National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for magnetic thin-film nanostructures

  1. Magnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    examples. During the past decade applications of nano-scale magnetic devices to data storage have hadMagnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures The College of William and MarY;'l Virginia http://www.as.wm.cdu/Faculty/Lukaszcw.html It is widely believed that revolutionary progress can be made as materials and devices are developed to operate

  2. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  3. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X of nanostructured TiO2 layers fabricated on thin-film solar cells to provide, simultaneously, both antireflection

  4. Large area quantitative analysis of nanostructured thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sliz, Rafal; Eneh, Chibuzor; Suzuki, Yuji; Czajkowski, Jakub; Fabritius, Tapio; Kathirgamanathan, Poopathy; Nathan, Arokia; Myllyla, Risto; Jabbour, Ghassan

    2015-01-09

    of SEM images of quantum dots and InP nanostructured thin-films are provided in the supple- mentary information. 3 Results 3.1 Physical Characterization The AFM and XRD techniques were used to verify the sur- face morphology and provide the reference... research subject for their high applicability in optoelectronics22–24. In addi- tion, self-assembled gold quantum dots and InP-based nanos- tructures were examined. Prior to the analysis, ZnO fabricated thin-films were additionally characterized with AFM...

  5. Electrodeposition of Zn based nanostructure thin films for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Bat’hi, S. A. M.

    2015-03-30

    We present here a systematic study on the synthesis thin films of various ZnO, CdO, Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} (O) and ZnTe nanostructures by electrodeposition technique with ZnCl{sub 2,} CdCl{sub 2} and ZnSO{sub 4} solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well shaped Nanorods arrays at specific concentration and temperature. UV-VIS spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  6. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at ? = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at ? = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2003-12-09

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  8. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15

    The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    .1149/1.2357098, copyright The Electrochemical Society 65 #12;66 reduced environmental impact and a minimum undesirable inter-temperature thin film growth technique has been developed to fabricate a new generation of smart and functional and structural requirements of their applications in gas sensors and solar cells. The rapid photothermal

  10. Investigation of the formation of nanostructures on silicon thin films by excimer laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Vipin

    Investigation of the formation of nanostructures on silicon thin films by excimer laser irradiation-pulse excimer laser irradiation. The fabricated structures have heights of about 1 m and apical radii on an insulator substrate is irradiated in air environment with a single 25ns pulse from a KrF excimer laser

  11. Nanostructured SrTiO3/WO3 Heterojunction Thin Films for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrman, Sheryl H.

    Nanostructured SrTiO3/WO3 Heterojunction Thin Films for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Introduction #12;Why SrTiO3 and WO3 Tungsten Oxide (WO3) [Eg :- ~ 2.7 eV] Advantages: Basically n-type in nature due to presence of oxygen vacancies

  12. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposites in Magnetic Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Raziq, Haron

    2013-02-11

    for ferromagnetism and the tuning of its magnetic properties. Specifically, different compositions of (CoFe2O4)x : (CeO2)1-x , grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are tested for varying properties. Growth of different compositions of the VANs allows...

  13. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  14. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Hoard, Ronald W. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  15. Interaction of stress and magnetic properties in patterned copper-nickel-copper thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friend, Elizabeth, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the epitaxial Cu/Ni/Cu thin film system has been extensively studied, due to its wide range of perpendicular magnetization. It has proved to be a model system to explore the interactions of strain, surface ...

  16. Influence of nanostructure on charge transport in RuO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeves, M. M.; Lad, R. J.

    2010-07-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of RuO{sub 2} were grown on fused-quartz substrates and a parametric study was carried out to probe the influence of film nanostructure on the four-point Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall coefficient. The films were grown via reactive rf magnetron sputtering of a Ru target in an Ar/O{sub 2} plasma using deposition rates from 0.27 to 3.5 A/s and substrate temperatures from 16 to 500 deg. C Room-temperature resistivities of the RuO{sub 2} films ranged from 58 to 360 {mu}{Omega} cm. Upon first heating following deposition, some films showed decreasing resistivity with increasing temperature, but the resistivities also decreased upon subsequent cooling suggesting that the annealing treatment reduces the film defect density. The temperature coefficient of resistance was found to be small (<0.001 K{sup -1}) in agreement with previous investigations. Hall coefficient measurements of the polycrystalline thin films demonstrated that either n-type or p-type majority carriers can be present depending on deposition conditions and the resulting nanostructure, in contrast to single-crystal RuO{sub 2}, which is an n-type metal. Grain size and homogeneous strain within the films were measured by x-ray diffraction and are correlated to the majority carrier type.

  17. Investigation of the nonlocal nonlinear optical response of copper nanostructured thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmanfarmaei, B; RashidianVaziri, M R; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, F [Laser and Optics Research School, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Nanostructured copper thin films have been prepared using the pulsed laser deposition method. Optical absorption spectra of these films exhibit plasmonic absorption peaks around 619 nm, which suggests the formation of copper nanoparticles on their surfaces. Scanning electron micrographs of the films confirm the nanoparticle formation on the films surfaces. After laser beam passing through the thin films, the observed diffraction rings on a far-field screen have been recorded. Despite the smallness of the maximal axial phase shifts of the films, which have been obtained using the nonlocal z-scan theory, a series of low-intensity rings can be observed on the far field screen for some specific positions of the thin films from the focal point. It is shown that the best approach to determining the sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refractive index of thin samples is the application of the conventional closeaperture z-scan method. (nanostructures)

  18. Engineering Gilbert damping by dilute Gd doping in soft magnetic Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. Jiang, S.; Sun, L.; Wang, Y. K.; Zhai, Y.; Wong, P. K. J.; Wang, K.; Jong, M. P. de; Wiel, W. G. van der; Laan, G. van der

    2014-05-07

    By analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, we show that the Gilbert damping constant in soft magnetic Fe thin films can be enhanced by ?6 times with Gd doping of up to 20%. At the same time, the magnetic easy axis remains in the film plane while the coercivity is strongly reduced after Gd inclusion. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal a strong increase in the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe with increasing Gd concentration, in full agreement with the increase in the Gilbert damping obtained for these thin films. Combined with x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, the results demonstrate that the FeGd thin films with dilute Gd doping of up to 20% are promising candidates for spin-transfer-torque applications in soft magnetic devices, in which an enhanced damping is required.

  19. Time-Resolved Magnetic Flux and AC-Current Distributions in Superconducting YBCO Thin Films and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    Time-Resolved Magnetic Flux and AC-Current Distributions in Superconducting YBCO Thin Films on superconductors. The high time and spatial resolutions of the measurements also offer good quantitative data analysis of the MO images. Y Ba2Cu3O7-8 (YBCO) was discovered as a high-temperature superconductor (HTSC

  20. Comparative study of the mechanical properties of nanostructured thin films on stretchable substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djaziri, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E.; Goudeau, Ph., E-mail: Philippe.goudeau@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Faurie, D. [LSPM, (UPR 3407 CNRS), Université Paris 13, Institut Galilée, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 3079 CNRS), Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, CS 50840, 54011 NANCY Cedex (France); Mocuta, C.; Thiaudière, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-09-07

    Comparative studies of the mechanical behavior between copper, tungsten, and W/Cu nanocomposite based on copper dispersoïd thin films were performed under in-situ controlled tensile equi-biaxial loadings using both synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. The films first deform elastically with the lattice strain equal to the true strain given by digital image correlation measurements. The Cu single thin film intrinsic elastic limit of 0.27% is determined below the apparent elastic limit of W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films, 0.30% and 0.49%, respectively. This difference is found to be driven by the existence of as-deposited residual stresses. Above the elastic limit on the lattice strain-true strain curves, we discriminate two different behaviors presumably footprints of plasticity and fracture. The Cu thin film shows a large transition domain (0.60% true strain range) to a plateau with a smooth evolution of the curve which is associated to peak broadening. In contrast, W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films show a less smooth and reduced transition domain (0.30% true strain range) to a plateau with no peak broadening. These observations indicate that copper thin film shows some ductility while tungsten/copper nanocomposites thin films are brittle. Fracture resistance of W/Cu nanocomposite thin film is improved thanks to the high compressive residual stress and the elimination of the metastable ?-W phase.

  1. Enhanced magnetic and electrical properties in amorphous Ge:Mn thin films by non-magnetic codoping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin Wenjing; Kell, Copeland D.; Duska, Chris; Lu Jiwei; Floro, Jerrold A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); He Li; Hull, Robert [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Dolph, Melissa C. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Amorphous Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} thin films have been prepared by co-depositing Ge and Mn on SiO{sub 2}/Si using an ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy system. Across a range of growth temperatures and Mn concentrations (2.8 at. %, 10.9 at. %, and 21.3 at. %), we achieved enhanced magnetic and electrical properties with non-magnetic codopants dispersed in the films. Self-assembled Mn-rich amorphous nanostructures were observed in the amorphous Ge matrix, either as isolated nanoclusters or as nanocolumns, depending on Mn concentration. The ferromagnetic saturation moments were found to increase with Mn concentration and reached a maximum of 0.7 {mu}{sub B}/Mn in the as-grown samples. Two magnetic transition temperatures around 15 K and 200 K were observed in these amorphous MBE-grown samples. Coercivity is considered within the context of local magnetic anisotropy. The anomalous Hall effect confirmed a strong correlation between the magnetization and transport properties, indicating that global ferromagnetic coupling was carrier-mediated rather than through direct exchange. In addition, negative magnetoresistance was detected from 5 K to room temperature.

  2. Tuning the Magnetic and Electronic Properties of FexSi1-x Thin Films for Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karel, Julie Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    x Si 1-x Thin Films for Spintronics By Julie Elizabeth Karelx Si 1-x Thin Films for Spintronics Copyright 2012 by Juliex Si 1-x Thin Films for Spintronics by Julie Elizabeth Karel

  3. Strain Induced Magnetism in SrRuO3 Epitaxial Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grutter, A.; Wong, F.; Arenholz, E.; Liberati, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-01-10

    Epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were grown on SrTiO{sub 3}, (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(SrAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.7} and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates inducing different biaxial compressive strains. Coherently strained SrRuO{sub 3} films exhibit enhanced magnetization compared to previously reported bulk and thin film values of 1.1-1.6 {micro}{sub B} per formula unit. A comparison of (001) and (110) SrRuO{sub 3} films on each substrate indicates that films on (110) oriented have consistently higher saturated moments than corresponding (001) films. These observations indicate the importance of lattice distortions in controlling the magnetic ground state in this transitional metal oxide.

  4. Structural controlled magnetic anisotropy in Heusler L1{sub 0}-MnGa epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Kangkang; Lu Erdong; Smith, Arthur R.; Knepper, Jacob W.; Yang Fengyuan

    2011-04-18

    Ferromagnetic L1{sub 0}-MnGa thin films have been epitaxially grown on GaN, sapphire, and MgO substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. Using diffraction techniques, the epitaxial relationships are determined. It is found that the crystalline orientation of the films differ due to the influence of the substrate. By comparing the magnetic anisotropy to the structural properties, a clear correlation could be established indicating that the in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy is directly determined by the crystal orientation of the film and could be controlled via selection of the substrates. This result could be helpful in tailoring magnetic anisotropy in thin films for spintronic applications.

  5. Simulation of nanostructure-based and ultra-thin film solar cell devices beyond the classical picture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an optoelectronic device simulation framework valid for arbitrary spatial variation of electronic potentials and optical modes, and for transport regimes ranging from ballistic to diffusive, is used to study non-local photon absorption, photocurrent generation and carrier extraction in ultra-thin film and nanostructure-based solar cell devices at the radiative limit. Among the effects that are revealed by the microscopic approach and which are inaccessible to macroscopic models is the impact of structure, doping or bias induced nanoscale potential variations on the local photogeneration rate and the photocarrier transport regime.

  6. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  7. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  8. Thin film limits for Ginzburg--Landau with strong applied magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stan Alama; Lia Bronsard; Bernardo Galvão-Sousa

    2009-11-06

    In this work, we study thin-film limits of the full three-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau model for a superconductor in an applied magnetic field oriented obliquely to the film surface. We obtain Gamma-convergence results in several regimes, determined by the asymptotic ratio between the magnitude of the parallel applied magnetic field and the thickness of the film. Depending on the regime, we show that there may be a decrease in the density of Cooper pairs. We also show that in the case of variable thickness of the film, its geometry will affect the effective applied magnetic field, thus influencing the position of vortices.

  9. Modified Magnetic Ground State in Nimn (2) O (4) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Chopdekar, R.V.; Iwata, J.M.; Toney, M.F.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; /SLAC

    2012-08-23

    The authors demonstrate the stabilization of a magnetic ground state in epitaxial NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NMO) thin films not observed in their bulk counterpart. Bulk NMO exhibits a magnetic transition from a paramagnetic phase to a collinear ferrimagnetic moment configuration below 110 K and to a canted moment configuration below 70 K. By contrast, as-grown NMO films exhibit a single magnetic transition at 60 K and annealed films exhibit the magnetic behavior found in bulk. Cation inversion and epitaxial strain are ruled out as possible causes for the new magnetic ground state in the as-grown films. However, a decrease in the octahedral Mn{sup 4+}:Mn{sup 3+} concentration is observed and likely disrupts the double exchange that produces the magnetic state at intermediate temperatures. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and bulk magnetometry indicate a canted ferrimagnetic state in all samples at low T. Together these results suggest that the collinear ferrimagnetic state observed in bulk NMO at intermediate temperatures is suppressed in the as grown NMO thin films due to a decrease in octahedral Mn{sup 4+}, while the canted moment ferrimagnetic ordering is preserved below 60 K.

  10. Modified magnetic ground state in NiMn2O4 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Toney, M. F.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Iwata, J.M.

    2010-08-03

    We demonstrate the stabilization of a magnetic ground state in epitaxial NiMn2O4 (NMO) thin films not observed in their bulk counterpart. Bulk NMO exhibits a magnetic transition from a paramagnetic phase to a collinear ferrimagnetic moment configuration below 110 K and to a canted moment configuration below 70 K. By contrast, as-grown NMO films exhibit a single magnetic transition at 60 K and annealed films exhibit the magnetic behavior found in bulk. Cation inversion and epitaxial strain are ruled out as possible causes for the new magnetic ground state in the as-grown films. However, a decrease in the octahedral Mn{sup 4+}:Mn{sup 3+} concentration is observed and likely disrupts the double exchange that produces the magnetic state at intermediate temperatures. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and bulk magnetometry indicate a canted ferrimagnetic state in all samples at low temperature. Together these results suggest that the collinear ferrimagnetic state observed in bulk NMO at intermediate temperatures is suppressed in the as grown NMO thin films due to a decrease in octahedral Mn{sup 4+} while the canted moment ferrimagnetic ordering is preserved below 60 K.

  11. Tunable giant magnetic anisotropy in amorphous SmCo thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnus, F.; Moubah, R.; Roos, A. H.; Kapaklis, V.; Hjoervarsson, B.; Andersson, G.; Kruk, A.; Hase, T.

    2013-04-22

    SmCo thin films have been grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a composition of 2-35 at. % Sm. Films with 5 at. % or higher Sm are amorphous and smooth. A giant tunable uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy is induced in the films which peaks in the composition range 11-22 at. % Sm. This cross-over behavior is not due to changes in the atomic moments but rather the local configuration changes. The excellent layer perfection combined with highly tunable magnetic properties make these films important for spintronics applications.

  12. Atomic moments in Mn2CoAl thin films analyzed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jamer, M. E.; Assaf, B. A.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Arena, D. A.; Heiman, D.

    2014-12-05

    Spin gapless semiconductors are known to be strongly affected by structural disorder when grown epitaxially as thin films. The magnetic properties of Mn2CoAl thin films grown on GaAs (001) substrates are investigated here as a function of annealing. This study investigates the atomic-specific magnetic moments of Mn and Co atoms measured through X-ray magnetic circular dichroism as a function of annealing and the consequent structural ordering. Results indicate that the structural distortion mainly affects the Mn atoms as seen by the reduction of the magnetic moment from its predicted value.

  13. Atomic moments in Mn2CoAl thin films analyzed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jamer, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sterbinsky, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Assaf, B. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Arena, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Heiman, D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-12-07

    Spin gapless semiconductors are known to be strongly affected by structural disorder when grown epitaxially as thin films. The magnetic properties of Mn2CoAl thin films grown on GaAs (001) substrates are investigated here as a function of annealing. This study investigates the atomic-specific magnetic moments of Mn and Co atoms measured through X-ray magnetic circular dichroism as a function of annealing and the consequent structural ordering. The results indicate that the structural distortion mainly affects the Mn atoms as seen by the reduction of the magnetic moment from its predicted value. (auth)

  14. Electrical property measurements of thin film based Lithium Ion Battery electrodes "Nanostructured Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB) are one of the most promising class of next generation energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Electrical property measurements of thin film based Lithium Ion Battery electrodes "Nanostructured Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB) are one of the most promising class of next generation energy storage devices materials during the charging/discharging process. However, in previous graphene based LIB battery research

  15. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Rajani, E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com; Philip, Rachel Reena, E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com; Nazer, Sheeba, E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com; Abraham, Anitha, E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com; Nair, Sinitha B., E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com [Thin film research lab, U.C. College, Aluva, Kerala (India); Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Okram, G. S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 001, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2014-01-28

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ?1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ?10{sup 6}/m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80–330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ?2.6?m and the films showed good photo response.

  16. Many-body Interactions in Magnetic Films and Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen D. Kevan

    2012-12-12

    We describe results supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER46158, which focused on magnetic interaction at surfaces, in thin films, and in metallic nanostructures. We report on three general topics: 1) The Rashba spin splitting at magnetic surfaces of rare earth metals, 2) magnetic nanowires self-assembled on stepped tungsten single crystals, and 3) magnetic interaction in graphene films doped with hydrogen atoms.

  17. Magnetism and transport properties of epitaxial Fe-Ga thin films on GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duong Anh Tuan; Shin, Yooleemi; Cho, Sunglae; Dang Duc Dung; Vo Thanh Son

    2012-04-01

    Epitaxial Fe-Ga thin films in disordered bcc {alpha}-Fe crystal structure (A2) have been grown on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The saturated magnetization (M{sub S}) decreased from 1371 to 1105 kA/m with increasing Ga concentration from 10.5 to 24.3 % at room temperature. The lattice parameter increased with the increase in Ga content because of the larger atomic radius of Ga atom than that of Fe. The increase in carrier density with Ga content caused in lower resistivity.

  18. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum confined nanostructured tin oxide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, K.V., E-mail: kvmuralikv@gmail.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Nehru Arts and Science College, Kanhangad, Kerala 671314 (India); Ragina, A.J. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Nehru Arts and Science College, Kanhangad, Kerala 671314 (India); Preetha, K.C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Sree Narayana College, Kannur, Kerala 670007 (India); Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T.L. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Pazhassi Raja N.S.S. College, Mattannur, Kerala 670702 (India)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum confined SnO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized at 80 °C by SILAR technique. • Film formation mechanism is discussed. • Films with snow like crystallite morphology offer high specific surface area. • The blue-shifted value of band gap confirmed the quantum confinement effect. • Present synthesis has advantages – low cost, low temperature and green friendly. - Abstract: Quantum confined nanostructured SnO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized at 353 K using ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) and other chemicals by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. Film formation mechanism is discussed. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated and compared with the as-grown and annealed films fabricated without NH{sub 4}Cl solution. SnO{sub 2} films were polycrystalline with crystallites of tetragonal structure with grain sizes lie in the 5–8 nm range. Films with snow like crystallite morphology offer high specific surface area. The blue-shifted value of band gap of as-grown films confirmed the quantum confinement effect of grains. Refractive index of the films lies in the 2.1–2.3 range. Films prepared with NH{sub 4}Cl exhibit relatively lower resistivity of the order of 10{sup 0}–10{sup ?1} ? cm. The present synthesis has advantages such as low cost, low temperature and green friendly, which yields small particle size, large surface–volume ratio, and high crystallinity SnO{sub 2} films.

  19. Enhanced Magnetism in Epitaxial SrRuO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grutter, A.J.; Wong, F.; Arenholz, E.; Liberati, M.; Vailionis, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-11-20

    We have observed enhanced magnetization in epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} thin films compared to previously reported bulk and thin film values of 1.1-1.6 {mu}{sub B}/Ru ion. The degree of enhancement is strongly dependent on the lattice distortions imposed on the SrRuO{sub 3} films by SrTiO{sub 3}, (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(SrTaO{sub 3}){sub 0.7} (LSAT), and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. A larger enhancement of magnetization for coherently strained SrRuO{sub 3} films on SrTiO{sub 3} and LSAT compared to fully relaxed films on LaAlO{sub 3} confirms the importance of the strain state in determining the magnetic ground state of the Ru ion. In particular, SrRuO{sub 3} films on (111) SrTiO{sub 3} exhibit exhanced moments as high as 3.8 {mu}{sub B}/Ru ion, thus suggesting the stabilization of a high-spin Ru{sup 4+} state.

  20. Reversal mechanisms of coupled bi-component magnetic nanostructures G. Shimon,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adekunle

    in applications such as high density information storage,1­3 domain wall (DW) logic,4,5 and memory devices.6Reversal mechanisms of coupled bi-component magnetic nanostructures G. Shimon,1,2 A. O. Adeyeye,1 Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4747446] Thin film ferromagnetic nanostructures have been

  1. Magnetization dependence on electron density in epitaxial ZnO thin films codoped with Mn and Sn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebard, Arthur F.

    technology. Moreover, this material is useful in delineating the origin of ferromagnetism in a semiconductor. Ivill, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Nortona Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University online 11 February 2005 The magnetic and transport properties of Mn-doped ZnO thin films codoped with Sn

  2. J. of Supercritical Fluids 42 (2007) 410418 Growth of magnetic thin films using CO2 RESS expansions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continetti, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    J. of Supercritical Fluids 42 (2007) 410­418 Growth of magnetic thin films using CO2 RESS) and CO2 and directing the resulting supersonic jet onto both hot and cold silicon wafers fluids (SCFs). In fact, given the nonpolar nature of SC-CO2, most of the solid ionic metal salts do

  3. Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics of SrRuO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, Matthew C

    2009-05-19

    Itinerant ferromagnet SrRuO3 has drawn interest from physicists due to its unusual transport and magnetic properties as well as from engineers due to its low resistivity and good lattice-matching to other oxide materials. The exact electronic structure remains a mystery, as well as details of the interactions between magnetic and electron transport properties. This thesis describes the use of time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy to study the ferromagnetic resonance of SrRuO3 thin films, where the ferromagnetic resonance is initiated by a sudden change in the easy axis direction in response to a pump pulse. The rotation of the easy axis is induced by laser heating, taking advantage of a temperature-dependent easy axis direction in SrRuO3 thin films. By measuring the change in temperature of the magnetic system in response to the laser pulse, we find that the specific heat is dominated by magnons up to unusually high temperature, ~;;100 K, and thermal diffusion is limited by a boundary resistance between the film and the substrate that is not consistent with standard phonon reflection and scattering models. We observe a high FMR frequency, 250 GHz, and large Gilbert damping parameter, alpha ~;; 1, consistent with strong spin-orbit coupling. We observe a time-dependent change in the easy axis direction on a ps time-scale, and we find that parameters associated with the change in easy axis, as well as the damping parameter, have a non-monotonic temperature dependence similar to that observed in anomalous Hall measurements.

  4. Anomalous magnetization reversal in exchange biased thin films and nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhi-Pan

    2006-01-01

    eld. Sent to Mike for neutron scattering. IZ072606 MgF 2 (2.5 nm) Prepared for neutron scattering. Bibliography [1] W.to Mike Fitzsimmons for neutron scattering. IZ051606 MgF 2 (

  5. Thin film deposition by electric and magnetic crossed-field diode sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M. (Mountain View, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  6. Nanostructured ceria based thin films ({<=}1 {mu}m) As cathode/electrolyte interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierso, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, Universite Paris 6-UMR 7574-College de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Boy, P.; Valle, K. [CEA-Le Ripault, LSCG, BP 15, 37000 Monts (France); Vulliet, J.; Blein, F. [CEA-Le Ripault, LCCA, BP 15, 37000 Monts (France); Laberty-Robert, Ch., E-mail: christel.laberty@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, Universite Paris 6-UMR 7574-College de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Sanchez, C. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, Universite Paris 6-UMR 7574-College de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France)

    2013-01-15

    Gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO: Ce{sub 0,9}Gd{sub 0,1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) films were used as an oxygen anion diffusion layer at the cathode/electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), between LSCF (lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite) and YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia). Thin ({approx}100 nm) and thick ({approx}700 nm) mesoporous CGO layers were synthesized through a sol-gel process including organic template coupled with the dip-coating method. Structural and microstructural characterizations were performed, highlighting a well-bonded crystalline CGO nanoparticles network which delineates a 3-D inter-connected mesoporous network. Their electrical behaviors were investigated by impedance spectroscopy analysis of YSZ/mesoporous-CGO/LSCF half-cell. Anode-supported SOFCs, operating at 800 Degree-Sign C, with either dense or mesoporous CGO dip-coated interlayers were also fabricated [NiO-YSZ anode/YSZ/CGO/LSCF cathode]. The impact of the mesoporous CGO interlayers on SOFCs performances was investigated by galvanostatic analysis and compared to the behavior of a dense CGO interlayer. The polarization curves revealed an enhancement in the electrical performance of the cell, which is assigned to a decrease of the polarization resistance at the cathode/electrolyte interface. The integrity and connectivity of the CGO nanoparticles bonded network facilitates O{sup 2-} transport across the interface. - Graphical abstract: Thin and thick CGO films have been prepared through a sol-gel process and their potential application as SOFC cathode/electrolyte interlayer in SOFC has been investigated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous ceria based thin films exhibit interesting performances for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous films were synthesized through the sol-gel process combined with the dip-coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrity and connectivity of the nanoparticles facilitates O{sup 2-} transport across the interface.

  7. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FeCo epitaxial thin films grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shikada, Kouhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. FeCo thin films with (100), (211), and (110) planes parallel to the substrate surface grow on respective MgO substrates. FeCo/MgO interface structures are studied by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and the epitaxial growth mechanism is discussed. Atomically sharp boundaries are recognized between the FeCo thin films and the MgO substrates where misfit dislocations are introduced in the FeCo thin films presumably to decrease the lattice misfits. Misfit dislocations are observed approximately every 9 and 1.4 nm in FeCo thin film at the FeCo/MgO(100) and the FeCo/MgO(110) interfaces, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the lattice spacing measured parallel to the single-crystal substrate surfaces are in agreement within 0.1% with those of the respective bulk values of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} alloy crystal, showing that the FeCo film strain is very small. The magnetic anisotropies of these epitaxial films basically reflect the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk FeCo alloy crystal.

  8. Nanostructured magnetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, Atlanta, GA (Nanostructured Magnetic Materials by Keith T. Chan Doctor ofinduced by a Si-based material occurs at a Si/Ni interface

  9. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  10. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J.

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  11. Abstract--In this paper, the propagation characteristics of an enhanced-thickness magnetic nanoparticle thin film are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    nanoparticle thin film are investigated on high resistivity silicon substrate (10,000 ohm-cm) for the first time up to 60 GHz. Contrary to other thin films, this nanoparticle thin film can achieve a thickness up to several hundred nanometers, even to micron. The enhanced thickness of this thin film is achieved

  12. Reactive sputter deposition of pyrite structure transition metal disulfide thin films: Microstructure, transport, and magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baruth, A.; Manno, M.; Narasimhan, D.; Shankar, A.; Zhang, X.; Johnson, M.; Aydil, E. S.; Leighton, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Transition metal disulfides crystallizing in the pyrite structure (e.g., TMS{sub 2}, with TM = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are a class of materials that display a remarkably diverse array of functional properties. These properties include highly spin-polarized ferromagnetism (in Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2}), superconductivity (in CuS{sub 2}), an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating ground state (in NiS{sub 2}), and semiconduction with close to optimal parameters for solar absorber applications (in FeS{sub 2}). Exploitation of these properties in heterostructured devices requires the development of reliable and reproducible methods for the deposition of high quality pyrite structure thin films. In this manuscript, we report on the suitability of reactive sputter deposition from metallic targets in an Ar/H{sub 2}S environment as a method to achieve exactly this. Optimization of deposition temperature, Ar/H{sub 2}S pressure ratio, and total working gas pressure, assisted by plasma optical emission spectroscopy, reveals significant windows over which deposition of single-phase, polycrystalline, low roughness pyrite films can be achieved. This is illustrated for the test cases of the ferromagnetic metal CoS{sub 2} and the diamagnetic semiconductor FeS{sub 2}, for which detailed magnetic and transport characterization are provided. The results indicate significant improvements over alternative deposition techniques such as ex situ sulfidation of metal films, opening up exciting possibilities for all-sulfide heterostructured devices. In particular, in the FeS{sub 2} case it is suggested that fine-tuning of the sputtering conditions provides a potential means to manipulate doping levels and conduction mechanisms, critical issues in solar cell applications. Parenthetically, we note that conditions for synthesis of phase-pure monosulfides and thiospinels are also identified.

  13. Atomic moments in Mn2CoAl thin films analyzed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamer, M. E.; Assaf, B. A.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Arena, D. A.; Heiman, D.

    2014-12-05

    Spin gapless semiconductors are known to be strongly affected by structural disorder when grown epitaxially as thin films. The magnetic properties of Mn2CoAl thin films grown on GaAs (001) substrates are investigated here as a function of annealing. This study investigates the atomic-specific magnetic moments of Mn and Co atoms measured through X-ray magnetic circular dichroism as a function of annealing and the consequent structural ordering. Results indicate that the structural distortion mainly affects the Mn atoms as seen by the reduction of the magnetic moment from its predicted value.

  14. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350nm-800nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  15. Epitaxial Mn{sub 2.5}Ga thin films with giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Feng; Mizukami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo

    2009-03-23

    We report on epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2.5}Ga thin films, which were deposited on Cr/MgO single crystal substrates by magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction results revealed the epitaxial relationships as Mn{sub 2.5}Ga(001)[100] parallel Cr(001)[110] parallel MgO(001)[100]. The presence of (002) and (011) superlattice peaks indicates that the films were crystallized into DO{sub 22} ordered structures. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) properties were found to be related to the extent of DO{sub 22} chemical ordering. A giant PMA (K{sub u}{sup eff}=1.2x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}) and low saturation magnetization (M{sub s}=250 emu/cm{sup 3}) can be obtained for the film with highest chemical ordering parameter (S=0.8)

  16. Magnetic Insulator Thin Films and Induced Magneto-Transport Effect at Normal Metal / Magnetic Insulator Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The discipline of spintronics with magnetic insulators (MI)a very important role in spintronics. On the other hand, aapplications in spintronics. Among many candidates (e.g.

  17. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedtrapping in nanostructured solar cells. ACS Nano, 5:10055–

  18. Magnetic Insulator Thin Films and Induced Magneto-Transport Effect at Normal Metal / Magnetic Insulator Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    is of great interest, as spintronic devices reveal both heatThe discipline of spintronics with magnetic insulators (MI)a very important role in spintronics. On the other hand, a

  19. Enhanced Magneto-optic Kerr Effect and Magnetic Properties of CeY[subscript 2]Fe[subscript 5]O[subscript 12] Epitaxial Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kehlberger, Andreas

    The magnetic and magneto-optic properties of epitaxial CeY[subscript 2]Fe[subscript 5]O[subscript 12] (Ce ? YIG) and Y[subscript 3]Fe[subscript 5]O[subscript 12] (yttrium iron garnet or YIG) thin films grown by pulsed laser ...

  20. Ferromagnetism of magnetically doped topological insulators in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z. Hadimani, R. L.; Tuttle, G.; Jiles, D. C.; Nlebedim, I. C.

    2015-05-07

    We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3} thin films with x?=?0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (?0.4?nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and increases the magnetization of Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3}. When x?=?0.14 and 0.29, ferromagnetism appears in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3} thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration. The Arrott-Noakes plot demonstrates that the critical mechanism of the ferromagnetism can be described better with 3D-Heisenberg model than with mean field model. Our work may benefit for the practical applications of magnetic topological insulators in spintronics and magnetoelectric devices.

  1. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    W. Prather, "Thin film solar cell design based on photonicH. A. Atwater, "Design of nanostructured solar cells usingBrongersma, "Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with

  2. Epitaxial {tau} phase MnAl thin films on MgO (001) with thickness-dependent magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui Yishen; Chen Wei [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Yin Wenjing; Lu Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, ferromagnetic MnAl films were prepared by alternating Al/Mn quasi-monolayer deposition using a novel biased target ion beam deposition (BTIBD) technique. XRD results showed that the magnetic {tau} phase was well formed in MnAl thin films ({approx}10 nm), which grew epitaxially on single crystal MgO (001) substrates. The optimized saturation magnetization was {approx}394 emu/cc. Furthermore, we observed a thickness-dependent uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic MnAl films, which was attributed to the change of the tetragonal lattice distortion as a function of film thickness. The relationship between the film thicknesses and saturation magnetizations suggested the existence of a magnetically dead layer {approx}2.7 nm with an extrapolated saturation moment around 523 emu/cc ({approx}1.90 {mu}{sub B}/Mn). This value has exceeded the experimental value in bulk materials and is close to the theoretically predicted magnetization ({approx}1.975 {mu}{sub B}/Mn).

  3. Effects of ion and nanosecond-pulsed laser co-irradiation on the surface nanostructure of Au thin films on SiO{sub 2} glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Ruixuan; Meng, Xuan; Takayanagi, Shinya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki, E-mail: shiba@qe.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Yatsu, Shigeo; Ishioka, Junya; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    Ion irradiation and short-pulsed laser irradiation can be used to form nanostructures on the surfaces of substrates. This work investigates the synergistic effects of ion and nanosecond-pulsed laser co-irradiation on surface nanostructuring of Au thin films deposited under vacuum on SiO{sub 2} glass substrates. Gold nanoparticles are randomly formed on the surface of the substrate after nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation under vacuum at a wavelength of 532 nm with a repetition rate of 10?Hz and laser energy density of 0.124 kJ/m{sup 2}. Gold nanoparticles are also randomly formed on the substrate after 100-keV Ar{sup +} ion irradiation at doses of up to 3.8?×?10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, and nearly all of these nanoparticles are fully embedded in the substrate. With increasing ion irradiation dose (number of incident laser pulses), the mean diameter of the Au nanoparticles decreases (increases). However, Au nanoparticles are only formed in a periodic surface arrangement after co-irradiation with 6000 laser pulses and 3.8?×?10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The periodic distance is ?540 nm, which is close to the wavelength of the nanosecond-pulsed laser, and the mean diameter of the Au nanoparticles remains at ?20 nm with a relatively narrow distribution. The photoabsorption peaks of the ion- or nanosecond-pulsed laser-irradiated samples clearly correspond to the mean diameter of Au nanoparticles. Conversely, the photoabsorption peaks for the co-irradiated samples do not depend on the mean nanoparticle diameter. This lack of dependence is likely caused by the periodic nanostructure formed on the surface by the synergistic effects of co-irradiation.

  4. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    2004-12-07

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  5. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toet, Daniel (Mountain View, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  6. Process For Direct Integration Of A Thin-Film Silicon P-N Junction Diode With A Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toet, Daniel (Mountain View, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-08-23

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  7. Perpendicularly magnetized {tau}-MnAl (001) thin films epitaxied on GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, S. H.; Zhu, L. J.; Lu, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, H. L.; Yu, X. Z.; Xiao, J. X.; Zhao, J. H.

    2013-04-15

    Perpendicularly magnetized {tau}-MnAl films have been epitaxied on GaAs (001) by molecular-beam epitaxy. Crystalline quality and magnetic properties of the samples were strongly dependent on growth temperature. The highest coercivity of 10.7 kOe, saturation magnetization of 361.4 emu/cm{sup 3}, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant of 13.65 Merg/cm{sup 3}, and magnetic energy product of 4.44 MGOe were achieved. These tunable magnetic properties make MnAl films valuable as excellent and cost-effective alternative for not only high density perpendicular magnetic recording storage and spintronics devices but also permanent magnets.

  8. Strain-induced modification in the magnetic properties of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dung, Dang Duc [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of General Physics, School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Odkhuu, Dorj; Cheol Hong, Soon; Cho, Sunglae [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Thanh Vinh, Le [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINaM-UMR 7325, 13288 Marseille (France)] [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINaM-UMR 7325, 13288 Marseille (France)

    2013-08-21

    Epitaxial ferromagnetic Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} thin films were stabilized on GaSb(001) and GaAs(001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. Compared to bulk Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} materials, an enhancement of the Curie temperature above 350 K and about 320 K was observed for Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}/GaAs(001) and Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}/GaSb(001) heterostructures, respectively. The magnetization was found to decrease from 323 to 245 emu/cm{sup 3} for films grown on GaSb(001) and GaAs(001). Anomalous Hall effect measurements provide evidence of the strain-induced large spin polarization from density-functional study. Furthermore, our calculated results in bulk Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} under strain indicate that the strain is the origin of different physical properties of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} grown on different substrates.

  9. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80?W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  10. Functionality Tuning in Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aiping

    2013-04-04

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films are unique nanostructures with two-phase self-assembled, heteroepitaxially grown on single-crystal substrates. Both phases tend to grow vertically and simultaneously ...

  11. Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large Sharp Magnetoelectric Effect Home Author: B. Liu, T. Sun, J. He, V. P. Dravid Year: 2010 Abstract: Nanostructures of...

  12. Chaotic magnetization dynamics in single-crystal thin-film structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shutyi, A. M., E-mail: shuty@mail.ru; Sementsov, D. I. [Ulyanovsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of homogeneously precessing magnetization in perpendicularly magnetized single-crystal films has been investigated in a wide range of ac field frequencies on the basis of a numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz equation and construction of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. The conditions for implementing and specific features of chaotic dynamic modes are revealed for films of three basic crystallographic orientations: (100), (110), and (111). It is shown that chaotic precession modes can be controlled using external magnetic fields. Time analogs of the Poincare section of chaotic mode trajectories are considered.

  13. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Marcinek, L. J.Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic

  14. Electric and magnetic behaviors observed in NiO-based thin films under light-irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yi-Dong; Song, Kenan; Shun, Li; Gao, Junqi; Xu, Ben, E-mail: xuben@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: linyh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Lin, Yuan-Hua, E-mail: xuben@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: linyh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Nan, Ce-Wen; Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We report the room-temperature ferromagnetic properties that can be tuned by light irradiation in the Li and Mn co-doped NiO films (LMNO) grown by the spinning coating. The optical tunable magnetic behavior is enhanced by the increase of the Li doping concentration. First-principle calculations reveal that the Li doping plays key roles in the optical tuned magnetic behavior, which brings a 3d-like impurity state to enhance a significant hybridization between the Mn{sup 3+} 3d state and the impurity band, thus strengthening the ferromagnetic coupling effects. Additionally, it can tune the band gap of the LMNO films and produce more holes under the light irradiation, enhancing the optical tuned magnetic behavior.

  15. Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenrui; Jiao, Liang; Li, Leigang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Jian, Jie; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chu, Frank [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Aiping [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Haiyan, E-mail: wangh@ece.tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Self-assembled BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (BFO:CFO) vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films have been fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The strain relaxation mechanism between BFO and CFO with a large lattice mismatch has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanocomposite films exhibit enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the BFO composition increases. Different anisotropy sources have been investigated, suggesting that spin-flop coupling between antiferromagnetic BFO and ferrimagnetic CFO plays a dominant role in enhancing the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  17. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yang-Tse (Rochester Hills, MI); Poli, Andrea A. (Livonia, MI); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  18. Patterned Magnetic Nanostructures and Quantized Magnetic Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -increasing demands in data storage and to new applications of magnetic devices in the field of sensors. NewPatterned Magnetic Nanostructures and Quantized Magnetic Disks STEPHEN Y. CHOU Invited Paper, opens up new opportunities for engineering innovative magnetic materials and devices, developing ultra

  19. Nanostructured europium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation of a metallic target in a He buffer atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luna, H.; Franceschini, D. F.; Prioli, R.; Guimaraes, R. B.; Sanchez, C. M.; Canal, G. P.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Galvao, R. M. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Plasmas Aplicados, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66328, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Plasmas Aplicados, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    Nanostrucured europium oxide and hydroxide films were obtained by pulsed Nd:YAG (532 nm) laser ablation of a europium metallic target, in the presence of a 1 mbar helium buffer atmosphere. Both the produced film and the ambient plasma were characterized. The plasma was monitored by an electrostatic probe, for plume expansion in vacuum or in the presence of the buffer atmosphere. The time evolution of the ion saturation current was obtained for several probe to substrate distances. The results show the splitting of the plume into two velocity groups, being the lower velocity profile associated with metal cluster formation within the plume. The films were obtained in the presence of helium atmosphere, for several target-to-substrate distances. They were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy, for as-deposited and 600 deg. C treated-in-air samples. The results show that the as-deposited samples are amorphous and have chemical composition compatible with europium hydroxide. The thermally treated samples show x-ray diffraction peaks of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with chemical composition showing excess oxygen. Film nanostructuring was shown to be strongly correlated with cluster formation, as shown by velocity splitting in probe current versus time plots.

  20. Exponentially decaying magnetic coupling in sputtered thin film FeNi/Cu/FeCo trilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yajun Akansel, Serkan; Thersleff, Thomas; Brucas, Rimantas; Lansaker, Pia; Leifer, Klaus; Svedlindh, Peter; Harward, Ian; Celinski, Zbigniew; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Dumas, Randy K.; Jana, Somnath; Pogoryelov, Yevgen; Karis, Olof; Åkerman, Johan

    2015-01-26

    Magnetic coupling in trilayer films of FeNi/Cu/FeCo deposited on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates have been studied. While the thicknesses of the FeNi and FeCo layers were kept constant at 100?Å, the thickness of the Cu spacer was varied from 5 to 50?Å. Both hysteresis loop and ferromagnetic resonance results indicate that all films are ferromagnetically coupled. Micromagnetic simulations well reproduce the ferromagnetic resonance mode positions measured by experiments, enabling the extraction of the coupling constants. Films with a thin Cu spacer are found to be strongly coupled, with an effective coupling constant of 3?erg/cm{sup 2} for the sample with a 5?Å Cu spacer. The strong coupling strength is qualitatively understood within the framework of a combined effect of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and pinhole coupling, which is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetic coupling constant surprisingly decreases exponentially with increasing Cu spacer thickness, without showing an oscillatory thickness dependence. This is partially connected to the substantial interfacial roughness that washes away the oscillation. The results have implications on the design of multilayers for spintronic applications.

  1. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  2. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  3. Multi-jump magnetic switching in ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raju, M.; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

    2013-08-07

    Unconventional multi-jump magnetization reversal and significant in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in the ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}(5–75 nm) thin films grown on Si/amorphous SiO{sub 2} are reported. While such multi-jump behavior is observed in CoFeB(10 nm) film when the magnetic field is applied at 10°–20° away from the easy-axis, the same is observed in CoFeB(12.5 nm) film when the magnetic field is 45°–55° away from easy-axis. Unlike the previous reports of multi-jump switching in epitaxial films, their observance in the present case of amorphous CoFeB is remarkable. This multi-jump switching is found to disappear when the films are crystallized by annealing at 420 °C. The deposition geometry and the energy of the sputtered species appear to intrinsically induce a kind of bond orientation anisotropy in the films, which leads to the UMA in the as-grown amorphous CoFeB films. Exploitation of such multi-jump switching in amorphous CoFeB thin films could be of technological significance because of their applications in spintronic devices.

  4. Magnetic properties of ion implanted Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} thin films solidified through pulsed laser melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commisso Dolph, Melissa [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Kim, Taeseok; Recht, Daniel; Aziz, Michael J. [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Yin Wenjing; Fan Wenbin; Yu Jiani; Lu Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} thin films with an average Mn concentration of 0.64 at. % were fabricated through Mn ion implantation into crystalline germanium-on-insulator wafers. Implantation damage was removed and crystallinity restored by pulsed laser melting from a single 30-ns 308-nm XeCl{sup +} excimer laser pulse. Resolidified films demonstrated higher Curie temperatures but smaller saturation magnetizations than those of both as-implanted films and implanted films subjected to rapid thermal annealing. These findings are attributed to the redistribution of Mn during solidification.

  5. Mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Yu E-mail: cangcangzhulin@gmail.com; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.; Barsukov, I.; Lindner, J.; Raanaei, H.; Hjörvarsson, B.

    2014-02-17

    The mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films was investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) on samples deposited without an applied magnetic field, with an out-of-plane field and an in-plane field. Analysis of FMR spectra profiles, high frequency susceptibility calculations, and statistical simulations using a distribution of local uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reveal the presence of atomic configurations with local uniaxial anisotropy, of which the direction can be tailored while the magnitude remains at an intrinsically constant value of 3.0(2) kJ/m{sup 3}. The in-plane growth field remarkably sharpens the anisotropy distribution and increases the sample homogeneity. The results benefit designing multilayer spintronic devices based on highly homogeneous amorphous layers with tailored magnetic anisotropy.

  6. Nanostructured columnar heterostructures of TiO2 and Cu2O enabled by a thin-film self-assembly approach: Potential for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    difficulties and potentially realize higher efficiencies, new approaches such as multi-junction solar cells of planar geometry, single junction thin film solar cells, in particular cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper (with efficiencies of over 40%) [5], dye sensitized solar cells, bulk heterojunctions and organic cells

  7. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  8. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  9. Structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of GdTiO{sub 3} Mott insulator thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisolia, M. N.; Bruno, F. Y.; Sando, D.; Jacquet, E.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M.; Zhao, H. J.; Chen, X. M.; Bellaiche, L.

    2014-10-27

    We report on the optimization process to synthesize epitaxial thin films of GdTiO{sub 3} on SrLaGaO{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Optimized films are free of impurity phases and are fully strained. They possess a magnetic Curie temperature T{sub C}?=?31.8?K with a saturation magnetization of 4.2??{sub B} per formula unit at 10?K. Transport measurements reveal an insulating response, as expected. Optical spectroscopy indicates a band gap of ?0.7?eV, comparable to the bulk value. Our work adds ferrimagnetic orthotitanates to the palette of perovskite materials for the design of emergent strongly correlated states at oxide interfaces using a versatile growth technique such as pulsed laser deposition.

  10. Nanodomain induced anomalous magnetic and electronic transport properties of LaBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+?} highly epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Zepeda, F.; Ma, C.; Bahena Uribe, D.; Cantu-Valle, J.; Wang, H.; Xu, Xing; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A., E-mail: arturo.ponce@utsa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Chen, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); The Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Lorenz, B.; Jacobson, A. J.; Chu, P. C. W. [The Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    A giant magnetoresistance effect (?46% at 20?K under 7?T) and anomalous magnetic properties were found in a highly epitaxial double perovskite LaBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+?} (LBCO) thin film on (001) MgO. Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy and related analytical techniques were employed to understand the nature of these unusual physical properties. The as-grown film is epitaxial with the c-axis of the LBCO structure lying in the film plane and with an interface relationship given by (100){sub LBCO} || (001){sub MgO} and [001]{sub LBCO} || [100]{sub MgO} or [010]{sub MgO}. Orderly oxygen vacancies were observed by line profile electron energy loss spectroscopy and by atomic resolution imaging. Especially, oxygen vacancy and nanodomain structures were found to have a crucial effect on the electronic transport and magnetic properties.

  11. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  12. NANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to data storage, switching, lighting and other devices, can lead to substantially new hardwareNANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili Georgian Technical and manipulation on a nanometre scale, which allows the fabrication of nanostructures with the properties mainly

  13. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  14. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    151 Two-stage thin film deposition process15 Description of thin film depositionProcess Model . . . . 54 Porous Thin-Film Deposition Process

  15. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Organic Thin Films 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .T iO 2 thin films. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .properties of the organic thin films. . . . . . . . .

  16. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  17. NANOSCALE STRUCTURALAND MAGNETIC CHARACTERIZATION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    of novel nanoscale storage devices and sensors. However, for successful utilization, it is essential]. Such unique properties of magnetic thin films and nanostructures hold great promise for the development to the characterization of nanostructured magnetic materials. 2. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY METHODS In the transmission electron

  18. Effect of chemical order on the magnetic and electronic properties of epitaxial off-stoichiometry F e x S i 1 - x thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Karel, J.; Juraszek, J.; Minar, J.; Bordel, C.; Stone, K. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Hu, J.; Wu, R. Q.; Ebert, H.; Kortright, J. B.; Hellman, F.

    2015-04-01

    Off-stoichiometry, epitaxial FexSi1-x thin films (0.5magnetic moment is strongly enhanced in the fully chemically disordered A2 phase, while both theoretical and experimental results show that the magnetization is nearly the same in the B2 and D0? phases, meaning partial chemical disorder does not influence the magnetism. The dependencies of the magnetic moments are directly and nonlinearly linked to the number of Si atoms, primarily nearest neighbor but also to a lesser extent (up to 10%) next nearest neighbor, surrounding Fe, explaining the similarities between B2 and D0? and the strong enhancement for the A2 structure. The calculated electronic density of states shows many similarities in both structure and spin polarization between the D0? and B2 structures, while the A2 structure exhibits disorder broadening and a reduced spin polarization.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  20. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  1. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  2. Effect of deposition parameters and strontium doping on characteristics of nanostructured ZnO thin film by chemical bath deposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheeba, N. H., E-mail: sheebames.naser@gmail.com [M.E.S. Asmabi College, P. Vemballur, Thrissur, Kerala (India); Naduvath, J., E-mail: johnsnaduvath@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India); Abraham, A., E-mail: anithakklm@gmail.com; Philip, R. R., E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com [Thin Film Research Lab, U.C. College, Aluva, Kerala (India); Weiss, M. P., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu; Diener, Z. J., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu; Remillard, S. K., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu; DeYoung, P. A., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu [Hope Ion Beam Accelerator Laboratory, Hope College, Holland, MI (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of ZnO and Sr-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sr) on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates are synthesized through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. The XRD profiles of ZnO and ZnO:Sr films prepared at different number of deposition cycles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along (002) direction. The crystallites are found to be nano sized, having variation in size with the increase in number of depositions cycles and also with Sr doping. Optical absorbance studies reveal a systematically controllable blueshift in band gap of Sr-doped ZnO films. SEM images indicate enhanced assembling of crystallites to form elongated rods as number of dips increased in Sr doped ZnO. The films are found to be n-type with the Sr doping having little effect on the electrical properties.

  3. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  4. Nanostructured light-absorbing crystalline CuIn{sub (1–x)}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films grown through high flux, low energy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Allen J.; Hebert, Damon; Rockett, Angus A.; Shah, Amish B.; Bettge, Martin

    2013-10-21

    A hybrid effusion/sputtering vacuum system was modified with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) coil enabling ion assisted physical vapor deposition of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films on GaAs single crystals and stainless steel foils. With <80 W rf power to the ICP coil at 620–740 °C, film morphologies were unchanged compared to those grown without the ICP. At low temperature (600–670 °C) and high rf power (80–400 W), a light absorbing nanostructured highly anisotropic platelet morphology was produced with surface planes dominated by (112){sub T} facets. At 80–400 W rf power and 640–740 °C, both interconnected void and small platelet morphologies were observed while at >270 W and above >715 °C nanostructured pillars with large inter-pillar voids were produced. The latter appeared black and exhibited a strong (112){sub T} texture with interpillar twist angles of ±8°. Application of a negative dc bias of 0–50 V to the film during growth was not found to alter the film morphology or stoichiometry. The results are interpreted as resulting from the plasma causing strong etching favoring formation of (112){sub T} planes and preferential nucleation of new grains, balanced against conventional thermal diffusion and normal growth mechanisms at higher temperatures. The absence of effects due to applied substrate bias suggests that physical sputtering or ion bombardment effects were minimal. The nanostructured platelet and pillar films were found to exhibit less than one percent reflectivity at angles up to 75° from the surface normal.

  5. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  6. Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} thin films on polycrystalline ferrite for magnetically tunable microwave components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Arendt, P.; Foltyn, S.R.; Roper, J.M.; Groves, J.R.; Coulter, J.Y.; Li, Y.Q.; Dionne, G.F.

    1998-04-01

    Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) thin films with a surface resistance of 0.86 m{Omega} at 10 GHz and 76 K have been grown on polycrystalline ferrite yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrates. The chemical and structural mismatches between YBCO and YIG are solved by using a double buffer layer of biaxially oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and CeO{sub 2}, where YSZ is deposited by an ion-beam-assisted-deposition technique. The YBCO films are {ital c} axis oriented with an in-plane mosaic spread [full width at half maximum of an x-ray {phi}-scan on (103) reflection] of less than 8{degree}. The films have a superconductive transition temperature above 88 K with a transition width less than 0.3 K, giving a critical current density above 10{sup 6}A/cm{sup 2} in self field at 75 K. At 75 K in an external magnetic field of 1 T perpendicular to the film surface, the films maintain a critical current density over 2{times}10{sup 5}A/cm{sup 2}. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  8. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16

    and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO3)x:(Sm2O3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)x:(Mn3O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

  9. Depth-dependent magnetism in epitaxial MnSb thin films: effects of surface passivation and cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldous J. D.; Sanchez-Hanke C.; Burrows, C.W.; Maskery, I.; Brewer, M.S.; Hase, T.P.A.; Duffy, J.A.; Lees, M. Rs; Decoster, T.; Theis, W.; Quesada, A.; Schmid, A.K.; Bell, G.R.

    2012-03-15

    Depth-dependent magnetism in MnSb(0001) epitaxial films has been studied by combining experimental methods with different surface specificities: polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy (SPLEEM). A native oxide {approx}4.5 nm thick covers air-exposed samples which increases the film's coercivity. HCl etching efficiently removes this oxide and in situ surface treatment of etched samples enables surface magnetic contrast to be observed in SPLEEM. A thin Sb capping layer prevents oxidation and preserves ferromagnetism throughout the MnSb film. The interpretation of Mn L{sub 3,2} edge XMCD data is discussed.

  10. Synthesis of NiCoMnX (X = In, Al) Heusler-type Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rios, Steven Eli

    2014-08-13

    Magnetic shape memory alloys are a class of shape memory alloys, and therefore exhibit a thermoelastic martensite phase transformation between symmetric and asymmetric crystalline states induced by appropriate temperature ...

  11. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-for thin-film a-si:h solar cells. Progress in Photovoltaics,in thin-film silicon solar cells. Optics Communications,

  12. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells. Journalof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells. Solar Energy

  13. THERMALLY ACTIVATED REVERSAL IN MAGNETIC NANOSTRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usadel, K. D.

    THERMALLY ACTIVATED REVERSAL IN MAGNETIC NANOSTRUCTURES ULRICH NOWAK Theoretische Physik, Gerhard to the nanometer scale. With decreasing size of magnetic particles thermal activation becomes rel­ evant an overview on numerical ap­ proaches to thermal activation in magnetic systems as far as they can

  14. Epitaxial Ni{sub 3}FeN thin films: A candidate for spintronic devices and magnetic sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loloee, Reza

    2012-07-15

    A new type of epitaxial ferromagnetic nitride (Ni{sub 3} Fe N = permalloy nitride = 'PyN') compound films were grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1120) substrates using reactive triode magnetron sputtering. The results of electron back-scattering diffraction and x-ray diffraction techniques indicate a high quality epitaxial crystalline structure with growth normal of (100). Magnetization measurements of epitaxial PyN films revealed several unique results. (1) A textbook square hysteresis loop that suggest existence of single magnetic domain in these films. (2) A coercive field is tunable from a few mOe up to a few Oe by changing the film thickness. (3) A magnetization that switches (rotate) over a very small field range of {delta}H{sub C} {<=} 0.05 Oe, independent of the film thickness. This small {delta}H indicates a very large resistive sensitivity ({delta}R/{delta}H) of the epitaxial PyN. (4) The epitaxial PyN thermal cycling through several cycles between '2 and 800 K' (-271 Degree-Sign C to +527 Degree-Sign C) shows much less degradation only about 2-5% compared to 40% degradation of a simple Py film. Four-probe transport measurements give an anisotropic magnetoresistance of Almost-Equal-To 6%, sufficiently higher than other known ferromagnetic materials. These interesting properties are ideal for a variety of spintronic devices and magnetic sensors.

  15. Oxygen-vacancy-induced room-temperature magnetization in lamellar V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cezar, A. B.; Graff, I. L. Varalda, J.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study the local atomic and electronic structures as well as oxygen-vacancy-induced magnetic properties of electrodeposited V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. Unlike stoichiometric V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which is a diamagnetic lamellar semiconductor, our oxygen-defective V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are ferromagnetic at room-temperature and their saturation magnetization decreases with air exposure time. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the aging effect on these films, revealing that freshly-made samples exhibit only local crystalline order, whereas the aged ones undoubtedly show an enhancement of crystallinity and coordination symmetry. The mean number of oxygen atoms around V tends to increase, indicating a decrease of oxygen vacancies with time. Concurrently with the decrease of oxygen vacancies, a loss of saturation magnetization is also observed. Hence, it can be concluded that the ferromagnetism of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films originates from a vacancy-induced mechanism, confirming the universality of this class of ferromagnetism.

  16. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  17. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  18. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  19. Magnetic structures of FeTiO{sub 3}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solution thin films studied by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and ab initio multiplet calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hojo, H. E-mail: fujita@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fujita, K. E-mail: fujita@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matoba, T.; Tanaka, K.; Ikeno, H.; Mizoguchi, T.; Tanaka, I.; Nakamura, T.; Takeda, Y.; Okane, T.

    2014-03-17

    The solid solutions between ilmenite (FeTiO{sub 3}) and hematite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have recently attracted considerable attention as a spintronic material due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties. In this study, the electronic and magnetic structures of epitaxially grown 0.6FeTiO{sub 3}·0.4Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solution thin films were investigated by combining x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for two different crystallographic projections, and first-principles theoretical calculations. The Fe L-edge XANES and XMCD spectra reveal that Fe is in the mixed-valent Fe{sup 2+}–Fe{sup 3+} states while Fe{sup 2+} ions are mainly responsible for the magnetization. Moreover, the experimental Fe L-edge XANES and XMCD spectra change depending on the incident x-ray directions, and the theoretical spectra explain such spectral features. We also find a large orbital magnetic moment, which can originate the magnetic anisotropy of this system. On the other hand, although the valence state of Ti was interpreted to be 4+ from the Ti L-edge XANES, XMCD signals indicate that some electrons are present in the Ti-3d orbital, which are coupled antiparallel to the magnetic moment of Fe{sup 2+} ions.

  20. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7?nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210?K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400?°C, the as-grown ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  2. Effect of chemical order on the magnetic and electronic properties of epitaxial off-stoichiometry F e x S i 1 - x thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Karel, J.; Juraszek, J.; Minar, J.; Bordel, C.; Stone, K. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Hu, J.; Wu, R. Q.; Ebert, H.; Kortright, J. B.; et al

    2015-04-01

    Off-stoichiometry, epitaxial FexSi1-x thin films (0.5more »and D0? and the strong enhancement for the A2 structure. The calculated electronic density of states shows many similarities in both structure and spin polarization between the D0? and B2 structures, while the A2 structure exhibits disorder broadening and a reduced spin polarization.« less

  3. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying...

  4. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28 March 2012 00:00 Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying...

  5. Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Chalcogenide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    requirements of thin-film solar cell modules--a review.thin films. Figure A1.1 Schematic illustration of fabrication of CdTe NWs/CdS hybrid nanostructures based on solar cells

  6. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this technique has been especially popular in imaging such complex structures as aerogels and yeast cells. When applying the CDI technique to a magnetic system, the same...

  7. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-

  8. Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cell Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid progress is being made by CdTe and CIGS-based thin-film PV technologies in entering commercial markets.

  9. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  10. Characterization of Thin Films by XAFS: Application to Spintronics Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heald, Steve M.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2009-10-25

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) has proven very valuable in characterizing thin films. This is illustrated with some examples from the area of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) materials for spintronics applications. A promising route to DMS materials is doping of oxides such as TiO2 and ZnO with magnetic atoms such as Co. These can be grown as epitaxial thin films on various substrates. XAFS is especially valuable for characterizing the dopant atoms. The near edge region is sensitive to the symmetry of the bonding and valence of the dopants, and the extended XAFS can determine the details of the lattice site. XAFS is also valuable for detecting metallic nanoparticles. These can be difficult to detect by other methods, and can give a spurious magnetic signal. The power of XAFS is illustrated by examples from studies on Co doped ZnO films.

  11. Thin Film Encapsulation Methods for Large Area MEMS Packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajerin, Armon

    2012-01-01

    P. J. French, “Robust Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulation ofThe Elastic Properties of Thin- Film Silicon Nitride,” IEEELPCVD Silicon Nitride Thin Films at Cryogenic Temperatures,”

  12. Material Development for Highly Processable Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bob, Brion

    2014-01-01

    Structuring of Thin-film Solar Cells with a Single Laser1. Background on Thin Film Solar Cells and TransparentCuIn(Se,S)2 thin film solar cells: Secondary phases and

  13. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Katagiri, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells, Thin Solid FilmsIndium Galenide Films Thin-film solar cells are created bycandidate for thin- film solar cells. CIGS solar cell

  14. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    to High-Efficiency CZTSSe Thin-film Solar Cells, Proc. IEEEMetal chalcogenide-based thin film solar cells are currentlyof metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells A dissertation

  15. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-14

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ?18?K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ?3?K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. These macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed by soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.

  16. Nanocomposite Magnets: Transformational Nanostructured Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GE is using nanomaterials technology to develop advanced magnets that contain fewer rare earth materials than their predecessors. Nanomaterials technology involves manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale, which can represent a stumbling block for magnets because it is difficult to create a finely grained magnet at that scale. GE is developing bulk magnets with finely tuned structures using iron-based mixtures that contain 80% less rare earth materials than traditional magnets, which will reduce their overall cost. These magnets will enable further commercialization of HEVs, EVs, and wind turbine generators while enhancing U.S. competitiveness in industries that heavily utilize these alternatives to rare earth minerals.

  17. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  18. Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over realistic time scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth...

  19. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Nankai University Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

  20. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  1. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic...

  2. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity...

  3. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  4. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films You are accessing a...

  5. Change in magnetic and structural properties of FeRh thin films by gold cluster ion beam irradiation with the energy of 1.67?MeV/atom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, T.; Iwase, A. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Saitoh, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Sakamaki, M.; Amemiya, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsui, T., E-mail: t-matsui@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    The effect of energetic cluster ion beam irradiation on magnetic and structural properties of FeRh thin films have been investigated. The cluster ions used in the present studies consist of a few gold atoms with the energy of 1.67?MeV/gold atom. Saturation magnetization of the sample irradiated with Au3 cluster ion beam (280?emu/cc) is larger than that for the irradiated sample with Au1 ion beam (240?emu/cc) for the same irradiation ion fluence. These results can also be confirmed by the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurement; the XMCD signal for Au3 cluster ion irradiation is larger than that for Au1 ion irradiation. Since the ion beam irradiation induced magnetization of FeRh is significantly correlated with the amount of the lattice defects in the samples, cluster ion beam irradiation can be considered to effectively introduce the lattice defects in B2-type FeRh rather than the single ion beam. Consequently, cluster ion irradiation is better than single ion irradiation for the viewpoint of saturation magnetization, even if the same irradiation energy is deposited in the samples.

  6. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  7. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  8. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  9. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert (Palo Alto, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Pleasanton, CA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael (Tracy, CA); Rainer, Frank (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  10. Durham Workshop, Dec 2005Durham Workshop, Dec 2005 Thin Film Metrology UsingThin Film Metrology Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    Durham Workshop, Dec 2005Durham Workshop, Dec 2005 Thin Film Metrology UsingThin Film Metrology Modelling to investigate level of aberrations introduced by thin film structure.introduced by thin film Solar Cells Reflectors Solar Cell Covers Security UV Protection Anti-static Gas Temperature Pressure

  11. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jae Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

  12. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Tucson, AZ); Moravsky, Alexander P. (Tucson, AZ); Hassen, Charles N. (Tucson, AZ)

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  13. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

  14. Magneto-optical characterizations of FeTe???Se??? thin films with critical current density over 1 MA/cm²

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yue; Li, Qiang; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Cheng; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    We performed magneto-optical (MO) measurements on FeTe???Se??? thin films grown on LaAlO? (LAO) and Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single-crystalline substrates. These thin films show superconducting transition temperature Tc ~19 K, 4 K higher than the bulk sample. Typical roof-top patterns can be observed in the MO images of thin films grown on LAO and YSZ, from which a large and homogeneous critical current density Jc ~ 3 - 4 x 10? A/cm² at 5 K was obtained. Magnetic flux penetration measurement reveals that the current is almost isotropically distributed in the two thin films. Compared with bulk crystals, FeTe???Se??? thin film demonstrates not only higher Tc, but also much larger Jc, which is attractive for applications.

  15. Magneto-optical characterizations of FeTe???Se??? thin films with critical current density over 1 MA/cm²

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Yue; Li, Qiang; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Cheng; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2014-12-03

    We performed magneto-optical (MO) measurements on FeTe???Se??? thin films grown on LaAlO? (LAO) and Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single-crystalline substrates. These thin films show superconducting transition temperature Tc ~19 K, 4 K higher than the bulk sample. Typical roof-top patterns can be observed in the MO images of thin films grown on LAO and YSZ, from which a large and homogeneous critical current density Jc ~ 3 - 4 x 10? A/cm² at 5 K was obtained. In this study, magnetic flux penetration measurement reveals that the current is almost isotropically distributed in the two thin films. Compared with bulk crystals,more »FeTe???Se??? thin film demonstrates not only higher Tc, but also much larger Jc, which is attractive for applications.« less

  16. A thin film transistor driven microchannel device 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2005-02-17

    THIN FILM TRANSISTOR DRIVEN MICROCHANNEL DEVICE FOR PROTEIN AND DNA ELECTROPHORESIS A Dissertation by HYUN HO LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2004 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A THIN FILM TRANSISTOR DRIVEN MICROCHANNEL DEVICE FOR PROTEIN AND DNA ELECTROPHORESIS A Dissertation by HYUN HO LEE Submitted to Texas A...

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field...

  18. Magnetoelectric coupling of multiferroic chromium doped barium titanate thin film probed by magneto-impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Jyoti Kotnala, Ravinder K. E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com

    2014-04-07

    Thin film of BaTiO{sub 3} doped with 0.1?at.?% Cr (Cr:BTO) has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. Film was deposited on Pt/SrTiO{sub 3} substrate at 500?°C in 50 mTorr Oxygen gas pressure using KrF (298 nm) laser. Polycrystalline growth of single phase Cr:BTO thin film has been confirmed by grazing angle X-ray diffraction. Cr:BTO film exhibited remnant polarization 6.4??C/cm{sup 2} and 0.79?MV/cm coercivity. Magnetization measurement of Cr:BTO film showed magnetic moment 12 emu/cc. Formation of weakly magnetic domains has been captured by magnetic force microscopy. Theoretical impedance equation fitted to experimental data in Cole-Cole plot for thin film in presence of transverse magnetic field resolved the increase in grain capacitance from 4.58?×?10{sup ?12} to 5.4?×?10{sup ?11}?F. Film exhibited high value 137?mV/cm-Oe magneto-electric (ME) coupling coefficient at room temperature. The high value of ME coupling obtained can reduce the typical processing steps involved in multilayer deposition to obtain multiferrocity in thin film. Barium titanate being best ferroelectric material has been tailored to be multiferroic by non ferromagnetic element, Cr, doping in thin film form opens an avenue for more stable and reliable spintronic material for low power magnetoelectric random excess memory applications.

  19. We study the interaction of a high frequency AC current with a magnetic field in an YBCO thin film by using time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    -TC superconductors. The focus of our research is on dynamical processes (electronic, magnetic, and vibrational

  20. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    CuIn(Se,S) 2 thin film solar cells: secondary phaseChalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry,Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry,

  1. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran (Minneapolis, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  2. The interplay between spatially separated ferromagnetic and superconducting thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Isaac John

    2013-02-22

    characterized. 26 CHAPTER III THE SC/FM THIN FILM MULTILAYER The fabrication and characterization of the SC/FM film couples comprised the most de- manding and arduous work during the tenure of my thesis project. Many special parts were designed... EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS A. Ferromagnetic Thin Films 1. Film Preparation 2. Film Characterization B. Superconducting Thin Films 1. Film Preparation III THE SC/FM THIN FILM MULTILAYER . A. SC/FM Thin Film Multilayer Preparation B. SC/FM Thin Film Multilayer...

  3. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  4. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  5. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  6. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  7. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  8. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  9. High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

    1996-09-01

    This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

  10. Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications A. Bruno Frazier) In this work, graphite/polyimide composite thin films are introduced and characterized for micromachining tetracarboxylic dianhydride+xydianiline/metaphenylene diamine polyimide matrix. The resultant material represents

  11. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    film solar cells. CIGS solar cell efficiencies have beenCIGS, making it a favorable choice for thin-film solar cells.thin film solar cell [3]. However, use of CIGS has a number

  12. Equiatomic CoPt thin films with extremely high coercivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varghese, Binni; Piramanayagam, S. N. Yang, Yi; Kai Wong, Seng; Khume Tan, Hang; Kiat Lee, Wee; Okamoto, Iwao

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, magnetic and structural properties of near-equiatomic CoPt thin films, which exhibited a high coercivity in the film-normal direction—suitable for perpendicular magnetic recording media applications—are reported. The films exhibited a larger coercivity of about 6.5 kOe at 8?nm. The coercivity showed a monotonous decrease as the film thickness was increased. The transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the as fabricated CoPt film generally consists of a stack of magnetically hard hexagonal-close-packed phase, followed by stacking faults and face-centred-cubic phase. The thickness dependent magnetic properties are explained on the basis of exchange-coupled composite media. Epitaxial growth on Ru layers is a possible factor leading to the unusual observation of magnetically hard hcp-phase at high concentrations of Pt.

  13. Structural study of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) thin films with bulk like magnetic and magnetotransport behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilks, D. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lari, L.; Lazarov, V. K., E-mail: vlado.lazarov@york.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); York-JEOL Nanocentre, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5BR (United Kingdom); Matsuzaki, K.; Susaki, T. [Secure Materials Center, Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Hosono, H. [Secure Materials Center, Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Post-annealing of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere results in a significant improvement in magnetic and magnetotransport properties with values close to the single crystal bulk of M{sub s}???480?emu/cm{sup 3} and negative magnetoresistance of 0.05% in a field of 1?T. By using atomic resolution Z-contrast transmission electron microscopy, we show that improved magnetic properties in the annealed films are due to improved structural ordering as a result of the annealing process.

  14. Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film T. P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films are versatile materials that not only Chemistry Inside a Polymer Thin Film P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad metal

  15. Environmental Aspects of Thin Film Module Production and Product Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Impact #12;3 Thin-Film PV -The Triangle of SuccessThin-Film PV -The Triangle of Success Low Cost of Thin Film Module Production and Product Lifetime Vasilis Fthenakis PV Environmental Research Center@bnl.gov web: www.pv.bnl.gov www.clca.columbia.edu #12;2 PV Sustainability CriteriaPV Sustainability Criteria

  16. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    modeling of ? -Si : H solar cells with rough interfaces:of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-amorphous-silicon-based P-I-N solar cells deposited on rough

  17. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning, E-mail: xjiang5@ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Shu, Longlong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130?nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5??C/m at Curie temperature (?28?°C) and 17.44??C/m at 41?°C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100??C/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    -CVD, and Meng [13] prepared NCD thin film on cemented carbide using a high extended DC arc plasma process substrate using direct current plasma jet chemical vapor deposition. A special cooling system was designed of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia 123 Plasma Chem Plasma Process

  19. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  20. Magnetic Nanostructures for post-CMOS Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -high density storage devices. Moreover, the semiconductor industry is looking beyond conventional CMOSMagnetic Nanostructures for post-CMOS Electronics NANOMATERIALS Our goal is to address storage technologies, notably magnetoresistive random access memory and bit-patterned media for ultra

  1. Comparison of crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te nanocrystalline thin films: Effects of homogeneous irradiation with an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp; Imai, Kazuo; Uyama, Masato; Nishi, Yoshitake [Department of Materials Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tanaka, Saburo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642 (Japan)

    2014-06-07

    The effects of homogenous electron beam (EB) irradiation on the crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te thin films were investigated. Both types of thin films were prepared by flash evaporation, after which homogeneous EB irradiation was performed at an acceleration voltage of 0.17?MeV. For the n-type thin films, nanodots with a diameter of less than 10?nm were observed on the surface of rice-like nanostructures, and crystallization and crystal orientation were improved by EB irradiation. The resulting enhancement of mobility led to increased electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factor for the n-type thin films. In contrast, the crystallization and crystal orientation of the p-type thin films were not influenced by EB irradiation. The carrier concentration increased and mobility decreased with increased EB irradiation dose, possibly because of the generation of defects. As a result, the thermoelectric power factor of p-type thin films was not improved by EB irradiation. The different crystallization behavior of the n-type and p-type thin films is attributed to atomic rearrangement during EB irradiation. Selenium in the n-type thin films is more likely to undergo atomic rearrangement than the other atoms present, so only the crystallinity of the n-type Bi-Se-Te thin films was enhanced.

  2. Beta (?) tungsten thin films: Structure, electron transport, and giant spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Qiang; Chen, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang

    2015-05-04

    We use a simple magnetron sputtering process to fabricate beta (?) tungsten thin films, which are capable of generating giant spin Hall effect. As-deposited thin films are always in the metastable ?-W phase from 3.0 to 26.7?nm. The ?-W phase remains intact below a critical thickness of 22.1?nm even after magnetic thermal annealing at 280?°C, which is required to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a layered structure of ?-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO. Intensive annealing transforms the thicker films (>22.1?nm) into the stable ?-W phase. We analyze the structure and grain size of both ?- and ?-W thin films. Electron transport in terms of resistivity and normal Hall effect is studied over a broad temperature range of 10?K to at least 300?K on all samples. Very low switching current densities are achieved in ?-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO with PMA. These basic properties reveal useful behaviors in ?-W thin films, making them technologically promising for spintronic magnetic random access memories and spin-logic devices.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  4. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  5. Preparation of thin film high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VenKatesan, X.X.T.; Li, Q.; Findikoglu, A.; Hemmick, D. . Dept. of Physics); Wu, X.D. ); Inam, A.; Chang, C.C.; Ramesh, R.; Hwang, D.M.; Ravi, T.S.; Etemad, S.; Martinez, J.A.; Wilkens, B. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper addresses fundamental issues in preparing high quality high T{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} thin films. The techniques of inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition are chosen as successful examples to illustrate how the key problems can be solved. The fabrication of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}/PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superlattices where superconductivity in a single unit cell layer of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} was observed demonstrates the state of the art of thin film deposition of high T{sub c} materials. Systematic variations of the deposition parameters result in changes of superconducting and structural properties of the films that correlate with their microwave and infrared characteristics.

  6. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  7. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  8. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (116 Baltimore Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Dudney, Nancy J. (11634 S. Monticello Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Weatherspoon, Kim A. (223 Wadsworth Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  9. Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, M.

    2010-01-01

    OF CHALCOPYRITE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL ABSORBERS DETERMINED BYchalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers significantlyof chalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers. excitation

  10. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  11. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research, Thin-Film Photovoltaic (PV) Cells Market Analysiscost of photovoltaic systems (such as solar cells) due tosolar cells are created by depositing layers of photovoltaic

  12. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  13. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  14. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast...

  15. Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB and rare earth hydrides by reactive evaporation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production and...

  16. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crucial if an epitaxial or even crystalline organic growth is desired, if such thin film should serve as template or anchoring unit for further depositiongrowth in a...

  17. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    for further improvement on CZTS solar cells efficiency.improvement. Figure 6.1 Efficiency progress for hydrazine solution processing CIGS and CZTS thin film solar cells

  18. Graphene as tunable contact for high performance thin film transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    64 Figure 4-5. Air stability of a planar PCBM thin filmfilm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .obtained by annealing 8-nm thick gold thin film. . . . .

  19. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bullington, Jeff A. (Albuquerque, NM); Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert W. (Seneca, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  20. Fabrication of Microporous Thin Films from Polyelectrolyte Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Christopher

    , are established biomaterials finding application as drug delivery systems, enteric coatings for drugs, dental and biomaterial applications. Introduction The fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films has received

  1. Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2006-01-01

    TABLE I. Measured thermoelectric power S for samples ofThermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouplesthickness dependence of the thermoelectric power of Pt films

  2. Biomedical applications of nanostructured polymer films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Jonathan Brian

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymeric thin films are often stratified with nanometer level structure and distinct purposes for each layer. These nanostructured polymeric materials are useful in a wide variety of applications including drug ...

  3. Kinematic and dynamic modeling of Nanostructured Origami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stellman, Paul Steven

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructured Origami is a manufacturing process that folds nanopatterned thin films into a desired 3D shape. This process extends the properties of 3D design and connectivity found in origami artwork to the bulk fabrication ...

  4. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  5. Origin of superstructures in (double) perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabadi, V. Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Vafaee, M.; Radetinac, A.; Baghaie Yazdi, M.; Donner, W.; Alff, L.

    2014-09-21

    We have investigated the origin of superstructure peaks as observed by X-ray diffraction of multiferroic Bi(Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The photon energy dependence of the contrast between the atomic scattering factors of Fe and Cr is used to rule out a chemically ordered double perovskite Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6} (BFCO). Structural calculations suggest that the experimentally observed superstructure occurs due to unequal cation displacements along the pseudo-cubic [111] direction that mimic the unit cell of the chemically ordered compound. This result helps to clarify discrepancies in the correlations of structural and magnetic order reported for Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6}. The observation of a superstructure in itself is not a sufficient proof of chemical order in double perovskites.

  6. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  7. Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, Ali; Söderström, Karin; Battaglia, Corsin; Paeder, Vincent; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the angular behavior of the upper bound of absorption provided by the guided modes in thin film solar cells. We show that the 4n^2 limit can be potentially exceeded in a wide angular and wavelength range using two-dimensional periodic thin film structures. Two models are used to estimate the absorption enhancement; in the first one, we apply the periodicity condition along the thickness of the thin film structure but in the second one, we consider imperfect confinement of the wave to the device. To extract the guided modes, we use an automatized procedure which is established in this work. Through examples, we show that from the optical point of view, thin film structures have a high potential to be improved by changing their shape. Also, we discuss the nature of different optical resonances which can be potentially used to enhance light trapping in the solar cell. We investigate the two different polarization directions for one-dimensional gratings and we show that the transverse magnetic pola...

  8. Innovative Thin Films LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei |sourceAndInformation ReeseInnovativeThin Films

  9. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jessica L

    2010-01-01

    properties of Au thin films by X?ray diffraction and in in  polythiophene thin?film transistors.  Nat Mater 2006, copper  phthalocyanine thin films evaporated on amorphous 

  10. The Effects of Non-Uniform Electronic Properties on Thin Film Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory Ferguson

    2011-01-01

    Intensity  in  Thin  Film  Solar  Cells   3.2.1   U.  Rau,  EL)  Intensity   in  Thin  Film  Solar  Cells   3.3  properties  of  thin  film  solar  cell   absorbers,  with  

  11. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    trapping in silicon thin film solar cells," Solar Energy,textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells," Opt. Express,Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband

  12. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, Jason R.

    2011-01-01

    a.m.m. is dictated by thermal activation. Typically at roomof temperature (thermal activation), grain size (thermalthe effect that thermal activation plays in magnetization

  13. Investigation of deep level defects in CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar, H.; Castaldini, A.; Dauksta, E.; Medvid, A.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-21

    In the past few years, a large body of work has been dedicated to CdTe thin film semiconductors, as the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanostructures make them desirable for photovoltaic applications. The performance of semiconductor devices is greatly influenced by the deep levels. Knowledge of parameters of deep levels present in as-grown materials and the identification of their origin is the key factor in the development of photovoltaic device performance. Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy technique (PICTS) has proven to be a very powerful method for the study of deep levels enabling us to identify the type of traps, their activation energy and apparent capture cross section. In the present work, we report the effect of growth parameters and LASER irradiation intensity on the photo-electric and transport properties of CdTe thin films prepared by Close-Space Sublimation method using SiC electrical heating element. CdTe thin films were grown at three different source temperatures (630, 650 and 700 °C). The grown films were irradiated with Nd:YAG LASER and characterized by Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy, Photocurrent measurementand Current Voltage measurements. The defect levels are found to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature.

  14. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  15. VACUUM PUMPING STUDY OF TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-VANADIUM THIN FILMS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ERL 03-8 VACUUM PUMPING STUDY OF TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-VANADIUM THIN FILMS* Yulin Li# and Simon Ho, LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Abstract* Vacuum pumping via non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film deposited directly onto the interior of a vacuum chamber is a novel way to achieve extreme

  16. Multilayer thin-film coatings for optical communication systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Multilayer thin-film coatings for optical communication systems Martina Gerken Lichttechnisches-film coatings for optical communication systems are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to thin-film designs with dispersion related to the photonic crystal superprism effect. A single dispersive coating may be used

  17. A survey of thin-film solar photovoltaic industry & technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grama, Sorin

    2007-01-01

    A new type of solar cell technology using so-called thin-film solar photovoltaic material has the potential to make a great impact on our lives. Because it uses very little or no silicon at all, thin- film (TF) solar ...

  18. Photochemical Pattern Transfer and Enhancement of Thin Film Silica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Photochemical Pattern Transfer and Enhancement of Thin Film Silica Mesophases Andrew M. Dattelbaum chemical treatment of the film can selectively remove the mesostructured regions, leading to patterned, hydrophobicity, and structural morphology of the mesoscopic thin film material on a wide range of substrates

  19. Fracture patterns in thin films and multilayers Alex A. Volinsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Fracture patterns in thin films and multilayers Alex A. Volinsky University of South Florida, excessive residual and externally applied stresses cause film fracture. In the case of tensile stress is the key for causing thin film fracture, either in tension, or compression, it is the influence

  20. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells," Optics Express, vol.Bailat, "Thin-film silicon solar cell technology," Progresstrapping in silicon thin film solar cells," Solar Energy,

  1. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 thin films has been examined. Several factors influencing

  2. Stress Evolution Behavior in CoCrPt Alloy Thin Films with varying Pt Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, M.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Stress Evolution Behavior in CoCrPt Alloy Thin Films withmagnetic recording media is to investigate growth stress,since stress inevitably generated during thin film

  3. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  4. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  5. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  6. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  7. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  8. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  9. Superconducting epitaxial thin films of CeNi{sub x}Bi{sub 2} with a bismuth square net structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckow, Alexander; Kupka, Katharina; Retzlaff, Reiner; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    We have grown highly epitaxial and phase pure thin films of the arsenic-free pnictide compound CeNi{sub x}Bi{sub 2} on (100) MgO substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy (RMBE). X-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction of the films confirm the ZrCuSiAs structure with a Bi square net layer. Superconductivity was observed in magnetization and resistivity measurements for x= 0.75 to 0.93 in these CeNi{sub x}Bi{sub 2} thin films with the highest critical temperature of 4.05 K and a resistive transition width of 0.1 K for x= 0.86. Our results indicate that thin film deposition by RMBE provides a tool to synthesize high-quality pnictide superconductors of the novel 112 type.

  10. Magnetic domain wall manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures for spintronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosinski, Tadeusz; Andrearczyk, Tomasz; Figielski, Tadeusz; Olender, Karolina; Wrobel, Jerzy

    2014-02-21

    Ring-shaped nanostructures have been designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography patterning and chemical etching from thin epitaxial layers of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. The nanostructures, in a form of planar rings with a slit, were supplied with four electrical terminals and subjected to magneto-transport studies under planar weak magnetic field. Magnetoresistive effects caused by manipulation of magnetic domain walls and magnetization reversal in the nanostructures have been investigated and possible applications of the nanostructures as four-terminal spintronic devices are discussed.

  11. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

  12. STRESS-INDUCED PERIODIC FRACTURE PATTERNS IN THIN FILMS Alex A. Volinsky1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    STRESS-INDUCED PERIODIC FRACTURE PATTERNS IN THIN FILMS Alex A. Volinsky1 , Neville R. Moody2 applied stresses in thin films can cause film fracture. In the case of compressive stress thin film stress a network of through- thickness cracks forms in thin films. Excessive biaxial residual stress

  13. In-situ TEM studies of magnetization reversal processes in magnetic nanostructures Amanda K Petford-Long1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    nanostructure is that used in devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or tunnel magnetoresistanceIn-situ TEM studies of magnetization reversal processes in magnetic nanostructures Amanda K Petford storage applications, often in the form of layered structures containing many thin layers. This has been

  14. Tailoring of a metastable material: alfa-FeSi2 thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, David J; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Samolyuk, German D; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad M; Ke, Jin; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; Wang, Wenbin; Yi, Jieyu; Cantoni, Claudia; Siemons, Wolter; Payzant, E Andrew; Biegalski, Michael D; Ward, Thomas Zac; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Gai, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The epitaxially stabilized metallic -FeSi2 thin films on Si(001) were grown using pulsed laser deposition. While the bulk material of -FeSi2 is a high temperature metastable phase and nonmagnetic, the thin film is stabilized at room temperature and shows unusual electronic transport and magnetic properties due to strain modification. The transport renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K accompanied by an onset of ferromagnetism as well as a substantial magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of -FeSi2 obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our findings provide an example of a tailored material with interesting physics properties for practical applications.

  15. Optoelectronics Devices Based on Zinc Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    get the basis of high output power LEDs and lasers, singleget the basis of high output power LEDs and lasers, singleEL spectra. The output power of the LED was characterized to

  16. Influence of Gas Flow Rate for Formation of Aligned Nanorods in ZnO Thin Films for Solar-Driven Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shet, S.; Chen, L.; Tang, H.; Nuggehalli, R.; Wang, H.; Yan, Y.; Turner, J.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-04-01

    ZnO thin films have been deposited in mixed Ar/N{sub 2} gas ambient at substrate temperature of 500 C by radiofrequency sputtering of ZnO targets. We find that an optimum N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio in the deposition ambient promotes the formation of well-aligned nanorods. ZnO thin films grown in ambient with 25% N{sub 2} gas flow rate promoted nanorods aligned along c-axis and exhibit significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, compared with ZnO thin films grown in an ambient with different N{sub 2}-to-Ar gas flow ratios. Our results suggest that chamber ambient is critical for the formation of aligned nanostructures, which offer potential advantages for improving the efficiency of PEC water splitting for H{sub 2} production.

  17. Multimonth controlled small molecule release from biodegradable thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Paula T.

    Long-term, localized delivery of small molecules from a biodegradable thin film is challenging owing to their low molecular weight and poor charge density. Accomplishing highly extended controlled release can facilitate ...

  18. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    S. Guha, High-Efficiency Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells with a TiNfurther improvement on CZTS solar cells efficiency. Finally,Route to High-Efficiency CZTSSe Thin-film Solar Cells, Proc.

  19. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  20. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS A.A. Volinsky* , J. Vella microns were electroplated on top of the adhesion-promoting barrier layers on single crystal silicon

  1. The macroscopic delamination of thin films from elastic substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    The wrinkling and delamination of stiff thin films adhered to a polymer substrate have important applications in “flexible electronics.” The resulting periodic structures, when used for circuitry, have remarkable mechanical ...

  2. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of...

  3. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  4. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  5. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Lu, Yunfeng (New Orleans, LA); Fan, Hong You (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-31

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  7. Direct printing of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathurst, Stephen, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Thus far, use of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) in MEMS has been limited due to the lack of process compatibility with existing MEMS manufacturing techniques. Direct printing of thin films eliminates the need for photolithographic ...

  8. Functionalized multilayer thin films for protection against acutely toxic agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krogman, Kevin Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The recently developed practice of spraying polyelectrolyte solutions onto a substrate in order to construct thin films via the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique has been further investigated and extended. In this process a ...

  9. Optical and Structural Characterizations of Tin Phthalocvanine Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherian, Regimol C.; Menon, C. S. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University Priyadarshini Hills P.O., Kottayam-686560, Kerala (India)

    2008-04-23

    Phthalocyanines are today regarded as optical materials, which applies to organic dye lasers. The analysis of the optical properties of these thin films enforces the application in the field of thin film optics. Tin phthalocyanine (SnPc) thin films used for the characterization studies are prepared by thermal evaporation technique. The variation of optical band gap with irradiation of heat radiation and post deposition heat treatment are studied from the absorption spectra. Structural properties have been analyzed using the X-ray diffractogram of SnPc powder and thin films. The structure is identified as monoclinic with a = 12.132 A, b = 8.712 A, c = 10.806 A and {beta} = 108.85 deg. The grain size increases with increase of annealing temperature. The SEM images show a rough corrugated surface. Due to heat treatment, crystallites grow into bigger size.

  10. Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

  11. Properties and sensor performance of zinc oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Yongki, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Reactively sputtered ZnO thin film gas sensors were fabricated onto Si wafers. The atmosphere dependent electrical response of the ZnO micro arrays was examined. The effects of processing conditions on the properties and ...

  12. TiNi-based thin films for MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yongqing

    In this paper, some critical issues and problems in the development of TiNi thin films were discussed, including preparation and characterization considerations, residual stress and adhesion, frequency improvement, fatigue ...

  13. Antimony-Doped Tin(II) Sulfide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Rupak

    Thin-film solar cells made from earth-abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic materials are needed to replace the current technologies whose widespread use is limited by their use of scarce, costly, and toxic elements. Tin ...

  14. June 26, 2000 1 Fracture in Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    in many technologies. Examples include zirconia coatings as thermal barriers on superalloys in enginesJune 26, 2000 1 Fracture in Thin Films Z. Suo Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department

  15. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  16. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sandia

    2009-09-01

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  17. Modeling of thin-film solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee Adragon

    Recent advances in solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) performance have raised their prospect as a potential technology to convert solar energy into electricity. This paper presents an analysis of thin-film STEGs. ...

  18. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  19. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  20. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  1. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  2. Chapter 1. Introduction to Thin Film Technologygy Thin films are deposited onto bulk materials (substrates) to achieveThin films are deposited onto bulk materials (substrates) to achieve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianfang

    parts TiN coatings on cutting tools Offer hardness, low friction, and a chemical barrier to alloying on this system. #12;Thin films for multiple properties Cr coatings on automobile parts TiN coatings on cutting tools Impart hardness, metallic luster, and protection against ultraviolet light. Cr coatings on plastic

  3. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

  4. Spin filtering in a ?-doped magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuai; Lu, Mao-Wang Jiang, Ya-Qing; Chen, Sai-Yan

    2014-09-15

    We report a theoretical study on spin-polarized transport in a ?-doped magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure, which can be realized in experiments by depositing two ferromagnetic stripes on top and bottom of a semiconductor heterostructure under an applied voltage and by using atomic layer doping technique. The spin-polarized behavior of the electron in this device is found to be quite sensitive to the ?-doping. One can conveniently tune the degree of the electron spin polarization by adjusting the weight and/or position of the ?-doping. Thus, the involved nansosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter, which may be helpful for exploiting new spin-polarized source for spintronics applications.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 44, NO. 7, JULY 2008 1935 Reversal Mechanisms in Ferromagnetic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adekunle

    devices. A major challenge for technological applications of magnetic nanostructures arrays is the precise Nanostructures A. O. Adeyeye, S. Goolaup, N. Singh, W. Jun, C. C. Wang, S. Jain, and D. Tripathy Information Storage Materials Laboratory (ISML), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National

  6. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  7. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Tailoring the coercivity in ferromagnetic ZnO thin films by 3d and 4f elements codoping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. J.; Xing, G. Z. Yi, J. B.; Li, S.; Chen, T.; Ionescu, M.

    2014-01-06

    Cluster free, Co (3d) and Eu (4f) doped ZnO thin films were prepared using ion implantation technique accompanied by post annealing treatments. Compared with the mono-doped ZnO thin films, the samples codoped with Co and Eu exhibit a stronger magnetization with a giant coercivity of 1200?Oe at ambient temperature. This was further verified through x-ray magnetic circular dichroism analysis, revealing the exchange interaction between the Co 3d electrons and the localized carriers induced by Eu{sup 3+} ions codoping. The insight gained with modulating coercivity in magnetic oxides opens up an avenue for applications requiring non-volatility in spintronic devices.

  9. Electron Holography of Magnetic and Electric Fields in Nanostructured Materials Prepared for TEM Examination Using Focused Ion Beam Milling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Electron Holography of Magnetic and Electric Fields in Nanostructured Materials Prepared for TEM local angle and spacing carry the desired information about magnetic and electric fields. Electron not be perturbed by stray (fringing) magnetic or electric fields. When examining magnetic nanostructures in cross

  10. Microwave magnetic dynamics in highly conducting magnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostylev, M.; Ivanov, E.; Samarin, S. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07

    We performed low-noise broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements of the resonant modes of an array of metallic ferromagnetic nanostripes. In addition to a strong signal of the fundamental mode, we observed up to five weak-amplitude peaks in the field-resolved FMR traces, depending on the frequency. These higher-order absorption peaks have been theoretically identified as due to resonant excitation of odd and even standing spin waves across the direction of confinement in array plane (i.e., across the stripe width). The theory we developed suggests that the odd modes become excited in the spatially uniform microwave field of the FMR setup due to the large conductivity of metals. This promotes excitation of large-amplitude eddy currents in the sample by the incident microwave magnetic field and ultimately results in excitation of these modes. Following this theory, we found that the eddy current contribution is present only for patterned materials and when the microwave magnetic field is incident on one surface of sample surface, as it is in the case of a microstrip FMR.

  11. Shape variation of micelles in polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jiajia Shi, An-Chang

    2014-01-14

    The equilibrium properties of block copolymer micelles confined in polymer thin films are investigated using self-consistent field theory. The theory is based on a model system consisting of AB diblock copolymers and A homopolymers. Two different methods, based on the radius of gyration tensor and the spherical harmonics expansion, are used to characterize the micellar shape. The results reveal that the morphology of micelles in thin films depends on the thickness of the thin films and the selectivity of the confining surfaces. For spherical (cylindrical) micelles, the spherical (cylindrical) symmetry is broken by the presence of the one-dimensional confinement, whereas the top-down symmetry is broken by the selectivity of the confining surfaces. Morphological transitions from spherical or cylindrical micelles to cylinders or lamella are predicted when the film thickness approaches the micellar size.

  12. Properties of zirconia thin films deposited by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cancea, V. N.; Filipescu, M.; Colceag, D.; Dinescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.

    2013-11-13

    Zirconia thin films have been deposited by laser ablation of a ceramic ZrO{sub 2} target in vacuum or in oxygen background at 0.01 mbar. The laser beam generated by an ArF laser (?=193 nm, ?=40 Hz) has been focalized on the target through a spherical lens at an incident angle of 45°. The laser fluence has been established to a value from 2.0 to 3.4 Jcm{sup ?2}. A silicon (100) substrate has been placed parallel to the target, at a distance of 4 cm, and subsequently has been heated to temperatures ranging between 300 °C and 600 °C. Thin films morphology has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Biocompatibility of these thin films has been assessed by studying the cell attachment of L929 mouse fibroblasts.

  13. Doping in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    = 5.8x10 (cm ) Magnetic Field (Telsa) Sl op e (c) August 19,20 ? A Magnetic Field (Telsa) T = 300 K Oh m T n = 6.25x10 /= 2.7x10 (cm ) Magnetic Field (Telsa) Magnetic Field (Telsa)

  14. Microwave properties of RF- sputtered ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, T. Kulkarni, A. R.; Venkataramani, N.; Sahu, B. N.; Prasad, Shiva

    2014-04-24

    In this work, RF- magnetron sputtering technique has been employed to deposit nanocrystalline ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films at room temperature. The as grown films were ex-situ annealed in air for 2 h at temperatures from 150°C to 650°C. X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance were used to analyze the phase formation, magnetic properties and microwave properties respectively. From the hysteresis loops and ferromagnetic resonance spectra taken at room temperature, a systematic study on the effect of O{sub 2} plasma on microwave properties with respect to processing temperature has been carried out.

  15. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-02-03

    A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

  16. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

    1998-02-03

    A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

  17. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  18. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to ?=2?2/d;? is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  19. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  20. Mode Splitting for Efficient Plasmoinc Thin-film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Chun

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient plasmonic structure consisting of metal strips and thin-film silicon for solar energy absorption. We numerically demonstrate the absorption enhancement in symmetrical structure based on the mode coupling between the localized plasmonic mode in Ag strip pair and the excited waveguide mode in silicon slab. Then we explore the method of symmetry-breaking to excite the dark modes that can further enhance the absorption ability. We compare our structure with bare thin-film Si solar cell, and results show that the integrated quantum efficiency is improved by nearly 90% in such thin geometry. It is a promising way for the solar cell.

  1. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuankun

    2014-01-01

    7. Optical bandgap of the doped CdO thin films as a functionelectrical properties of In-doped CdO thin films fabricatedand transparent Ti-doped CdO films by pulsed laser

  2. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  3. The development of a thin-film rollforming process for pharmaceutical continuous manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Ryan (Ryan R.)

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a continuous rollforming process for the folding of thin-films was proposed and studied as a key step in the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical tablets. HPMC and PEG based polymeric thin-films were ...

  4. PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents...

  5. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution...

  6. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical...

  7. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Clay-filled Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Woo-Sik

    2010-01-14

    robotic dipping system, for the preparation of these thin films, was built. The robot alternately dips a substrate into aqueous mixtures with rinsing and drying in between. Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polymer were grown...

  8. Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Received April 7, 1997X Monolayer and multilayer thin films consisting of anionic R-zirconium phosphate (R

  9. Engineering Al-based Thin Film Materials for Power Devices and Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perng, Ya-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    O Thin Films as a Solid Electrolyte for 3D Microbatteries,”Li 0.5 La 0.5 )TiO 3 solid electrolyte thin films grown byIonic conductivity in solid electrolytes based on lithium

  10. High efficiency thin film silicon solar cells with novel light trapping : principle, design and processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lirong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    One major efficiency limiting factor in thin film solar cells is weak absorption of long wavelength photons due to the limited optical path length imposed by the thin film thickness. This is especially severe in Si because ...

  11. Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2010-09-01

    Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

  12. Ordering of fullerene and carbon nanotube thin films under energetic ion impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D. K.; Pivin, J. C.; Koinkar, P. M.

    2008-06-02

    We report the ordering of carbon nanostructures under energetic ion irradiation at low fluence (<5x10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}). Fullerene thin films and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films were irradiated with 200 MeV Au and 60 MeV Ni ions at different ion fluences, respectively. The changes in the irradiated films have been investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy show the improvement of vibration strength in low fluence irradiated fullerene and MWCNT films. X-ray diffraction analysis on low fluence irradiated fullerene films revealed the structural order along the (220) atomic planes.

  13. X-ray microstructural analysis of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films by diffraction pattern modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobar, D.; Ospina, R.; Gómez, A.G.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; Arango, P.J.

    2014-02-15

    A detailed microstructural characterization of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films grown at different substrate temperatures (T{sub S}) was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Total diffraction pattern modeling based on more meaningful microstructural parameters, such as crystallite size distribution and dislocation density, was performed to describe the microstructure of the thin films more precisely. This diffraction modeling has been implemented and used mostly to characterize powders, but the technique can be very useful to study hard thin films by taking certain considerations into account. Nanocrystalline films were grown by using the cathodic pulsed vacuum arc technique on stainless steel 316L substrates, varying the temperature from room temperature to 200 °C. Further surface morphology analysis was performed to study the dependence of grain size on substrate temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystallite and surface grain sizes obtained and the high density of dislocations observed indicate that the films underwent nanostructured growth. Variations in these microstructural parameters as a function of T{sub S} during deposition revealed a competition between adatom mobility and desorption processes, resulting in a specific microstructure. These films also showed slight anisotropy in their microstructure, and this was incorporated into the diffraction pattern modeling. The resulting model allowed for the films' microstructure during synthesis to be better understood according to the experimental results obtained. - Highlights: • Mobility and desorption competition generates a critical temperature. • A microstructure anisotropy related to the local strain was observed in thin films. • Adatom mobility and desorption influence grain size and microstrain.

  14. The influence of Nd dopants on spin and orbital moments in Nd-doped permalloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Chen Zhang, Wen E-mail: yazhai@seu.edu.cn; Zhai, Ya E-mail: yazhai@seu.edu.cn; Wong, P. K. J.; You, Biao; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2014-08-25

    Magnetic properties of Nd{sub X}-Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20(1?X)} thin films have been investigated using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at room temperature. With the Nd concentration increasing, the ratio of orbital-to-spin moment of Ni and Fe increases significantly, indicating that the spin-orbit coupling in permalloy thin films is enhanced due to the Nd impurities. The spin and orbital moments have been obtained by the sum rules analysis, which shows that the Nd impurities lead to a strong dispersion of spin moments of Fe and Ni while have no effect on orbital moments in Nd-doped permalloy thin films. Element-specific XMCD hysteresis loops suggest an antiferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of Nd and permalloy at room temperature. The static magnetic properties have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometer for comparison, which shows a nice agreement with the XMCD results.

  15. Dissolution dynamics of thin films measured by optical reflectance Christian Punckt and Ilhan A. Aksaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    of copper thin films on gold substrates in a mild hydrochloric acid solution. Due to its simplicity, our of corrosion rates of thin films are in high demand for the quan- tification of material degradation measurement of dissolution rates of galvanically corrod- ing copper thin films based on bright field optical

  16. Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells D.L. Pulfrey*, J. Dell): pulfrey@ece.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells are now commercially available be attainable. 1. INTRODUCTION Thin film solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe have been investigated

  17. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    materials for thin film solar cells such as CdTe and CIGS suffer from concerns over resource scarcity (eEARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1 conversion efficiencies should be increased. In terms of reducing module cost, thin film solar cells

  18. DETERMINING OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF URANIUM NITRIDE THIN FILMS IN THE EXTREME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    deposition and characterization of reactively-sputtered uranium nitride thin films. I also report opticalDETERMINING OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF URANIUM NITRIDE THIN FILMS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET (1.6-35 NM.1 Application 1 1.2 Optical Constants 2 1.3 Project Focus 7 2 Uranium Nitride Thin Films 8 2.1 Sputtering 8 2

  19. Small-scale thin film experiments provide models for large-scale engineering applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    Small-scale thin film experiments provide models for large-scale engineering applicationsMIT's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering · http://cee.mit.edu Delamination occurs in a thin film blisters occur in a predictable manner. Photo / Donna Coveney, MIT PROBLEM Thin films are omnipresent

  20. Physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides DPMC, University of Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides M. Dawber* DPMC, University of Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4 of thin-film ferroelectric oxides, the strongest emphasis being on those aspects particular to ferroelectrics in thin-film form. The authors introduce the current state of development in the application

  1. Barium ferrite thin film media with perpendicular c-axis orientation and small grain size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Barium ferrite thin film media with perpendicular c-axis orientation and small grain size Zailong, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Barium ferrite thin films with perpendicular c conditions. The c-axis orientation of barium ferrite thin films is most sensitive to the oxygen partial

  2. DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Kuo-Jui Hsiao ELECTRON- REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-FILM SOLAR CELLS The CdTe thin-film solar cell has a large absorption coefficient and high theoretical

  3. Femtosecond laser ablation of indium tin-oxide narrow grooves for thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Femtosecond laser ablation of indium tin-oxide narrow grooves for thin film solar cells Qiumei Bian in the fabrication and assembly of thin film solar cells. Using a femtosecond (fs) laser, we selectively removed a unique scheme to ablate the indium tin-oxide layer for the fabrication of thin film solar cells

  4. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  5. Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells Deep Panjwania as scattering centers to increase the effective optical thickness of thin-film solar cells. The particular type. Gold-black was deposited on commercial thin-film solar cells using a thermal evaporator in nitrogen

  6. Predictive Modeling for Glass-Side Laser Scribing of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    :F, CdTe, solar cell INTRODUCTION Thin-film solar cell is a promising technology to achieve substrates. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the dominant thin film solar cell material in recent years because manufacturing processes in the fabrication of thin film solar cells is monolithic cell isolation and series

  7. CARRIER COLLECTION IN THIN-FILM CDTE SOLAR CELLS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARRIER COLLECTION IN THIN-FILM CDTE SOLAR CELLS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT A.E. Delahoy, Z. Cheng different wavelengths. Keywords: CdTe, thin film solar cell, modeling 1 INTRODUCTION Traditional Si p, Jsc, is independent of voltage, i.e. superposition holds. Thin film CdTe solar cells deviate from

  8. Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Uriel

    Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure Ronen, "Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric in thin film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011). 10. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall

  9. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid textures Piotr Kowalczewski. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, "Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns," Opt. Express 20, A224­A

  10. Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells Piotr A theoretical study of randomly rough interfaces to obtain light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells of thin-film solar cells. © 2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 040.5350, 050.1950. Reducing

  11. LBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    LBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle Physics response map, was developed and used to map defects in thin-film solar cells [4]. Improvements to the two) measurements are providing a direct link between the spatial non-uniformities inherent in thin-film

  12. LOSS ANALYSIS OF BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION THIN-FILM MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOSS ANALYSIS OF BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION THIN-FILM MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS F. Haase losses in back-contact back- junction monocrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. The cells are made for back-contact back- junction (BC BJ) monocrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells using the PSI process

  13. Mechanics of thin-film transistors and solar cells on flexible substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Mechanics of thin-film transistors and solar cells on flexible substrates Helena Gleskova a,*, I be minimized throughout the fab- rication process. Amorphous silicon thin-film transistors and solar cells rights reserved. Keywords: Amorphous silicon; Thin-film transistor; Solar cell; Flexible electronics 1

  14. Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells M. van Lare,1 of dielectric and metallic backscattering patterns in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We compare devices for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells", in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar

  15. Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern Simone Zanotto a theoretical study of crystalline and amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with a periodic pattern on a sub. Poortmans and V. Arkhipov (editors), Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley, Chichester 2006). 4. P. W¨urfel, Physics

  16. BACK CONTACT MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BACK CONTACT MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS F. Haase contact cells. Kraiem et al [7] made a back contact thin film monocrystalline solar cell with cell), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany ABSTRACT We develop a back contact monocrystalline thin-film

  17. ENGINEERED SUBSTRATES FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: SCATTERING PROPERTIES OF 1D ROUGHNESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERED SUBSTRATES FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: SCATTERING PROPERTIES OF 1D ROUGHNESS S. Del Sorbo, Optical Properties, Substrates, Texturisation, Thin Film Solar Cells 1 MOTIVATION OF THIS WORK The aim of thin film technology is to reduce both the electrical transport losses in the bulk region of a solar

  18. Preparation and characterization of TL-based superconducting thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Pingshu

    1995-01-01

    A simple method for growth of Tl-based superconducting thin films is described. In this method, the precursor was prepared in a vacuum chamber by deposition of Ba, Ca and Cu metals or a Ba-Ca alloy and Cu metal. The precursor was then oxidized...

  19. RF sputtered piezoelectric zinc oxide thin film for transducer applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    parameters that could influence the quality of the resulting films include RF power, the ratio of argon depen- dency of the c-axis zinc oxide growth in radio-frequency sputtering system. Different deposition on the piezoelectric and crystalline qualities of the ZnO thin films. Experimental results showed that the multilayer

  20. Crystalline Thin Films Formed by Supramolecular Assembly for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Crystalline Thin Films Formed by Supramolecular Assembly for Ultrahigh-Density Data Storage with crystalline materials.[9] In contrast with small-mole- cule materials, supramolecular materials, which combine the benefits of polymers with those of organic crystalline systems, have been considered a promising medium

  1. Stress and Moisture Effects on Thin Film Buckling Delamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    ­2 GPa compres- sive residual stresses were sputter deposited on top of thin (below 100 nm) copperStress and Moisture Effects on Thin Film Buckling Delamination P. Waters & A.A. Volinsky Received, commonly called telephone cords, shown in Fig. 2 for the 1 2m W film on top of a 20 nm diamond-like carbon

  2. Long-wave instabilities and saturation in thin film equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    to shorter wavelengths which then dissipate the energy. The nonlinearity in the KS equation is advective.2) The equation arises as an interface model in bio-fluids [15], solar convec- tion [19], and binary alloys [48Long-wave instabilities and saturation in thin film equations A. L. Bertozzi Department

  3. Longwave instabilities and saturation in thin film equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    then dissipate the energy. The nonlinearity in the KS equation is advective, and a#ects the dy­ namics di.2) The equation arises as an interface model in bio­fluids [15], solar convec­ tion [19], and binary alloys [48Long­wave instabilities and saturation in thin film equations A. L. Bertozzi Department

  4. Perovskite phase thin films and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodriguez, Mark A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises perovskite-phase thin films, of the general formula A.sub.x B.sub.y O.sub.3 on a substrate, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium or a combination thereof; B is selected from niobium and tantalum or a combination thereof; and x and y are mole fractions between approximately 0.8 and 1.2. More particularly, A is strontium or barium or a combination thereof and B is niobium or tantalum or a combination thereof. Also provided is a method of making a perovskite-phase thin film, comprising combining at least one element-A-containing compound, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium or barium, with at least one element-B-containing compound, wherein B niobium or tantalum, to form a solution; adding a solvent to said solution to form another solution; spin-coating the solution onto a substrate to form a thin film; and heating the film to form the perovskite-phase thin film.

  5. Communications to the Editor Thin-Film Differential Scanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    -mail: L-ALLEN9@uiuc.edu. Figure 1. MEMS-based calorimetric sensor for TDSC (not to scale). Volume 35. In this paper we demonstrate a recently developed MEMS-based thin-film differential scanning calorimetry (TDSC a microfabricated sensor shown in Figure 1 as a calorimetric cell. The sensor consists of a Si3Nx membrane supported

  6. Enhanced Superconducting Properties of Iron Chalcogenide Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li

    2013-07-26

    phase have been studied and correlated with the superconducting properties. Second, we reported our initial attempt on introducing the flux pinning centers into FeSe_0.5Te_0.5 thin films either under a controlled oxygen atmosphere or with a thin CeO_2...

  7. A 350 mK, 9 T scanning tunneling microscope for the study of superconducting thin films on insulating substrates and single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamlapure, Anand; Saraswat, Garima; Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Bagwe, Vivas; Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Pai, Subash P.

    2013-12-15

    We report the construction and performance of a low temperature, high field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating down to 350 mK and in magnetic fields up to 9 T, with thin film deposition and in situ single crystal cleaving capabilities. The main focus lies on the simple design of STM head and a sample holder design that allows us to get spectroscopic data on superconducting thin films grown in situ on insulating substrates. Other design details on sample transport, sample preparation chamber, and vibration isolation schemes are also described. We demonstrate the capability of our instrument through the atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy on NbSe{sub 2} single crystal and spectroscopic maps obtained on homogeneously disordered NbN thin film.

  8. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07

    R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  9. Thermal annealing of FePt thin films by millisecond plasma arc pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inaba, Yuki; Torres, Karen; Cole, Amanda; Ott, Ronald D; Klemmer, Timothy; Harrell, J W; Thompson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    A series of 20 and 100 nm Fe{sub 53}Pt{sub 47} thin films sputter-deposited onto Si substrates have been thermally annealed using a pulsed thermal plasma arc lamp. A series of one, three or five pulses were applied to the thin films with widths of either 50 or 100 ms. The microstructure and magnetic properties of these annealed Fe{sub 53}Pt{sub 47} films are discussed according to the various annealing conditions and A1 to L1{sub 0} phase transformation. Upon pulse annealing, the average in-plane grain size of 15 nm (nearly equivalent for both film thicknesses) was observed to increase to values near 20 nm. In general, increasing the pulse width or number of pulses increased the L1{sub 0} order parameter, tetragonality of the c/a ratio and coercivity of the specimen. The exception to this trend was for five pulses at 100 ms for both film thicknesses, which indicated a reduction of the order parameter and coercivity. This reduction is believed to be a result of the interdiffusion of Fe and Pt into the Si substrate and the formation of iron oxide clusters in the grain boundaries characterized by atom probe tomography.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  12. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  13. Eddy Current Testing for Detecting Small Defects in Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obeid, Simon; Tranjan, Farid M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, UNCC (United States); Dogaru, Teodor [Albany Instruments, 426-O Barton Creek, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2007-03-21

    Presented here is a technique of using Eddy Current based Giant Magneto-Resistance sensor (GMR) to detect surface and sub-layered minute defects in thin films. For surface crack detection, a measurement was performed on a copper metallization of 5-10 microns thick. It was done by scanning the GMR sensor on the surface of the wafer that had two scratches of 0.2 mm, and 2.5 mm in length respectively. In another experiment, metal coatings were deposited over the layers containing five defects with known lengths such that the defects were invisible from the surface. The limit of detection (resolution), in terms of defect size, of the GMR high-resolution Eddy Current probe was studied using this sample. Applications of Eddy Current testing include detecting defects in thin film metallic layers, and quality control of metallization layers on silicon wafers for integrated circuits manufacturing.

  14. Thin film battery and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  15. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  17. Thin film battery and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1994-08-16

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between [minus]15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  18. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  19. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  20. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Schmid, Anthony P. (Solana Beach, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  1. Status of High Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-02-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and our environment. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course. This work includes bringing thin-film cells and modules toward 25% and 20% efficiencies, respectively, and developing multijunction concentrator cells and modules able to convert more than one-third of the sun's energy to electricity (i.e., 33% efficiency). This paper will address recent accomplishments of the NREL in-house research effort involving polycrystalline thin-film tandems, as well as the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

  2. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu, E-mail: tadanaga@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Kelsen 5 (Campus de Cantoblanco), Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  3. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  4. A comparison of thick film and thin film traffic stripes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keese, Charles J

    1952-01-01

    of this thesis. CONTESTS Introduction ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 Scope and Obfectives Method of Conducting Road Service Tests ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 8 PART I A Comparison of Paint Films of Various Thicknesses . . . . . . . . ~ ~, ~, ~ 72 App1ioation... of Test Stripes . Results of Thiokness Tests . 13 19 Conclusions 2$ PART II A Comparison of Various Thick Film and Thin Film Traffic Stripes. 26 Paint Stripes Over Adhesive Films Rosin Striping Compounds. . . + ~ . , ~ 29 ~ ~ ~ Preforsmd Plastic...

  5. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  6. Fabrication and testing of thermoelectric thin film devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Two thin-film thermoelectric devices are experimentally demonstrated. The relevant thermal loads on the cold junction of these devices are determined. The analytical form of the equation that describes the thermal loading of the device enables one to model the performance based on the independently measured electronic properties of the films forming the devices. This model elucidates which parameters determine device performance, and how they can be used to maximize performance.

  7. Experimental thin film deposition and surface analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.E.; Rambabu, B.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present some of the thin-film deposition and surface analysis techniques which may be useful in growing superionic conducting materials. Emphasis is made on the importance of being careful in selecting process parameters and materials in order to produce films with properties outlined in this article. Also, special care should be given to proper consideration of grain boundary effects.

  8. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Allison A. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  9. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-09-28

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above.

  10. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  11. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  12. Deuterium phase behavior in thin-film Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munter, A.E.; Heuser, B.J.

    1998-07-01

    The absorption of deuterium from the gas phase into two Pd thin films 668 {Angstrom} and 1207 {Angstrom} thick was measured at room temperature with {ital in situ} neutron reflectometry. Room-temperature solubility isothermal curves, out-of-plane film expansion, and deuterium depth profiles were determined from fits to the neutron reflectivity data. The measurements demonstrate that the deuterium solubility behavior, both in solid solution and within the two-phase region, is strongly perturbed by the thin-film geometry, consistent with previous solubility measurements in the published literature. The phase behavior investigated here was observed to depend on film thickness and on deuterium cycling through the two-phase region. The 668-{Angstrom} film exhibited the greatest initial phase perturbation and most significant changes upon cycling. Upon repeated cycling, both films approach nearly identical deuterium isothermal solubility and out-of-plane expansion behaviors. The observed equilibrium out-of-plane expansion behavior was consistent with the films expanding under an in-plane clamping constraint imposed by the substrate. The effect of this substrate constraining force is to amplify the out-of-plane expansion beyond that expected in bulk Pd. Taken together, these measurements implicate the film/substrate interfacial clamping interaction as the origin of the perturbed hydrogen phase behavior in thin-film geometry. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Room temperature multiferroic properties of (Fe{sub x}, Sr{sub 1?x})TiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Cheolbok; Fang, Sheng-Po; Yoon, Yong-Kyu, E-mail: ykyoon@ece.ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This letter reports the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of Fe substituted SrTiO{sub 3} thin films in room temperature. The structural data obtained from x-ray diffraction indicates that (Fe{sub x},Sr{sub 1?x})TiO{sub 3}, the so called FST, transforms from pseudocubic to tetragonal structures with increase of the Fe content in SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, featuring the ferroelectricity, while vibrating sample magnetometer measurements show magnetic hysteresis loops for the samples with low iron contents indicating their ferromagnetism. The characterized ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism confirms strong multiferroitism of the single phase FST thin films in room temperature. Also, an FST thin film metal-insulator-metal multiferroic capacitor has been fabricated and characterized in microwave frequencies between 10 MHz and 5 GHz. A capacitor based on Fe{sub 0.1}Sr{sub 0.9}TiO{sub 3} with a thickness of 260?nm shows a high electric tunability of 18.6% at 10?V and a maximum magnetodielectric value of 1.37% at 0.4?mT with a loss tangent of 0.021 at 1?GHz. This high tuning and low loss makes this material as a good candidate for frequency agile microwave devices such as tunable filters, phase shifters, and antennas.

  14. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  15. Emission spectra analysis of arc plasma for synthesis of carbon nanostructures in various magnetic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jian; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge supported by the erosion of anode materials is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various high-quality carbon nanostructures. By introducing a non-uniform magnetic field in arc plasmas, high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and large-scale graphene flakes can be obtained in a single step. In this paper, ultraviolet-visible emission spectra of arc in different spots under various magnetic conditions are analyzed to provide an in situ investigation for transformation processes of evaporated species and growth of carbon nanostructures in arc. Based on the arc spectra of carbon diatomic Swan bands, vibrational temperature in arc is determined. The vibrational temperature in arc center was measured around 6950 K, which is in good agreement with our simulation results. Experimental and simulation results suggest that SWCNT are formed in the arc periphery region. Transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectroscope are also employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures.

  16. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweskin, S.J.

    2006-05-19

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non-equilibrium states contribute to practical applications of acrylates, blends and hydrogels. Lastly, nanoparticle surfaces and the catalytic activity and selectivity of platinum cube nanoparticles are correlated to the surface intermediates in a high pressure flow reactor.

  17. May 2003 NREL/CP-520-33933 Amorphous and Thin-Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    May 2003 · NREL/CP-520-33933 Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon B.P. Nelson, H.A. Atwater, B. von and Thin-Film Silicon Brent P. Nelson,1 Harry A. Atwater,2 Bolko von Roedern,1 Jeff Yang,3 Paul Sims,4 in the Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon session at the National Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Program Review

  18. Deployable telescope having a thin-film mirror and metering structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumel, Leslie J. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A deployable thin-film mirror telescope comprises a base structure and a metering structure. The base structure houses a thin-film mirror, which can be rolled for stowage and unrolled for deployment. The metering structure is coupled to the base structure and can be folded for stowage and unfolded for deployment. In the deployed state, the unrolled thin-film mirror forms a primary minor for the telescope and the unfolded metering structure positions a secondary minor for the telescope.

  19. p-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    p-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells Ken K. Chin n substitution of Cd CuCd 0=À #12; #12; play critical roles in p-doping of CdTe in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells in Fig. 1. As for the CdTe polycrystalline thin film in a CdS/CdTe solar cell, it is still being debated

  20. An approach to simultaneously test multiple devices for high-throughput production of thin film electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2015-07-28

    of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors.,” Nature, vol. 432, no. 7016, pp. 488–492, 2004. [2] E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, and R. Martins, “Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: a review of recent advances... , M. Lavine, and R. Coontz, “Looking Beyond Silicon,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5973. pp. 1595–1595, 2010. [6] A. J. Flewitt, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors (a Si:H TFTs),” Handbook of Visual Display Technology-Springer, 2012...

  1. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1993-10-26

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

  2. DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important contributor to the global energy demand by the mid-21st-century. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, which haveDISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler

  3. Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl Photoactive Biological Systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochromism vs. the...

  4. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I., E-mail: anilaei@gmail.com; R, Reshmi, E-mail: anilaei@gmail.com; John, Manu Punnan, E-mail: anilaei@gmail.com [Optolectronic and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Union Christian College, Aluva-683 102, Kerala (India); V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P. [International School of Photonics, CUSAT, Cochin-22 (India)

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  5. Investigation of the optical properties of MoS{sub 2} thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ellipsometry Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) characterization of layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) thin films grown by vapor phase sulfurization is reported. By...

  6. Converse magnetoelectric coupling in NiFe/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films grown on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ming; Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 ; Hu, Jiamian; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Zheng; Shu, Li; Nan, C. W.

    2013-11-04

    Multiferroic NiFe (?30 nm)/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3}(PMN–PT, ?220 nm) bilayered thin films were grown on common Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a combination of off-axis magnetron sputtering and sol-gel spin-coating technique. By using AC-mode magneto-optical Kerr effect technique, the change in the Kerr signal (magnetization) of the NiFe upon applying a low-frequency AC voltage to the PMN–PT film was in situ acquired at zero magnetic field. The obtained Kerr signal versus voltage loop essentially tracks the electromechanical strain curve of the PMN–PT thin film, clearly demonstrating a strain-mediated converse magnetoelectric coupling, i.e., voltage-modulated magnetization, in the NiFe/PMN–PT nanocomposite thin films.

  7. X-ray quantum optics with Mössbauer nuclei embedded in thin film cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. P. Heeg; J. Evers

    2013-05-18

    A promising platform for the emerging field of x-ray quantum optics are M\\"ossbauer nuclei embedded in thin film cavities probed by near-resonant x-ray light, as used in a number of recent experiments. Here, we develop a quantum optical framework for the description of experimentally relevant settings involving nuclei embedded in x-ray waveguides. We apply our formalism to two settings of current experimental interest based on the archetype M\\"ossbauer isotope 57Fe. For present experimental conditions, we derive compact analytical expressions and show that the alignment of medium magnetization as well as incident and detection polarization enable the engineering advanced quantum optical level schemes. The model encompasses non-linear and quantum effects which could become accessible in future experiments.

  8. Nanostructure and oxide phase distribution in Co36-40Fe64-60 electrodeposited films for magnetic field sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brankovic, Stanko R.

    magnetic biosensor technologies3 and high temperature applications such as magnetic bearing for high speedNanostructure and oxide phase distribution in Co36-40Fe64-60 electrodeposited films for magnetic magnetization relative to the low oxygen content films. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10

  9. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA); Komashko, Aleksey M. (San Diego, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  10. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  11. Thin film superconductors and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1988-01-21

    A process for the preparation of oxide superconductors from high-viscosity non-aqueous solution is described. Solutions of lanthanide nitrates, alkaline earth nitrates and copper nitrates in a 1:2:3 stoichiometric ratio, when added to ethylene glycol containing citric acid solutions, have been used to prepare highly viscous non-aqueous solutions of metal mixed nitrates-citrates. Thin films of these compositions are produced when a layer of the viscous solution is formed on a substrate and subjected to thermal decomposition.

  12. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermalš ÐÓÔÑ ÒØ ÓworkThin-Film

  13. Magnetoimpedance effect at the high frequency range for the thin film geometry: Numerical calculation and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Corrêa; F. Bohn; R. B. da Silva; R. L. Sommer

    2014-11-04

    The magnetoimpedance effect is a versatile tool to investigate ferromagnetic materials, revealing aspects on the fundamental physics associated to magnetization dynamics, broadband magnetic properties, important issues for current and emerging technological applications for magnetic sensors, as well as insights on ferromagnetic resonance effect at non-saturated magnetic states. Here, we perform a theoretical and experimental investigation of the magnetoimpedance effect for the thin film geometry in a wide frequency range. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoimpedance for single layered, multilayered or exchange biased systems from an approach that considers a magnetic permeability model for planar geometry and the appropriate magnetic free energy density for each structure. From numerical calculations and experimental results found in literature, we analyze the magnetoimpedance behavior, and discuss the main features and advantages of each structure. To test the robustness of the approach, we directly compare theoretical results with experimental magnetoimpedance measurements obtained in a wide range of frequencies for an exchange biased multilayered film. Thus, we provide experimental evidence to confirm the validity of the theoretical approach employed to describe the magnetoimpedance in ferromagnetic films, revealed by the good agreement between numerical calculations and experimental results.

  14. Magnetic assisted statistical assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Diana I

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a process using magnetic forces to assemble micro-components into recesses on silicon based integrated circuits. Patterned SmCo magnetic thin films at the bottom of recesses are ...

  15. Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nominanda, Helinda

    2004-01-01

    The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

  16. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

  17. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  18. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  19. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  20. Effects of Process Conditions on Properties of Electroplated Ni Thin Films for Microsystem Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    Effects of Process Conditions on Properties of Electroplated Ni Thin Films for Microsystem, Southampton SO17 1QJ, United Kingdom The properties of electroplated Ni thin films have been systematically, micromotors, and pneumatic actuators.3-11 Ni and NiFe are the electroplated metals most commonly used for MEMS

  1. Ambient induced degradation and chemically activated recovery in copper phthalocyanine thin film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Ambient induced degradation and chemically activated recovery in copper phthalocyanine thin film 2009 The electrical degradation aging of copper phthalocyanine CuPc organic thin film transistors OTFTs of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3159885 I. INTRODUCTION The recent demand for low cost, versatile electronic de

  2. Focused ion beam specimen preparation for electron holography of electrically biased thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    solar cells M. Duchamp1 , M. den Hertog2 , R. Imlau1 , C. B. Boothroyd1 , A. Kovács1 , A. H. Tavabi1, biased TEM specimen, thin film solar cell, FIB Thin films of hydrogenated Si (Si:H) can be used as active absorber layers in solar cells deposited on low cost substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour

  3. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells by a layer-transfer technique, Ireland * christian.schuster@york.ac.uk Abstract: Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from, "Progress and outlook for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65

  4. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  5. Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bring down the cost of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells has gained huge momentum, and many strategiesOptimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic

  6. Optimization and Characterization of RF Sputtered Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Thin Film for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    Oxide (ZnO) thin films had been found to have unique piezoelectric effect for the applicationsOptimization and Characterization of RF Sputtered Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Thin Film for Transducer Applications Yu-Hsiang Hsu, John Lin, and William C. Tang* Department of Biomedical Engineering University

  7. Thin-Film Active Nano-PWAS for Structural Health Monitoring , Victor Giurgiutiu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Thin-Film Active Nano-PWAS for Structural Health Monitoring Bin Lin1 , Victor Giurgiutiu1 , Amar S 3 University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 ABSTRACT Structural health monitoring (SHM is to develop the fabrication and optimum design of thin-film nano-PWAS for structural health monitoring

  8. THIN-FILM FLOWS WITH WALL SLIP: AN ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHER ORDER GLACIER FLOW MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    THIN-FILM FLOWS WITH WALL SLIP: AN ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHER ORDER GLACIER FLOW MODELS, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK) [Received 6 January 2009. Revise 6 November 2009] Summary Free-surface thin film of the flow. Conversely, membrane or `free film' models are appropriate in situations where there is rapid

  9. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  10. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.

  11. DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic

  12. Configuration Optimization of a Nanosphere Array on Top of a Thin Film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Configuration Optimization of a Nanosphere Array on Top of a Thin Film Solar Cell J. Grandidier photocurrent of the solar cell. On a typical thin film amorphous silicon solar cell, a parametric analysis of SiO2 spheres directly placed on top of a-Si [1] and gallium arsenide (GaAs) [3] solar cells. We

  13. Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with back side light, Austin, TX 78758, USA * ety@ece.utexas.edu Abstract: Simulations of thin film (~2.5 µm thick) InGaAs/GaAs. Roberts, G. Hill, and C. Calder, "Progress in quantum well solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511­512, 76

  14. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells Claiborne O McPheeters1 , Dongzhi elements are integrated for light trapping. Measurements and simulations of GaAs solar cells with less than in their performance. Keywords: quantum-well, quantum-dot, scattering, diffraction, thin-film, GaAs, InAs, photovoltaic

  15. The peeling behavior of thin films with finite bending stiffness and the implications on gecko adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This paper assesses the influence of the bending stiffness on thin film peeling and argues that detailedThe peeling behavior of thin films with finite bending stiffness and the implications on gecko the bending stiffness of the spatula has a strong influence on the peeling force which is neglected

  16. Bending tests of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible Daniel Pham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Bending tests of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrate Daniel Pham1 , Harish, San Marcos, TX 78666. ABSTRACT Bending tests of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrate have been characterized in this paper. The device channel consisting of dense, aligned, 99% pure

  17. Mixed-mode interfacial adhesive strength of a thin film on an anisotropic substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    Mixed-mode interfacial adhesive strength of a thin film on an anisotropic substrate Rajesh Kiteya adhesion strength between a gold (Au) thin film and an anisotropic passivated silicon (Si) substrate delamination remain a major reliability concern as interfacial properties, in particular interfacial adhesion

  18. Growth and characterization of aligned carbon nanotubes from patterned nickel nanodots and uniform thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark

    Growth and characterization of aligned carbon nanotubes from patterned nickel nanodots and uniform nanotubes grown on patterned nickel nanodots and uniform thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor on patterned nickel nanodots and uniform thin films is different. During growth of carbon nanotubes, a nickel

  19. Role of oxide thickening in fatigue crack initiation in LIGA nickel MEMS thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Wanliang

    Role of oxide thickening in fatigue crack initiation in LIGA nickel MEMS thin films W.L. Shan a 2012 Accepted 16 October 2012 Available online 24 October 2012 Keywords: LIGA Ni MEMS thin films Oxide micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) structures. & 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1

  20. Fracture toughness of polycrystalline silicon carbide thin films J. J. Bellante and H. Kahn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    Fracture toughness of polycrystalline silicon carbide thin films J. J. Bellante and H. Kahn online 11 February 2005 Thin film polycrystalline silicon carbide poly-SiC doubly clamped microtensile reported, including pressure sensors,2,3 bolometers,4 resonators,5,6 and fuel atomizers;7 these were

  1. Study of lithium diffusion in RF sputtered Nickel/Vanadium mixed oxides thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artuso, Florinda

    Study of lithium diffusion in RF sputtered NickelÁ/Vanadium mixed oxides thin films F. Artuso a lithium insertion inside RF sputtered Ni/V mixed oxides thin films have been investigated employing, showed three steps clearly involved in the intercalation mechanism of lithium in the oxide films: (i

  2. Thin-film Lithium Niobate Contour-mode Resonators Renyuan Wang and Sunil A. Bhave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    Thin-film Lithium Niobate Contour-mode Resonators Renyuan Wang and Sunil A. Bhave School Micro Devices, Inc. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA Abstract--This paper presents Lithium Niobate (LN this platform, we demonstrate, on a black Y136 cut Lithium Niobate thin-film, one-port high-order width

  3. Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells Lucio Claudio Keywords: Thin-film solar cells Light trapping Photonic structures Carrier collection Electro-optical simulations Surface recombination a b s t r a c t Efficient solar cells require both strong absorption

  4. METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by DEEP R surface of thin-film solar cells to improve efficiency. The principle is that scattering, which film solar cell. The particular types of particles investigated here are known as "metal-black", well

  5. Bill Shafarman 1 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Research at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Bill Shafarman 1 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Research at the Institute of Energy of Photovoltaics 2. IEC: History and Capabilities 3. Current Research at IEC #12;Bill Shafarman 2 May 15, 2013 Concentrators #12;Bill Shafarman 5 May 15, 2013 Thin Film Photovoltaics Potential for low cost PV using " a

  6. Study of the thin-film palladium/hydrogen system by an optical transmittance method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Study of the thin-film palladium/hydrogen system by an optical transmittance method Jose A. Garcia, Canada Received 22 March 1996; accepted for publication 21 August 1996 The thin-film palladium/hydrogen Laboratory and Center for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8

  7. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells Nicholas P of solar energy conversion be- cause they use thin films of photoactive material and can be manufactured and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thin Films with Rough and Asymmetric Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thin Films with Rough and Asymmetric Interfaces N.A. Roberts with the use of interfaces and shows that pristine, imperfect and asymmetric interfaces in thin films can interface whose features are of the order of the phonon wavelength. At a constant temperature difference

  9. Thin-film encapsulation of the air-sensitive organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froning, I. H.; Harberts, M.; Yu, H.; Johnston-Halperin, E.; Lu, Y.; Epstein, A. J.

    2015-03-23

    The organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V[TCNE]{sub x?2}) has demonstrated potential for use in both microwave electronics and spintronics due to the combination of high temperature magnetic ordering (T{sub C}?>?600?K), extremely sharp ferromagnetic resonance (peak to peak linewidth of 1?G), and low-temperature conformal deposition via chemical vapor deposition (deposition temperature of 50?°C). However, air-sensitivity leads to the complete degradation of the films within 2?h under ambient conditions, with noticeable degradation occurring within 30 min. Here, we demonstrate encapsulation of V[TCNE]{sub x?2} thin films using a UV-cured epoxy that increases film lifetime to over 710 h (30 days) as measured by the remanent magnetization. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature decay more slowly than the remanence, and the coercivity is unchanged after 340 h (14 days) of air exposure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that the epoxy does not react with the film, and magnetometry measurements show that the presence of the epoxy does not degrade the magnetic properties. This encapsulation strategy directly enables a host of experimental protocols and investigations not previously feasible for air-sensitive samples and lays the foundation for the development of practical applications for this promising organic-based magnetic material.

  10. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    TiO 2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics ATiO 2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics by

  11. Ultrananocrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond thin films for NEMS/MEMS applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Srinivasan, S.; Butler, J. E. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); ( PSC-USR)

    2010-04-01

    There has been a tireless quest by the designers of micro- and nanoelectro mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) to find a suitable material alternative to conventional silicon. This is needed to develop robust, reliable, and long-endurance MEMS/NEMS with capabilities for working under demanding conditions, including harsh environments, high stresses, or with contacting and sliding surfaces. Diamond is one of the most promising candidates for this because of its superior physical, chemical, and tribomechanical properties. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, the two most studied forms of diamond films in the last decade, have distinct growth processes and nanostructures but complementary properties. This article reviews the fundamental and applied science performed to understand key aspects of UNCD and NCD films, including the nucleation and growth, tribomechanical properties, electronic properties, and applied studies on integration with piezoelectric materials and CMOS technology. Several emerging diamond-based MEMS/NEMS applications, including high-frequency resonators, radio frequency MEMS and photonic switches, and the first commercial diamond MEMS product - monolithic diamond atomic force microscopy probes - are discussed.

  12. Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    -infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collinsa) Department of Physics, Materials Research Institute, and Center for Thin Film, it has numerous applications in the analysis and simulation of thin film a-Si:H based p-i-n and n

  13. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Annual Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Annual Technical Report for the Period This report covers the second year of this subcontract for research on high efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. The effort on CdTe- based materials

  14. Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a J. D. Servaites thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H p-i-n cells, organic bulk understanding of thin film solar cell device physics, including important module performance variability issues

  15. Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors is a critical component of solar cell development. In typical thin film cells the thickness of the absorbing of photovoltaic power. Thin film Si solar cells using hydrogenated amorphous Si a-Si:H and nano- crystalline Si nc

  16. Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells M. van Lare,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells M. van Lare,1 F a completed thin-film a-Si:H solar cell. Current-voltage measurements show a photocurrent enhancement of 10 of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4767997] Thin-film solar cells offer the potential of high photovol

  17. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON SURFACE TEXTURING AND CRYSTALLIZATION ON A-SI:H THIN FILM IRRADIATED BY EXCIMER LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    -Si:H thin film solar cell applications. Introduction Many industrial solar cells in use today use bulk and instability, thin-film a- Si:H solar cells require a highly efficient light-trapping design to absorb cell applications. In this study, hydrogenated and dehydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

  18. Studies of thin film hydrogenated silicon solar cells using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Studies of thin film hydrogenated silicon solar cells using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (TEM) to study n-i-p thin film Si solar cells grown on steel foil or glass substrates. For a solar cell experiment, we study the chemical compositions of defective regions in thin film Si solar cells using energy

  19. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells. Industrially feasible epitaxy systems therefore

  20. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D. McGehee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. Thin film solar cell modules can be manufactured either

  1. Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation.1063/1.3377791 Thin-film organic solar cells OSCs are a promising candidate for low-cost energy conversion.1­6 However 2010 We theoretically investigate the enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar

  2. The electron beam hole drilling of silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howitt, D. G.; Chen, S. J.; Gierhart, B. C.; Smith, R. L.; Collins, S. D.

    2008-01-15

    The mechanism by which an intense electron beam can produce holes in thin films of silicon nitride has been investigated using a combination of in situ electron energy loss spectrometry and electron microscopy imaging. A brief review of electron beam interactions that lead to material loss in different materials is also presented. The loss of nitrogen and silicon decreases with decreasing beam energy and although still observable at a beam energy of 150 keV ceases completely at 120 keV. The linear behavior of the loss rate coupled with the energy dependency indicates that the process is primarily one of direct displacement, involving the sputtering of atoms from the back surface of the specimen with the rate controlling mechanism being the loss of nitrogen.

  3. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  4. Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown,I.G.

    2006-01-10

    The thickness dependence of the thermoelectric power of Pt films of variable thickness on a reference Au film has been determined for the case when the Pt film thickness, t, is not large compared to the charge carrier mean free path, {ell}, that is, t/{ell}. Pt film thicknesses down to 2.2 nm were investigated. We find that {Delta}S{sub F} = S{sub B}-S{sub F} (where S{sub B} and S{sub F} are the thermopowers of the Pt bulk and film, respectively) does not vary linearly as 1/t as is the case for thin film thermocouples when the film thickness is large compared to the charge carrier mean free path.

  5. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usha, N. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  6. Studies on nickel-tungsten oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usha, K. S. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Nickel-Tungsten oxide (95:5) thin films were prepared by rf sputtering at 200W rf power with various substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction study reveals the amorphous nature of films. The substrate temperature induced decrease in energy band gap with a maximum transmittance of 71%1 was observed. The Micro-Raman study shows broad peaks at 560 cm{sup ?1} and 1100 cm{sup ?1} correspond to Ni-O vibration and the peak at 860 cm{sup ?1} can be assigned to the vibration of W-O-W bond. Photoluminescence spectra show two peaks centered on 420 nm and 485 nm corresponding to the band edge emission and vacancies created due to the addition of tungsten, respectively.

  7. Method for making thick and/or thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-11-02

    A method to make thick or thin films a very low cost. The method is generally similar to the conventional tape casting techniques while being more flexible and versatile. The invention involves preparing a slip (solution) of desired material and including solvents such as ethanol and an appropriate dispersant to prevent agglomeration. The slip is then sprayed on a substrate to be coated using an atomizer which spreads the slip in a fine mist. Upon hitting the substrate, the solvent evaporates, leaving a green tape containing the powder and other additives, whereafter the tape may be punctured, cut, and heated for the desired application. The tape thickness can vary from about 1 .mu.m upward.

  8. Long-laser-pulse method of producing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Olander, Donald K. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of depositing thin films by means of laser vaporization employs a long-pulse laser (Nd-glass of about one millisecond duration) with a peak power density typically in the range 10.sup.5 -10.sup.6 W/cm.sup.2. The method may be used to produce high T.sub.c superconducting films of perovskite material. In one embodiment, a few hundred nanometers thick film of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x is produced on a SrTiO.sub.3 crystal substrate in one or two pulses. In situ-recrystallization and post-annealing, both at elevated temperature and in the presence of an oxidizing agen The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-C03-76SF0098 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California.

  9. Naphthacene Based Organic Thin Film Transistor With Rare Earth Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konwar, K. [Department of Physics, Digboi College, Digboi-786171, Assam (India); Baishya, B. [Department of Physics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786004, Assam (India)

    2010-12-01

    Naphthacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been fabricated using La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as the gate insulator. All the OTFTs have been fabricated by the process of thermal evaporation in vacuum on perfectly cleaned glass substrates with aluminium as source-drain and gate electrodes. The naphthacene film morphology on the glass substrate has been studied by XRD and found to be polycrystalline in nature. The field effect mobility, output resistance, amplification factor, transconductance and gain bandwidth product of the OTFTs have been calculated by using theoretical TFT model. The highest value of field effect mobility is found to be 0.07x10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} for the devices annealed in vacuum at 90 deg. C for 5 hours.

  10. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  11. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang; Qi (Littleton, CO)

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  12. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  13. Fundamentals of polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a one-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. The research was conducted to better understand the limitations and potential of solar cells using CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe by systematically investigating the fundamental relationships linking material processing, material properties, and device behavior. By selenizing Cu and In layers, we fabricated device-quality CuInSe{sub 2} thin films and demonstrated a CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell with 7% efficiency. We added Ga, to increase the band gap of CuInSe{sub 2} devices to increase the open-circuit voltage to 0.55 V. We fabricated and analyzed Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}/CuInSe{sub 2} devices to demonstrate the potential for combining the benefits of higher V{sub oc} while retaining the current-generating capacity of CuInSe{sub 2}. We fabricated an innovative superstrate device design with more than 5% efficiency, as well as a bifacial spectral-response technique for determining the electron diffusion length and optical absorption coefficient of CuInSe{sub 2} in an operational cell. The diffusion length was found to be greater than 1 {mu}m. We qualitatively modeled the effect of reducing heat treatments in hydrogen and oxidizing treatments in air on the I-V behavior of CuInSe{sub 2} devices. We also investigated post-deposition heat treatments and chemical processing and used them to fabricate a 9.6%-efficient CdTe/CdS solar cell using physical vapor deposition.

  14. University of Pavia -Physics Department "A. Volta" Photonics and Nanostructures Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://fisicavolta.unipv.it/Nanophotonics Postdoctoral position on "Radiation-matter interaction in photonic nanostructures" A post-doctoral position/plasmonic nanostructures. Study of light-trapping limits for ultra-thin film solar cells, comparison between ordered Starting date: January 2010 or to be agreed Starting Salary: Euro 18,000/year Contact: Prof. Lucio Claudio

  15. Probing Atomic-Scale Properties of Magnetic and Optoelectronic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    1.1.1 Magnetic Molecules for Spintronics Applications 1.1.2Wernsdorfer. Molecular spintronics using single-moleculeEdges: Basis for Novel Spintronics Devices. Phys. Rev. Lett.

  16. Annealing influence on the magnetostructural transition in Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pires, A. L.; Belo, J. H.; Gomes, I. T.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.; Fernandes, L.; Tavares, P. B.; Araújo, J. P.; Lopes, A. M. L.; Pereira, A. M.

    2015-11-15

    Due to the emerging cooling possibilities at the micro and nanoscale, such as the fast heat exchange rate, the effort to synthesize and optimize the magnetocaloric materials at these scales is rapidly growing. Here, we report the effect of different thermal treatments on Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 thin film in order to evaluate the correlation between the crystal structure, magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effect. For annealing temperatures higher than 500ºC, the samples showed a typical paramagnetic behavior. On the other hand, thermal treatments below 500ºC promoted the suppression of the magnetostructural transition at 190 K, while the magnetic transition around 249 Kmore »is not effected. This magnetostructural transition extinction was reflected in the magnetocaloric behavior and resulted in a drastic decrease in the entropy change peak value (of about 68%). Nevertheless, an increase in TC was reported, proving that at the nanoscale, heat treatments may be a useful tool to optimize the magnetocaloric properties in Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 thin films.« less

  17. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  18. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  19. Ultra-narrow ferromagnetic resonance in organic-based thin films grown via low temperature chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, H.; Harberts, M.; Adur, R.; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, E., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Lu, Y. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States); Epstein, A. J., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We present the growth of thin films of the organic-based ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]{sub x} (x???2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene) via chemical vapor deposition. Under optimized growth conditions, we observe a significant increase in magnetic homogeneity, as evidenced by a Curie temperature above 600?K and sharp magnetization switching. Further, ferromagnetic resonance studies reveal a single resonance with full width at half maximum linewidth of 1.4?G, comparable to the narrowest lines measured in inorganic magnetic materials and in contrast to previous studies that showed multiple resonance features. These characteristics are promising for the development of high frequency electronic devices that take advantage of the unique properties of this organic-based material, such as the potential for low cost synthesis combined with low temperature and conformal deposition on a wide variety of substrates.

  20. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE TEXTURED SILVER BACK REFLECTOR OF A THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELL: FROM CRYSTALLOGRAPHY TO OPTICAL ABSORPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    in amorphous, microcrystalline and micromorph thin-film Si solar cells is an important and active field-reflector of thin-film Si solar cells. 1 INTRODUCTION The study of light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells for an optimized back reflector structure in a microcrystalline thin film Si solar cell, when compared with the use

  1. Microstructure of Co/X (X=Cu,Ag,Au) epitaxial thin films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Akita, Yuta; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2007-05-01

    Epitaxial thin films of Co/X (X=Cu,Ag,Au) were prepared on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 degree sign C by UHV molecular beam epitaxy. A complicated microstructure was realized for the epitaxial thin films. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation has shown that X atoms of the buffer layer segregated to the surface during Co layer deposition, and it yielded a unique epitaxial granular structure. The structure consists of small Co grains buried in the X buffer layer, where both the magnetic small Co grains and the nonmagnetic X layer are epitaxially grown on the single crystal substrate. The structure varied depending on the X element and the substrate temperature. The crystal structure of Co grains is influenced by the buffer layer material and determined to be hcp and fcc structures for the buffer layer materials of Au and Cu, respectively.

  2. Interaction between superconducting films and magnetic nanostructures Lars Egil Helseth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    is studied. The generalized London equation for this system is solved, and the magnetic fields, the energy that the Pearl solution is the Green's function for arbitrary sources. The possibility of enhancing the critical and superconducting materials are of interest not only because they are model systems for the interplay of competing

  3. Unusual Function of Modified Polyolefins for Manipulating Magnetic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    (CO)5 or Co2(CO)8] in the presence of PP-g-MA in solvent xylene. By simply changing the backbone length. Among many developed approaches (high-temperature reduction, evapo- ration­condensation, melting-dependent physicochemical properties. The morphology (size and shape) control of magnetic NPs by many small molecular

  4. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Thin Film Solar Cells..Improved Performance of Thin Film Solar Cells via Scatteringefficient CuS/CdS thin film solar cell developed by the US

  5. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2010-07-14

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating...

  7. Nanocrystallization of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Thin Film Batteries Utilizing Pulse Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose focus is on the nanocrystallization of the LiCoO2 cathode thin films on polyimide substrates and evaluate the microstructural evolution and resistance as a function of PTP processing conditions.

  8. Evaluation on the thin-film phase change material-based technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Qiang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Two potential applications of thin film phase-change materials are considered, non-volatile electronic memories and MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) actuators. The markets for those two applications are fast growing ...

  9. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric ...

  10. Integration of pentacene-based thin film transistors via photolithography for low and high voltage applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Melissa Alyson

    2012-01-01

    An organic thin film transistor (OTFT) technology platform has been developed for flexible integrated circuits applications. OTFT performance is tuned by engineering the dielectric constant of the gate insulator and the ...

  11. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more »With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  12. Characterization of the viscoelastic properties of thin-film materials using dynamic-mechanical testing techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biskup, Bruce Allen

    1994-01-01

    An investigation into the use of dynamic mechanical analysis to characterize the viscoelastic properties of thin film materials is presented. The methodology was investigated using polyethylene films used on high altitude research balloons. Time...

  13. Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We numerically investigate the light-absorption behavior of thin-film silicon for normal-incident light, using surface textures to enhance absorption. We consider a variety of texture designs, such as simple periodic ...

  14. Engineering broadband and anisotropic photoluminescence emission from rare earth doped tellurite thin film photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanhoutte, Michiel

    Broadband and anisotropic light emission from rare-earth doped tellurite thin films is demonstrated using Er[superscript 3+]-TeO[subscript 2] photonic crystals (PhCs). By adjusting the PhC parameters, photoluminescent light ...

  15. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  16. Title of Document: MULTIPLEXED CHEMICAL SENSING AND THIN FILM METROLOGY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: MULTIPLEXED CHEMICAL SENSING AND THIN FILM METROLOGY IN PROGRAMMABLE proven valuable in understanding and controlling chemical processes used in semiconductor fabrication. Given the complexity of spatial distributions of fluid flow, thermal, and chemical parameters

  17. Near-infrared photodetector consisting of J-aggregating cyanine dye and metal oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osedach, Timothy P.

    We demonstrate a near-infrared photodetector that consists of a thin film of the J-aggregating cyanine dye, U3, and transparent metal-oxide charge transport layers. The high absorption coefficient of the U3 film, combined ...

  18. The bias-stress effect in pentacene organic thin-film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Kyungbum

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are promising for flexible large-area electronics. However, the bias-stress effect (BSE) in OTFTs causes operational instability that limits the usefulness of the OTFT technology in a ...

  19. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yet, the central problem of thin-film photovoltaics is to capture and absorb sunlight in a thin active for photovoltaic applica- tions as intrinsically broadband scatterers. In this work, we use rigorous electro

  20. Magneto-optical and multiferroic oxide thin films, integrated nonreciprocal photonic devices and multiferroic memory devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbas??l?, Mehmet Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Complex oxide thin films offer unique functionalities which can potentially extend the utility of current storage, processing and optical isolator technologies. In this thesis, we present three categories of studies on ...

  1. Water, salt water and alkaline solution uptake in epoxy thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, P.; Lees, Janet M.

    2013-05-10

    type and temperature, are explored. Experimental results, where the solution uptake in desiccated (D) or undesiccated (U) thin films of a commercially available epoxy matrix subjected to water (W), salt water (SW), or alkali concrete pore solution (CPS...

  2. Femtosecond pump-probe studies of reduced graphene oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Shuai; Loh, Kian Ping

    2010-04-01

    The dynamics of photocarriers in reduced graphene oxide thin films is studied by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Time dependent differential transmissions are measured with sample temperatures ranging from 9 to 300 K. At each sample...

  3. Sponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Electronics on Anything: How Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    including electronically active and flexible materials. Our group has been working on the hybrid integrationSponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Electronics on Anything: How Thin Film Electronics University ABSTRACT: Silicon electronics have revolutionized the processing and handling of information

  4. Micro/nano devices fabricated from Cu-Hf thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luber, Erik J; Ophus, Colin; Mitlin, David; Olsen, Brian; Harrower, Christopher; Radmilovi, Velimir

    2013-06-04

    An all-metal microdevice or nanodevice such as an atomic force microscope probe is manufactured from a copper-hafnium alloy thin film having an x-ray amorphous microstructure.

  5. Nonequilibrium superconducting thin films with sub-gap and pair-breaking photon illumination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.

    2015-04-08

    We calculate nonequilibrium quasiparticle and phonon distributions for a number of widely-used low transition temperature thin-film superconductors under constant, uniform illumination by sub-gap probe and pair-breaking signal photons simultaneously...

  6. Mechanisms of Zinc Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Film Formation by Thermal Degradation of Metal-Loaded Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrode in flat- panel displays,1 solar cells, and thin-film transistors.2,3 Other recent reports account as a short-range probe to investigate the first stages of nucleation and the following development of Zn

  7. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Daniel J.

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly ...

  8. Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of...

  9. Experimental modeling of intergranular exchange coupling for perpendicular thin film media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    does exist in the CoCrPt-oxide layer of present perpendicular thin film media, especially for media to quantitatively determine the ferromagnetic ex- change coupling through an oxide layer as a function of ox- ide

  10. Analysis of potential applications for the templated dewetting of metal thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frantzeskakis, Emmanouil

    2005-01-01

    Thin films have a high surface-to-volume ratio and are therefore usually morphologically unstable. They tend to reduce their surface energy through transport of mass by diffusion. As a result, they decay into a collection ...

  11. Earth abundant materials for high efficiency heterojunction thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    We investigate earth abundant materials for thin-film solar cells that can meet tens of terawatts level deployment potential. Candidate materials are identified by combinatorial search, large-scale electronic structure ...

  12. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  13. Anti-reflection zinc oxide nanocones for higher efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailoa, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Thin film silicon solar cells, which are commonly made from microcrystalline silicon ([mu]c-Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), have been considered inexpensive alternatives to thick polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) solar ...

  14. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Conference Paper NRELCP-520-37020 January 2005 CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments K. Ramanathan, R.N....

  15. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)sub 2 and Cusub 2ZnSn(Se,S)sub 4...

  16. Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.

    1985-11-01

    Dislocation effect upon the efficiency of single-crystal thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells on Si substrates is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated based on a simple model; in the model, dislocations act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in each layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. Numerical analysis is also carried out to optimize thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar-cell structures. The fabrication of thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells with a practical efficiency larger than 18% on Si substrates appears possible if the dislocation density in the thin-film GaAs layer is less than 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/.

  17. Apparatus for making cathodo- and photo- luminescent measurements of thin film phosphors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babuchna, Paul Michael

    1998-01-01

    the understanding of the thin film phosphor, tungsten doped zinc oxide. Principally, a vacuum system is constructed and provides for both photo-and cathode-phosphor excitations. A measurement capability is then included. Finally, additions are mentioned...

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of SiO2 thin film supported metal nano-clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Byoung Koun

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation is focused on understanding heterogeneous metal catalysts supported on oxides using a model catalyst system of SiO2 thin film supported metal nano-clusters. The primary technique applied to this study is scanning tunneling...

  19. Materials properties of pharmaceutical formulations for thin-film-tablet continuous manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcena, Jose R. (Jose Roberto)

    2012-01-01

    The development of manufacturing tablets in a continuous way has been possible greatly to the fabrication of polymer based thin-films. It is estimated that the pharmaceutical industry loses as much as a 25% on revenues ...

  20. Electrodynamic Properties of Single-Crystal and Thin-Film Strontium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A.T.; Jia, Q.; Reagor, D.W.; Kwon, C.; Rasmussen, K.O.

    1999-05-13

    The authors present a comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of coplanar waveguides made from nonlinear dielectric single-crystal and thin-film SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) with high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} electrodes. The waveguides that use single-crystal STO exhibit a monotonic increase in refractive index, dielectric nonlinearity, and dissipation with decreasing temperature (from 80 K to 20 K), whereas those based on thin-film STO show similar but weaker effects with increasing temperature. Under dc bias, both types of waveguides show reduced refractive index, but dissipation increases in the case of single-crystal STO, while it decreases in the case of STO thin-films.

  1. Evaluation of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin-film coated microneedle arrays for transcutaneous vaccine delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fung, Peter W. (Peter Waitak)

    2011-01-01

    The skin is an ideal organ for the safe and convenient delivery of vaccines, small molecules, and other biologics. Members of the Irvine and Hammond groups have developed a polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film-coated ...

  2. Engineering Al-based Thin Film Materials for Power Devices and Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perng, Ya-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    and J. P. Chang, “Atomic layer deposition of Pb(Zr, Ti)O xfilms deposited by atomic layer deposition on 4H-SiC,” Appl.AlN Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition on Wide Bandgap

  3. A Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5 Epilift process - Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, ANU Systems Engineering Department, The Australian National University, ACT 0200, Australia. Email : michelleA Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates

  4. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films grown by flash evaporation and pulsed laser deposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy Subramanian, Santhana

    2004-09-30

    -phase 2212 films were grown on a MgO substrate using the pulsed laser deposition technique from commercially available 2212 powder. The effect of annealing on the thin films was also studied....

  5. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  6. Defect engineering of cuprous oxide thin-films for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yun Seog

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells are promising for renewable-energy applications due to their low material usage and inexpensive manufacturing potential, making them compatible with terawatts-level deployment. Cuprous oxide (Cu?O) ...

  7. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  8. A dual-laser interferometry system for thin film measurements in thermal vapor deposition applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Allen Shiping

    2012-01-01

    Lithography processes harnessing the phase change of the chemically inert carbon dioxide as a resist have been shown as a possible alternative to patterning thin film organic semiconductors and metals. The ability to control ...

  9. Amorphous Si Thin Film Based Photocathodes with High Photovoltage for Efficient Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Amorphous Si Thin Film Based Photocathodes with High Photovoltage for Efficient Hydrogen Production for solar hydrogen production. With platinum as prototypical cocatalyst, a photocurrent onset potential of 0 for solar hydrogen production. KEYWORDS: Water splitting, hydrogen production, photochemistry, high

  10. Design and modeling of a PZT thin film based piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2012-01-01

    The design and modelling framework for a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) based on the piezoelectric thin film deposition of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is defined. Through high frequency vibration ...

  11. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  12. Enhanced absorption of thin-film photovoltaic cells using an optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    We show via numerical simulations that the absorption and solar energy conversion efficiency of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell can be significantly enhanced by embedding it into an optical cavity. A reflective ...

  13. Surface spectroscopic characterization of oxide thin films and bimetallic model catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Tao

    2009-05-15

    Oxide thin films and bimetallic model catalysts have been studied using metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS), X – ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  14. Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells Mustafa Akin Sefunc,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells Mustafa Akin Sefunc,a Ali; published online 4 March 2011 We propose and demonstrate a design concept of volumetric plasmonic resonators

  15. Nanostructuring Titania by Embossing with Polymer Molds Made from Anodic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Nanostructuring Titania by Embossing with Polymer Molds Made from Anodic Alumina Templates Chiatzun(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) molds to make thin films of titania that have dense arrays of 35-65 nm diameter pores, whose features are 1 order of magnitude smaller than those previously demonstrated for sol-gel molding

  16. Zinc vacancy and erbium cluster jointly promote ferromagnetism in erbium-doped ZnO thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hong-Ming; Zhou, Ren-Wei; Li, Fei; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei; Xiong, Ze

    2014-04-15

    Zn{sub 1-x}Er{sub x}O (0.005 ? x ? 0.04) thin films have been prepared by inductively coupled plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition method. Ferromagnetism, crystal structure, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the films were characterized. It is found that the chemical valence state of Er is trivalent, and the Er{sup 3+} cations play an important role in ferromagnetism. Both saturated magnetization (M{sub s}) and zinc vacancy (V{sub Zn}) are decreased with the increase of x from 0.005 to 0.03. However, further increasing x to 0.04, the M{sub s} is quenched due to the generation of Er clusters. It reveals that the intensity of M{sub s} is not only associated with the V{sub Zn} concentration, but also related to the Er clusters. The V{sub Zn} concentration and the Er clusters can jointly boost the ferromagnetism in the Zn{sub 1-x}Er{sub x}O thin films.

  17. Formation of thin film Tl-based high-Tc? superconducting oxides from amorphous alloy precursors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John Charles

    1991-01-01

    FORMATION OF THIN FILM Tl-BASED HIGH-Tc SUPERCONDUCTING OXIDES FROM AMORPHOUS ALLOY PRECURSORS A Thesis JOHN CHARLES WILLIAMS Submitted to the Once of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Physics FORMATION OF THIN FILM Tl BASED HIGH Tc SUPERCONDUCTING OXIDES FROM AMORPHOUS ALLOY PRECURSORS A Thesis JOHN CHARLES WILLIAMS Approved as to style and content by: Donald G. Naugle...

  18. Thin-film Sb2Se3 photovoltaics with oriented one-dimensional ribbons and benign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    to the substrate, and produced Sb2Se3 thin-film solar cells with a certified device efficiency of 5.6%. Our results are one of the major limiting factors for high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. We began with first cells based on inorganic absorbers, such as Si, GaAs, CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2, permit a high device

  19. Synthesis and magnetic reversal of bi-conical Ni nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biziere, N.; Lassalle Ballier, R.; Viret, M.

    2011-09-15

    Template synthesis in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes has been used to grow hour glass shaped nickel nanowires with a constriction in the range of tens of nanometers at the center. Anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements have been performed on a single nanowire to follow magnetization reversal of the structure. The results are explained via 3D micromagnetic simulations showing the appearance of a complex vortex state close to the constriction whose propagation depends on the angle between the cone axis and the applied field. The interest of this original growth process for spintronics is discussed.

  20. Free-Space Time-Domain Method for Measuring Thin Film Dielectric Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Cho, Gyu Cheon

    2000-05-02

    A non-contact method for determining the index of refraction or dielectric constant of a thin film on a substrate at a desired frequency in the GHz to THz range having a corresponding wavelength larger than the thickness of the thin film (which may be only a few microns). The method comprises impinging the desired-frequency beam in free space upon the thin film on the substrate and measuring the measured phase change and the measured field reflectance from the reflected beam for a plurality of incident angles over a range of angles that includes the Brewster's angle for the thin film. The index of refraction for the thin film is determined by applying Fresnel equations to iteratively calculate a calculated phase change and a calculated field reflectance at each of the plurality of incident angles, and selecting the index of refraction that provides the best mathematical curve fit with both the dataset of measured phase changes and the dataset of measured field reflectances for each incident angle. The dielectric constant for the thin film can be calculated as the index of refraction squared.