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Sample records for magnetic techniques slim

  1. Slim Holes At Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Slim Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  2. Slim Holes At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Slim Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Well RR 56-4, was not successful in intersecting an exploitable geothermal resource. However, the...

  3. SLIM DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, Aleksander

    2009-08-01

    We investigate stationary slim accretion disks around Kerr black holes. We construct a new numerical method based on the relaxation technique. We systematically cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar mass X-ray binaries. We also notice some non-monotonic features in the disk structure, overlooked in previous studies.

  4. Slim Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are typically drilled using a diamond coated bit, core samples are often collected, and reservoir properties measured. Slim holes can range from 3-6'' in diameter and be...

  5. Category:Magnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Magnetic Techniques page? For detailed information on Magnetic...

  6. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac applications; for instance, it could be employed to both accelerate the beam and to stabilize the superbunch mode of operation in circular track machines.

  7. Slim Holes for Small Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finger, John T.

    1999-08-06

    Geothermal research study at Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a program in slimhole drilling research since 1992. Although our original interest focused on slim holes as an exploration method, it has also become apparent that they have substantial potential for driving small-scale, off-grid power plants. This paper summarizes Sandia's slim-hole research program, describes technology used in a ''typical'' slimhole drilling project, presents an evaluation of using slim holes for small power plants, and lists some of the research topics that deserve further investigation.

  8. A TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIZED BEAM MATCHING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    To maintain low electron beam temperatures in the proposed RHIC electron cooler, careful matching of the magnetized beam from the source to the cooler solenoid is mandatory. We propose a tomographic technique to diagnose matching conditions. First simulation results will be presented.

  9. Slim Holes At International Geothermal Area, Japan (Combs, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Geothermal Area, Japan (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At International Geothermal...

  10. Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue...

  11. Slim Holes At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum...

  12. Slim Holes At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Maui...

  13. Slim Holes At Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    slim hole 12-33, was drilled to a total depth of 297 m during April 2001. Continuous core was taken from 152 m to total depth. Numerous open fractures were also observed in...

  14. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure. Scattering techniques are further classified as partially for fully coherent according to the extent of transverse coherence of the incident beam.

  15. Coiled tubing used for slim hole re-entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traonmilin, E. ); Newman, K. )

    1992-02-17

    A coiled tubing unit with slim hole tools successfully re-entered and cored an existing Elf Aquitaine vertical well in the Paris basin in France. This experiment proved that coiled tubing could be used to drill, core, and test a slim hole well. Elf Aquitaine studied the use of coiled tubing for drilling inexpensive exploration wells in the Paris basin. As a result of this study, Elf believed that coiled tubing exploration drilling could significantly reduce exploration costs. This paper reports on a number of questions raised by this study: Can coiled tubing be used effectively to drill slim open hole How would the drilling rate compare with that of a conventional drilling rig If the rate were too slow, coiled tubing might not be economical. Can a straight vertical well be drilled Coiled tubing pipe has a residual curvature from bending over the reel and gooseneck. Will this curvature make it impossible to drill straight Can the coiled tubing also be used to take cores Once the hole is drilled, can it be tested with coiled tubing

  16. Slim Holes At Salt Wells Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Salt Wells Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999)...

  17. Slim Holes At Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  18. Slim Holes At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  19. Slim Holes At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  20. Slim Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fort Bliss...

  1. Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  2. Slim Holes At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  3. Slim Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Slim Holes At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  5. Slim Holes At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  6. Slim Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  7. Slim Holes At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Slim Holes At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  8. Slim Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et...

  9. Slim Holes At Salton Sea Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salton Sea Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Salton Sea Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010)...

  10. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  11. Phase 2 Reese River Geothermal Project Slim Well 56-4 Drilling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phase 2 Reese River Geothermal Project Slim Well 56-4 Drilling And Testing Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Phase 2 Reese River Geothermal...

  12. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Majors, Paul D.

    2011-11-22

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  13. Geothermal reservoir assessment based on slim hole drilling. Volume 1, Analytical Method: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) program was supplied by the State of Hawaii to drill six, 4,000 foot scientific observation holes on Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii to confirm and stimulate geothermal, resource development in Hawaii. After a lengthy permitting process, three SOHs, totaling 18,890 feet of mostly core drilling were finally drilled along the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) in the Puna district on the Big Island. The SOH program was highly successful in meeting the highly restrictive permitting conditions imposed on the program, and in developing slim hole drilling techniques, establishing subsurface geological conditions, and initiating an assessment and characterization of the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii - even though permitting specifically prohibited pumping or flowing the holes to obtain data of subsurface fluid conditions. The first hole, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 306.1 C, and established subsurface thermal continuity along the KERZ between the HGP-A and the True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture wells. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole SOH-1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C, effectively doubled the size of the Hawaii Geothermal Project -- Abbott/Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) proven/probable reservoir, and defined the northern limit of the HGP-A/PGV reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C, and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential ''discovery.''

  14. Geothermal reservoir assessment based on slim hole drilling. Volume 2: Application in Hawaii: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) program was planned, funded, and initiated in 1988 by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, an institute within the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Initial funding for the SOH program was $3.25 million supplied by the State of Hawaii to drill six, 4,000 foot scientific observation holes on Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii to confirm and stimulate geothermal resource development in Hawaii. After a lengthy permitting process, three SOHs, totaling 18,890 feet of mostly core drilling were finally drilled along the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) in the Puna district on the Big Island. The SOH program was highly successful in meeting the highly restrictive permitting conditions imposed on the program, and in developing slim hole drilling techniques, establishing subsurface geological conditions, and initiating an assessment and characterization of the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii - - even though permitting specifically prohibited pumping or flowing the holes to obtain data of subsurface fluid conditions. The first hole, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters, recorded a/bottom hole temperature of 306.1 C, and established subsurface thermal continuity along the KERZ between the HGP-A and the True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture wells. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole SOH-1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C, effectively doubled the size of the Hawaii Geothermal Project-Abbott/Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) proven/probable reservoir, and defined the northern limit of the HGP-A/PGV reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C, and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential discovery.

  15. Phase 2 Reese River Geothermal Project Slim Well 56-4 Drilling and Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henkle, William R.; Ronne, Joel

    2008-06-15

    This report covers the drilling and testing of the slim well 56-4 at the Reese River Geothermal Project in Lander County, Nevada. This well was partially funded through a GRED III Cooperative Funding Agreement # DE-FC36-04GO14344, from USDOE.

  16. New alnico magnets fabricated from pre-alloyed gas-atomized powder through diverse consolidation techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, W.; Zhou, L.; Kassen, A. G.; Palasyuk, A.; White, E. M.; Dennis, K. W.; Kramer, M. J.; McCallum, R. W.; Anderson, I. E.

    2015-05-25

    Fine Alnico 8 spherical powder produced by gas atomization was consolidated through hot pressing (HP), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and compression molding and subsequent sintering (CMS) techniques. The effects of different fabrication techniques and processing parameters on microstructure and magnetic properties were analyzed and compared. The HP, HIP, and CMS magnets exhibited different features in microstructures and magnetic properties. Magnetically annealed at 840C for 10 min and subsequently tempered at 650C for 5h and 580C for 15h, the HIP sample achieved the best coercivity (Hcj =1845 Oe) due to spinodally decomposed (SD) phases with uniform and well-faceted mosaic morphology. As a result, the CMS sample had a lower Hcj than HIP and HP samples, but a higher remanence and thus the best energy product (6.5 MGOe) due to preferential grain alignment induced by abnormal grain growth.

  17. New alnico magnets fabricated from pre-alloyed gas-atomized powder through diverse consolidation techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, W.; Zhou, L.; Kassen, A. G.; Palasyuk, A.; White, E. M.; Dennis, K. W.; Kramer, M. J.; McCallum, R. W.; Anderson, I. E.

    2015-05-25

    Fine Alnico 8 spherical powder produced by gas atomization was consolidated through hot pressing (HP), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and compression molding and subsequent sintering (CMS) techniques. The effects of different fabrication techniques and processing parameters on microstructure and magnetic properties were analyzed and compared. The HP, HIP, and CMS magnets exhibited different features in microstructures and magnetic properties. Magnetically annealed at 840°C for 10 min and subsequently tempered at 650°C for 5h and 580°C for 15h, the HIP sample achieved the best coercivity (Hcj =1845 Oe) due to spinodally decomposed (SD) phases with uniform and well-faceted mosaic morphology. Asmore » a result, the CMS sample had a lower Hcj than HIP and HP samples, but a higher remanence and thus the best energy product (6.5 MGOe) due to preferential grain alignment induced by abnormal grain growth.« less

  18. Linear beam raster magnet driver based on H-bridge technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinkine, Nikolai I.; Yan, Chen; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Dail, Jeffrey Glenn; Wojcik, Randolph Frank; Gunning, William

    2006-06-06

    An improved raster magnet driver for a linear particle beam is based on an H-bridge technique. Four branches of power HEXFETs form a two-by-two switch. Switching the HEXFETs in a predetermined order and at the right frequency produces a triangular current waveform. An H-bridge controller controls switching sequence and timing. The magnetic field of the coil follows the shape of the waveform and thus steers the beam using a triangular rather than a sinusoidal waveform. The system produces a raster pattern having a highly uniform raster density distribution, eliminates target heating from non-uniform raster density distributions, and produces higher levels of beam current.

  19. ION MANIPULATIONS IN STRUCTURES FOR LOSSLESS ION MANIPULATIONS (SLIM): COMPUTATIONAL EVALUATION OF A 90o TURN AND A SWITCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garimella, Venkata BS; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Ipsen, Andreas B.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-08-19

    The process of redirecting ions through 90o turns and ‘tee’ switches utilizing Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) was evaluated using theoretical and simulation methods at 4 Torr pressure. SIMION simulations were used to optimize and evaluate conditions for performing turns without loss of signal intensity or ion mobility resolving power. Fundamental considerations indicated that the “race track” effect during ion turns may incur only small losses to the ion mobility resolving power at 4 Torr pressure for the typical plume widths predicted in an optimized SLIM ‘tee’ switch design. The dynamic switching of ions into orthogonal channels was also evaluated using SIMION ion trajectory simulations, and achieved similar performance. Simulation results were in close agreement with experimental results and were used to refine SLIM designs and applied potentials for their use.

  20. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  1. A biofilm microreactor system for simultaneous electrochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Ewing, R. James; Ewing, Thomas; Mueller, Karl T.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-03-01

    In order to fully understand electrochemically active biofilms and the limitations to their scale-up in industrial biofilm reactors, a complete picture of the microenvironments inside the biofilm is needed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are ideally suited for the study of biofilms and for probing their microenvironments because these techniques allow for non-invasive interrogation and in situ monitoring with high resolution. By combining NMR with simultaneous electrochemical techniques, it is possible to sustain and study live electrochemically active biofilms. Here, we introduce a novel biofilm microreactor system that allows for simultaneous electrochemical and NMR techniques (EC-NMR) at the microscale. Microreactors were designed with custom radiofrequency resonator coils, which allowed for NMR measurements of biofilms growing on polarized gold electrodes. For an example application of this system, we grew Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. NMR was used to investigate growth media flow velocities, which were compared to simulated laminar flow, and electron donor concentrations inside the biofilms. We use Monte Carlo error analysis to estimate standard deviations of the electron donor concentration measurements within the biofilm. The EC-NMR biofilm microreactor system can ultimately be used to correlate extracellular electron transfer rates with metabolic reactions and explore extracellular electron transfer mechanisms.

  2. Correction of steel casing effect for density log using numerical and experimental methods in the slim borehole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman; Won, Byeongho

    2015-03-10

    Density log is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploration, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey. The logging condition of density log is normally open holes but there are frequently cased boreholes. The primary calibration curve by slim hole logging manufacturer is normally the calibration curves for the variation of borehole diameter. In this study, we have performed the correction of steel casing effects using numerical and experimental methods. We have performed numerical modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code based on Monte Carlo method, and field experimental method from open and cased hole log. In this study, we used the FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slim borehole with a 100 mCi 137Cs source, three inch borehole and steel casing. The casing effect between numerical and experimental method is well matched.

  3. Statistical techniques for detecting the intergalactic magnetic field from large samples of extragalactic Faraday rotation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akahori, Takuya; Gaensler, B. M.; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: bryan.gaensler@sydney.edu.au

    2014-08-01

    Rotation measure (RM) grids of extragalactic radio sources have been widely used for studying cosmic magnetism. However, their potential for exploring the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in filaments of galaxies is unclear, since other Faraday-rotation media such as the radio source itself, intervening galaxies, and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy are all significant contributors. We study statistical techniques for discriminating the Faraday rotation of filaments from other sources of Faraday rotation in future large-scale surveys of radio polarization. We consider a 30° × 30° field of view toward the south Galactic pole, while varying the number of sources detected in both present and future observations. We select sources located at high redshifts and toward which depolarization and optical absorption systems are not observed so as to reduce the RM contributions from the sources and intervening galaxies. It is found that a high-pass filter can satisfactorily reduce the RM contribution from the Galaxy since the angular scale of this component toward high Galactic latitudes would be much larger than that expected for the IGMF. Present observations do not yet provide a sufficient source density to be able to estimate the RM of filaments. However, from the proposed approach with forthcoming surveys, we predict significant residuals of RM that should be ascribable to filaments. The predicted structure of the IGMF down to scales of 0.°1 should be observable with data from the Square Kilometre Array, if we achieve selections of sources toward which sightlines do not contain intervening galaxies and RM errors are less than a few rad m{sup –2}.

  4. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag, seismic, and gravity data sets are in good agreement, illustrating two or more major range-bounding faults and buried northwest trending faults. The intersections of these fault systems provide the primary targets for drilling.

  5. Technique to quantitatively measure magnetic properties of thin structures at <10 NM spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa

    2003-07-08

    A highly sensitive and high resolution magnetic microscope images magnetic properties quantitatively. Imaging is done with a modified transmission electron microscope that allows imaging of the sample in a zero magnetic field. Two images from closely spaced planes, one in focus and one slightly out of focus, are sufficient to calculate the absolute values of the phase change imparted to the electrons, and hence obtain the magnetization vector field distribution.

  6. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2004-12-28

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  7. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-12-30

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  8. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-11-25

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the biological object in a main magnetic field and in a radio frequency field, the main magnetic field having a static field direction; rotating the biological object at a rotational frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. According to another embodiment, the radio frequency is pulsed to provide a sequence capable of producing a spectrum that is substantially free of spinning sideband peaks.

  9. Fielding the magnetically applied pressure-shear technique on the Z accelerator (completion report for MRT 4519).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, C. Scott; Haill, Thomas A.; Dalton, Devon Gardner; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Lamppa, Derek C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently developed Magnetically Applied Pressure-Shear (MAPS) experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms was fielded on August 16, 2013 on shot Z2544 utilizing hardware set A0283A. Several technical and engineering challenges were overcome in the process leading to the attempt to measure the dynamic strength of NNSA Ta at 50 GPa. The MAPS technique relies on the ability to apply an external magnetic field properly aligned and time correlated with the MHD pulse. The load design had to be modified to accommodate the external field coils and additional support was required to manage stresses from the pulsed magnets. Further, this represents the first time transverse velocity interferometry has been applied to diagnose a shot at Z. All subsystems performed well with only minor issues related to the new feed design which can be easily addressed by modifying the current pulse shape. Despite the success of each new component, the experiment failed to measure strength in the samples due to spallation failure, most likely in the diamond anvils. To address this issue, hydrocode simulations are being used to evaluate a modified design using LiF windows to minimize tension in the diamond and prevent spall. Another option to eliminate the diamond material from the experiment is also being investigated.

  10. Elucidation of fundamental properties of helium in metals by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of very high density {sup 3}He in metals are discussed in the context of the corresponding properties in relatively high density bulk {sup 3}He. In particular, the effects of the {sup 3}He diffusion on the contribution of the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He dipolar interaction to the lineshape and to the spin-lattice relaxation parameter (T{sub 1}) are described. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the lineshape and of T{sub 1} are independent sources of information about helium density and also about helium diffusivity. Moreover, T{sub 1} is shown to be a sensitive indicator of melting transitions in bulk {sup 3}He. Palladium tritide is presented as a model system for NMR studies of {sup 3}He in metals. Experimental NMR studies of this system reveal behavior analogous to what has been observed for bulk helium. Evidence for a {sup 3}He phase transition near 250 K is provided by the temperature dependence of T{sub 1}. Assuming this to be a melting transition, a density is obtained from the bulk helium EOS that is in good agreement with theory and with swelling measurements on related metal tritides. {sup 3}He NMR measurements have also provided information about the density distribution, helium diffusivity, and mean bubble size in palladium tritide. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Diagnostic techniques for magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. II. Magnetic and electric measurements, charge-exchange diagnostics, particle-beam diagnostics, and fusion-product measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A general overview of the four diagnostic techniques is given. Prospects for each technique are discussed. (MOW)

  12. MAGNETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  13. Final Report on Development of Optimized Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Formation Techniques for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The University of New Mexico (UNM) proposed a collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop and test methods for improved formation of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas relevant to magnetized target fusion (MTF) energy research. MTF is an innovative approach for a relatively fast and cheap path to the production of fusion energy that utilizes magnetic confinement to assist in the compression of a hot plasma to thermonuclear conditions by an external driver. LANL is currently pursing demonstration of the MTF concept via compression of an FRC plasma by a metal liner z-pinch in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM. A key physics issue for the FRC's ultimate success as an MTF target lies in the initial pre-ionization (PI) stage. The PI plasma sets the initial conditions from which the FRC is created. In particular, the PI formation process determines the amount of magnetic flux that can be trapped to form the FRC. A ringing theta pinch ionization (RTPI) technique, such as currently used by the FRX-L device at LANL, has the advantages of high ionization fraction, simplicity (since no additional coils are required), and does not require internal electrodes which can introduce impurities into the plasma. However RTPI has been shown to only trap #24;50% of the initial bias flux at best and imposes additional engineering constraints on the capacitor banks. The amount of trapped flux plays an important role in the FRC's final equilibrium, transport, and stability properties, and provides increased ohmic heating of the FRC through induced currents as the magnetic field decays. Increasing the trapped flux also provides the route to greatest potential gains in FRC lifetime, which is essential to provide enough time to translate and compress the FRC effectively. In conjunction with LANL we initially planned to develop and test a microwave break- down system to improve the initial PI plasma formation. The UNM team would design the microwave optics and oversee the fabrication and assembly of all components and assist with integration into the FRX-L machine control system. LANL would provide a preexisting 65 kW X-band microwave source and some associated waveguide hardware. Once constructed and installed, UNM would take the lead in operating the microwave breakdown system and conducting studies to optimize its use in FRC PI formation in close cooperation with the needs of the LANL MTF team. In conjunction with our LANL collaborators, we decided after starting the project to switch from a microwave plasma breakdown approach to a plasma gun technology to use for enhanced plasma formation in the FRX-L field-reversed configuration experiment at LANL. Plasma guns would be able to provide significantly higher density plasma with greater control over its distribution in time and space within the experiment. This would allow greater control and #12;ne-tuning of the PI plasma formed in the experiment. Multiple plasma guns would be employed to fill a Pyrex glass test chamber (built at UNM) with plasma which would then be characterized and optimized for the MTF effort.

  14. Horizontal slim-hole drilling with coiled tubing; An operator's experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, A.B. Jr.; Faahel, R.A.; Chaffin, M.G.; Pulis, K.H. )

    1992-10-01

    What is believed to be the first horizontal well drilled with directionally controlled coiled tubing recently was completed in the Austin Chalk formation. an existing well was sidetracked out of 4 1/2-in. casing with a conventional whipstock. an average build rate of 15[degrees]/100 ft was achieved in the curve, and a 1,458-ft vertical section was drilled with 2-in. coiled tubing, downhole mud motors, wireline steering tools, a mechanical downhole orienting tool, and 3 7/8-in. bits. This paper discusses the orienting and directional tools and techniques developed during this operation. It also describes improvements made for the second well.

  15. Recovery Act. Sub-Soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling, Pumpernickel Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairbank, Brian D.

    2015-03-27

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company (NGP) was awarded DOE Award DE-EE0002834 in January 2010 to conduct sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion studies and slim well drilling at its Black Warrior Project (now known as North Valley) in Washoe and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The project was designed to apply highly detailed, precise, low-cost subsoil and down-hole gas geochemistry methods from the oil and gas industry to identify upflow zone drilling targets in an undeveloped geothermal prospect. NGP ran into multiple institutional barriers with the Black Warrior project relating to property access and extensive cultural survey requirement. NGP requested that the award be transferred to NGP’s Pumpernickel Valley project, due to the timing delay in obtaining permits, along with additional over-budget costs required. Project planning and permit applications were developed for both the original Black Warrior location and at Pumpernickel. This included obtaining proposals from contractors able to conduct required environmental and cultural surveying, designing the two-meter probe survey methodology and locations, and submitting Notices of Intent and liaising with the Bureau of Land Management to have the two-meter probe work approved. The award had an expiry date of April 30, 2013; however, due to the initial project delays at Black Warrior, and the move of the project from Black Warrior to Pumpernickel, NGP requested that the award deadline be extended. DOE was amenable to this, and worked with NGP to extend the deadline. However, following the loss of the Blue Mountain geothermal power plant in Nevada, NGP’s board of directors changed the company’s mandate to one of cash preservation. NGP was unable to move forward with field work on the Pumpernickel property, or any of its other properties, until additional funding was secured. NGP worked to bring in a project partner to form a joint venture on the property, or to buy the property. This was unsuccessful, and NGP notified the DOE on February 13, 2014 that it would not be able to complete the project objectives before the recovery act awards deadline and submitted a mutual termination request to the DOE which was accepted.

  16. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging...

  17. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in...

  18. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  19. Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

    2010-09-01

    A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

  20. Magnetization of neutron matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigdeli, M.

    2011-09-21

    In this paper, we compute magnetization of neutron matter at strong magnetic field using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) technique.

  1. A Study of Production/Injection Data from Slim Holes and Large-Diameter Wells at the Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Tohoku, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence; Garg, Sabodh K.; Combs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Discharge from the Okuaizu boreholes is accompanied by in situ boiling. Analysis of cold-water injection and discharge data from the Okuaizu boreholes indicates that the two-phase productivity index is about an order of magnitude smaller than the injectivity index. The latter conclusion is in agreement with analyses of similar data from Oguni, Sumikawa, and Kirishima geothermal fields. A wellbore simulator was used to examine the effect of borehole diameter on the discharge capacity of geothermal boreholes with two-phase feedzones. Based on these analyses, it appears that it should be possible to deduce the discharge characteristics of largediameter wells using test data from slim holes with two-phase feeds.

  2. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Ozone-Induced Injury in the Nasal Airways of Monkeys Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Morphometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Stephen A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Trease, Lynn L.; Wagner, James G.; Garcia, Guilherme M.; Ballinger, Carol A.; Kimbell, Julia; Plopper, Charles G.; Corley, Rick A.; Postlewait, Ed; Harkema, Jack R.

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related changes in gross and microscopic structure of the nasal cavity can alter local tissue susceptibility as well as the dose of inhaled toxicant delivered to susceptible sites. This article describes a novel method for the use of magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional airway modeling, and morphometric techniques to characterize the distribution and magnitude of ozone-induced nasal injury in infant monkeys. Using this method, we are able to generate age-specific, 3-dimensional, epithelial maps of the nasal airways of infant Rhesus macaques. The principal nasal lesions observed in this primate model of ozone-induced nasal toxicology were neutrophilic rhinitis, along with necrosis and exfoliation of the epithelium lining the anterior maxilloturbinate. These lesions, induced by acute or cyclic (episodic) exposures, were examined by light microscopy, quantified by morphometric techniques, and mapped on 3-dimensional models of the nasal airways. Here, we describe the histopathologic, imaging, and computational biology methods developed to efficiently characterize, localize, quantify, and map these nasal lesions. By combining these techniques, the location and severity of the nasal epithelial injury were correlated with epithelial type, nasal airway geometry, and local biochemical and molecular changes on an individual animal basis. These correlations are critical for accurate predictive modeling of exposure-dose-response relationships in the nasal airways, and subsequent extrapolation of nasal findings in animals to humans for developing risk assessment.

  3. Kinetic effects on double hysteresis in spin crossover molecular magnets analyzed with first order reversal curve diagram technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan, Raluca-Maria; Gaina, Roxana; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: radu.tanasa@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu E-mail: radu.tanasa@uaic.ro; Bronisz, Robert

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we analyze two types of hysteresis in spin crossover molecular magnets compounds in the framework of the First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) method. The switching between the two stable states in these compounds is accompanied by hysteresis phenomena if the intermolecular interactions are higher than a threshold. We have measured the static thermal hysteresis (TH) and the kinetic light induced thermal hysteresis (LITH) major loops and FORCs for the polycrystalline Fe(II) spin crossover compound [Fe{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}(bbtr){sub 3}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (bbtr = 1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane), either in a pure state (x = 0) or doped with Zn ions (x = 0.33) considering different sweeping rates. Here, we use this method not only to infer the domains distribution but also to disentangle between kinetic and static components of the LITH and to estimate the changes in the intermolecular interactions introduced by dopants. We also determined the qualitative relationship between FORC distributions measured for TH and LITH.

  4. Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Chen, Honghao; Vijayakumar, M.; Zheng, Jianming; Pan, Huilin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Mary Y.; Deng, Xuchu; Feng, Ju; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gu, Meng; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Dongping; Xu, Suochang; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun

    2015-05-13

    Li-S batteries hold great potential for next-generation, large-format power source applications; yet, the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical reaction pathways remains lacking to enable their functionality as promised. Here, in situ NMR technique employing a specially designed cylindrical micro battery was used to monitor the chemical environments around Li+ ions during repetitive charge-discharge process and track the transient electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring in the whole Li-S system. The in situ NMR provides real time, quantitative information related to the temporal concentration variations of the polysulfides with various chain lengths, providing important clues for the reaction pathways during both discharge and charge processes. The in-situ technique also reveals that redox reactions may involve transient species that are difficult to detect in ex-situ NMR study. Intermediate species such as charged free radicals may play an important role in the formation of the polysulfide products. Additionally, in situ NMR measurement simultaneously reveals vital information on the 7Li chemical environments in the electrochemical and parasitic reactions on the lithium anode that promotes the understanding of the failure mechanism in the Li-S system. These new insights could help design effective strategies to accelerate the development of Li-S battery technology.

  5. Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Physical Properties See Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic techniques utilize EM induction processes to measure one or more electric or magnetic field components resulting...

  6. Research Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Techniques Research Techniques Print Coming Soon

  7. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying...

  8. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism,...

  9. Magnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the vicinity of hydrothermal activity and indicate the presence of the geothermal reservoir and conduit structures such as faults or dikes. 3 In addition, it is possible...

  10. Magnetic Damping For Maglev

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, S.; Cai, Y.; Rote, D. M.; Chen, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic damping is one of the important parameters that control the response and stability of maglev systems. An experimental study to measure magnetic damping directly is presented. A plate attached to a permanent magnet levitated on a rotating drum was tested to investigate the effect of various parameters, such as conductivity, gap, excitation frequency, and oscillation amplitude, on magnetic damping. The experimental technique is capable of measuring all of the magnetic damping coefficients, some of which cannot be measured indirectly.

  11. WE-G-17A-08: Electron Gun Operation for in Line MRI-Linac Configurations: An Assessment of Beam Fidelity and Recovery Techniques for Different SIDs and Magnetic Field Strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, B; Keall, P; Constantin, D; Holloway, L; Kolling, S; Oborn, B; Fahrig, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To test the functionality of medical electron guns within the fringe field of a purpose built superconducting MRI magnet, and to test different recovery techniques for a variety of imaging field strengths and SIDs. Methods: Three different electron guns were simulated using Finite Element Modelling; a standard diode gun, a standard triode gun, and a novel diode gun designed to operate within parallel magnetic fields. The approximate working regime of each gun was established by assessing exit current in constant magnetic fields of varying strength and defining ‘working’ as less than 10% change in injection current. Next, the 1.0T MRI magnet was simulated within Comsol Multiphysics. The coil currents in this model were also scaled to produce field strengths of .5, 1, 1.5 and 3T. Various magnetic shield configurations were simulated, varying the SID from 800 to 1300mm. The average magnetic field within the gun region was assessed together with the distortion in the imaging volume - greater than 150uT distortion was considered unacceptable. Results: The conventional guns functioned in fields of less than 7.5mT. Conversely, the redesigned diode required fields greater than .1T to function correctly. Magnetic shielding was feasible for SIDS of greater than 1000mm for field strengths of .5T and 1T, and 1100mm for 1.5 and 3.0T. Beyond these limits shielding resulted in unacceptable MRI distortion. In contrast, the redesigned diode could perform acceptably for SIDs of less than 812, 896, 931, and 974mm for imaging strengths of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0T. Conclusions: For in-line MRIlinac configurations where the electron gun is operating in low field regions, shielding is a straight forward option. However, as magnetic field strength increases and the SID is reduced, shielding results in too great a distortion in the MRI and redesigning the electron optics is the preferable solution. The authors would like to acknowledge funding from the National Health and Research Council (AUS), National Institute of Health (NIH), and Cancer Institute NSW.

  12. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 28 March 2012 00:00 Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the

  13. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  14. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  15. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  16. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  17. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging for the

  18. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging for the

  19. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  20. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  1. Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Magnetics Details Activities (25) Areas (19) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration...

  2. Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Release 29 May 2007 Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club summary written by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communication Office The exclusive club of magnetic elements officially has a new member-carbon. Using a proton beam and advanced x-ray techniques, SLAC researchers in collaboration with colleagues from LBNL and the University of Leipzig in Germany have finally put to rest doubts about carbon's ability to be made magnetic. "In the past, some groups thought they had discovered magnetic

  3. Cosmic magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with the cosmic magnetism in a non-mathematical way. It uses Faraday's very powerful and highly pictorial concept of lines of magnetic force and their associated physical properties to explain the structure and behavior of magnetic fields in extraterrestrial objects. Contents include: forces of nature; magnetic field of earth; solar and interplanetary magnetic fields; magnetic fields in the solar system; stars and pulsars; and magnetic fields of the milky way and other galaxies.

  4. Household magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Household magnets Chances are very good that you have experimented with magnets. People have been fascinated with magnetism for thousands of years. As familiar to us as they may be, magnets still have some surprises for us. Here is a small collection of some of our favorite magnet experiments. What happens when we break a magnet in half? Radio Shack sells cheap ceramic magnets in several shapes. Get a ring shaped magnet and break it with pliers or a tap with a hammer. Try to put it back

  5. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  6. Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Capabilities | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Capabilities Synthesis Colloidal chemistry and self-assembly techniques Complex oxide film synthesis via molecular beam epitaxy (DCA R450...

  7. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science, ranging from large-scale structures and dynamics of polymers and biological systems, to electronic properties of today's technological materials. Neutron scattering developed into a vast field, encompassing many different experimental techniques aimed at exploring different aspects of matter's atomic structure and dynamics. Modern magnetic neutron scattering includes several specialized techniques designed for specific studies and/or particular classes of materials. Among these are magnetic reflectometry aimed at investigating surfaces, interfaces, and multilayers, small-angle scattering for the large-scale structures, such as a vortex lattice in a superconductor, and neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for glasses and polymers. Each of these techniques and many others offer exciting opportunities for examining magnetism and warrant extensive reviews, but the aim of this chapter is not to survey how different neutron-scattering methods are used to examine magnetic properties of different materials. Here, we concentrate on reviewing the basics of the magnetic neutron scattering, and on the recent developments in applying one of the oldest methods, the triple axis spectroscopy, that still is among the most extensively used ones. The developments discussed here are new and have not been coherently reviewed. Chapter 2 of this book reviews magnetic small-angle scattering, and modern techniques of neutron magnetic reflectometry are discussed in Chapter 3.

  8. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  9. Summary report for nanoscale magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.G.; Waddill, G.D.; Jankowski, A.F.; Tamura, E.; Sterne, P.A.; Pappas, D.P.; Tong, S.Y.

    1993-09-23

    We have probed the electronic, geometric, and magnetic nanoscale structure of ultrathin magnetic films, both monolayers and multilayers (Fe/Cu(001), FePt, FeCoPt, UFe{sub 2}, U-S). Techniques used included the MCD (magnetic circular dichroism)-variants of of x-ray absorption, core-level photoemission, and photoelectron diffraction. Progress has been made on nanoscale structure-property relations, in part of coupling of world-class experimentation and theoretical modeling. Feasibility of investigations of 5f magnetism using bulk uranium samples also has been demonstrated.

  10. Mineral Magnetism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Magnetism 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:March 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Mineral Magnetism By understanding what makes a material magnetic, scientists want to create new strongly magnetic materials that don't rely on hard-to-get precursor elements. March 8, 2016 Small piles of rare earth elements In the United States, rare-earth elements used in strong magnets, such as neodymium and samarium, are scarce due to limits on foreign sources. CREDIT:

  11. Magnetic hydrogel with high coercivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szeri, H.; Alvero?lu, E.; Kurtan, U.; ?enel, M.; Baykal, A.

    2013-08-01

    Highlights: Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels containing magnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles have been prepared. Magnetization measurements reveal that hydrogels have hard magnetic properties with high coercivity. Magnetic nanoparticles makes the gel more homogeneous and do not diffuse out of the gel during water intake. These gels are useful in applications as wastewater treatment once gels are magnetized before its usage. - Abstract: This study investigates the synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels containing magnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles. Structural, electrical, and magnetic characterization of the gels have been performed with X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, DC conductivity, magnetization and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The preparation and characterization of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels that contain 5 and 10 mg BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (16 and 21 nm diameter) nanoparticles are described herein. It is seen from the fluorescence spectra that, nanoparticles surrounded to pyranine molecules so that some of pyranine molecules could not bound to the polymer strands. Electrical measurements show that presence of nanoparticles make the gel more homogeneous. Magnetization measurements reveal that hydrogels have hard magnetic properties with quite high coercivity of 4.2 kOe, which does not change with swelling. This feature makes these gels useful in applications as wastewater treatment if they are magnetized before use.

  12. Magnetic shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, J.A.; Stone, R.R.; Fabyan, J.

    1987-10-06

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines. 3 figs.

  13. Magnetic shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, John A.; Stone, Roger R.; Fabyan, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  14. Magnetic filtration process, magnetic filtering material, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention provides magnetically responsive activated carbon, and a method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon. The method of forming magnetically ...

  15. Magnetic shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, J.A.; Stone, R.R.; Fabyan, J.

    1985-02-12

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  16. Magnetic nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  19. CRYOGENIC MAGNETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-05-21

    A cryogenic magnet coil is described for generating magnetic fields of the order of 100,000 gauss with a minimum expenditure of energy lost in resistive heating of the coil inductors and energy lost irreversibly in running the coil refrigeration plant. The cryogenic coil comprises a coil conductor for generating a magnetic field upon energization with electrical current, and refrigeration means disposed in heat conductive relation to the coil conductor for cooling to a low temperature. A substantial reduction in the power requirements for generating these magnetic fields is attained by scaling the field generating coil to large size and particular dimensions for a particular conductor, and operating the coil at a particular optimum temperature commensurate with minimum overall power requirements. (AEC)

  20. Magnetic monopoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references.

  1. Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Ground Magnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  2. Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Ground Magnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  3. Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited) A novel diagnostic technique for the remote and ...

  4. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Underlying the magnetocaloric effect is the idea that magnetism is the result of the ... with the magnetic field, the magnetic entropy (disorder) of the system decreases; if ...

  5. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. Not Your Mother's Refrigerator Magnets Some day soon, magnets could do more than clutter up the front of your...

  6. Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  7. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  10. Neutron diffraction studies on chemical and magnetic structure of multiferroic PbFe{sub 0.67}W{sub 0.33}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteppanavar, Shidaling Angadi, Basavaraj; Rayaprol, Sudhindra

    2014-04-24

    We report on the single phase synthesis and room temperature structural characterization of PbFe{sub 0.67}W{sub 0.33}O{sub 3} (PFW) multiferroic. The PFW was synthesized by low temperature sintering, Columbite method. Analysis of powder XRD pattern exhibits single phase formation of PFW with no traces of pyrochlore phase. Detailed analysis of room temperature neutron diffraction (ND) reveals cubic phase at room temperature, space group Pm-3m. The ND pattern clearly reveals magnetic Bragg peak at 2? = 18.51 (Q = 1.36{sup ?1}). The refinement of magnetic structure reveals G-type antiferromagnetic structure in PFW at room temperature. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decreases with increasing frequency. The room temperature P-E measurements shows a non-linear slim hysteresis, typical nature of relaxor multiferroics, with saturation and remnant polarizations of P{sub s} = 1.50 ?C/cm{sup 2} and P{sub r} = 0.40 ?C/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  11. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including transitions from magnetic to nonmagnetic phases in a broad pressure-temperature range; using X-ray methods including the newly developed RIXS high-pressure technique to explore pressure-tuned electronic excitations in strongly correlated 3d-materials; and advancing transport and magnetic techniques for measurements on small samples at very high pressures in a wide temperature range, with the application of focused ion beam technology and photolithography tailored to the design of microcircuits down to a nanoscale size, thus expanding the horizon in the search for novel physical phenomena at ultrahigh pressures. Apply new optical magnetic sensing techniques with NV- centers in diamond to detect superconductivity and magnetic transitions with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  12. Superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satti, John A. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting magnet designed to produce magnetic flux densities of the order of 4 to 5 Webers per square meter is constructed by first forming a cable of a plurality of matrixed superconductor wires with each wire of the plurality insulated from each other one. The cable is shaped into a rectangular cross-section and is wound with tape in an open spiral to create cooling channels. Coils are wound in a calculated pattern in saddle shapes to produce desired fields, such as dipoles, quadrupoles, and the like. Wedges are inserted between adjacent cables as needed to maintain substantially radial placement of the long dimensions of cross sections of the cables. After winding, individual strands in each of the cables are brought out to terminals and are interconnected to place all of the strands in series and to maximize the propagation of a quench by alternating conduction from an inner layer to an outer layer and from top half to bottom half as often as possible. Individual layers are separated from others by spiraled aluminum spacers to facilitate cooling. The wound coil is wrapped with an epoxy tape that is cured by heat and then machined to an interference fit with an outer aluminum pipe which is then affixed securely to the assembled coil by heating it to make a shrink fit. In an alternate embodiment, one wire of the cable is made of copper or the like to be heated externally to propagate a quench.

  13. Try This: Household Magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Household Magnets Household Magnets Chances are very good that you have experimented with magnets. People have been fascinated with magnetism for thousands of years. As familiar to us as they may be, magnets still have some surprises for us. Here is a small collection of some of our favorite magnet experiments. What happens when we break a magnet in half? Radio Shack sells cheap ceramic magnets in several shapes. Get a ring shaped magnet and break it with pliers or a tap with a hammer. Try to

  14. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  15. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan G. Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10{sup 4} T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10{sup −10}m{sup 3}) at high plasma densities (∼10{sup 28}m{sup −3}) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  16. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied ScienceTechniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class...

  17. Sandia Energy - Sandia Magnetized Fusion Technique Produces Significan...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an automobile's cylinders firing. Sandia researchers Paul Schmit, left, and Patrick Knapp discuss equations and graphs that describe aspects of Sandia's Z Machine. (Photo by...

  18. Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraus, Robert H.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr L.

    2010-03-30

    An ultra-low magnetic field NMR system can non-invasively examine containers. Database matching techniques can then identify hazardous materials within the containers. Ultra-low field NMR systems are ideal for this purpose because they do not require large powerful magnets and because they can examine materials enclosed in conductive shells such as lead shells. The NMR examination technique can be combined with ultra-low field NMR imaging, where an NMR image is obtained and analyzed to identify target volumes. Spatial sensitivity encoding can also be used to identify target volumes. After the target volumes are identified the NMR measurement technique can be used to identify their contents.

  19. MAGNETIC DENSITOMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCann, J.A.; Jones, R.H.

    1961-08-15

    A magnetic densitometer for locating defects and metallic inclusions in materials is described. The apparatus consists of two primary coils connected in series opposition and adapted te be placed in inductive relation to the material under test, a source of constant frequency alternating current coupled across the primary coil combination, a pick-up coil disposed in symmetrical inductive relationship with said primary coils, a phase-shifter coupled to the output of the energizing source. The output of the phase-shifter is coupled in series with the pick-up coil. An amplifier is provided selective to the third harmonic of the energizing source frequency. The series combination of the pick-up coil and the phase-shifter output are connected across the input of the amplifier, and an amplitude comparitor is coupled to the output of the amplifier and the energizing source for comparing the instantaneous amplitude of the amplifier output and the instantaneous output of the energizing source and producing an output proportional to the difference in amplitude. A recorder is coupled to the output of the amplitude comparison means to give an indication of the amplitude difference, thereby providing a permanent presentation of the character of the changes in characteristics exhibited by the material under test. (AEC)

  20. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.; Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K.; Dantelle, G.; Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S.

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  1. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Michael W.; (Livermore, CA); Lucas, Matthew S.; (Pasadena, CA)

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  2. Recycling Magnets | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recycling Magnets Recycling Magnets July 15, 2013 The cost of a nuclear or particle physics experiment can be enormous, several hundred million dollars for the Large Hadron Collider Experiments, ATLAS and CMS at CERN, several tens of millions of dollars for an experiment like our GlueX experiment in Hall D, being built as part of our upgrade project. Among the expensive components of many experiments is a large magnet or sometimes more than one magnet. Sometimes the magnets have interesting

  3. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes ... The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Laser ...

  4. Nanocomposite Magnets: Transformational Nanostructured Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GE is using nanomaterials technology to develop advanced magnets that contain fewer rare earth materials than their predecessors. Nanomaterials technology involves manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale, which can represent a stumbling block for magnets because it is difficult to create a finely grained magnet at that scale. GE is developing bulk magnets with finely tuned structures using iron-based mixtures that contain 80% less rare earth materials than traditional magnets, which will reduce their overall cost. These magnets will enable further commercialization of HEVs, EVs, and wind turbine generators while enhancing U.S. competitiveness in industries that heavily utilize these alternatives to rare earth minerals.

  5. Bioinspired synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Anand

    2009-05-26

    The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles has long been an area of active research. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used in a wide variety of applications such as magnetic inks, magnetic memory devices, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and pathogen detection in foods. In applications such as MRI, particle uniformity is particularly crucial, as is the magnetic response of the particles. Uniform magnetic particles with good magnetic properties are therefore required. One particularly effective technique for synthesizing nanoparticles involves biomineralization, which is a naturally occurring process that can produce highly complex nanostructures. Also, the technique involves mild conditions (ambient temperature and close to neutral pH) that make this approach suitable for a wide variety of materials. The term 'bioinspired' is important because biomineralization research is inspired by the naturally occurring process, which occurs in certain microorganisms called 'magnetotactic bacteria'. Magnetotactic bacteria use biomineralization proteins to produce magnetite crystals having very good uniformity in size and morphology. The bacteria use these magnetic particles to navigate according to external magnetic fields. Because these bacteria synthesize high quality crystals, research has focused on imitating aspects of this biomineralization in vitro. In particular, a biomineralization iron-binding protein found in a certain species of magnetotactic bacteria, magnetospirillum magneticum, AMB-1, has been extracted and used for in vitro magnetite synthesis; Pluronic F127 gel was used to increase the viscosity of the reaction medium to better mimic the conditions in the bacteria. It was shown that the biomineralization protein mms6 was able to facilitate uniform magnetite synthesis. In addition, a similar biomineralization process using mms6 and a shorter version of this protein, C25, has been used to synthesize cobalt ferrite particles. The overall goal of this project is to understand the mechanism of magnetite particle synthesis in the presence of the biomineralization proteins, mms6 and C25. Previous work has hypothesized that the mms6 protein helps to template magnetite and cobalt ferrite particle synthesis and that the C25 protein templates cobalt ferrite formation. However, the effect of parameters such as the protein concentration on the particle formation is still unknown. It is expected that the protein concentration significantly affects the nucleation and growth of magnetite. Since the protein provides iron-binding sites, it is expected that magnetite crystals would nucleate at those sites. In addition, in the previous work, the reaction medium after completion of the reaction was in the solution phase, and magnetic particles had a tendency to fall to the bottom of the medium and aggregate. The research presented in this thesis involves solid Pluronic gel phase reactions, which can be studied readily using small-angle x-ray scattering, which is not possible for the solution phase experiments. In addition, the concentration effect of both of the proteins on magnetite crystal formation was studied.

  6. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  7. Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited) A novel diagnostic technique for the remote and nonperturbative sensing of the local magnetic field in reactor relevant

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  9. Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Electromagnetic Techniques Information...

  10. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W.; Kiekel, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windlings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself.

  11. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, K.W.; Kiekel, P.

    1999-04-27

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches is disclosed. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself. 13 figs.

  12. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  13. Magnetic infrasound sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM); Grube, Holger (Los Alamos, NM); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM); Mace, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-11-14

    A magnetic infrasound sensor is produced by constraining a permanent magnet inside a magnetic potential well above the surface of superconducting material. The magnetic infrasound sensor measures the position or movement of the permanent magnet within the magnetic potential well, and interprets the measurements. Infrasound sources can be located and characterized by combining the measurements from one or more infrasound sensors. The magnetic infrasound sensor can be tuned to match infrasound source types, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio. The present invention can operate in frequency modulation mode to improve sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In an alternate construction, the superconductor can be levitated over a magnet or magnets. The system can also be driven, so that time resolved perturbations are sensed, resulting in a frequency modulation version with improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Tamper resistant magnetic stripes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naylor, Richard Brian; Sharp, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a magnetic stripe comprising a medium in which magnetized particles are suspended and in which the encoded information is recorded by actual physical rotation or alignment of the previously magnetized particles within the flux reversals of the stripe which are 180.degree. opposed in their magnetic polarity. The magnetized particles are suspended in a medium which is solid, or physically rigid, at ambient temperatures but which at moderately elevated temperatures, such as 40.degree. C., is thinable to a viscosity permissive of rotation of the particles therein under applications of moderate external magnetic field strengths within acceptable time limits.

  15. Method for the detection of a magnetic field utilizing a magnetic vortex

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novosad, Valentyn; Buchanan, Kristen

    2010-04-13

    The determination of the strength of an in-plane magnetic field utilizing one or more magnetically-soft, ferromagnetic member, having a shape, size and material whereas a single magnetic vortex is formed at remanence in each ferromagnetic member. The preferred shape is a thin circle, or dot. Multiple ferromagnetic members can also be stacked on-top of each other and separated by a non-magnetic spacer. The resulting sensor is hysteresis free. The sensor's sensitivity, and magnetic saturation characteristics may be easily tuned by simply altering the material, size, shape, or a combination thereof to match the desired sensitivity and saturation characteristics. The sensor is self-resetting at remanence and therefore does not require any pinning techniques.

  16. Electromagnetic Sounding Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  17. Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  18. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  19. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  20. Magnetic monopoles: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Trower, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    A solitary, uncorroborated Stanford candidate event is the only evidence that magnetic monpoles derives from Dirac's assertion that monopoles could explain charge quantization and the 't Hooft-Polyakov demonstration that monopoles are an inevitable consequence of many gauge theories currently being used to unify the electroweak (photon-lepton) and nuclear (quark) interactions. The monopole abundance implied by the Stanford event is in clear contradiction to bounds on their number from astronomical data. Fortunately, the already considerable and expanding arsenal of detection techniques are being fashioned to experimentally test the many open questions surrounding monopoles.

  1. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost

  2. Magnetic nanohole superlattices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    2013-05-14

    A magnetic material is disclosed including a two-dimensional array of carbon atoms and a two-dimensional array of nanoholes patterned in the two-dimensional array of carbon atoms. The magnetic material has long-range magnetic ordering at a temperature below a critical temperature Tc.

  3. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  4. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  5. Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 was completed in 2002 and it reached a depth of 672.1 m and a temperature of 144.7C. Deep Blue No. 2, was drilled and completed in 2004. It reached 1128 m depth and a...

  6. Slim Holes At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Charles E. Hockox Jr., Ronald D. Jacobsen, Gene Polik (1999) Slimhole Handbook- Procedures And Recommendations For Slimhole Drilling And Testing In Geothermal Exploration...

  7. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

    1995-11-07

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

  8. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ann. N.; Anderson, Richard E.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  9. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  10. Magnetic spectroscopy and microscopy of functional materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, C.A.

    2011-01-28

    Heusler intermetallics Mn{sub 2}Y Ga and X{sub 2}MnGa (X; Y =Fe, Co, Ni) undergo tetragonal magnetostructural transitions that can result in half metallicity, magnetic shape memory, or the magnetocaloric effect. Understanding the magnetism and magnetic behavior in functional materials is often the most direct route to being able to optimize current materials for todays applications and to design novel ones for tomorrow. Synchrotron soft x-ray magnetic spectromicroscopy techniques are well suited to explore the the competing effects from the magnetization and the lattice parameters in these materials as they provide detailed element-, valence-, and site-specifc information on the coupling of crystallographic ordering and electronic structure as well as external parameters like temperature and pressure on the bonding and exchange. Fundamental work preparing the model systems of spintronic, multiferroic, and energy-related compositions is presented for context. The methodology of synchrotron spectroscopy is presented and applied to not only magnetic characterization but also of developing a systematic screening method for future examples of materials exhibiting any of the above effects. The chapter progression is as follows: an introduction to the concepts and materials under consideration (Chapter 1); an overview of sample preparation techniques and results, and the kinds of characterization methods employed (Chapter 2); spectro- and microscopic explorations of X{sub 2}MnGa/Ge (Chapter 3); spectroscopic investigations of the composition series Mn{sub 2}Y Ga to the logical Mn{sub 3}Ga endpoint (Chapter 4); and a summary and overview of upcoming work (Chapter 5). Appendices include the results of a Think Tank for the Graduate School of Excellence MAINZ (Appendix A) and details of an imaging project now in progress on magnetic reversal and domain wall observation in the classical Heusler material Co{sub 2}FeSi (Appendix B).

  11. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  12. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  13. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN INTERNETWORK MAGNETIC ELEMENTS AND SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.

    2012-10-20

    The advection of internetwork magnetic elements by supergranular convective flows is investigated using high spatial resolution, high cadence, and high signal-to-noise ratio Na I D1 magnetograms obtained with the Hinode satellite. The observations show that magnetic elements appear everywhere across the quiet Sun surface. We calculate the proper motion of these magnetic elements with the aid of a feature tracking algorithm. The results indicate that magnetic elements appearing in the interior of supergranules tend to drift toward the supergranular boundaries with a non-constant velocity. The azimuthally averaged radial velocities of the magnetic elements and of the supergranular flow, calculated from a local correlation tracking technique applied to Dopplergrams, are very similar. This suggests that, in the long term, surface magnetic elements are advected by supergranular flows, although on short timescales their very chaotic motions are driven mostly by granular flows and other processes.

  14. Sensitive magnetic force detection with a carbon nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willick, Kyle; Haapamaki, Chris; Baugh, Jonathan

    2014-03-21

    We propose a technique for sensitive magnetic point force detection using a suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator combined with a magnetic field gradient generated by a ferromagnetic gate electrode. Numerical calculations of the mechanical resonance frequency show that single Bohr magneton changes in the magnetic state of an individual magnetic molecule grafted to the CNT can translate to detectable frequency shifts, on the order of a few kHz. The dependences of the resonator response to device parameters such as length, tension, CNT diameter, and gate voltage are explored and optimal operating conditions are identified. A signal-to-noise analysis shows that, in principle, magnetic switching at the level of a single Bohr magneton can be read out in a single shot on timescales as short as 10??s. This force sensor should enable new studies of spin dynamics in isolated single molecule magnets, free from the crystalline or ensemble settings typically studied.

  15. MAGNETIC LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiegelmann, T.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We investigate the fine structure of magnetic fields in the atmosphere of the quiet Sun. We use photospheric magnetic field measurements from SUNRISE/IMaX with unprecedented spatial resolution to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field into higher layers of the solar atmosphere with the help of potential and force-free extrapolation techniques. We find that most magnetic loops that reach into the chromosphere or higher have one footpoint in relatively strong magnetic field regions in the photosphere. Ninety-one percent of the magnetic energy in the mid-chromosphere (at a height of 1 Mm) is in field lines, whose stronger footpoint has a strength of more than 300 G, i.e., above the equipartition field strength with convection. The loops reaching into the chromosphere and corona are also found to be asymmetric in the sense that the weaker footpoint has a strength B < 300 G and is located in the internetwork (IN). Such loops are expected to be strongly dynamic and have short lifetimes, as dictated by the properties of the IN fields.

  16. Field-dependent magnetization of BiFeO3 in ultrathin La0.7Sr0...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structure and magnetic characterization of subnano layer thick (thickness 0.7 nm each) LSMOBFO hetrostructure is carried out using X-ray reflectivity and PNR techniques. ...

  17. High-Energy Composite Permanent Magnets: High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing permanent magnets that contain less rare earth material and produce twice the energy of the strongest rare earth magnets currently available. The University of Delaware is creating these magnets by mixing existing permanent magnet materials with those that are more abundant, like iron. Both materials are first prepared in the form of nanoparticles via techniques ranging from wet chemistry to ball milling. After that, the nanoparticles must be assembled in a 3-D array and consolidated at low temperatures to form a magnet. With small size particles and good contact between these two materials, the best qualities of each allow for the development of exceptionally strong composite magnets.

  18. Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created Applications might range from general magnetism, such as developing sensors, to information encoding. October 26, 2015 Researchers have created a nanoscale, artificial magnet by arranging an array of magnetic nano-islands along a geometry that is not found in natural magnets. As temperature is reduced, magnetic nanoislands (in blue) reach a one-dimensional static, ordered state, while

  19. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  20. Pulse magnetic welder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder is described for automated closure of fuel pins by a pulsed magnetic process in which the open end of a length of cladding is positioned within a complementary tube surrounded by a pulsed magnetic welder. Seals are provided at each end of the tube, which can be evacuated or can receive tag gas for direct introduction to the cladding interior. Loading of magnetic rings and end caps is accomplished automatically in conjunction with the welding steps carried out within the tube.

  1. Magnetic latching solenoid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.; Albano, Richard K.; Morrison, Jr., John L.

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized.

  2. Magnetic latching solenoid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.; Albano, R.K.; Morrison, J.L. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized. 2 figs.

  3. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  4. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  5. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  6. Weld braze technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanne, Jr., William R. (Aiken, SC); Kelker, Jr., John W. (North Augusta, SC); Alexander, Robert J. (Aiken, SC)

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  7. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  8. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversely, introducing a magnetic field to certain materials will cause the material to heat up. This happens because, as the spins in such (paramagnetic) materials align with...

  9. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. ... In molecular form, "nanomagnets" might just be the key to refrigeration that uses less ...

  10. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  11. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Gd). While some of this research is focused on materials that would operate near room temperature, Karotsis et al. here investigate the magnetic cooling properties of...

  12. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  13. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  14. Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature Dictionary.png Electrical Techniques: Electrical techniques aim to image the...

  15. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  16. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  17. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  18. Magnet pole tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-11-19

    An improved magnet more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  19. Magnet pole tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorn, Craig E. (Wading River, NY); Chasman, Chellis (Setauket, NY); Baltz, Anthony J. (Coram, NY)

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  20. Novel magnets and superconductors studied by high precision magnetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel magnets and superconductors studied by high precision magnetic susceptometer under pressure An Inductor-capacitor circuit (LC circuit) is a simple, text-book level electric...

  1. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidthan often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  2. Hanle effect as candidate for measuring magnetic fields in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presura, R.

    2012-10-15

    Weak or turbulent magnetic fields are generally difficult to measure in laboratory plasmas. A new technique to address this problem may be based on the Hanle effect, used for magnetic field measurements in solar and stellar atmospheres. The effect consists in the modification of the polarization state of the resonance-line scattered radiation. It applies for magnetic field strengths for which the shift of magnetic sublevels remains comparable to the natural width of the sublevels. Experimental configurations and parameter ranges of applicability of a Hanle effect-based diagnostics technique are discussed.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitekamp, D.P.; Bielecki, A.; Zax, D.B.; Zilm, K.W.; Pines, A.

    1987-12-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nuclei. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. 5 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitekamp, Daniel P.; Bielecki, Anthony; Zax, David B.; Zilm, Kurt W.; Pines, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nucleii. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  5. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.; Miller, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  6. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important...

  7. Magnetic nematicity: A debated origin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vaknin, David

    2016-01-22

    Different experimental studies based on nuclear magnetic resonance and inelastic neutron scattering reach opposing conclusions in regards to the origin of magnetic nematicity in iron chalcogenides.

  8. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. ... materials would further improve the competitiveness of magnetic refrigeration technology. ...

  9. Speed Limit of Magnetic Recording

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the original magnetization direction can be distinguished as changes in the grey scale contrast. In our images the original magnetization direction corresponds to light...

  10. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  11. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies....

  12. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.; Mueller, F.M.; Smith, J.L.

    1991-04-09

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency. 15 figures.

  13. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.; Mueller, Fred M.; Smith, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

  14. EMITTANCE COMPENSATION FOR MAGNETIZED BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KEWISCH,J.; CHANG, X.

    2007-06-25

    Emittance compensation is a well established technique for minimizing the emittance of an electron beam from a RF photo-cathode gun. Longitudinal slices of a bunch have a small emittance, but due to the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and time dependent RF fields they are not focused in the same way, so that the direction of their phase ellipses diverges in phase space and the projected emittance is much larger. Emittance compensation reverses the divergence. At the location where the slopes of the phase ellipses coincide the beam is accelerated, so that the space charge forces are reduced. A recipe for emittance compensation is given in. For magnetized beams (where the angular momentum is non-zero) such emittance compensation is not sufficient because variations in the slice radius lead to variations in the angular speed and therefore to an increase of emittance in the rotating game. We describe a method and tools for a compensation that includes the beam magnetization.

  15. Magnetic field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  16. Moment free toroidal magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A toroidal magnet for confining a high magnetic field for use in fusion reactor research and nuclear particle detection. The magnet includes a series of conductor elements arranged about and fixed at its small major radius portion to the outer surface of a central cylindrical support each conductor element having a geometry such as to maintain the conductor elements in pure tension when a high current flows therein, and a support assembly which redistributes all or part of the tension which would otherwise arise in the small major radius portion of each coil element to the large major radius portion thereof.

  17. Detection of magnetic resonance signals using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander; Xu, Shoujun; Hilty, Christian; Ledbetter, Micah P; Bouchard, Louis S

    2013-10-01

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a micro sample of a fluidic material may be assayed without sample contamination using NMR techniques, in combination with magnetoresistive sensors. The fluidic material to be assayed is first subject to pre-polarization, in one embodiment, by passage through a magnetic field. The magnetization of the fluidic material is then subject to an encoding process, in one embodiment an rf-induced inversion by passage through an adiabatic fast-passage module. Thereafter, the changes in magnetization are detected by a pair of solid-state magnetoresistive sensors arranged in gradiometer mode. Miniaturization is afforded by the close spacing of the various modules.

  18. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  19. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

  20. Permanent magnet energy conversion machine with magnet mounting arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid permanent magnet dc motor includes three sets of permanent magnets supported by the rotor and three sets of corresponding stators fastened to the surrounding frame. One set of magnets operates across a radial gap with a surrounding radial gap stator, and the other two sets of magnets operate off the respective ends of the rotor across respective axial gaps.

  1. Magnetic gripper device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, R.E.

    1993-03-09

    A climbing apparatus is provided for climbing ferromagnetic surfaces, such as storage tanks and steel frame structures. A magnet assembly is rotatably mounted in a frame assembly. The frame assembly provides a pair of cam surfaces having different dimensions so that, when the frame is rotated, the cam surfaces contact the ferromagnetic surface to separate the magnet assembly from the surface. The different cam dimensions enable one side of the magnet at a time to be detached from the surface to reduce the effort needed to disengage the climbing apparatus. The cam surface also provides for smoothly attaching the apparatus. A hardened dowel pin is also attached to the frame and the pointed end of the dowel engages the surface when the magnet is attached to the surface to prevent downward sliding movement of the assembly under the weight of the user.

  2. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Tien-Fang (Wayland, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  3. Magnetic Materials Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-ID-C: Soft X-ray Magnetic Spectroscopy This beamline operates in the soft x-ray energy spectrum (500 - 2700 eV) using an electromagnetic helical undulator to provide circularly...

  4. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  5. Magnetic gripper device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Ross E.

    1993-01-01

    A climbing apparatus is provided for climbing ferromagnetic surfaces, such as storage tanks and steel frame structures. A magnet assembly is rotatably mounted in a frame assembly. The frame assembly provides a pair of cam surfaces having different dimensions so that, when the frame is rotated, the cam surfaces contact the ferromagnetic surface to separate the magnet assembly from the surface. The different cam dimensions enable one side of the magnet at a time to be detached from the surface to reduce the effort needed to disengage the climbing apparatus. The cam surface also provides for smoothly attaching the apparatus. A hardened dowel pin is also attached to the frame and the pointed end of the dowel engages the surface when the magnet is attached to the surface to prevent downward sliding movement of the assembly under the weight of the user.

  6. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  7. Magnetic coupling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A.

    2009-08-18

    A quick connect/disconnect coupling apparatus is provided in which a base member is engaged by a locking housing through a series of interengagement pins. The pins maintain the shaft in a locked position. Upon exposure to an appropriately positioned magnetic field, pins are removed a sufficient distance such that the shaft may be withdrawn from the locking housing. The ability to lock and unlock the connector assembly requires no additional tools or parts apart from a magnetic key.

  8. Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  9. Borehole Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  10. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doughty, Frank C. (Plano, TX); Spencer, John E. (Plano, TX)

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  11. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmierer, Eric N.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Caltun, O. F.; Hempelmann, R.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1?x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  14. Determining the exchange parameters of spin-1 metal-organic molecular magnets in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdonald, Ross D; Singleton, John; Lancaster, Tom; Goddard, Paul; Manson, Jamie

    2011-01-14

    We nave measured the high-field magnetization of a number of Ni-based metal-organic molecular magnets. These materials are self-assembly coordination polymers formed from transition metal ions and organic ligands. The chemistry of the compounds is versatile allowing many structures with different magnetic properties to be formed. These studies follow on from previous measurements of the Cu-based analogues in which we showed it was possible to extract the exchange parameters of low-dimensional magnets using pulsed magnetic fields. In our recent experiments we have investigated the compound (Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2})PF{sub 6}, where pyz = pyrazine, and the Ni-ions are linked in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) square lattice via the pyrazine molecules, with the layers held together by HF{sub 2} ligands. We also investigated Ni(NCS){sub 2}(pyzdo){sub 2}, where pyzdo = pyrazine dioxide. The samples are grown at Eastern Washington University using techniques described elsewhere. Measurements are performed at the pulsed magnetic field laboratory in Los Alamos. The magnetization of powdered samples is determined using a compensated coil magnetometer in a 65 T short pulse magnet. Temperatures as low as 500 mK are achievable using a {sup 3}He cryostat. The main figure shows the magnetization of the spin-1 [Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]PF{sub 6} compound at 1.43 K. The magnetization rises slowly at first, achieving a rounded saturation whose midpoint is around 19 T. A small anomaly is also seen in the susceptibility at low fields ({approx}3 T), which might be attributed to a spin-flop transition. In contrast, the spin-1/2 [Cu(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]PF{sub 6} measured previously has a saturation magnetization of 35.5 T and a strongly concave form of M(B) below this field. This latter compound was shown to be a good example of a Q2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet with the strong exchange coupling (J{sub 2D} = 12.4 K, J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 2D} {approx} 10{sup -2}) directed along the Cu-pyz-Cu directions. The structure of the two compounds is similar, but in the case of the Cu-compound the Cu-Cu pathways are linear, whereas in the Ni-compound they are kinked. The pulsed-field data combined with information from temperature-dependent susceptibility, muon-spin rotation, electron-spin resonance and ligand-field calculations suggest that, far from being magnetically Q2D, the Ni-compound is fairly one-dimensional with the dominant exchange (J{sub 1D} = 3.1 K and J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 1D} = 0.63) directed along the Ni-FHF-Ni direction. Ni(NCS){sub 2}(pyzdo){sub 2} was also investigated. Previous ultra-high field measurements using the 100 T magnet have shown that this compound has a saturation field close to 80 T. The purpose of the present studies is to map out the phase diagram of this material at mid-range fields. The data are shown in the inset to the figure. This continuing project probes the ability of organic ligands to mediate magnetic exchange, the link between structure, dimensionality and bulk magnetic properties, as well as the role of spin number in quantum magnets. Ultimately the investigations aim to determine to what extent it is possible to produce self-assembly molecular materials with tailor-made magnetic characteristics.

  15. How to Turn Carbon into A Magnet? X-rays and Protons Give the Answer!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Turn Carbon into A Magnet? X-rays and Protons Give the Answer! Since antiquity, magnetism has appeared to be a trick performed only by iron, nickel, cobalt and a handful of rare alloys. But now the exclusive club of magnetic elements officially has a new member: carbon. Using a proton beam and advanced x-ray techniques, researchers at the Department of Energy's Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Leipzig and Lawrence Berkeley

  16. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Steyert, W.A.

    1981-01-27

    An apparatus and method for refrigeration are disclosed which provides efficient refrigeration over temperature ranges in excess of 20/sup 0/C and which requires no maintenance and is, therefore, usable on an unmanned satellite. The apparatus comprises a superconducting magnet which may be solenoidal. A piston comprising a substance such as a rare earth substance which is maintained near its Curie temperature reciprocates through the bore of the solenoidal magnet. A magnetic drive rod is connected to the piston and appropriate heat sinks are connected thereto. The piston is driven by a suitable mechanical drive such as an electric motor and cam. In practicing the invention, the body of the piston is magnetized and demagnetized as it moves through the magnetic field of the solenoid to approximate any of the following cycles or a condition thereof as well as, potentially, other cycles: Brayton, Carnot, Ericsson, and Stirling. Advantages of the present invention include: that refrigeration can be accomplished over at least a 20/sup 0/C scale at superconducting temperatures as well as at more conventional temperatures; very high efficiency, high reliability, and small size. (LCL)

  17. Magnetic reconnection launcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Maynard

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic launcher includes a plurality of electrical stages which are energized sequentially in synchrony with the passage of a projectile. Each stage of the launcher includes two or more coils which are arranged coaxially on either closed-loop or straight lines to form gaps between their ends. The projectile has an electrically conductive gap-portion that passes through all the gaps of all the stages in a direction transverse to the axes of the coils. The coils receive an electric current, store magnetic energy, and convert a significant portion of the stored magnetic energy into kinetic energy of the projectile by magnetic reconnection as the gap portion of the projectile moves through the gap. The magnetic polarity of the opposing coils is in the same direction, e.g. N-S-N-S. A gap portion of the projectile may be made from aluminum and is propelled by the reconnection of magnetic flux stored in the coils which causes accelerating forces to act upon the projectile at both the rear vertical surface of the projectile and at the horizontal surfaces of the projectile near its rear. The gap portion of the projectile may be flat, rectangular and longer than the length of the opposing coils and fit loosely within the gap between the opposing coils.

  18. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aized, D.; Schwall, R.E.

    1999-06-22

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil. 15 figs.

  19. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  20. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1999-06-22

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  1. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  2. Magnetic imager and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

  3. Magnetic imager and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Danby, G.

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager includes a generator for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager also includes a sensor for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object. 25 figs.

  4. Diagnostic techniques used in AVLIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heestand, G.M.; Beeler, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    This is the second part of a general overview talk on the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. In this presentation the authors will discuss the diagnostic techniques used to measure key parameters in their atomic vapor including densities, temperature, velocities charge exchange rates and background ionization levels. Although these techniques have been extensively applied to their uranium program they do have applicability to other systems. Relevant data demonstrating these techniques will be shown.

  5. Gravity Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in density, such as at fault contacts. 2 Gravity techniques are also applied towards reservoir monitoring for subsidence and mass gain or loss within a geothermal reservoir...

  6. Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in-situ within the well, downhole techniques are capable of accurately constraining these reservoir parameters relative to depth.2 Gaining an understanding of these reservoir...

  7. techniques | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and discussion of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques. The Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act of...

  8. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  9. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  10. Tunable Magnetic Regenerator/Refrigerant - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic regenerators utilize the magnetocaloric effect--the ability of a magnetic field to reduce the magnetic part of a solid materials entropy, generating heat, and then ...

  11. Equilibrium magnetic states in individual hemispherical permalloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The magnetization distributions in individual soft magnetic permalloy caps on non-magnetic spherical particles with sizes ranging from 50 to 800 nm are investigated. We ...

  12. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 The magnetic-recording industry deliberately...

  13. Magnet Motor Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnet Motor Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Magnet Motor Corp. Place: Starnberg, Germany Zip: 82319 Sector: Vehicles Product: Magnet motor Corp has been developing and...

  14. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  15. Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum critical fluctuations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic quantum critical fluctuations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic quantum critical fluctuations We report Knight shift experiments on the superconducting heavy electron material CeCoIn{sub 5} that allow one to track with

  16. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00 The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted

  17. Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum critical fluctuations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic quantum critical fluctuations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic quantum critical fluctuations × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

  18. Magnetic Filtration Process, Magnetic Filtering Material, and Method of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forming Magnetic Filtering Material - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Magnetic Filtration Process, Magnetic Filtering Material, and Method of Forming Magnetic Filtering Material Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryORNL researchers developed a new method for filtering materials and managing wastewater. This invention offers an integrated, intensified process

  19. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  20. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jasper A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1982-01-01

    Means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial component of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  1. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  2. FINAL REPORT: FG02-01ER-45906 - A novel class of artificially modulated magnetic multilayers based on magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, H. D.

    2005-06-20

    The temperature dependent micromagnetic behavior, structural phase transitions, magnetic transition, and the dynamics of phase transitions have been investigated using magnetic shape memory alloys. Results provide a novel concept of ?polymagnets?. In thin film form the number of martensite variants is greatly reduced. A new technique to study dynamics of magnetic phase transitions has been developed applicable to bulk, thin films or multilayers. Transition pathways in magnetic shape memory alloys are as follows: Structural transitions followed by magnetic transition on cooling, and magnetic transition followed by structural transition on heating. The anisotropy of exchange spring mulilayers is greatly sensitive to substrate constraints, and shows a marked rotational hysteresis at lower temperatures. Results also show that a large reduction in coercivity of multilayers is a direct result of broadening of domain wall width by interlayer magnetostatic interactions.

  3. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  4. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Overton, W.C. Jr.; Stewart, W.F.

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  5. Magnetic Materials | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Internal Magnetic Materials The Magnetic Material Group (MMG) is part of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Our research focuses on the...

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  7. Magnet Cooldown and Warmup Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-11

    This program evaluates cooldown/warmup performance of an SSC magnet or magnet strings, But can be applied to any other iron coldmass which is cooled or warmed by helium.

  8. Magnetic reconnection launcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, M.

    1987-04-06

    An electromagnetic launcher includes a plurality of electrical stages which are energized sequentially in the launcher with the passage of a projectiles. Each stage of the launcher includes two or more coils which are arranged coaxially on either closed-loop or straight lines to form gaps between their ends. The projectile has an electrically conductive gap-portion that passes through all the gaps of all the stages in a direction transverse to the axes of the coils. The coils receive an electric current, store magnetic energy, and convert a significant portion of the stored magnetic energy into kinetic energy of the projectile moves through the gap. The magnetic polarity of the opposing coils is in the same direction, e.g. N-S-N-S. A gap portion of the projectile may be made from aluminum and is propelled by the reconnection of magnetic flux stored in the coils which causes accelerating forces to act upon the projectile and at the horizontal surfaces of the projectile near its rear. The gap portion of the projectile may be flat, rectangular and longer than the length of the opposing coils. The gap portion of the projectile permits substantially unrestricted distribution of the induced currents so that current densities are only high where the useful magnetic force is high. This allows designs which permit ohmic oblation from the rear surfaces of the gap portion of the projectile allowing much high velocities to be achieved. An electric power apparatus controls the electric power supplied to the opposing coils until the gap portion of the projectile substantially occupies the gap between the coils, at which time the coils are supplied with peak current quickly. 8 figs.

  9. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  10. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  11. Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

  12. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  13. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  14. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  15. Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission electron tomography Title Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission...

  16. Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Formation Testing Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0)...

  17. Form:ExplorationTechnique | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Technique below. If the technique already exists, you will be able to edit its information. AddEdit Technique Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  18. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  19. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties.

  20. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  1. Inductrack magnet configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2003-10-14

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track of windings is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  2. Inductrack magnet configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2003-12-16

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track of windings is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  3. Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud

    2002-01-28

    The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperature is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.

  4. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  5. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  6. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, J.A.; Cooper, R.K.

    1980-10-10

    The patent consists of means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial correspondent of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  7. Category:Magnetotelluric Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnetotelluric Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Magnetotelluric Techniques page? For detailed...

  8. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host

  9. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host

  10. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host

  11. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host

  12. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host

  13. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  14. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal ... ; Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 ...

  15. Apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2011-11-08

    An apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids including particular rods, magnetic fields and flow arrangements.

  16. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  17. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  18. Multi-scale Shock Technique

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    The code to be released is a new addition to the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. LAMMPS is developed and maintained by Sandia, is publicly available, and is used widely by both natioanl laboratories and academics. The new addition to be released enables LAMMPS to perform molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves using the Multi-scale Shock Simulation Technique (MSST) which we have developed and has been previously published. This technique enables molecular dynamics simulations of shockmore » waves in materials for orders of magnitude longer timescales than the direct, commonly employed approach.« less

  19. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Dan (Brentwood, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  20. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  1. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Wireless power transfer magnetic couplers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Hunter; Gilchrist, Aaron; Sealy, Kylee

    2016-01-19

    A magnetic coupler is disclosed for wireless power transfer systems. A ferrimagnetic component is capable of guiding a magnetic field. A wire coil is wrapped around at least a portion of the ferrimagnetic component. A screen is capable of blocking leakage magnetic fields. The screen may be positioned to cover at least one side of the ferrimagnetic component and the coil. A distance across the screen may be at least six times an air gap distance between the ferrimagnetic component and a receiving magnetic coupler.

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  4. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  7. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  9. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  10. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensors, and data processing. Fortunately, additional research has proven that etching carbon with sulfuric acid can also make the carbon magnetic, opening the door for...

  11. BNL Direct Wind Superconducting Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ghosh, A.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Muratore, A.; Wanderer, P.

    2011-09-12

    BNL developed Direct Wind magnet technology is used to create a variety of complex multi-functional multi-layer superconducting coil structures without the need for creating custom production tooling and fixturing for each new project. Our Direct Wind process naturally integrates prestress into the coil structure so external coil collars and yokes are not needed; the final coil package transverse size can then be very compact. Direct Wind magnets are produced with very good field quality via corrections applied during the course of coil winding. The HERA-II and BEPC-II Interaction Region (IR) magnet, J-PARC corrector and Alpha antihydrogen magnetic trap magnets and our BTeV corrector magnet design are discussed here along with a full length ILC IR prototype magnet presently in production and the coils that were wound for an ATF2 upgrade at KEK. A new IR septum magnet design concept for a 6.2 T combined-function IR magnet for eRHIC, a future RHIC upgrade, is introduced here.

  12. Neuroimaging Techniques: a Conceptual Overview of Physical Principles, Contribution and History

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2006-06-08

    This paper is meant to provide a brief overview of the techniques currently used to image the brain and to study non-invasively its anatomy and function. After a historical summary in the first section, general aspects are outlined in the second section. The subsequent six sections survey, in order, computed tomography (CT), morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DWI/DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electro- and magneto-encephalography (EEG/MEG) based imaging. Underlying physical principles, modelling and data processing approaches, as well as clinical and research relevance are briefly outlined for each technique. Given the breadth of the scope, there has been no attempt to be comprehensive. The ninth and final section outlines some aspects of active research in neuroimaging.

  13. Expansion solution of Laplace`s equation: Technique and application to hollow beam gun design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.H.; Taccetti, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a flexible algorithm for the general calculation of expansion solutions to Laplace`s equation. The limiting factor in application of the technique is shown to be series truncation error and not errors in calculating numerical derivatives. Application of the algorithm to the accurate computation of arbitrary magnetic fields in cylindrical geometry from on-axis or coil data will be presented. For an ideal current loop, magnetic field accuracies of better than 0.01% of the exact elliptic integral solution can be obtained out to approximately 70--80% of the loop radius. Accuracy improves dramatically for radii closer to the axis. Results also is shown for thin current disks, thin solenoids and thick coils. Other aspects of the technique is illustrated by application to the design of a coil system for a hollow beam electron gun. With some reasonable assumptions about the overlay of the electron trajectories and the magnetic flux contours, it is possible to generate an estimate for the on-axis profile of the gun magnetic field. The expansion technique can then be applied to calculate the off-axis field and its impact on the trajectories without assuming any particular coil system. The initial estimate can then be refined and retested. Finally, an optimization technique is used to develop a coil system which closely reproduces the refined field. The results of carrying out this set of calculations on a 150 kV, 20 A hollow electron gun design for an FEL experiment is reported.

  14. Acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2015-07-16

    The presentation begins with colorful depictions of solar x-ray flares and references to pulsar phenomena. Plasma reconnection is complex, could be x-point dominated or turbulent, field lines could break due to either resistivity or non-ideal effects, such as electron pressure anisotropy. Electron acceleration is sometimes observed, and sometimes not. One way to study this complex problem is to have many examples of the process (reconnection) and compare them; the other way is to simplify and come to something robust. Ideal MHD (E=0) turbulence driven by magnetic energy is assumed, and the first-order acceleration is sought. It is found that dissipation in big (length >100 ion skin depths) current sheets is universal and independent on microscopic resistivity and the mean imposed field; particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. One example of such flow is spontaneous reconnection. This explains hot electrons with a power-law tail in solar flares, as well as ultrashort time variability in some astrophysical sources.

  15. Multiparameter magnetic inspection system with magnetic field control and plural magnetic transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiles, David C. (Ames, IA)

    1991-04-16

    A multiparameter magnetic inspection system for providing an efficient and economical way to derive a plurality of independent measurements regarding magnetic properties of the magnetic material under investigation. The plurality of transducers for a plurality of different types of measurements operatively connected to the specimen. The transducers are in turn connected to analytical circuits for converting transducer signals to meaningful measurement signals of the magnetic properties of the specimen. The measurement signals are processed and can be simultaneously communicated to a control component. The measurement signals can also be selectively plotted against one another. The control component operates the functioning of the analytical circuits and operates and controls components to impose magnetic fields of desired characteristics upon the specimen. The system therefore allows contemporaneous or simultaneous derivation of the plurality of different independent magnetic properties of the material which can then be processed to derive characteristics of the material.

  16. Multiparameter magnetic inspection system with magnetic field control and plural magnetic transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiles, D.C.

    1991-04-16

    A multiparameter magnetic inspection system is disclosed for providing an efficient and economical way to derive a plurality of independent measurements regarding magnetic properties of the magnetic material under investigation. The plurality of transducers for a plurality of different types of measurements operatively connected to the specimen. The transducers are in turn connected to analytical circuits for converting transducer signals to meaningful measurement signals of the magnetic properties of the specimen. The measurement signals are processed and can be simultaneously communicated to a control component. The measurement signals can also be selectively plotted against one another. The control component operates the functioning of the analytical circuits and operates and controls components to impose magnetic fields of desired characteristics upon the specimen. The system therefore allows contemporaneous or simultaneous derivation of the plurality of different independent magnetic properties of the material which can then be processed to derive characteristics of the material. 1 figure.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging using multiple electron paramagnetic resonance activation sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coene, A. Dupr, L.; Crevecoeur, G.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in several biomedical applications such as hyperthermia, drug targeting, and disease detection. To realize an effective working of these applications, the spatial distribution of the particles needs to be accurately known, in a non-invasive way. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a promising and sensitive measurement technique for recovering these distributions. In the conventional approach, EPR is applied with a homogeneous magnetic field. In this paper, we employ different heterogeneous magnetic fields that allow to stabilize the solution of the associated inverse problem and to obtain localized spatial information. A comparison is made between the two approaches and our novel adaptation shows an average increase in reconstruction quality by 5% and is 12 times more robust towards noise. Furthermore, our approach allows to speed up the EPR measurements while still obtaining reconstructions with an improved accuracy and noise robustness compared to homogeneous EPR.

  18. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  19. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles Title: Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic ...

  20. SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. IV. THE DEATH OF MAGNETIC FEATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Parnell, C. E.; Welsch, B. T.

    2013-09-10

    The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-Sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux, either by cancellation (submerging or rising loops, or reconnection in the photosphere) or by dispersal of flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of the quiet Sun. Of the feature deaths that remove visible magnetic flux from the photosphere, the vast majority do so by a process that merely disperses the previously detected flux so that it is too small and too weak to be detected, rather than completely eliminating it. The behavior of the ensemble average of these dispersals is not consistent with a model of simple planar diffusion, suggesting that the dispersal is constrained by the evolving photospheric velocity field. We introduce the concept of the partial lifetime of magnetic features, and show that the partial lifetime due to Cancellation of magnetic flux, 22 hr, is three times slower than previous measurements of the flux turnover time. This indicates that prior feature-based estimates of the flux replacement time may be too short, in contrast with the tendency for this quantity to decrease as resolution and instrumentation have improved. This suggests that dispersal of flux to smaller scales is more important for the replacement of magnetic fields in the quiet Sun than observed bipolar cancellation. We conclude that processes on spatial scales smaller than those visible to Hinode dominate the processes of flux emergence and cancellation, and therefore also the quantity of magnetic flux that threads the photosphere.

  1. SU-E-J-233: A Facility for Radiobiological Experiments in a Large Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlone, M; Heaton, R; Keller, H; Wouters, B; Jaffray, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing medical linear accelerators with integrated image guidance by MRI. Less work has been done on the fundamental biology of cell survival in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to describe an experimental system capable of measuring cell survival response in the types of MRI-linac systems currently under development. Methods: We have integrated a cobalt irradiator with a solenoid magnet. The solenoid magnet has inner diameter of 10 cm. To enable measurement of the biological effects as a function of depth, we are utilizing the sliced gel technique, in which cells are embedded and fixed within a gelatin matrix. Irradiated cells at defined positions (sub mm resolution) can subsequently be recovered and assessed for cell survival or other biological effects. Results: The magnetic field profile in the solenoid has a peak magnetic field 36 cm below the top edge of the magnet bore and can be placed at and SAD of 100 cm. At a solenoid current of 35 A, the peak magnetic field is 0.25 T. The dose rate of the cobalt irradiator is 16 cGy/min at 100 cm SAD. EBT3 film was used to demonstrate the system functionality. It was irradiated at 1 cm depth at 100 cm SSD with a 44 field to 1.5 Gy in a 0.25 T magnetic field. The dose profile was similar between this film and the control exposure without magnetic field. Conclusion: Integrating a cobalt irradiator with a high field magnet is demonstrated. The magnetic field at the cobalt defining head was minimal and did not interfere with the functioning of this unit. Cell survival experiments can be reproduced exactly in the presence or absence of a magnetic field since a resistive magnet is used.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  3. Magnetic polarizability of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragusa, S.

    1996-01-01

    We derive an expression for the magnetic polarizability of the nucleon, as related to sums of products of its electromagnetic transition moments involving the electric and magnetic dipoles and mean-square radii, as well as the electric quadrupole moment. Two sum rules emerge from the calculation. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Exploration of Artificial Frustrated Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    2015-02-17

    This program encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of arrays of nanometer-scale magnets known as “artificial frustrated magnets”. These magnets are small and closely spaced, so that their behavior as a collective group is complex and reveals insights into how such collections of interacting objects behave as a group. In particular, the placement of the magnets is such that the interactions between them are “frustrated”, in that they compete with each other. These systems are analogs to a class of magnetic materials in which the lattice geometry frustrates interactions between individual atomic moments, and in which a wide range of novel physical phenomena have been recently observed. The advantage to studying the arrays is that they are both designable and resolvable: i.e., the experiments can control all aspects of the array geometry, and can also observe how individual elements of the arrays behave. This research program demonstrated a number of phenomena including the role of multiple collective interactions, the feasibility of using systems with their magnetism aligned perpendicular to the plane of the array, the importance of disorder in the arrays, and the possibility of using high temperatures to adjust the magnet orientations. All of these phenomena, and others explored in this program, add to the body of knowledge around collective magnetic behavior and magnetism in general. Aside from building scientific knowledge in an important technological area, with relevance to computing and memory, the program also gave critical support to the education of students working on the experiments.

  5. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  6. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1988-08-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high T/sub c/ materials on SMES is discussed. 69 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Josephson magnetic rotary valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Bol'ginov, V. V.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Golubov, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    We propose a control element for a Josephson spin valve. It is a complex Josephson device containing ferromagnetic (F) layer in the weak-link area consisting of two regions, representing 0 and π Josephson junctions, respectively. The valve's state is defined by mutual orientations of the F-layer magnetization vector and boundary line between 0 and π sections of the device. We consider possible implementation of the control element by introduction of a thin normal metal layer in a part of the device area. By means of theoretical simulations, we study properties of the valve's structure as well as its operation, revealing such advantages as simplicity of control, high characteristic frequency, and good legibility of the basic states.

  8. Mass production of magnetic nickel nanoparticle in thermal plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    We report the mass production of Ni metal nanoparticles using dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by homogeneous gas phase condensation process. To increase the evaporation rate and purity of Ni nanoparticles small amount of hydrogen added along with argon in the plasma. Crystal structure analysis was done by using X-ray diffraction technique. The morphology of as synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using FESEM images. The magnetic properties were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature.

  9. Apparatus having reduced mechanical forces for supporting high magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.; Mueller, Fred M.; Smith, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of supporting extremely high magnetic fields suitable for plasma confinement, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements are significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by conventional techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

  10. Magnetic relaxation - coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1994-10-26

    The aim of the contract was to employ electron and nuclear magnetic relaxation techniques to investigate solvent swelling of coals, solvent extraction of coals and molecular interaction with solvent coal pores. Many of these investigations have appeared in four major publications and a conference proceedings. Another manuscript has been submitted for publication. The set of Argonne Premium Coals was chosen as extensively characterized and representative samples for this project.

  11. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung; Whitney, Paul; Thomas, Jim

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  12. Permanent-magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halbach, K.

    1982-09-20

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling there between. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  13. Permanent magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halbach, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling therebetween. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  14. Direct torsional actuation of microcantilevers using magnetic excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Nalam, Prathima C.; Tam, Qizhan; Carpick, Robert W.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Kikkawa, James M.

    2014-09-01

    Torsional mode dynamic force microscopy can be used for a wide range of studies including mapping lateral contact stiffness, torsional frequency or amplitude modulation imaging, and dynamic friction measurements of various materials. Piezo-actuation of the cantilever is commonly used, but it introduces spurious resonances, limiting the frequency range that can be sampled, and rendering the technique particularly difficult to apply in liquid medium where the cantilever oscillations are significantly damped. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables direct torsional actuation of cantilevers with high uniformity over wide frequency ranges by attaching a micrometer-scale magnetic bead on the back side of the cantilever. We show that when beads are magnetized along the width of the cantilever, efficient torsional actuation of the cantilevers can be achieved using a magnetic field produced from a solenoid placed underneath the sample. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by imaging atomic steps on graphite surfaces in tapping mode near the first torsional resonance of the cantilever in dodecane. The technique is also applied to map the variations in the lateral contact stiffness on the surface of graphite and polydiacetylene monolayers.

  15. Precision formed micro magnets: LDRD project summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHRISTENSON,TODD R.; GARINO,TERRY J.; VENTURINI,EUGENE L.

    2000-02-01

    A microfabrication process is described that provides for the batch realization of miniature rare earth based permanent magnets. Prismatic geometry with features as small as 5 microns, thicknesses up through several hundred microns and with submicron tolerances may be accommodated. The processing is based on a molding technique using deep x-ray lithography as a means to generate high aspect-ratio precision molds from PMMA (poly methyl methacrylate) used as an x-ray photoresist. Subsequent molding of rare-earth permanent magnet (REPM) powder combined with a thermosetting plastic binder may take place directly in the PMMA mold. Further approaches generate an alumina form replicated from the PMMA mold that becomes an intermediate mold for pressing higher density REPM material and allows for higher process temperatures. Maximum energy products of 3--8 MGOe (Mega Gauss Oersted, 1 MGOe = 100/4{pi} kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for bonded isotropic forms of REPM with dimensions on the scale of 100 microns and up to 23 MGOe for more dense anisotropic REPM material using higher temperature processing. The utility of miniature precision REPMs is revealed by the demonstration of a miniature multipole brushless DC motor that possesses a pole-anisotropic rotor with dimensions that would otherwise prohibit multipole magnetization using a multipole magnetizing fixture at this scale. Subsequent multipole assembly also leads to miniaturized Halbach arrays, efficient magnetic microactuators, and mechanical spring-like elements which can offset miniaturized mechanical scaling behavior.

  16. Magnetic Particle Detection (MPD) for In-Vitro Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minard, Kevin R.; Littke, Matthew H.; Wang, Wei; Xiong, Yijia; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-05-15

    In-vitro tests intended for evaluating the potential health effects of magnetic nanoparticles generally require an accurate measure of cell dose to promote the consistent use and interpretation of biological response. Here, a simple low-cost inductive sensor is developed for quickly determining the total mass of magnetic nanoparticles that is bound to the plasma membrane and internalized by cultured cells. Sensor operation exploits an oscillating magnetic field (f0 = 250 kHz) together with the nonlinear response of particle magnetization to generate a harmonic signal (f3 = 750 kHz) that varies linearly with particulate mass (R2 > 0.999) and is sufficiently sensitive for detecting ~ 100 ng of carboxyl-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles in under a second. When exploited for measuring receptor-mediated nanoparticle uptake in RAW 264.7 macrophages, results show that achieved dosimetry performance is comparable with relatively expensive analytical techniques that are much more time-consuming and labor-intensive to perform. Described sensing is therefore potentially better suited for low-cost in-vitro assays that require fast and quantitative magnetic particle detection.

  17. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over

  18. Category:Geochemical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Technique Subcategories This category has only the following subcategory. G + Geochemical Data Analysis (2 categories) 4 pages Pages in category "Geochemical...

  19. Category:Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Downhole Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Downhole Techniques page? For detailed information on Downhole...

  20. Category:Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Seismic Techniques page? For detailed information on Seismic...

  1. Category:Geophysical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geophysical Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Geophysical Techniques page? For detailed information on...

  2. Category:Drilling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drilling Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Drilling Techniques page? For detailed information on Drilling...

  3. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For Locating Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Remote Sensing Techniques For Locating Geothermal Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Poster: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For...

  4. Category:Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity Survey E Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic Techniques R Radiometrics S Self Potential T Telluric Survey Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  5. Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration ...

  6. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements You are...

  7. Flux growth and magnetic properties of FeVO{sub 4} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Zhangzhen Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Yutaka

    2008-09-15

    FeVO{sub 4} (I) single crystals are grown by the flux method using V{sub 2}O{sub 5} as the self-flux. The grown crystals exhibit a characteristic morphology with natural facets. The quality of the crystals is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and EPMA techniques. Magnetic properties are investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Two magnetic phase transitions are observed at {approx}13 and {approx}20 K. Such unusual magnetic behaviors are suggested to originate from two different Fe ligand environments of octahedral FeO{sub 6} and trigonal bipyramidal FeO{sub 5} in a six-column doubly bent chain. - Graphical abstract: FeVO{sub 4} (I) single crystals are grown by the flux method using V{sub 2}O{sub 5} as the self-flux. Magnetic properties are investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements, showing two magnetic phase transitions at {approx}13 and {approx}20 K.

  8. Magnetic moments of vector, axial, and tensor mesons in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Frank X.; Moerschbacher, Scott; Wilcox, Walter

    2008-11-01

    We present a calculation of magnetic moments for selected spin-1 mesons using the techniques of lattice QCD. This is carried out by introducing a progressively small static magnetic field on the lattice and measuring the linear response of a hadron's mass shift. The calculations are done on 24{sup 4} quenched lattices using standard Wilson actions, with {beta}=6.0 and pion mass down to 500 MeV. The results are compared to those from the form factor method.

  9. Magnetic Pair Spectrometer Studies of Electromagnetic Transitions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Warburton, E. K. PHYSICS; BRANCHING RATIO; CARBON 13; CARBON 14; DECAY; DEUTERON BEAMS; ELECTRIC CHARGES; ENERGY; ENERGY LEVELS; ERRORS; LIFETIME; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC...

  10. Magnetic Pair Spectrometer Studies of Electromagnetic Transitions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    English Subject: PHYSICS; BRANCHING RATIO; CARBON 13; CARBON 14; DECAY; DEUTERON BEAMS; ELECTRIC CHARGES; ENERGY; ENERGY LEVELS; ERRORS; LIFETIME; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC...

  11. Category:Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Magnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Magnetics page? For detailed information on Ground...

  12. Interfacial Magnetism in Complex Oxide Heterostructures Probed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interfacial Magnetism in Complex Oxide Heterostructures Probed by Neutrons and X-rays This ... Next Title: Interfacial Magnetism in Complex Oxide Heterostructures Probed by Neutrons ...

  13. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the lithium tokamak experimenta) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic diagnostics for...

  14. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory moves closer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers to carefully tune material parameters while perfectly reproducing the non-invasive magnetic field. Such high magnetic fields confine electrons to nanometer scale...

  15. Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality This report ...

  16. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their...

  17. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has...

  18. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired...

  19. Magnetic filtration process, magnetic filtering material, and methods of forming magnetic filtering material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taboada-Serrano, Patricia; Tsouris, Constantino; Contescu, Cristian I; McFarlane, Joanna

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides magnetically responsive activated carbon, and a method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon. The method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon typically includes providing activated carbon in a solution containing ions of ferrite forming elements, wherein at least one of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +3 and at least a second of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +2, and increasing pH of the solution to precipitate particles of ferrite that bond to the activated carbon, wherein the activated carbon having the ferrite particles bonded thereto have a positive magnetic susceptibility. The present invention also provides a method of filtering waste water using magnetic activated carbon.

  20. X-ray imaging of vortex cores in confined magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Kasai, S.; Yamada, K.; Ono, T.; Thiaville, A.

    2011-02-11

    Cores of magnetic vortices in micron-sized NiFe disk structures, with thicknesses between 150 and 50 nm, were imaged and analysed by high resolution magnetic soft X-ray microscopy. A decrease of the vortex core radius was observed, from #24; ~38 to 18 nm with decreasing disk thickness. By comparing with full 3D micromagnetic simulations showing the well-known barrel structure, we obtained excellent agreement taking into account instrumental broadening and a small perpendicular anisotropy. The proven magnetic spatial resolution of better than 25 nm was sufficient to identify a negative dip close to the vortex core, originating from stray fields of the core. Magnetic vortex structures can serve as test objects for evaluating sensitivity and spatial resolution of advanced magnetic microscopy techniques.

  1. Interfacial Magnetism in Complex Oxide Heterostructures Probed by Neutrons and X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaohua; Ke, Xianglin

    2015-09-02

    Magnetic complex-oxide heterostructures are of keen interest because a wealth of phenomena at the interface of dissimilar materials can give rise to fundamentally new physics and potentially valuable functionalities. Altered magnetization, novel magnetic coupling and emergent interfacial magnetism at the epitaxial layered-oxide interfaces have all been intensively investigated, which shapes our understanding on how to utilize those materials, particularly for spintronics. Neutron and x-ray based techniques have played a decisive role in characterizing interfacial magnetic structures and clarifying the underlying physics in this rapidly developing field. Here we review some recent experimental results, with an emphasis on those studied via polarized neutron reflectometery and polarized x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We conclude with some perspectives.

  2. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, Ryan C.

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  3. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-09-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. As a result, this article highlights recent advances in the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization.

  4. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  5. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  6. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  7. First observation of magnetic moment precession of channeled particles in bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.; Albuquerque, I.F.; Baublis, V.V.; Bondar, N.F.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Cooper, P.S.; Lisheng, D.; Denisov, A.S.; Dobrovolsky, A.V.; Dubbs, T.; Endler, A.M.F.; Escobar, C.O.; Foucher, M.; Golovtsov, V.L.; Goritchev, P.A.; Gottschalk, H.; Gouffon, P.; Grachev, V.T.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Kuropatkin, N.P.; Lach, J.; Lang Pengfei; Lebedenko, V.N.; Li Chengze; Li Yunshan; Mahon, J.R.P.; McCliment, E.; Morelos, A.; Newsom, C.; Pommot Maia, M.C.; Samsonov, V.M.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Shi Huanzhang; Smith, V.J.; Sun, C.R.; Tang Fukun; Terentyev, N.K.; Timm, S.; Tkatch, I.I.; Uvarov, L.N.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Yan Jie; Zhao Wenheng; Zheng Shuchen; Zhong Yuanyuan Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510

    1992-12-07

    Spin precession of channeled particles in bent crystals has been observed for the first time. Polarized [Sigma][sup +] were channeled using bent Si crystals. These crystals provided an effective magnetic field of 45 T which resulted in a measured spin precession of 60[plus minus]17[degree]. This agrees with the prediction of 62[plus minus]2[degree] using the world average of [Sigma][sup +] magnetic moment measurements. This new technique gives a [Sigma][sup +] magnetic moment of (2.40[plus minus]0.46[plus minus]0.40)[mu][sub [ital N

  8. Dielectric and magnetic investigations of GaFeO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srimathy, B. Bhaumik, Indranil Ganesamoorthy, S. Karnal, A. K. Kumar, J.

    2014-04-24

    Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties have been investigated for the polar ferrimagnet, GaFeO{sub 3} single crystals grown by optical floating zone technique. Phase formation was confirmed from X-ray diffraction. Hopping conduction mechanism of Fe{sup 2+} ions and oxygen vacancies contribute to the electric polarization and dielectric constant of the material. Disorderness in the cation site gives rise to the magnetic ordering and the splitting in the zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization curves reveals the movement of the domain walls.

  9. Magnet R&D for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourlay, S.A.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gupta, R.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Harrison, M.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmazle, J.; Stanek, R.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2006-06-01

    In 2004, the US DOE established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) with the goal of developing a technology base for future upgrades of the LHC. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R&D. This paper presents an overall view of the program with emphasis on the current quadrupole project and outlines the long-term goals of the program.

  10. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  11. Magnetic probe response function calibrations for plasma equilibrium reconstructions of CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spaleta, J.; Zakharov, L.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Gray, T.

    2006-10-15

    A novel response function calibration technique has been developed to account for time-dependent nonaxisymmetric eddy currents near magnetic sensors in toroidal magnetic confinement devices. The response function technique provides a means to cross calibrate against all available external field coil systems to calculate the absolute sensitivity of each magnetic field sensor, even when induced eddy currents are present in the vacuum vessel wall. The response function information derived in the calibration process can be used in equilibrium reconstructions to separate plasma signals from signals due to externally produced eddy currents at magnetic field sensor locations, without invoking localized wall current distribution details. The response function technique was used for the first ever equilibrium reconstructions of spherical torus plasmas, when applied to the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device. In conjunction with the equilibrium and stability code (ESC), equilibria were obtained for recent CDX-U experiments with lithium plasma-facing components. A description of the CDX-U magnetic sensor configuration and the response function calibration technique will be presented along with examples of resulting plasma equilibrium for CDX-U lithium wall operations.

  12. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  13. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisham Kamal Sayed

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  14. Magnetic-compression/magnetized-target fusion (MAGO/MTF): A marriage of inertial and magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Intermediate between magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF) in time and density scales is an area of research now known in the US as magnetized target fusion (MTF) and in Russian as MAGO (MAGnitnoye Obzhatiye--magnetic compression). MAGO/MTF uses a magnetic field and preheated, wall-confined plasma fusion fuel within an implodable fusion target. The magnetic field suppresses thermal conduction losses in the fuel during the target implosion and hydrodynamic compression heating process. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (i.e., ICF), MAGO/MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm (e.g., 100 eV or higher), magnetized (e.g., 100 kG) plasma within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression by an imploding pusher, of which a magnetically driven imploding liner is one example. In this paper, the authors present ongoing activities and potential future activities in this relatively unexplored area of controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  15. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  16. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  17. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the...

  19. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gambino, S. Mangin, S. Roy, and P. Fischer, "X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). ALS Science Highlight 244 ALSNews Vol. 329...

  20. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. McNulty, R. Gambino, S. Mangin, S. Roy, and P. Fischer, "X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). ALS Science Highlight 244...

  1. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of x-rays used. This promising method can be used at any coherent light source, including modern x-ray free-electron lasers, where ultrashort pulses would freeze-frame magnetic...

  2. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It is a perfect "diamagnet," repelled by an external magnetic field. Over the past decade, however, research has indicated that proton irradiation (i.e. hydrogen doping) of carbon ...

  3. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  4. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  5. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  6. Magnet Girder Assembly and Installation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-17

    It takes teamwork to assemble and install magnet girders for the storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source II. NSLS-II is now under construction at Brookhaven Lab.

  7. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  8. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  9. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMMS Condensed Matter and Magnet Science The group has a distinguished history of applying cutting-edge condensed matter physics research and high magnetic field science to mission-relevant materials challenges as well as fundamental investigations of emergent physical phenomena. Contact Us Group Leader Michael Hundley Email Deputy Group Leader Chuck Mielke Email NHMFL-PFF Director Chuck Mielke Email Deputy NHMFL-PFF Director Ross McDonald Email Group Office (505) 667-4838 NHMFL Office (505)

  10. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  11. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  12. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-05-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ..mu.. meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

  13. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  14. Steering magnet design for a limited space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura,M.; Fite, J.; Lodestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.

    2009-05-04

    We compare two extreme designs of steering magnets. The first one is a very thin steering magnet design which occupies only 6 mm in length and can be additionally installed as needed. The other is realized by applying extra coil windings to a quadrupole magnet and does not consume any length. The properties and the features of these steering magnets are discussed.

  15. Ames Lab 101: Ultrafast Magnetic Switching

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jigang Wang

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory physicists have found a new way to switch magnetism that is at least 1000 times faster than currently used in magnetic memory technologies. Magnetic switching is used to encode information in hard drives, magnetic random access memory and other computing devices. The discovery potentially opens the door to terahertz and faster memory speeds.

  16. Subranging technique using superconducting technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Deepnarayan

    2003-01-01

    Subranging techniques using "digital SQUIDs" are used to design systems with large dynamic range, high resolution and large bandwidth. Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) embodying the invention include a first SQUID based "coarse" resolution circuit and a second SQUID based "fine" resolution circuit to convert an analog input signal into "coarse" and "fine" digital signals for subsequent processing. In one embodiment, an ADC includes circuitry for supplying an analog input signal to an input coil having at least a first inductive section and a second inductive section. A first superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is coupled to the first inductive section and a second SQUID is coupled to the second inductive section. The first SQUID is designed to produce "coarse" (large amplitude, low resolution) output signals and the second SQUID is designed to produce "fine" (low amplitude, high resolution) output signals in response to the analog input signals.

  17. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A. Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.; Teixeira, J. M.; Vélez, M.

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  18. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2012-05-29

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  19. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

  20. Test results of a Nb3Al/Nb3Sn subscale magnet for accelerator application

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iio, Masami; Xu, Qingjin; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Ken -ichi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Sugano, Michinaka; Enomoto, Shun; et al

    2015-01-28

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) has been developing a Nb3Al and Nb3Sn subscale magnet to establish the technology for a high-field accelerator magnet. The development goals are a feasibility demonstration for a Nb3Al cable and the technology acquisition of magnet fabrication with Nb3Al superconductors. KEK developed two double-pancake racetrack coils with Rutherford-type cables composed of 28 Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating, quenching, and transformation in collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The magnet was fabricated to efficiently generate a high magnetic field in a minimum-gap common-coil configuration with twomore » Nb3Al coils sandwiched between two Nb3Sn coils produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A shell-based structure and a “bladder and key” technique have been used for adjusting coil prestress during both the magnet assembly and the cool down. In the first excitation test of the magnet at 4.5 K performed in June 2014, the highest quench current of the Nb3Sn coil, i.e., 9667 A, was reached at 40 A/s corresponding to 9.0 T in the Nb3Sn coil and 8.2 T in the Nb3Al coil. The quench characteristics of the magnet were studied.« less

  1. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  2. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  3. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  4. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  5. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  6. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron

  7. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments,

  8. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments,

  9. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments,

  10. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments,

  11. Magnetic interactions in ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mendili, Y.; Bardeau, J.-F.; Greneche, J.-M.; Randrianantoandro, N.; Grasset, F.; Cador, O.; Guizouarn, T.

    2014-08-07

    Structural and magnetic properties of ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 4?nm diameter, dispersed into silica SiO{sub 2} matrix with a wide range value of volume fraction (0.05 to 1), were investigated. Produced ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites consist of an assembly of very small single domain magnetic object (<10?nm) with a random distribution of both inter-particle distance and direction of particle magnetic moment. We focused on the determination of a magnetic percolation threshold, defined as the magnetic particles concentration value above which the magnetic properties of isolated particles vanished in favor of a magnetic collective behavior induced by magnetic interactions. A percolation threshold value of 0.63 was obtained by a local probe technique such as {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrometry and confirmed by global magnetic measurements through zero-field cooled, field-cooled, and ac susceptibility data. Below this threshold, dynamic ac magnetization measurements show a thermally activated Arrhenius dependence of the blocking temperature of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and above this critical value, one observes a slowing down of their dynamic properties, which lead toward the establishment of a spin-glass like state.

  12. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For more information on the usability techniques associated with the templates, see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects.

  13. Dynamic control of spin states in interacting magnetic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn

    2014-10-07

    A method for the control of the magnetic states of interacting magnetic elements comprising providing a magnetic structure with a plurality of interacting magnetic elements. The magnetic structure comprises a plurality of magnetic states based on the state of each interacting magnetic element. The desired magnetic state of the magnetic structure is determined. The active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of the desired magnetic state is determined. Each magnetic element of the magnetic structure is then subjected to an alternating magnetic field or electrical current having a frequency and amplitude below the active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of said desired magnetic state and above the active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of the current state of the magnetic structure until the magnetic state of the magnetic structure is at the desired magnetic state.

  14. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  15. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM's design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  16. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM`s design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  17. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-09-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. As a result, this article highlights recent advances inmore » the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization.« less

  18. Hyperon polarization and magnetic moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lach, J.

    1993-12-01

    Inclusively produced hyperons with significant polarization were first observed at Fermilab about seventeen years ago. This and subsequent experiments showed that {Lambda}{degree} were produced polarized while {bar {Lambda}}{degree} had no polarization in the same kinematical region. This set the stage for many experiments which showed that most hyperons are produced polarized. Recent Fermilab experiments have showed that this phenomena is even more complex and theoretical understanding is still lacking. Nevertheless polarized hyperon beams have been an extremely useful experimental tool in measuring hyperon magnetic moments. Recently, magnetic moment precession of channeled particles in bent crystals has been observed. This opens the possibility of measuring the magnetic moments of charmed baryons.

  19. Pulsed Magnetic Welding for Advanced Core and Cladding Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Guoping; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-19

    To investigate a solid-state joining method, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), for welding the advanced core and cladding steels to be used in Generation IV systems, with a specific application for fuel pin end-plug welding. As another alternative solid state welding technique, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) has not been extensively explored on the advanced steels. The resultant weld can be free from microstructure defects (pores, non-matallic inclusions, segregation of alloying elements). More specifically, the following objectives are to be achieved, 1) To design a suitable welding apparatus fixture, and optimize welding parameters for repeatable and acceptable joining of the fuel pin end-plug. The welding will be evaluated using tensile tests for lap joint weldments and helium leak tests for the fuel pin end-plug. 2) investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties changes in PMW weldments of proposed advanced core and cladding alloys. 3) Simulate the irradiation effects on the PWM weldments using ion irradiation.

  20. High performance magnetic bearing systems using high temperature superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abboud, R.G.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed are a magnetic bearing apparatus and a method for providing at least one stabilizing force in a magnetic bearing structure with a superconducting magnetic assembly and a magnetic assembly, by providing a superconducting magnetic member in the superconducting magnetic assembly with a plurality of domains and arranging said superconducting magnetic member such that at least one domain has a domain C-axis vector alignment angularly disposed relative to a reference axis of the magnetic member in the magnetic assembly. 7 figs.

  1. High performance magnetic bearing systems using high temperature superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abboud, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetic bearing apparatus and a method for providing at least one stabilizing force in a magnetic bearing structure with a superconducting magnetic assembly and a magnetic assembly, by providing a superconducting magnetic member in the superconducting magnetic assembly with a plurality of domains and arranging said superconducting magnetic member such that at least one domain has a domain C-axis vector alignment angularly disposed relative to a reference axis of the magnetic member in the magnetic assembly.

  2. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  3. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  4. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  5. Laminated magnet field coil sheath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skaritka, J.R.

    1987-05-15

    A method for manufacturing a magnetic cable trim coil in a sheath assembly for use in a cryogenic particle accelerator. A precisely positioned pattern of trim coil turns is bonded to a flexible substrate sheath that is capable of withstanding cryogenic operating conditions. In the method of the invention the flexible substrate sheath, with the trim coil pattern precisely location relative to a bore tube assembly of an accelerator and is then bonded to the bore tube with a tape suitable for cryogenic application. The resultant assembly can be readily handled and installed within an iron magnet yoke assembly of a suitable cryogenic particle accelerator. 1 fig.

  6. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  7. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  8. Resonant and non-resonant magnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Siddons, D.P.

    1991-12-31

    The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open upon new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and thy fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation.

  9. Resonant and non-resonant magnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Siddons, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open upon new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and thy fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation.

  10. Reciprocity and gyrotropism in magnetic resonance transduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tropp, James

    2006-12-15

    We give formulas for transduction in magnetic resonance - i.e., the appearance of an emf due to Larmor precession of spins - based upon the modified Lorentz reciprocity principle for gyrotropic (also called 'nonreciprocal') media, i.e., in which a susceptibility tensor is carried to its transpose by reversal of an external static field [cf., R. F. Harrington and A. T. Villeneuve IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique MTT6, 308 (1958)]. Prior applications of reciprocity to magnetic resonance, despite much success, have ignored the gyrotropism which necessarily arises due to nuclear and/or unpaired electronic spins. For detection with linearly polarized fields, oscillating at the Larmor frequency, the emf is written in terms of a volume integral containing a product of two factors which we define as the antenna patterns, i.e. (H{sub 1x}{+-}iH{sub 1y}), where, e.g., for a single transceive antenna, the H's are just the spatially dependent oscillatory magnetic field strengths, per the application of some reference current at the antenna terminals, with the negative sign obtaining for transmission, and the positive for reception. Similar expressions hold for separate transmit and receive antennas; expressions are also given for circular polarization of the fields. We then exhibit a receive-only array antenna of two elements for magnetic resonance imaging of protons, which, due an intensity artifact arising from stray reactive coupling of the elements, produces, despite its own bilateral symmetry, asymmetric proton NMR images of a symmetric cylindrical phantom containing aqueous saline solution [J. Tropp and T. Schirmer, J. Magn. Reson. 151, 146 (2001)]. Modification of this two-port antenna, to function in transmit-receive mode, allows us to demonstrate highly nonreciprocal behavior: that is, to record images (of cylindrical test phantoms containing aqueous saline solution) whose appearance dramatically changes, when the roles of transmission and reception are swapped between the two antenna ports--giving in one instance a signal intensity pattern whose form resembles an umbrella (i.e., with a central column of moderate intensity surmounted by a bright canopy), and in the other, a distorted oval with slight concavities at its horizontal extremes, whose outline suggests that of a cat's eye. The relation between image patterns and drive scheme can be shown to reverse if the static polarizing field is reversed. Electromagnetic and circuit calculations, together with the modified reciprocity principle, allow us to reproduce these pattern changes in numerical simulations, closely and convincingly. Although the imaging experiments are performed at a static field of 3.0 T, and consequently a Larmor frequency of 128 MHz, the nonreciprocal effects are not related to the shortness of the wavelength in aqueous medium, but appear equally in simulations based in either the quasistatic or full electromagnetic regimes. Finally, we show that although antenna patterns for transmission and reception are swapped with reversal of the polarizing field, meaning that the receive pattern equals the transmit pattern with the field reversed, this in no way invalidates the familiar rotating wave model of spin dynamics in magnetic resonance.

  11. Tiny Particles with Big Magnetic Power | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tiny Particles with Big Magnetic Power "Magnetic nanofibers" are special not only for their inherent properties as individual magnets, but also for their ability to be manipulated...

  12. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an...

  13. Making permanent magnets more powerful and less expensive | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making permanent magnets more powerful and less expensive Today's high-tech and clean energy capabilities are extremely reliant on powerful permanent magnets. Permanent magnets...

  14. Design and Synthesis of Novel Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design and Synthesis of Novel Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) are semiconductors doped with small amounts of magnetic active transition...

  15. Structural modulations and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    magnetic shape memory alloys Prev Next Title: Structural modulations and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys Authors: ...

  16. Not All Nanodisk Magnetic Vortices Are Created Equally

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Not All Nanodisk Magnetic Vortices Are Created Equally Print Magnetic vortices - hurricanes of magnetism only a few atoms across - have generated intense interest in the high-tech...

  17. Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnston, David

    2016-01-13

    The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ˆ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ → i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices,more » 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ˆ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c/a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120 ° AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB 4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic transition temperature T m and the ordered moment, magnetic heat capacity, and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility χ versus temperature T . The anisotropic Weiss temperature θ p in the Curie-Weiss law for T>T m is calculated. A quantitative study of the competition between FM and AFM ordering on cubic Bravais lattices versus the demagnetization factor in the absence of FM domain effects is presented. The contributions of Heisenberg exchange interactions and of the MDIs to T m and to θ p are found to be additive, which simplifies analysis of experimental data. Some properties in the magnetically-ordered state versus T are presented, including the ordered moment and magnetic heat capacity and, for AFMs, the dipolar anisotropy of the free energy and the perpendicular critical field. The anisotropic χ for dipolar AFMs is calculated both above and below the Néel temperature T N and the results are illustrated for a simple tetragonal lattice with c/a>1, c/a=1 (cubic), and c/a<1 , where a change in sign of the χ anisotropy is found at c/a=1 . Finally, following the early work of Keffer [Phys. Rev. 87, 608 (1952)], the dipolar anisotropy of χ above T N =69 K of the prototype collinear Heisenberg-exchange-coupled tetragonal compound MnF 2 is calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with experimental single-crystal literature data above 130 K, where the smoothly increasing deviation of the experimental data from the theory on cooling from 130 K to T N is deduced to arise from dynamic short-range collinear c -axis AFM ordering in this temperature range driven by the exchange interactions.« less

  18. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, C. Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  19. Geometrical investigation of the kinetic evolution of the magnetic field in a periodic flux rope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restante, A. L.; Lapenta, G. [Afdeling Plasma-astrofysica, Departement Wiskunde, KULeuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Afdeling Plasma-astrofysica, Departement Wiskunde, KULeuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Intrator, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Flux ropes are bundles of magnetic field wrapped around an axis. Many laboratory, space, and astrophysics processes can be represented using this idealized concept. Here, a massively parallel 3D kinetic simulation of a periodic flux rope undergoing the kink instability is studied. The focus is on the topology of the magnetic field and its geometric structures. The analysis considers various techniques such as Poincar maps and the quasi-separatrix layer (QSL). These are used to highlight regions with expansion or compression and changes in the connectivity of magnetic field lines and consequently to outline regions where heating and current may be generated due to magnetic reconnection. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first QSL analysis of a fully kinetic 3D particle in cell simulation and focuses the existing QSL method of analysis to periodic systems.

  20. Magnetic chicane for terahertz management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Stephen; Biallas, George Herman; Douglas, David; Jordan, Kevin Carl; Neil, George R.; Michelle D. Shinn; Willams, Gwyn P.

    2010-12-28

    The introduction of a magnetic electron beam orbit chicane between the wiggler and the downstream initial bending dipole in an energy recovering Linac alleviates the effects of radiation propagated from the downstream bending dipole that tend to distort the proximate downstream mirror of the optical cavity resonator.

  1. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  2. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  3. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  4. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  5. Magnetic nano-particles | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic nano-particles The student will be involved in assembling CoFe2O4 nano-particles onto Si wafers for further studies by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) that will...

  6. Magnetism at Nanoscale | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will be able to sense the extremely weak magnetic fields of just a handful of electrons with the spatial resolution of about 10 nanometers. "We want to determine magnetic...

  7. Magnetic bearing element with adjustable stiffness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    A compact magnetic bearing element is provided which is made of permanent magnet discs configured to be capable of the adjustment of the bearing stiffness and levitation force over a wide range.

  8. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the...

  9. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in...

  10. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ?4?nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  11. Performance of Conduction Cooled Splittable Superconducting Magnet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A superconducting magnet package was designed and built as a collaborative effort of FNAL and KEK. The magnet package includes one quadrupole, and two dipole windings. It has a ...

  12. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Magnets

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McCallum, Bill

    2012-08-29

    Senior Scientist, Bill McCallum, briefly discusses rare-earth magnets and their uses and how Ames Lab is research new ways to save money and energy using magnets.

  13. How Bacteria Make Magnets | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Bacteria Make Magnets For a number of animals, including birds, fish and mammals, there is evidence that magnets are used for orientation. However, little is known about how...

  14. Extraordinary Responsive Rare Earth Magnetic Materials | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. Journal of Alloys and ... A.G.; Vitalij K.P. Magnetic properties and magnetic entropy changes of MRE2Co7 compounds. ...

  15. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    very stable and form readily in soft magnetic materials of the sort useful for magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) devices. Interestingly, the formation of such vortices was at...

  16. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material like iron is itself a tiny magnet represented by a magnetic moment. If the atomic moments are pointing in random directions, they cancel each other out. So, to bring...

  17. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    1984-01-01

    A generic D-T burning magnetic fusion reactor model shows that within the constraints set by generic limitations it is possible for magnetic fusion to be a competitive source of electricity in the 21st century.

  18. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  19. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  20. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e/sup +//e/sup -/ super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%.

  1. Reliability analysis for LEB ring magnet power system in SSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedley, K.

    1991-11-01

    The LEB ring magnet power system contains six subsystems, supervisory control, power supplies, regulation, DC bus, resonant cells, and fault sensing network. The system availability of the total LEB RMPS is required to be 0.999. The work in this paper is to allocate the overall LEB RMPS reliability requirement into reliability requirements for each of the subsystems and lower-tier items. The Feasibility-of-Objective technique combining with engineering experience is the key for the allocation. MIL-HDBK-217F is used to derate SCR components. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration...

  3. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Wednesday, 27 June 2012 00:00 Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and

  4. Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission.

  5. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny

  6. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Description Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology for cooling and heating because of its potential to save energy and reduce operating costs. The potential

  7. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigeration is

  8. Chemical synthesis, characterizations and magnetic properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ALLOYS; BCC LATTICES; COERCIVE FORCE; CRYSTALS; LATTICE PARAMETERS; MAGNETIC...

  9. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  10. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in rare earth dialuminides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides We report electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations of selected rare

  11. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in rare earth dialuminides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides We report electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations of selected rare

  12. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  13. Magnetic multipole redirector of moving plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crow, James T.; Mowrer, Gary R.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for redirecting moving plasma streams using a multiple array of magnetic field generators (e.g., permanent magnets or current bearing wires). Alternate rows of the array have opposite magnetic field directions. A fine wire mesh may be employed to focus as well as redirect the plasma.

  14. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Portmann, Greg; /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-06-18

    LOCO has been a powerful beam-based diagnostics and optics control method for storage rings and synchrotrons worldwide ever since it was established at NSLS by J. Safranek. This method measures the orbit response matrix and optionally the dispersion function of the machine. The data are then fitted to a lattice model by adjusting parameters such as quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths in the model, BPM gains and rolls, corrector gains and rolls of the measurement system. Any abnormality of the machine that affects the machine optics can then be identified. The resulting lattice model is equivalent to the real machine lattice as seen by the BPMs. Since there are usually two or more BPMs per betatron period in modern circular accelerators, the model is often a very accurate representation of the real machine. According to the fitting result, one can correct the machine lattice to the design lattice by changing the quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths. LOCO is so important that it is routinely performed at many electron storage rings to guarantee machine performance, especially after the Matlab-based LOCO code became available. However, for some machines, LOCO is not easy to carry out. In some cases, LOCO fitting converges to an unrealistic solution with large changes to the quadrupole strengths {Delta}K. The quadrupole gradient changes can be so large that the resulting lattice model fails to find a closed orbit and subsequent iterations become impossible. In cases when LOCO converges, the solution can have {Delta}K that is larger than realistic and often along with a spurious zigzag pattern between adjacent quadrupoles. This degeneracy behavior of LOCO is due to the correlation between the fitting parameters - usually between neighboring quadrupoles. The fitting scheme is therefore less restrictive over certain patterns of changes to these quadrupoles with which the correlated quadrupoles fight each other and the net effect is very inefficient {chi}{sup 2} reduction, i.e., small {chi}{sup 2} reduction with large changes of {Delta}K. Under effects of random noise, the fitting solution tends to crawl toward these patterns and ends up with unrealistically large {Delta}K. Such a solution is not very useful in optics correction because after the solution is dialed in, the quadrupoles will not respond as predicted by the lattice model due to magnet hysteresis. We will show that adding constraints to the fitting parameters is an effective way to combat this problem of LOCO. In fact, it improves optics calibration precision even for machines that don't show severe degeneracy behavior. LOCO fitting is essentially to solve a nonlinear least square problem with an iterative approach. The linear least square technique is applied in each iteration to move the solution toward the minimum. This approach is commonly referred to as the Gauss-Newton method. By using singular value decomposition (SVD) to invert the Jacobian matrix, this method has generally been very successful for LOCO. However, this method is based on a linear expansion of the residual vector over the fitting parameters which is valid only when the starting solution is sufficiently close to the real minimum. The fitting algorithm can have difficulties to converge when the initial guess is too far off. For example, it's possible for the {chi}{sup 2} merit function to increase after an iteration instead of decrease. This situation can be improved by using more robust nonlinear least square fitting algorithms, such as the Levenberg-Marquardt method. We will discuss the degeneracy problem in section 2 and then show how the constrained fitting can help in section 3. The application of Levenberg-Marquadt method to LOCO is shown in section 4. A summary is given in section 5.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of transition metal substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds studied by x-ray and neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Min Gyu

    2012-08-28

    The purpose of my dissertation is to understand the structural and magnetic properties of the newly discovered FeAs-based superconductors and the interconnection between superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and structure. X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are powerful tools to directly observe the structure and magnetism in this system. I used both xray and neutron scattering techniques on di#11;erent transition substituted BaFe2As2 compounds in order to investigate the substitution dependence of structural and magnetic transitions and try to understand the connections between them.

  16. Category:Data Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 pages G Geographic Information System 1 pages Geothermal Literature Review 1 pages Pages in category "Data Techniques" The following 4 pages are in...

  17. Category:Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 subcategories, out of 3 total. A Airborne Electromagnetic Survey 1 pages G + Ground Electromagnetic Techniques (2 categories) 3 pages S Self Potential...

  18. Internal Labeling Technique Tracks Nanoparticle Transport - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Internal Labeling Technique Tracks Nanoparticle Transport Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL ...

  19. Eddy current technique for predicting burst pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Mark C.; Kupperman, David S.; Morman, James A.; Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    A signal processing technique which correlates eddy current inspection data from a tube having a critical tubing defect with a range of predicted burst pressures for the tube is provided. The method can directly correlate the raw eddy current inspection data representing the critical tubing defect with the range of burst pressures using a regression technique, preferably an artificial neural network. Alternatively, the technique deconvolves the raw eddy current inspection data into a set of undistorted signals, each of which represents a separate defect of the tube. The undistorted defect signal which represents the critical tubing defect is related to a range of burst pressures utilizing a regression technique.

  20. REVIEW OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... the tracer gas injection system and anticipate the next ... that happens when a change in concentration is called for. ... The discussion focuses on one class of tracer techniques - ...

  1. Footprinting Technique Gives ALS Users New Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    left: Research Scientist Sayan Gupta, Beamline 5.3.1 Scientist Rich Celestre, and BCSB Head Corie Ralston. XFP, a powerful technique for the study of macromolecular structures...

  2. Airborne electromagnetic surveys as a reconnaissance technique...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it was thought that a shallow exploration technique would not be effective. Extensive audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) work by the USGS in KGRA's showed that many geothermal systems...

  3. Transportation Techniques LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques LLC Place: Denver, CO, Colorado Zip: 80205 Sector: Vehicles Product: Colorado-USA-based company that uses patented series hybrid technology to design and develop hybrid...

  4. Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines Scott J. Johnson and C. P. "Case" van Dam Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of California One ...

  5. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects. ...

  6. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often ...

  7. Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Materialscientist, Wikipedia) (click image to enlarge) Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable alternative to platinum By Angela Hardin * October 26, 2015...

  8. Comparison of 17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques for Immersion Freezing For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  9. Tuning the band structures of a one-dimensional width-modulated magnonic crystal by a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, K.; Lim, H. S. Zhang, V. L.; Ng, S. C.; Kuok, M. H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Cottam, M. G.

    2014-02-07

    Theoretical studies, based on three independent techniques, of the band structure of a one-dimensional width-modulated magnonic crystal under a transverse magnetic field are reported. The band diagram is found to display distinct behaviors when the transverse field is either larger or smaller than a critical value. The widths and center positions of bandgaps exhibit unusual non-monotonic and large field-tunability through tilting the direction of magnetization. Some bandgaps can be dynamically switched on and off by simply tuning the strength of such a static field. Finally, the impact of the lowered symmetry of the magnetic ground state on the spin-wave excitation efficiency of an oscillating magnetic field is discussed. Our finding reveals that the magnetization direction plays an important role in tailoring magnonic band structures and hence in the design of dynamic spin-wave switches.

  10. Studies of sheath characteristics in a double plasma device with a negatively biased separating grid and a magnetic filter field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B. K.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia, Sonapur, Kamrup, Assam-782402 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat-382428 (India)

    2012-09-15

    A double plasma device has two regions: Source region and target region. These two regions are divided by a magnetic filter field. A grid is placed coplanar to the magnetic filter. To study the sheath structure in the target region, a metallic plate is placed at the center, which can be biased with respect to the chamber (ground) potential. Plasma is created in the source region by filament discharge technique. Plasma diffusing from the source region to the target region is subjected to the magnetic filter field and also an electric field applied on the grid. Plasma thus obtained in the target region forms a sheath on the biased plate. The influence of both the magnetic filter field and the electric field, applied between the grid and the chamber wall, on the sheath structure formed on the biased plate is studied. It is found that the magnetic filter field and the electric field change the sheath structure in different ways.

  11. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Yumin

    2013-12-15

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  12. Origin of primordial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven

    2008-02-15

    Magnetic fields of intensities similar to those in our galaxy are also observed in high redshift galaxies, where a mean field dynamo would not have had time to produce them. Therefore, a primordial origin is indicated. It has been suggested that magnetic fields were created at various primordial eras: during inflation, the electroweak phase transition, the quark-hadron phase transition (QHPT), during the formation of the first objects, and during reionization. We suggest here that the large-scale fields {approx}{mu}G, observed in galaxies at both high and low redshifts by Faraday rotation measurements (FRMs), have their origin in the electromagnetic fluctuations that naturally occurred in the dense hot plasma that existed just after the QHPT. We evolve the predicted fields to the present time. The size of the region containing a coherent magnetic field increased due to the fusion of smaller regions. Magnetic fields (MFs) {approx}10 {mu}G over a comoving {approx}1 pc region are predicted at redshift z{approx}10. These fields are orders of magnitude greater than those predicted in previous scenarios for creating primordial magnetic fields. Line-of-sight average MFs {approx}10{sup -2} {mu}G, valid for FRMs, are obtained over a 1 Mpc comoving region at the redshift z{approx}10. In the collapse to a galaxy (comoving size {approx}30 kpc) at z{approx}10, the fields are amplified to {approx}10 {mu}G. This indicates that the MFs created immediately after the QHPT (10{sup -4} s), predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, could be the origin of the {approx}{mu}G fields observed by FRMs in galaxies at both high and low redshifts. Our predicted MFs are shown to be consistent with present observations. We discuss the possibility that the predicted MFs could cause non-negligible deflections of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and help create the observed isotropic distribution of their incoming directions. We also discuss the importance of the volume average magnetic field predicted by our model in producing the first stars and in reionizing the Universe.

  13. Tiny magnets could work in sensors, information encoding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tiny magnets could work in sensors, information encoding Tiny magnets could work in sensors, information encoding Scientists have realized a nanoscale, artificial magnet by arranging an array of magnetic nano-islands along a geometry that is not found in natural magnets. November 1, 2015 Tiny magnets could work in sensors, information encoding Researchers have created a nanoscale, artificial magnet by arranging an array of magnetic nano-islands along a geometry that is not found in natural

  14. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen A.

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  15. THE SURVEY OF LINES IN M31 (SLIM): INVESTIGATING THE ORIGINS OF [C II] EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapala, M. J.; Sandstrom, K.; Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Fouesneau, M. [Max Planck Institut fr Astronomie, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Croxall, K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dalcanton, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Leroy, A., E-mail: kapala@mpia.de [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The [C II] 158 ?m line is one of the strongest emission lines observed in star-forming galaxies and has been empirically measured to correlate with the star-formation rate (SFR) globally and on kiloparsec scales. However, because of the multiphase origins of [C II], one might expect this relation to break down at small scales. We investigate the origins of [C II] emission by examining high spatial resolution observations of [C II] in M31 with the Survey of Lines in M31. We present five ?700 700 pc (3' 3') fields mapping the [C II] emission, H? emission, and the ancillary infrared (IR) data. We spatially separate star-forming regions from diffuse gas and dust emission on ?50 pc scales. We find that the [C II]-SFR correlation holds even at these scales, although the relation typically has a flatter slope than found at larger (kiloparsec) scales. While the H? emission in M31 is concentrated in the SFR regions, we find that a significant amount (?20%-90%) of the [C II] emission comes from outside star-forming regions and that the total IR emission (TIR) has the highest diffuse fraction of all SFR tracers. We find a weak correlation of the [C II]/TIR to dust color in each field and find a large-scale trend of increasing [C II]/TIR with galactocentric radius. The differences in the relative diffuse fractions of [C II], H?, and IR tracers are likely caused by a combination of energetic photon leakage from H II regions and heating by the diffuse radiation field arising from older (B-star) stellar populations. However, we find that by averaging our measurements over kiloparsec scales, these effects are minimized, and the relation between [C II] and SFR found in other nearby galaxy studies is retrieved.

  16. Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objectives: Discover a blind, low-moderate temperature resource: Apply a combination of detailed sub-soil gas, hydrocarbon, and isotope data to define possible upflow areas; Calibrate the sub-soil chemistry with down-hole fluid inclusion stratigraphy and fluid analyses to define a follow-up exploration drilling target; Create short term jobs and long term employment through resource exploration, development and power plant operation; Extend and adapt the DOE sub-soil 2 meter probe technology to gas sampling.

  17. Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well Drilling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Discover new 260F and 300F geothermal reservoirs in Oregon. To demonstrate the application of high precision geophysics for well targeting. Demonstrate a combined testing approach to Flowing Differential Self Potential (FDSP) and electrical tomography resistivity as a guide to exploration and development. Demonstrate utility and benefits of sump-less drilling for a low environmental impact. Create both short and long term employment through exploration, accelerated development timeline and operation.

  18. Slimming Down Supercomputers | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Scientific and Technical Information About About Home Organization Budget Field Offices Federal Advisory Committees History Scientific and Technical Information Honors & Awards Jobs Brochures, Logos, & Information Resources Contact Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 Scientific and Technical Information Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page The Department of Energy is responsible for the

  19. Slim Holes At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    high. Shut-in wellhead pressure was 64 psi. After a long delay from injunctions sought by environmental groups, two additional slimholes were drilled at this location in 1993 with...

  20. Slim Holes At Fort Bliss Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Department for input on the structure of this progrm, this consultation led to a Work-for-Others (WFO) contract from the Army to Sandia for assistance on the...

  1. Slim Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Energy Company, Incorporated (CECI), which owns leases in the Newberry KGRA led to an agreement for a cost-shared exploratory drilling project on CECI'Slease. In...

  2. Slim Holes At Hawthorne Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    valley and immediately south and east, respectively, of the El Capitan well. The "El Cap" is a 1,000' well completed by an unsuccessful developer in 1980. The El Cap and...

  3. Slim Holes At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jim Combs, John T. Finger, Colin Goranson, Charles E. Hockox Jr., Ronald D. Jacobsen, Gene Polik (1999) Slimhole Handbook- Procedures And Recommendations For Slimhole Drilling...

  4. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjipanayis, George C.; McCallum, William R.; Sellmyer, David J.; Harris, Vincent; Carpenter, Everett E.; Liu, Jinfang

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  5. Wakefield generation in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holkundkar, Amol; Brodin, Gert; Marklund, Mattias

    2011-09-15

    We consider wakefield generation in plasmas by electromagnetic pulses propagating perpendicular to a strong magnetic field, in the regime where the electron cyclotron frequency is equal to or larger than the plasma frequency. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that for moderate magnetic field strengths previous results are reproduced, and the wakefield wave number spectrum has a clear peak at the inverse skin depth. However, when the cyclotron frequency is significantly larger than the plasma frequency, the wakefield spectrum becomes broadband, and simultaneously the loss rate of the driving pulse is much enhanced. A set of equations for the scalar and vector potentials reproducing these results are derived, using only the assumption of a weakly nonlinear interaction.

  6. Application of Chebyshev Formalism to Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components in Beam Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Spata

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the kickers with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. Chebyshev polynomials and their unique properties allow one to directly quantify the magnitude of the nonlinearity with the minimum error. A calibration standard was developed using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline. The technique was then applied to a pair of Arc 1 dipoles and then to the magnets in the Transport Recombiner beamline to measure their multipole content as a function of transverse position within the magnets.

  7. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  8. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; McConnell, B.W.; Phillips, B.A.

    1996-07-02

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit. 6 figs.

  9. Magnetic transit-time flowmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forster, George A.

    1976-07-06

    The flow rate of a conducting fluid in a stream is determined by disposing two permanent-magnet flowmeters in the stream, one downstream of the other. Flow of the conducting fluid causes the generation of both d-c and a-c electrical signals, the a-c comprising flow noise. Measurement of the time delay between similarities in the a-c signals by cross-correlation methods provides a measure of the rate of flow of the fluid.

  10. Magnetic instability of Kondo insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ziqiang [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Li, Xiao-Ping [Rutgers--the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Serin Physics Lab.; Lee, Dung-Hai [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1993-09-01

    We review a number of experiments on isoelectronic, isostructural ternary compounds CeTSn (T=Ni,Pd,Sn) and alloys CeNi{sub 1-x}(Pd,Pt){sub x}Sn, and propose a finite temperature phase diagram describing the evolution of a Kondo insulator to an antiferromagnetic Kondo state with decreasing hybridization or Kondo coupling. We then provide microscopic justifications for the phase diagram by analyzing the magnetic properties of the symmetric Kondo lattice model in two dimensions.

  11. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  12. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clem, J.R.; Clem, J.R.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped. 5 figs.

  13. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clem, John R.; Clem, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.

  14. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clem, J.R.

    1982-07-09

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.

  15. Deconvolution of mixed magnetism in multilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Akshaya Kumar; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2014-06-16

    Magnetic properties of graphite modified at the edges by KCl and exfoliated graphite in the form of twisted multilayered graphene (<4 layers) are analyzed to understand the evolution of magnetic behavior in the absence of any magnetic impurities. The mixed magnetism in multilayer graphene is deconvoluted using Low field-high field hysteresis loops at different temperatures. In addition to temperature and the applied magnetic field, the density of edge state spins and the interaction between them decides the nature of the magnetic state. By virtue of magnetometry and electron spin resonance studies, we demonstrate that ferromagnetism is intrinsic and is due to the interactions among various paramagnetic centers. The strength of these magnetic correlations can be controlled by modifying the structure.

  16. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  17. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H.

    1986-01-01

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  18. Opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique for highperformance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung [Purdue University; Ravindranath, Sandeep [Purdue University; Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Irudayaraj, Joseph [Purdue University; Wereley, Steven T. [Purdue University

    2012-01-01

    This communication first demonstrates bio-compatibility of a recently developed opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique, using microorganisms. Aggregation, patterning, translation, trapping and size-based separation of microorganisms performed with the technique firmly establishes its usefulness for development of a high-performance on-chip bioassay system.

  19. Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-11-16

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  20. Waterflood surveillance techniques; A reservoir management approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, G.C. )

    1991-10-01

    The reservoir management aspects of waterflooding span the time before the start of waterflood to the time when the secondary recovery either is uneconomic or is changed to an enhanced recovery. This paper reviews waterflood techniques and reports on surveillance techniques in the management of waterflooding of oil wells.