra and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of immobilized nanotubes with an iridium complex on the bipyridine ligands showed that the 2,2?-bipyridine groups were homogeneously distributed in the benzene-silica walls. The iridium complex, thus, immobilized on the nanotubes exhibited efficient catalytic activity for water oxidation using Ce{sup 4+}, due to the ready access of reactants to the active sites in the nanotubes.

  6. Impact of an oblique breaking wave on a wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to study impact force of an oblique-angled slamming wave acting on a rigid wall. In the present study the analytical approach is pursued based on a technique proposed by the author. A nonlinear theory in the context of potential flow is presented for determining accurately the free-surface profiles immediately after an oblique breaking wave impingement on the rigid vertical wall that suddenly starts from rest. The small-time expansion is taken as far as necessary to include the accelerating effect. The analytical solutions for the free-surface elevation are derived up to the third order. The results derived in this paper are of particular interest to the marine and offshore engineering industries, which will find the information useful for the design of ships, coastal and offshore.

  7. Speeding up Domain Wall Fermion Algorithms using QCDLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artan Borici

    2007-03-21

    Simulating lattice QCD with chiral fermions and indeed using Domain Wall Fermions continues to be challenging project however large are concurrent computers. One obvious bottleneck is the slow pace of prototyping using the low level coding which prevails in most, if not all, lattice projects. Recently, we came up with a new proposal, namely QCDLAB, a high level language interface, which we believe will boost our endeavours to rapidly code lattice prototype applications in lattice QCD using MATLAB/OCTAVE language and environment. The first version of the software, QCDLAB 1.0 offers the general framework on how to achieve this goal by simulating set of the lattice Schwinger model {\\tt http://phys.fshn.edu.al/qcdlab.html}. In this talk we introduce QCDLAB 1.1, which extends QCDLAB 1.0 capabilities for real world lattice computations with Wilson and Domain Wall fermions.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  9. End states, ladder compounds, and domain wall fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Creutz

    1999-09-01

    A magnetic field applied to a cross linked ladder compound can generate isolated electronic states bound to the ends of the chain. After exploring the interference phenomena responsible, I discuss a connection to the domain wall approach to chiral fermions in lattice gauge theory. The robust nature of the states under small variations of the bond strengths is tied to chiral symmetry and the multiplicative renormalization of fermion masses.

  10. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  11. A novel method for monitoring pipe wall thinning. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopenfeld, J.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents results from eight tasks which were formed to demonstrate commercial viability of a new technology for the early detection of corrosion damage. The tasks produced three products which are deployed to commercialize the technology: (1)Experimentally verified software package which allows instrument specification for wall thinning detection. (2) Eighteen months of field experience in the installation and monitoring of radioactive tracers for wall thinning. (3) Technology for environmental and process monitoring, which was not developed under this contract but evolved as a natural extension of the subject invention. Radioactive tracers are deployed to provide early seaming of corrosion attack on pipes and tanks. The results of this project clearly demonstrate that these monitors are ideal for harsh and difficult to access environments. It is believed that no other technology is capable of providing in situ wall thinning data in such environments. The early warning of wall thinning with radioactive tracers will be commercialized via licensing agreements. Power plants and refineries have the capabilities to deploy the technology which was developed and demonstrated under this project. Funds from licensing agreements will be invested in the establishment of a service to conduct the actual monitoring. This service will extend beyond corrosion monitoring to include environmental monitoring. Current environmental regulation and cleanup of polluted sites has created a market for low cost, in- situ, monitoring. Through its ownership of US Patents which offer the most economical means of monitoring vast areas for toxic compounds, the company is in a unique position to profit from the emerging new market. Negotiations are underweight with companies with existing sales and distribution outlets for the formation of joint ventures. Proposals for the AREA initiative and the DOE/SIR have been prepared in the area of environmental monitoring.

  12. Vortex energy and 360 Neel walls in thinfilm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .Ignat@math.u-psud.fr) Courant Institute, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA (e-mail: knuepfer@cims.nyu.edu) 1 #12Vortex energy and 360 ­N´eel walls in thin­film micromagnetics Radu Ignat , Hans Kn¨upfer October-section. The model is based on the following energy functional: E2d (m) = Z B2 |m|2 dx + | ln | 2 Z R2 ||-1

  13. Vortex energy and 360 Neel wall in thinfilm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat, Radu

    .Ignat@math.u-psud.fr) Courant Institute, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA (e-mail: knuepfer@cims.nyu.edu) 1 #12Vortex energy and 360 ­N´eel wall in thin­film micromagnetics Radu Ignat , Hans Kn¨upfer October-section. The model is based on the following energy functional: E2d (m) = Z B2 |m|2 dx + | ln | 2 Z R2 ||-1

  14. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Fig. 1. Through-wall wireless power transfer system configuration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    , wind turbines, and hydraulic sources, to indoor energy-consuming systems, such as solid-state lighting for lower energy level applications such as passive RFID systems [1] and sensor transponder [2], and higherAC C1 C2 RL R2R1 L1 L2 M Wall Solar panel LED lighting Sensor C2 R2 M R1 RLC1 L1L2 Fig. 1. Through

  16. Lyapunov stability of flowing magnetohydrodynamic plasmas surrounded by resistive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasso, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Throumoulopoulos, G. N. [Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-07-15

    A general stability condition for plasma-vacuum systems with resistive walls is derived by using the Frieman Rotenberg Lagrangian stability formulation [Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960)]. It is shown that the Lyapunov stability limit for external modes does not depend upon the gyroscopic term but upon the sign of the perturbed potential energy only. In the absence of dissipation in the plasma such as viscosity, it is expected that the flow cannot stabilize the system.

  17. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  18. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  19. 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgram Manager DirectoryofDOE CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMSEnergySecretarialWall

  20. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX)

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  1. Scattering from a Domain Wall in a Spontaneously Broken Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar; John W. McIntosh, Jr

    1994-12-20

    We study the interaction of particles with a domain wall at a symmetry-breaking phase transition by perturbing about the domain wall solution. We find the particulate excitations appropriate near the domain wall and relate them to the particles present far from the wall in the uniform broken and unbroken phases. For a quartic Higgs potential we find analytic solutions to the equations of motion and derive reflection and transmission coefficients. We discover several bound states for particles near the wall. Finally, we apply our results to the electroweak phase transition in the standard model.

  2. Pinning induced by inter-domain wall interactions in planar magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayward, T.J.; Bryan, M.T.; Fry, P.W.; Fundi, P.M.; Gibbs, M.R.J.; Allwood, D.A.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.

    2009-10-30

    We have investigated pinning potentials created by inter-domain wall magnetostatic interactions in planar magnetic nanowires. We show that these potentials can take the form of an energy barrier or an energy well depending on the walls' relative monopole moments, and that the applied magnetic fields required to overcome these potentials are significant. Both transverse and vortex wall pairs are investigated and it is found that transverse walls interact more strongly due to dipolar coupling between their magnetization structures. Simple analytical models which allow the effects of inter-domain wall interactions to be estimated are also presented.

  3. Boundary Conditions at the Walls with Thermionic Electron Emission in Two Temperature Modeling of "Thermal" Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose new boundary conditions at the hot walls with thermionic electron emission for two-temperature thermal arc models. In the derived boundary conditions the walls are assumed to be made from refractory metals and that the erosion of the wall is small and, therefore, is not taken into account in the model. In these boundary conditions the plasma sheath formed at the electrode is considered as the interface between the plasma and the wall. The derived boundary conditions allow the calculation of the heat flux to the walls from the plasma and consequently the thermionic electron current that makes the two temperature thermal model self consistent.

  4. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  5. SU-E-T-512: Electromagnetic Simulations of the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uselmann, A; Mackie, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize and parametrically study the key components of a dielectric wall accelerator through electromagnetic modeling and particle tracking. Methods: Electromagnetic and particle tracking simulations were performed using a commercial code (CST Microwave Studio, CST Inc.) utilizing the finite integration technique. A dielectric wall accelerator consists of a series of stacked transmission lines sequentially fired in synchrony with an ion pulse. Numerous properties of the stacked transmission lines, including geometric, material, and electronic properties, were analyzed and varied in order to assess their impact on the transverse and axial electric fields. Additionally, stacks of transmission lines were simulated in order to quantify the parasitic effect observed in closely packed lines. Particle tracking simulations using the particle-in-cell method were performed on the various stacks to determine the impact of the above properties on the resultant phase space of the ions. Results: Examination of the simulation results show that novel geometries can shape the accelerating pulse in order to reduce the energy spread and increase the average energy of accelerated ions. Parasitic effects were quantified for various geometries and found to vary with distance from the end of the transmission line and along the beam axis. An optimal arrival time of an ion pulse relative to the triggering of the transmission lines for a given geometry was determined through parametric study. Benchmark simulations of single transmission lines agree well with published experimental results. Conclusion: This work characterized the behavior of the transmission lines used in a dielectric wall accelerator and used this information to improve them in novel ways. Utilizing novel geometries, we were able to improve the accelerating gradient and phase space of the accelerated particle bunch. Through simulation, we were able to discover and optimize design issues with the device at low cost. Funding: Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison WI; Conflict of Interest: Dr. Mackie is an investor and board member at CPAC, a company developing compact accelerator designs similar to those discussed in this work, but designs discussed are not directed by CPAC. Funding: Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison WI; Conflict of Interest: Dr. Mackie is an investor and board member at CPAC, a company developing compact accelerator designs similar to those discussed in this work, but designs discussed are not directed by CPAC.

  6. Comparison of experimental and analytical methods to evaluate thermal bridges in wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.; McGowan, A.G. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Twelve ASTM C0236 guarded hot box experiments have been performed on wall systems containing a variety of thermal bridges. All of the wall systems included steel framing. Six walls also had a concrete block wall system and a concrete slab to simulate a wall/floor intersection. Thermal bridges included in the wall systems included steel studs, steel tracks, steel stud/track joints, fasteners (steel framing system), concrete slab, metal bolts and angle iron, and brick ties (concrete block wall). Two-dimensional finite difference modeling was also employed to characterize the wall systems. The experimental test data was used to tune and ultimately validate the computer simulation model. The average variation between the tested and simulated wall system R-Values was 3.3% and ranged from {minus}3.4 to +7.4%. The model was then used to determine the thermal impact of each individual thermal bridge. Beside the standard complement of temperature sensors that are traditionally used for these laboratory experiments, additional sensors were installed near each thermal bridge to define the area and magnitude of the thermal distortion caused by the thermal bridge. These thermal bridges were analytically simulated and the additional heat flux due to each thermal bridge was computed. This paper summarizes the experimental and analytical analyses used to characterize the wall systems and concentrate on the thermal impact each type of thermal bridge has on the overall performance of the wall systems.

  7. Fluctuations of local electric field and dipole moments in water between metal walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyohei Takae; Akira Onuki

    2015-09-30

    We examine the thermal fluctuations of the local electric field $E_k^{\\rm loc}$ and the dipole moment $\\mu_k$ in liquid water at $T=298$ K between metal walls in electric field applied in the perpendicular direction. We use analytic theory and molecular dynamics simulation. In this situation, there is a global electrostatic coupling between the surface charges on the walls and the polarization in the bulk. Then, the correlation function of the polarization density $p_z(r)$ along the applied field contains a homogeneous part inversely proportional to the cell volume $V$. Accounting for the long-range dipolar interaction, we derive the Kirkwood-Fr$\\ddot{\\rm{o}}$hlich formula for the polarization fluctuations when the specimen volume $v$ is much smaller than $V$. However, for not small $v/V$, the homogeneous part comes into play in dielectric relations. We also calculate the distribution of $E_k^{\\rm loc}$ in applied field. As a unique feature of water, its magnitude $|E_k^{\\rm loc}|$ obeys a Gaussian distribution with a large mean value $E_0 \\cong 17~$V$/$nm, which arises mainly from the surrounding hydrogen-bonded molecules. Since $|\\mu_k|E_0\\sim 30 k_{\\rm B}T$, $\\mu_k$ becomes mostly parallel to $E_k^{\\rm loc}$. As a result, the orientation distributions of these two vectors nearly coincide, assuming the classical exponential form. In dynamics, the component of $\\mu_k(t)$ parallel to $E_k^{\\rm loc}(t)$ changes on the timescale of the hydrogen bonds $\\sim 5$ ps, while its smaller perpendicular component undergoes librational motions on timescales of 0.01 ps.

  8. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  9. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Cell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin Pera,2 Carsten Peterson,3,4 and Peter W. Andrews5,* 1The Molecular Haematology Unit, The Weatherall and their relationship to commitment to differ- entiate and lineage selection can be elucidated in terms of a landscape

  10. Passive test cell data for the solar laboratory, Winter 1980-81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    Testing was done during the 1980-81 winter in 400 ft/sup 3/ test cells at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Solar Lab. This testing was done primarily to determine the relative efficiency of various passive solar heating concepts and to obtain data that could be used to validate computer simulation programs. The passive solar systems tested were Trombe wall with and without selective absorber, water wall, phase-change wall, direct gain, a heat-pipe collector, and two sunspace geometries. The heating load coefficient of these cells was roughly 26 Btu/h /sup 0/F and the collector area was 23.4 ft/sup 2/, giving a load collector ratio of approximately 27 Btu//sup 0/F day ft/sup 2/. The test cell configurations and instrumentation are detailed herein, and the resulting data and cell efficiencies are discussed.

  11. Surface Charge-Switching Polymeric Nanoparticles for Bacterial Cell Wall-Targeted Delivery of Antibiotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.

    Bacteria have shown a remarkable ability to overcome drug therapy if there is a failure to achieve sustained bactericidal concentration or if there is a reduction in activity in situ. The latter can be caused by localized ...

  12. Degradation of Algal Cell Walls by Enzymes and Dyes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2Department of EnergyIJK Sign InPortal

  13. Discovery of Fungal Cell Wall Components Using Evolutionary and Functional Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sain, Divya

    2013-01-01

    Reviews 23(1–2): 1-8. Duo-Chuan, L. (2006). "Review ofexpression in bacteria." Yi Chuan 33( 10): 1029-38. Figure 1Wiwat et al. 2004; Duo-Chuan 2006; Gan, Yang et al. 2007).

  14. Prebiotic Properties of Yeast Cell Wall Mannanoligosaccharides and Guar Gum Galactomannans in Starting Broilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kakani, Radhika

    2013-12-04

    (Juskiewicz et al, 2006), different concentrations of inulin (FrutafitInulin Tex, Holland) and a commercial MOS product (Bio-Mos®, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) (Stanczuk et al, 2005), whereas Sims et al, 2004 reported an improved live weight in turkeys...

  15. Evaluation of Yeast Cell Wall on Early Production Laying Hen Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashim, Mohammed Malik Hashim 1981-

    2012-11-08

    fed a diet containing 1.0% oligofructose-type commercial prebiotic or 1.0% (w/w) inulin (an archetypal or prototype prebiotic found in many dietary plants) there was significant improvement (P<0.05) in egg production, feed conversion, and intestine...., 16 2011). It was also noted that feeding 27-week-old laying hens a diet containing 0.25% fructooligosaccharides significantly improved egg shell thickness (Kim et al., 2009). Inulin is a naturally occurring plant polysaccharide prebiotic...

  16. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Purbasha

    2010-01-01

    Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Journal 53, 497–breweries, paper-pulp, textile, and timber industries, could

  17. Video Article Comprehensive Compositional Analysis of Plant Cell Walls (Lignocellulosic biomass)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus

    and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we

  18. Video Article Comprehensive Compositional Analysis of Plant Cell Walls (Lignocellulosic biomass)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus

    for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical

  19. Key gene regulating cell wall biosynthesis and recalcitrance in Populus, gene Y

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jay; Engle, Nancy; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2015-12-08

    This disclosure provides methods and transgenic plants for improved production of renewable biofuels and other plant-derived biomaterials by altering the expression and/or activity of Gene Y, an O-acetyltransferase. This disclosure also provides expression vectors containing a nucleic acid (Gene Y) which encodes the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1 and is operably linked to a heterologous promoter.

  20. Discovery of Fungal Cell Wall Components Using Evolutionary and Functional Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sain, Divya

    2013-01-01

    profiling and comparative genomics approaches." Eukaryotcerevisiae." Comp Funct Genomics 2(3): 124-42. Dinsdale, E.profiling and comparative genomics approaches." Eukaryot

  1. NREL's CelA Catalyzes Plant Cell Walls Faster - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photo of a scientist in safety glasses examining small items in plastic containers. NREL Senior Scientist Roman Brunecky examines the molecular weight of the enzyme CelA on a...

  2. Discovery of Fungal Cell Wall Components Using Evolutionary and Functional Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sain, Divya

    2013-01-01

    109(Pt 2): 150-8. Araujo-Palomares, C. L. , M. Riquelme, etthe Spitzenkörper (Araujo-Palomares, Riquelme et al. 2009).

  3. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Purbasha

    2010-01-01

    engineering for biofuel production: towards affordableviable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for thefor lignocellulose-based biofuel production. Remodelling and

  4. 3D Electron Tomography of Switchgrass Cell Wall Deconstruction by Clostridium cellulolyticum (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, T.; Donohoe, B.; Wei, H.; Yang, Y.; Keller, M.; Himmel, M.; Ding, S.-Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster describes research about biomass-digesting microorganisms that produce structured biomass-degrading enzyme complexes.

  5. Studying plant cell walls for better biofuels | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) JumpandStereoNewCreekStrongsville, Ohio:Florida:Studying

  6. Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission MissionModeling distributedBiofuels Fromstarvation

  7. Complementary mechanisms of plant cell wall deconstruction by free and complexed enzyme systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefault Changes from Tukey to Cooley

  8. A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL Small-scaleCoherent Light Source

  9. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany); Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D. [Ruhrkohle Bergbau AG, Bottrop (Germany). Prosper Coking Plant; Platts, M. [Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  10. Walled Lake, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua, Hawaii:Walbridge,Walker,Walla WallaWalled

  11. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  12. Generalized dilaton-Maxwell cosmic string and wall solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Morris

    2006-08-15

    The class of static solutions found by Gibbons and Wells for dilaton-electrodynamics in flat spacetime, which describe nontopological strings and walls that trap magnetic flux, is extended to a class of dynamical solutions supporting arbitrarily large, nondissipative traveling waves, using techniques previously applied to global and local topological defects. These solutions can then be used in conjunction with S-duality to obtain more general solitonic solutions for various axidilaton-Maxwell theories. As an example, a set of dynamical solutions is found for axion, dilaton, and Maxwell fields in low energy heterotic string theory using the SL(2,R) invariance of the equations of motion.

  13. Active control of the resistive wall mode with power saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li; Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu Yueqiang [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    An analytic model of non-linear feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode is presented. The non-linearity comes from either the current or the voltage saturation of the control coil power supply. For the so-called flux-to-current control, the current saturation of active coils always results in the loss of control. On the contrary, the flux-to-voltage control scheme tolerates certain degree of the voltage saturation. The minimal voltage limit is calculated, below which the control will be lost.

  14. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C.3X-rays3 Prepared by:'! IStochastic Domain-Wall

  15. Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnitedVairexVertVillageVitexWaco,Wales Wind EnergyWall Lake

  16. Domain wall freezing in KDP-type ferroelectrics V.H. Schmidt*, G. Bohannan, D. Arbogast, G. Tuthill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperatures, the effect of this interaction is to "flatten" the wall, making it energe- tically unfavorable

  17. PROGRESS OF ITER FIRST WALL DESIGN R. Mitteau(*), R. Raffray(*), P. Chappuis(*), M. Merola(*), D. Loesser(**) on behalf of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    of the first wall components, direct plasma contact to the first wall at moderate power (7.5 MW) is possible1 PROGRESS OF ITER FIRST WALL DESIGN R. Mitteau(*), R. Raffray(*), P. Chappuis(*), M. Merola(*), D ABSTRACT The blanket first wall concept has substantially evolved since the ITER design review of 2007

  18. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  19. Proton decay matrix elements with domain-wall fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Aoki; C. Dawson; J. Noaki; A. Soni

    2006-09-18

    Hadronic matrix elements of operators relevant to nucleon decay in grand unified theories are calculated numerically using lattice QCD. In this context, the domain-wall fermion formulation, combined with non-perturbative renormalization, is used for the first time. These techniques bring reduction of a large fraction of the systematic error from the finite lattice spacing. Our main effort is devoted to a calculation performed in the quenched approximation, where the direct calculation of the nucleon to pseudoscalar matrix elements, as well as the indirect estimate of them from the nucleon to vacuum matrix elements, are performed. First results, using two flavors of dynamical domain-wall quarks for the nucleon to vacuum matrix elements are also presented to address the systematic error of quenching, which appears to be small compared to the other errors. Our results suggest that the representative value for the low energy constants from the nucleon to vacuum matrix elements are given as |alpha| simeq |beta| simeq 0.01 GeV^3. For a more reliable estimate of the physical low energy matrix elements, it is better to use the relevant form factors calculated in the direct method. The direct method tends to give smaller value of the form factors, compared to the indirect one, thus enhancing the proton life-time; indeed for the pi^0 final state the difference between the two methods is quite appreciable.

  20. Rivulet Flow In Vertical Parallel-Wall Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. Mc Creery; P. Meakin

    2006-04-01

    In comparison with studies of rivulet flow over external surfaces, rivulet flow confined by two surfaces has received almost no attention. Fully-developed rivulet flow in vertical parallel-wall channels was characterized, both experimentally and analytically for flows intermediate between a lower flow limit of drop flow and an upper limit where the rivulets meander. Although this regime is the most simple rivulet flow regime, it does not appear to have been previously investigated in detail. Experiments were performed that measured rivulet widths for aperture spacing ranging from 0.152 mm to 0.914 mm. The results were compared with a simple steadystate analytical model for laminar flow. The model divides the rivulet cross-section into an inner region, which is dominated by viscous and gravitational forces and where essentially all flow is assumed to occur, and an outer region, dominated by capillary forces, where the geometry is determined by the contact angle between the fluid and the wall. Calculations using the model provided excellent agreement with data for inner rivulet widths and good agreement with measurements of outer rivulet widths.

  1. Brick Walls for Black Holes in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norihiro Iizuka; Seiji Terashima

    2015-01-01

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields show the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic setting in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  2. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A. [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  3. Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

  4. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  5. Flow patterns and cleaning behaviour of stationary horizontal liquid jets impinging on angled walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Tao; Davidson, John F.; Wilson, D. Ian

    2014-09-30

    hydraulic jump, has been studied extensively in the fluid mechanics literature (e.g. Watson, 1964), the case of a liquid jet impinging on a vertical wall has received relatively little attention. Morison and Thorpe (2002) reported an experimental... ] where ? is the kinematic viscosity and g sin? is the component of gravitational acceleration acting along the wall. Figure 1 and Equation (1) are written for the general case of a jet inclined to the horizontal striking a non-vertical wall...

  6. On gas desorption from the tokamak first wall during edge localized modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marenkov, E. D., E-mail: edmarenkov@gmail.com [National Nuclear Research University Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I. [University of California, San Diego (United States)] [University of California, San Diego (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The effect of gas desorption from the tokamak first wall on the pedestal recovery in the H-mode after an edge-localized-mode burst is considered. Results of FACE code simulations of hydrogen desorption from a beryllium wall are presented. It is found that the wall has a significant effect on plasma processes only at sufficiently low temperatures (of about 400 K), which agrees with qualitative estimates obtained earlier in the zero-dimensional approximation.

  7. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  8. Sensory Arrays of Covalently Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Explosive Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Zwaag, Daan

    Chemiresistive sensor arrays for cyclohexanone and nitromethane are fabricated using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that are covalently functionalized with urea, thiourea, and squaramide containing selector units. ...

  9. Go No-Go Decision: Pure, Undoped, Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides information about the go/no-go decision on pure, undoped single walled carbon nanotubes for vehicular hydrogen storage.

  10. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  13. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  14. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Chemistry; Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States) Dept. of Physics; Trigwell, Steven [NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States) Dept. of Physics; Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Chemistry; Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science

    2011-01-01

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  15. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Trigwell, Steven [ASRC Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs de CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  16. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne; Rioux, Julien; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne; Boyer, Cyril; et al

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, whilemore »the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.« less

  17. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Gupta, Gautam; Duque, Juan G.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; DeFriend Obrey, Kimberly A.

    2013-03-12

    Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity was observed when the suspension of DOC-wrapped SWNTs were exposed to the TMOS vapors, but about a 50% decrease in the emission signal was observed from the SDS-wrapped SWNTs nanotubes. The decrease in emission was minimal by buffering the SDS/SWNT suspension prior to forming the composite. Fluorescent xerogels were prepared by adding glycerol to the SWNT suspensions prior to TMOS vapor exposure, followed by drying the gels. Fluorescent aerogels were prepared by replacing water in the gels with methanol and then exposing them to supercritical fluid drying conditions. The aerogels can be used for gas sensing.

  18. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius andmore »conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.« less

  19. Future of Chiral Extrapolations with Domain Wall Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen R. Sharpe

    2007-06-01

    I discuss the constraints on the lattice spacing, a, the quark masses, m, the box size, L, and particularly the residual mass, m_res, such that one can successfully calculate phenomenologically interesting quantities using Domain Wall fermions (DWF). The constraints on a, m, and L are largely common with other improved fermion discretizations, and I emphasize that the improved chiral symmetry of DWF does not remove the need for simulations with a significant range of lattice parameters. Concerning m_res, I compare the analysis of chiral symmetry breaking to that with Wilson fermions, emphasizing that DWF are better than simply Wilson fermions with each chiral symmetry breaking effect reduced by a common factor. I then discuss the impact of non-zero m_res both on generic hadronic quantities, and on matrix elements which involve mixing with lower dimension operators.

  20. Parametric study of cantilever walls subjected to seismic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comina, Cesare; Foti, Sebastiano; Lancellotta, Renato; Leuzzi, Francesco; Pettiti, Alberto; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.; Nicosia, Giovanni Li Destri; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.; Paolucci, Roberto; Zanoli, Omar

    2008-07-08

    The design of flexible earth retaining structures under seismic loading is a challenging geotechnical problem, the dynamic soil-structure interaction being of paramount importance for this kind of structures. Pseudo-static approaches are often adopted but do not allow a realistic assessment of the performance of the structure subjected to the seismic motions. The present paper illustrates a numerical parametric study aimed at estimating the influence of the dynamic soil-structure interaction in the design. A series of flexible earth retaining walls have been preliminary designed according to the requirements of Eurocode 7 and Eurocode 8--Part 5; their dynamic behaviour has been then evaluated by means of dynamic numerical simulations in terms of bending moments, accelerations and stress state. The results obtained from dynamic analyses have then been compared with those determined using the pseudo-static approach.

  1. Investigation of dominant spin wave modes by domain walls collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramu, M.; Purnama, I.; Goolaup, S.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Lew, W. S.

    2014-06-28

    Spin wave emission due to field-driven domain wall (DW) collision has been investigated numerically and analytically in permalloy nanowires. The spin wave modes generated are diagonally symmetric with respect to the collision point. The non-propagating mode has the highest amplitude along the middle of the width. The frequency of this mode is strongly correlated to the nanowire geometrical dimensions and is independent of the strength of applied field within the range of 0.1?mT to 1?mT. For nanowire with film thickness below 5?nm, a second spin wave harmonic mode is observed. The decay coefficient of the spin wave power suggests that the DWs in a memory device should be at least 300?nm apart for them to be free of interference from the spin waves.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

    1990-01-01

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

  3. A simplified model for red cell dynamics in small blood vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piero Olla

    1998-11-20

    A simple mechanism for the confinement of red cells in the middle of narrow blood vessels is proposed. In the presence of a quadratic shear, red cells deform in such a way to loose fore-aft symmetry and to achieve a fixed orientation with respect to the flow. This leads to a drift away from the vessel walls, when the vessel diameter goes below a critical value depending on the viscoelastic properties and the dimensions of the cell.

  4. Coating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Tin Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex

    , and Pt by electron-beam evaporation or electroless metal deposition.2,5,11 Single amine-functionalized CdSe, transparent coatings, heterojunction solar cells, and chemical sensors. The deposition techniques used for Sn

  5. Mean first passage times for bond formation for a Brownian particle in linear shear flow above a wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Korn; U. S. Schwarz

    2007-07-16

    Motivated by cell adhesion in hydrodynamic flow, here we study bond formation between a spherical Brownian particle in linear shear flow carrying receptors for ligands covering the boundary wall. We derive the appropriate Langevin equation which includes multiplicative noise due to position-dependent mobility functions resulting from the Stokes equation. We present a numerical scheme which allows to simulate it with high accuracy for all model parameters, including shear rate and three parameters describing receptor geometry (distance, size and height of the receptor patches). In the case of homogeneous coating, the mean first passage time problem can be solved exactly. In the case of position-resolved receptor-ligand binding, we identify different scaling regimes and discuss their biological relevance.

  6. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  7. Shot Noise with Interaction Effects in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes P. Queipo,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shot Noise with Interaction Effects in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes F. Wu,1 P. Queipo,2 A 2007; published 11 October 2007) We have measured shot noise in single-walled carbon nanotubes with good contacts at 4.2 K at low frequencies (f 600­850 MHz). We find a strong modulation of shot noise

  8. Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Scott C. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Rotor Scott C. Morris , David B. Stephens The region downstream of a ducted rotor has been experimentally investigated in terms of its wake characteristics and the duct wall pressure fluctuations. The motivation for the measurements was to document

  9. Synergy between Liquid Walls and Tokamak Physics Performance APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Synergy between Liquid Walls and Tokamak Physics Performance APEX Interim Report November, 1999 15-1 CHAPTER 15: SYNERGISM BETWEEN LIQUID METAL WALLS, TOKAMAK PHYSICS PERFORMANCE, AND REACTOR ATTRACTIVENESS and Tokamak Physics Performance APEX Interim Report November, 1999 15-2 15. SYNERGISM BETWEEN LIQUID METAL

  10. A simple model of the resistive wall mode in tokamaks Richard Fitzpatrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    A simple model of the resistive wall mode in tokamaks Richard Fitzpatrick Citation: Physics of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in a tokamak plasma Phys. Plasmas 15, 022501 (2008); 10 rotation in a cylindrical tokamak Phys. Plasmas 10, 187 (2003); 10.1063/1.1527042 Physics and control

  11. Computational modeling of thermal conductivity of single walled carbon nanotube polymer composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    was developed to study the thermal conductivity of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composites1 Computational modeling of thermal conductivity of single walled carbon nanotube polymer resistance on effective conductivity of composites were quantified. The present model is a useful tool

  12. THICK LIQUID-WALLED, FIELD-REVERSED CONFIGURATION* R. W. Moira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    first wall. Although expected to be unstable to ideal MHD modes, experimental FRC plasmas have proved20--a liquid metal) protects the structural walls of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) so in an acceptable impurity level in the core plasma. The shielding of the core by the edge plasma is modeled

  13. Modifying the Electronic Character of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Through Anisotropic Polymer Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    Modifying the Electronic Character of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Through Anisotropic Polymer, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)±polymer composites have received much attention due to their im- proved performances compared to the corresponding parent- polymer devices in telecommunications,[1] field

  14. Effect of water-wall interaction potential on the properties of nanoconfined water Pradeep Kumar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Effect of water-wall interaction potential on the properties of nanoconfined water Pradeep Kumar,1 on the understanding of confined water by examining the behavior of waterlike molecules interacting with planar walls of water, depending on density. We study two different forms of repulsive confinement, when the water

  15. Hitting the "wall" : the role of leadership and organizational process in the successful growth of SMEs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macaux, Michelle (Wendy Michelle)

    2009-01-01

    Rapidly growing companies often start out well, but hit a "wall" as they continue to expand. This wall is partly due to a lack of structure within the organization, but is also due to a lack of leadership and training to ...

  16. Compressible laminar streaks with wall suction Pierre Ricco, Daniel Shah, and Peter D. Hicks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Adrian

    Compressible laminar streaks with wall suction Pierre Ricco, Daniel Shah, and Peter D. Hicks laminar streaks with wall suction Pierre Ricco,1 Daniel Shah,2 and Peter D. Hicks3 1 Department May 2013) The response of a compressible laminar boundary layer subject to free-stream vor- tical

  17. Gas Sensing Mechanism of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas Sensing Mechanism of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Single- Walled Carbon Nanotubes Syed Mubeen towards different gas analytes, however the sensing mechanism was not clearly elucidated. The detailed demonstration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as highly sensitive gas sensors [1], there have been

  18. Effects of winglets to augment tube wall heat transfer in louvered fin heat exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Abstract The louvered fin heat exchanger, a type of compact heat exchanger, has been used heavilyEffects of winglets to augment tube wall heat transfer in louvered fin heat exchangers Paul A transfer along the tube wall of the compact heat exchanger through the use of winglets placed

  19. Photovoltaic device using single wall carbon nanotubes and method of fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Li, Zhongrui

    2012-11-06

    A photovoltaic device and methods for forming the same. In one embodiment, the photovoltaic device has a silicon substrate, and a film comprising a plurality of single wall carbon nanotubes disposed on the silicon substrate, wherein the plurality of single wall carbon nanotubes forms a plurality of heterojunctions with the silicon in the substrate.

  20. Accepted Manuscript Superconductivity in Entirely End-bonded Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Accepted Manuscript Superconductivity in Entirely End-bonded Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes I, Superconductivity in Entirely End-bonded Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Physica C (2007), doi: 10.1016/ j.physc.2007 disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. #12;ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Physica C 1 Superconductivity